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CIS 95-1808 van Leeuwen C.J., Hermens J. L. M.
Risk assessment of chemicals: An introduction
This book is intended to support capacity-building in developing countries and countries in transition, to support use of the Netherlands' Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances and to provide material for students in environmental sciences. Major headings: general introduction; emissions of chemicals; transport, accumulation and transformation processes; exposure modelling; toxicity testing and human health; ecotoxicological effects; properties of chemicals and estimation methodologies; procedures of hazard and risk assessment. A glossary is included.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 3300 Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995. xviii, 374p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 95-1864 Radioactive and mixed waste - Risk as a basis for waste classification
Proceedings of a symposium on Radioactive and Mixed Waste - Risk as a Basis for Waste Classification, held 9 November 1994 in Las Vegas, USA. Papers cover: definition of the problem (regulatory situation regarding mixed waste, terminology, types of radioactive and mixed waste, parameters needed to assess risk, the availability of input needed to use risk to classify mixed waste); biology of risk (genetic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects); assessment of risk; managing the risks of radionuclides and conventional chemicals; social and political considerations; practical applications of a risk-based waste classification system; summary and conclusions.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3095, USA, June 1995. v, 201p. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 25.00.

CIS 95-1842
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Substances
Risks from handling explosives in ports
This report describes a methodology for estimating individual and societal risk from the explosives trade at individual ports and nationally. Detailed studies were carried out on five ports and one jetty licensed to handle explosives and a risk assessment technique was developed and applied to the remaining ports. The report covers: potential causes of explosive events in ports; analysis of traffic data and categorization of explosives cargoes; the likelihood of explosives events occurring in ports and the consequences of such events; method for the calculation of risks; results of detailed studies; estimation of national risk; technical conclusions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. xi, 89p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 30.00.

CIS 95-1746 Tepper J.S., Moser V.C., Costa D.L., Mason M.A., Roache N., Guo Z., Dyer R.S.
Toxicological and chemical evaluation of emissions from carpet samples
This study investigated findings that the off-gassing of certain carpets caused sensory and pulmonary irritation, changes in neurobehavioural signs and death in exposed mice. Detailed study of three treatment groups of mice, two of them exposed to preheated carpet emissions (from two different carpets) and the third exposed to preheated air samples. No toxic effects were observed in any of the test groups, though detailed chemical and microbial evaluation of the carpets and carpet emissions showed many different potentially harmful chemicals and microbiological flora. Clinical and histopathological changes were observed in all the groups of exposed mice when compared with non-exposed, unrestrained mice, suggesting that the exposure procedure itself caused significant effects unrelated to carpet emissions. Based on this assessment, no health risk can be attributed to the two carpets tested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1995, Vol.56, No.2, p.158-170. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1635 Walters H.A.
Statistical tools of safety management
University-level textbook on probability and statistics as used by safety professionals. Topics covered include: general probability; specific kinds of probability distributions (binomial, multinomial, hypergeometric, Poisson, normal); chi-square confidence intervals; event systems; the cut-set method; Boolean algebra; fault-tree analysis; gaming theory (the maximin method); the critical path method. Problems and their solutions take up more than half the book.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10003, USA; Chapman & Hall 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom, 1995. x, 335p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-1630
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Plant in the workplace: Making it safe - A guide to managing risks from plant in the workplace for employers and employees
Guide to risk management of plant (machinery, tools, appliances and equipment) at the workplace in light of the Australian performance-based national standard for plant (CIS 95-744). Contents: overview of the risk management process; step-by-step approach to risk management (hazard identification, risk assessment, risk control, monitoring and review). In annex: check-list for workplace inspection; sources of information about hazards from plant; sample inspection and risk management worksheets; OSH contacts in Australia.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995. 22p.

CIS 95-1629
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Plant design: Making it safe - A guide to risk management for designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers of plant
Guide to risk management of plant (machinery, tools, appliances and equipment) at the design/installation stage in light of the Australian performance-based national standard for plant (CIS 95-744). Contents: overview of the risk management process; step-by-step approach to risk management (hazard identification, risk assessment, risk control, review); design of safe plant; manufacturing safe plant; importation and/or supply of safe plant; safe installation. In annex: sources of information about plant hazards; check-list for hazard identification; design considerations; OSH contacts in Australia.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995. 22p.

CIS 95-1878
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National standard for plant
This fact sheet briefly explains the key elements of the National Standard for Plant [NOHSC:1010(1994)] (see CIS 95-744): responsibilities of designers, owners and others; hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control; registration of plant design.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, no date. 4p.

CIS 95-1782 Murat T.
Method for the assessment and control of chemical risks in industry
Méthode d'évaluation et de lutte contre le risque chimique dans l'industrie [in French]
This method is designed to detect chemical risks based on an exhaustive survey of substances and preparations present in a given firm. The survey is carried out workstation by workstation, unit by unit, workshop by workshop. One of the objectives of the method is to provide trend indicators allowing the comparison of workshops and firms among themselves on a common basis which is reliable and repeatable. These indicators can be used for drawing up performance tables for the operational units.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 1995, No.21, p.8-17. Illus. (Supplément Sciences et Techniques).

CIS 95-1829 Lodel R.
Fire and explosion risk assessment in the wood industry
Analyse des risques d'incendie et d'explosion dans l'industrie du bois [in French]
This guide analyses fire and explosion risks in the wood industry. First, a description of plants such as wood panel and furniture manufacturing and sawmills is provided with an emphasis on collaboration among the "risk partners". Fire and explosion characterization methods are described as well as the present state of existing regulations