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Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found

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CIS 95-659 Delépine A.
Mercury exposure risk in the manufacturing of neon signs
Evaluation du risque hydrargyrique dans la fabrication des enseignes lumineuses [in French]
A survey has been made in neon sign manufacturing plants in France to assess mercury exposure and uptake among glass blowers. In this process, mercury is used in small quantities (about two kilos per year, per plant). Besides mercury, these workers are exposed to the risk of burns caused by blowpipes and to electrical accidents due to the use of power reaching up to 20,000 volts.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.275-279. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 95-784
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National code of practice for the prevention of occupational overuse syndrome
This code of practice replaces the National Code of Practice for the Prevention and Management of Occupational Overuse Syndrome [NOHSC:2001(1990)] (see CIS 93-696). It provides practical guidance on the identification, assessment and control of risks arising from tasks involving repetitive or forceful movement and/or maintenance of constrained or awkward postures. Control options include job design, modification of workplace layout and equipment, and training. The code should be used in conjunction with the assessment and control strategies addressed in the National Code of Practice for Manual Handling [NOHSC:2005(1991)] (see CIS 91-2055).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, June 1994. viii, 44p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 95-744
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National standard for plant
The provisions of this national standard apply to the design, manufacture, supply and use of plant in the workplace. Performance requirements are also specified with respect to the testing, installing, commissioning, repair, alteration, dismantling, storage and disposal of plant. Contents: duties of designers, manufacturers, suppliers, installers and others; hazard identification, assessment and control of risk; registration of plant design and items of plant.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, July 1994. vii, 54p. [in English]

CIS 95-673 Gennart J.P., Sanderson J.T.
Exposure and health risks associated with non-occupational sources of benzene
The health effects of long-term exposure to benzene are summarized: chromosome aberrations, depression of blood-cell formation and induction of leukaemia. Occupational exposure to levels above 50ppm is clearly associated with a significant risk of leukaemia. Excluding occupational exposure, smoking is the major potential contributor to the daily absorbed dose for the general population. Key sources of exposure are identified and estimates of the total daily absorbed dose for the general population are calculated. Replaces CONCAWE Report No.8/89 (CIS 90-1999).
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1994. iv, 24p. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 95-765 Smith L., Folkard S., Poole C.J.M.
Increased injuries on night shift
An analysis was made of all 4645 injury incidents reported for a year on a rotating three-shift system in a large engineering company where the accident risk appeared to be constant. The relative risk of sustaining an injury was 1.23 higher on the night shift than on the morning shift, which showed the lowest incidence. For self-paced work, the relative risk of more serious injury on the night shift compared with the morning shift was 1.82. An editorial (p.1099) briefly comments on the findings of other studies of the excess risk of accidents and injuries among night workers.
Lancet, 22 Oct. 1994, Vol.344, No.8930, p.1137-1139. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 95-696 Dow's chemical exposure index guide
This guide describes the Chemical Exposure Index (CEI) which provides a simple method of rating the relative acute health hazard potential to people in neighbouring plants or communities from possible chemical release incidents. Contents: procedure for CEI calculations; scenarios for estimation of airborne release rates; emergency response and exposure planning guidelines; estimating the amount of material becoming airborne following a release of a gas or liquid; CEI and hazard distance calculation. Example CEI calculations are included.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1994. 38p. Illus.

CIS 95-717 Direct estimates of cancer mortality due to low doses of ionizing radiation: An international study
An analysis was made of mortality data from studies on nearly 96,000 nuclear industry workers monitored for external radiation in Canada, the UK and the USA to assess directly the carcinogenic effects of protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. These are the most precise direct estimates so far made of carcinogenic risk following this type of exposure. Results suggest that the risk estimates obtained by extrapolation from studies of atomic bomb survivors are unlikely to be substantially in error. A commentary (p.1039) points out that these new estimates can be applied to occupational risk groups other than nuclear industry workers.
Lancet, 15 Oct. 1994, Vol.344, No.8929, p.1039-1043. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 95-632 Appel K.E.
On the carcinogenicity of pentachlorophenol
Zur kanzerogenen Wirkung von Pentachlorphenol [in German]
Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been widely used in industry, agriculture, and in homes as a pesticide and herbicide. It finds its widest use in wood impregnation. Data on the carcinogenicity of PCP are reviewed. The substance is carcinogenic in B6C3F1-mice. In addition, there is evidence that some metabolites of PCP are genotoxic. Epidemiologic studies have not provided proof or disproof of a carcinogenic effect in humans. The present exposure limit of 1µg/m3 air recommended by the German Bureau of Health is on the safe side on the basis of present knowledge.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Aug. 1994, Vol.37, No.8, p.334-341. 61 ref.

CIS 95-287 Whetton C., Armstrong W.
Sneak analysis of batch processes
A hazard identification method known as sneak analysis is presented which may be used to identify hazards arising from a design error or from the combination of a design error and a single-point failure. The analysis does not provide a complete means of hazard identification but may be used with existing methods such as HAZOP. The method, which is particularly useful for analyzing batch processes, uses path tracing analysis and state charts to represent aspects of the system and a form of checklist known as sneak clue lists. Examples of the use of the technique are provided.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 1994, Vol.38, No.2, p.257-275. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 95-256
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
The operation of the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 - Annual Report 1993-94
This report concerns activities under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) set up under the 1989 Act (see CIS 91-1760). Contents: new chemicals notifications and assessments (210 notifications received, 147 assessments completed); assessment of existing chemicals; evaluation of the priority existing chemicals programme; information provision and consultative arrangements; international activities; compliance activities; future directions. In annex: list of chemical reports and evaluation permits; discussion paper on the review of fees.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1994. vii, 54p. 8 ref.

CIS 95-276
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Approved criteria for classifying hazardous substances
These criteria for determining whether a substance is hazardous to health are in 3 parts: health effects criteria which take into account both short-term and long-term effects and result in assigning the substance to a hazard category (very toxic, toxic, harmful, very corrosive, corrosive or irritant); concentration cut-off levels used to determine whether or not a substance is hazardous on the basis of its ingredients; and classification of mixtures where ingredients do not exceed the concentration cut-off levels. Guidance is given on how to apply the criteria along with examples of the classification process. Replaces NOHSC: 3011 (1991), Guidance Note for Determining and Classifying a Hazardous Substance (see CIS 91-1973).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Mar. 1994. xi, 76p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 95-275
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Control of inorganic lead at work. National standard. National code of practice
This national standard specifies requirements for minimizing the adverse health effects caused by lead exposure in the workplace; the accompanying code of practice provides guidance on compliance with the standard. Contents: objectives, scope and application; definitions; employer/employee consultation; provision of information - duties of employers and suppliers; personnel training; risk assessment; control measures; atmospheric monitoring; exclusion from working in a lead-risk job; health surveillance; counselling; medical examinations; record keeping; responsibilities of employees.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Oct. 1994. ix, 97p. 38 ref. (NOHSC: 2015) [in English] (NOHSC: 1012) [in English]

CIS 95-274
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Control of workplace hazardous substances. National model regulations. National code of practice
These Regulations establish specific requirements for the use of hazardous substances in the workplace; the accompanying Code of Practice provides guidance on compliance with the requirements of the Regulations. Contents: objective, scope and application; definitions; employer/employee consultation; classification of hazardous substances - duties of manufacturers and importers; provision of information - responsibilities of suppliers and employers; personnel training; risk assessment; control measures; monitoring; health surveillance; record keeping; employees' duties.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Mar. 1994. viii, 65p. 38 ref. (NOHSC: 2007) [in English] (NOHSC: 1005) [in English]

CIS 95-273
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidance note for the control of workplace hazardous substances in the retail sector
This document provides guidance for retailers and retail warehouse operators on compliance with current legislation concerning hazardous substances. Contents: duties and responsibilities of employers, suppliers and purchasers; employee consultation; provision of employee training; risk assessment (identification of hazardous substances, sources of information, evaluation of exposure and health risks, types of assessment, recording of assessment reports); exposure control measures; emergency procedures.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, May 1994. viii, 25p. 15 ref. [in English]

CIS 95-272
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidance note for the assessment of health risks arising from the use of hazardous substances in the workplace
This document provides guidance on compliance with current regulations or approved codes of practice concerning work with hazardous substances. Steps in the risk assessment process are outlined: deciding who will do the assessment; dividing the work into units for assessment; identification of substances in use; determining which substances are hazardous; obtaining information about hazardous substances; workplace inspection and evaluation of exposure; risk evaluation; identification of required actions; recording the assessment; assessment review. Appendices include an assessment checklist and example assessments and records.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Mar. 1994. vii, 39p. Illus. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 95-252
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some industrial chemicals
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 15-22 February 1994. IARC final classifications: ethylene oxide is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); styrene-7,8-oxide and acrylamide are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); propylene oxide, isoprene, styrene, 4-vinylcyclohexene and 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide are possibly carcinogenic in humans (Group 2B); ethylene, propylene, vinyl toluene, N-methylolacrylamide, methyl methacrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. 560p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 90.00.

CIS 95-251
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Dangerous substances: Measurement, assessment, protective measures
Gefahrstoffe: Messung, Beurteilung, Schutzmassnahmen [in German]
Three different approaches to the determination and limitation of exposure to harmful substances are described. The individual case approach gathers data and applies solutions in a single enterprise or field of work. The comprehensive approach draws data from, and bases solutions, on a wide range of similar situations. The integrative approach treats assessment and control of hazards as a single goal, with occupational safety as part of a total quality assurance system. Practical examples are given.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, Postfach 2052, 53757 Sankt Augustin 2, Germany, Aug. 1994. 106p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-1895 A pain in your workplace? - Ergonomic problems and solutions
Informational and training booklet presenting, in datasheet format, ergonomic problems and their solutions for 77 different activities from a wide range of occupations. For each activity, information is provided on: characteristics of the task, ergonomic problems, risk assessment, ergonomic solutions and consequences of their implementation.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. xii, 93p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 10.95.

CIS 94-2085 Kumar K.V., Powell M.R.
Survivorship models for estimating the risk of decompression sickness
The applicability of survival analysis for modelling the risk of decompression sickness (DCS) is illustrated by using data from earlier studies of hypobaric chamber exposures. A method for estimating the overall incidence-free survival rates for circulating microbubbles, symptoms and test aborts is described and the results are discussed. Survival analysis is shown to have certain advantages over other methods for modelling the risk of DCS.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1994, Vol.65, No.7, p.661-665. 15 ref.

CIS 94-1989 Crump K.S.
Risk of benzene-induced leukemia: A sensitivity analysis of the Pliofilm cohort with additional follow-up and new exposure estimates
This reports updates an earlier risk assessment for benzene-induced leukaemia which was used by OSHA in the establishment of permissible exposure limits. The present study was based on mortality data on a cohort of workers employed at two Pliofilm manufacturing plants where there were relatively high exposures to benzene. New risk estimates are derived using follow-up data to 1987 and using new exposure estimates. Results indicate a significant excess of acute myelocytic or acute monocytic leukaemia and a strong dose-response trend.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1994, Vol.42, No.2, p.219-242. 34 ref.

CIS 94-1959
Health and Safety Executive
Fatigue in dock work
This data sheet provides guidance on factors to be considered when assessing health and safety risks due to both mental and physical fatigue with particular reference to dockwork. These include: the need for concentration, length of the working day, intervals between working days, shift work, night work. The need for rest days at appropriate intervals is emphasized.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1907
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Monitoring the work environment. Report of second European conference
Report of the second European conference on monitoring the work environment held in Dublin, Ireland, 11-12 November 1992. Topics covered include: results of a European survey on the work environment; European network on product and exposure registers; economic incentives to improve safety and health; strengths and weaknesses of questionnaire-based surveys; risk assessment methods for the workplace; mortality and occupation; women and work (women's activity and statistics, psycho-social demands); absenteeism as an indicator for monitoring the work environment; the Foundation's European Health and Safety Database; monitoring stress at company level and at work.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1994. xi, 195p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 11.50.

CIS 94-2007 Jager D.T., Visser C.J.M.
Uniform system for the evaluation of substances (USES), version 1.0
USES is a microcomputer-based tool that can be used by central governments, research institutes and the chemical industry for rapid quantitative assessments of the general risks of substances for man and the environment. Although it was developed in the Netherlands under the National Environmental Policy Plan, USES conforms as much as possible to international directives, regulations and recommendations. Data on the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of a given substance are combined with production, use and disposal information to yield a "hazard quotient" that indicates the likelihood of adverse effects occurring. When a set of experimental results is incomplete, USES can estimate missing values on the basis of data for similar substances.
Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment, Distribution Office, P.O. Box 351, 2700 AJ Zoetermeer, Netherlands, Jan. 1994. 345, 83p. + 1.44 megabyte 3.5 in. diskette. Price: NLG 150.00.

CIS 94-1542
Institute of Environmental Assessment
Environmental impact assessment
Audiovisual training package on how to prepare an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for various industrial projects. The manual includes 9 case studies of EIA preparation (covering, among others, a food processing plant, a sewage treatment plant, a pipeline proposal, an oil refinery and a power station), information on relevant United Kingdom legislation, and technical guidance on new EIA preparations. Slides and overhead projector sets provide ample illustration.
Safety, Health and Environment Department, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1994. Manual + Slide set (200+ slides) + Overhead (O/H) projector sets. Price: GBP 320.00 (manual + slide sets), GBP 100.00 (O/H) + VAT + delivery charges.

CIS 94-1798 Lamplugh D.
Personal safety at work
Aspects of violent and aggressive incidents and attacks at work are discussed. As well as physical violence, employees face verbal and mental abuse; the greater the contact with the general public, the greater the risk. The work of various agencies and recent EC legislation have encouraged employers to take a more positive approach to the personal safety of their staff. Post Trauma Syndrome and stress-related problems can severely affect the way employees work while lack of reporting of such incidents is considered to be very dangerous. Guidelines are given on assessing possible risks at work.
Health and Safety Data File, May 1994, p.J:13:9:5-J:13:9:8. 1 ref.

CIS 94-1675
Health and Safety Executive
Risk assessment of notified new substances. Technical guidance document
This document has been produced to assist those carrying out risk assessments of new substances notified under Directive 67/548/EEC. Legally binding principles of risk assessment are set out in Directive 93/67/EEC. Contents: general introduction to the guidance and general principles of risk assessment for new substances; human health risk characterization; workplace exposure assessment; assessment of consumer exposure; indirect exposure via the environment; testing strategies for inhalation toxicity, subacute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity; environmental risk assessment; use categories of notified new substances. The package includes two diskettes containing exposure assessment programs.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 1994. Loose-leaf binder (vii, 344p. (+ 2 diskettes)). Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 55.00.

CIS 94-1267 Rundmo T.
Occupational accidents and objective risk on North Sea offshore installations
Objective risk among personnel working on offshore petroleum installations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf was calculated using data from a self-completion survey which had a response rate of 92%. The study, conducted in Spring 1990, drew respondents from five companies and eight installations and provided details of respondents' accident experience. Results of the risk assessment are presented in respect of accident probability, accident consequences and exposure to specific hazards. It is concluded that information collected in this way can be used as a basis for a valid assessment of objective risk.
Safety Science, Jan. 1994, Vol.17, No.2, p.103-116. 19 ref.

CIS 94-1435
Health and Safety Executive
Upper limb disorders: Assessing the risks
This booklet provides advice for employers and supervisors on how to evaluate the risk of upper limb disorders (ULDs) among workers and how to prevent them. The symptoms of ULDs are described along with the kinds of work that cause them, ways to assess the risks and follow-up action to reduce the risks. An assessment checklist is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. 21p. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 94-833
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Five steps to risk assessment
This leaflet provides advice to employers and the self-employed on the assessment of risks at the workplace; it is aimed at the commercial, service and light industrial sectors. The five steps cover: looking for the hazards; deciding who might be harmed and how; evaluating the risks and deciding on appropriate precautions; recording the findings; reviewing the assessment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 7p. 10 ref.

CIS 94-704
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
Protection of workers from power frequency electric and magnetic fields - A practical guide
This ILO publication comprises a review of data on the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields on biological systems pertinent to the evaluation of health risks for workers. It provides information on the possible effects of exposure to 50/60Hz electric and magnetic fields on human health and gives guidance on the assessment of risks from occupational exposure. Areas in which uncertainties exist and further research is needed are also indicated. Biological effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields and national exposure standards are presented in appendices. Glossary.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. x, 81p. Illus. Appendices. 113 ref. Price: CHF 20.00.


CIS 99-1995 Sorsa M., Peltonen K., Vainio H., Hemminki K.
Butadiene and styrene - Assessment of health hazards
Topics: antifertility effects; butadiene; cancer; carcinogens; styrene; conference; cytotoxic effects; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; hazard evaluation; health hazards; metabolic process; neurotoxic effects.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1993. xi, 412p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 99-1430 Order of 29 January 1993 ... concerning ... hazard evaluation and workplace organization for the manual handling of loads, with particular reference to the risk of back injury [France]
Arrêté du 29 janvier 1993 ... relatif ... à l'évaluation préalable des risques et l'organisation des postes de travail lors des manutentions manuelles de charges comportant des risques, notamment dorso-lombaires [France] [in French]
Order taken in application of Article R.231-68 of the Labour Code relating to reference terms and other risk factors to be taken into account during hazard evaluation and workplace organization for the manual handling of loads. Topics: backache; France; hazard evaluation; law; manual handling; physical workload; risk factors; workplace design.
Journal officiel de la République française, 19 Feb. 1993, No.42, p.2729-2730.

CIS 99-1218 Occupational hazards in plastics processing
Riesgos profesionales en la transformación de plásticos [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical processes; frequency rates; hazard evaluation; occupational accidents; plastics converting industry; process safety conditions; severity rates; Spain; statistical aspects; statistics.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 409p.

CIS 99-1123 García García J.F.
Evaluation of hazards from urban pest control campaigns
Evaluación de riesgos asociados al control ambiental de plagas urbanas [in Spanish]
Topics: acaricides; chemical hazards; disinsectization; hazard evaluation; health hazards; insecticides; labelling; medical examinations; pesticides; rodenticides; Spain; storage; training manuals; training material.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, Oct. 1993. 129p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 98-613 Bestratén Belloví M., Pareja Malagón F.
Simplified method for evaluating accident risks
Sistema simplificado de evaluación de riesgos de accidente [in Spanish]
Topics: data sheet; hazard evaluation; occupational accidents; occupational safety; probability analysis; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 98-612 Bestratén Belloví M.
Event tree risk analysis
Análisis de riesgos mediante el árbol de sucesos [in Spanish]
Topics: analysis of accident causes; data sheet; explosion hazards; fire hazards; hazard evaluation; occupational safety; probability analysis; safety analysis; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 5p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 98-610 Piqué Ardanuy T.
Check-lists for the control of accident hazards
Cuestionario de chequeo para el control de riesgos de accidente [in Spanish]
Topics: check lists; data sheet; fire protection; hazard evaluation; human factors; mechanical hazards; occupational safety; physical hazards; plant safety organization; risk factors; Spain; work organization.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 4p. 2 ref.

CIS 97-706 Cox T., Cox S.
Psychosocial and organizational hazards at work: Control and monitoring
This monograph discusses limitations of the traditional approach to occupational health and explores the effects of psychosocial and organizational hazards and their monitoring as an essential part of a new model. Three main groups of concepts are covered: hazard, risk and harm (with special discussion of the effects of stress, vulnerability and estimation of scale and severity of harm); risk management and control (the control cycle and risk management; control of psychosocial and organizational hazards; agencies and targets); inspection, monitoring and auditing (monitoring systems; factors that promote monitoring; measurement in relation to psychosocial and organizational hazards; standards and legislation).
Occupational Health Programme, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigsvej 8, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, 1993. 57p. Illus. 108 ref.

CIS 97-71 Working with smokers
Travailler avec des fumeurs [in French]
Roken op het werk [in Dutch]
Contents of this training booklet on the prevention of harmful effects of smoking in the workplace: overview; policies by the enterprise; Belgian legislation concerning the matter; strategic options (prohibition of smoking, taking into consideration local conditions, consulting and involving workers, evaluation and follow-up of the chosen policy); additional material measures that may be taken; the situation in practice; references to Belgian legislation applying to smoking in the workplace. List of useful addresses.
Commissariaat-generaal voor de Bevordering van de Arbeid, Ministerie van Tewerkstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, Bureau A 438, 1040 Brussel, Belgium, 1993. 26p. 5 ref.

CIS 96-1722 Occupational hazards in the beverage manufacturing industry - Report on the current situation
Riesgos profesionales en fabricación de bebidas - informe de situación [in Spanish]
A survey was conducted of occupational hazards among the approx. 47,000 workers in the Spanish beverage manufacturing industry (1990 data); about 25% work in the beer and cider industry, the rest evenly divided between the manufacturing of wine and non-alcoholic beverages. This report covers: characteristics of the sector (number and distribution of workers, technology, accident statistics); definition and aims of the study (risk maps); methods used (analysis of the manufacturing process, data collection, description of the study sample, data analysis); results (general data; steam generators; electrical installations; machinery for materials movement; fire safety; compressed air; risks connected with work processes); conclusions and proposals for prevention. In annex: food additives; health risks due to the work environment; questionnaires used in the study.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 181p. Illus.

CIS 96-580
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Recognition and evaluation of hazards at work
Erkennen und Beurteilen von Gefährdungen bei der Arbeit [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on the analysis of hazards encountered at work in Dortmund, Germany, on 23 and 24 March 1993. The papers presented at this conference addressed the following subjects: EC directives on occupational safety and conversion into German law; methods of hazard analysis; analysis of hazards which lead to occupational diseases using highway construction as an example; analysis of accident hazards within the construction industry, the production of gear boxes and the work of an engineer who has to design safe equipment; analysis of hazards in plants such as steelworks.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. 275p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1682 Baranski B.
Effects of the workplace on fertility and related reproductive outcomes
This report reviews the recent literature on the adverse effects of occupational factors on fertility and related reproductive outcomes. The high prevalence of unsuccessful reproductive outcomes in the general population makes the design of human fertility studies difficult, and it is virtually impossible to estimate the incidence of infertility due to occupational factors in the general population. The collected data suggest that exposure to a number of substances or occupational settings may affect various functions of the male reproductive system. The majority of reviewed papers on female infertility concerns the alterations of menstrual cycle and pregnancy complications rather than occupational exposure-induced female infertility. The literature supports the hypothesis that, in general, working women have a tendency of higher risk of unsuccessful reproductive outcomes, although the existing data are not sufficient.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 1993, Vol.101, Suppl.2, p.81-90. 114 ref.

CIS 95-343 Abiteboul D., Antona D., Descamps J.M., Bouvet E.
Risk of exposure to blood among nursing personnel: Monitoring and evolution 1990-1992
Risque d'exposition au sang parmi le personnel infirmier - Surveillance et évolution 1990-1992 [in French]
This multicentre study (12 French health care centres), follow-up to a previous study (CIS 92-2055), covers the period from 1 Sep. 1991 to 1 Sep. 1992 to assess the changes in the incidence and the characteristics of blood exposure accidents (BEA). Participating teams were very active in developing preventive strategies suiting their needs. It is then incumbent upon employers to provide workers with the means to protect themselves with improved materials while taking into account other factors such as workload and organization. The resulting cost should be compared with that of serum monitoring, prophylaxis with AZT and with the social costs resulting from occupational HIV seroconversion or chronic hepatitis C. Appendices: list of participating centres in the 1990-92 study; questionnaire on the occurrence of BEA; main items of a survey conducted at the same time on BEA in operating theatres.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1993, No.56, p.363-373. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 95-212 Berglund M., Boström C.E., Bylin G., Ewetz L., Gustafsson L., Moldéus P., Norberg S., Pershagen G., Victorin K.
Health risk evaluation of nitrogen oxides
Contents of this criteria document: nitrogen oxides in ambient air: properties, sources and concentrations; exposure; absorption and metabolic fate of nitrogen oxides; toxicity induced by nitrogen dioxide in experimental animals and isolated cell systems; controlled studies on humans; experimental studies on nitric oxide; genotoxicity; epidemiologic studies including on occupational exposures; health risk evaluation and recommended guideline values.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1993, vol.19, suppl.2, 72p. Illus. Approx. 450 ref.

CIS 94-2057 Uelpenich G.
Release of liquefied gases: Hazard analysis
Freisetzung druckverflüssigter Gase: Gefährdungsabschätzungen [in German]
Liquefied gas stored in tanks may explode by ignition of gas leaking from the tank (vapour cloud explosions) or by heating of the tank (boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions). Formulae are presented to permit calculation of safe distances and required volumes of cooling water.
Brandschutz, Oct. 1993, Vol.47, No.10, p.696-702. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 94-2113 Adler S.P., Manganello A.M.A., Koch W.C., Hempfling S.H., Best A.M.
Risk of human parvovirus B19 infections among school and hospital employees during endemic periods
Risk factors for human parvovirus B19 infections for hospital and school employees were identified during an endemic period. By serological testing, 2,730 employees of 135 schools in three school systems and 751 employees of a hospital were monitored. Of these, 60% were initially seropositive. After adjusting for age, race, and gender, risk factors for seropositivity were contact with children aged five to 18 years at home (odds ratio [OR]=1.2), at work (OR=1.2), and employment in elementary schools in school system 2 (OR=1.4). Over 42 months, one of 198 susceptible hospital employees seroconverted compared to 62 of 927 school employees. Four factors associated with seroconversion were employment at elementary schools in system 2, contact with children aged five to 11 years at home or with children aged five to 18 years at work, and aged under 30 years. Those in daily contact with school-age children had a five-fold increased occupational risk for B19 infection.
Journal of Infectious Diseases, Aug. 1993, Vol.168, No.2, p.361-368. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 94-1566 Takala J.
Associations between occupational hazards detected with log-linear statistical methods
A collected data matrix of safety and health information in industries in Thailand was examined in an attempt to analyze associations between various hazards or problems in industries, grouping selected problems together. Altogether 27 groups were established based on more than 2000 cross-tabulations between pairs of hazards or influencing factors. Three successfully tested models are presented; the method used was hierarchical log-linear analysis. A number of associations between various hazard categories were established. Lack of knowledge about hazards, poor personal protection and poor housekeeping were found to be interlinked with a number of mechanical, physical, chemical and ergonomic hazards or problems.
Safety Science, Nov. 1993, Vol.17, No.1, p.13-28. 15 ref.

CIS 94-1706 Hjertager B.H.
Computer modelling of turbulent gas explosions in complex 2D and 3D geometries
Numerical simulation methods capable of predicting flame and pressure development in turbulent gas explosions are presented. Special attention is given to methods which adopt the k-Σ model of turbulence. Several verification calculations are presented, which include a variety of geometrical layouts as well as a range of different fuel-air mixtures. Comparisons between simulated and measured explosion data are in general in good agreement.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 1993, Vol.34, No.2, p.173-197. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 94-1705 van den Berg A.C., Lannoy A.
Methods for vapour cloud explosion blast modelling
Methods for quantifying the explosive potential of a flammable fuel-air mixture are described and demonstrated in a simple case study concerning a storage site for liquefied hydrocarbons. While TNT-equivalent methods are easy to use, they are unsatisfactory in several respects. An alternative multi-energy method is described in which a flammable fuel-air mixture is considered to be explosive only if it is in a partially confined, congested or obstructed area in the cloud. The concept is shown to be a flexible one which makes it possible to incorporate current experimental data and advanced computational methods into the procedure of vapour cloud explosion hazard analysis.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 1993, Vol.34, No.2, p.151-171. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 94-1631 Jayjock M.A., Hawkins N.C.
A proposal for improving the role of exposure modeling in risk assessment
Current exposure assessment models for indoor air inhalation exposures are evaluated in the context of the uncertainty that exists in both the dose-response assessment and the exposure assessment. A tiered system is proposed for implementing exposure assessments. Each tier involves additional research, but also would lead to reductions in uncertainty. The authors discuss a possible comprehensive research programme that will permit the building of well-validated models that relate indoor air inhalation exposures to classes of chemicals, building types, and exposure scenarios.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1993, Vol.54, No.12, p.733-741. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 94-1340
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
The operation of the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 - Annual Report 1992-93
This report reviews the activities under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) set up under the 1989 Act (see CIS 91-1760). Contents: legislative changes resulting from the regulatory impact review (copy of a report on the impact review included); information provision and consultative arrangements; new chemicals (48 notification received, 46 assessments completed); priority existing chemicals; international activities; finance and staffing; future directions. Previous report abstracted under CIS 93-613.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1993. vii, 44p. 53 ref.

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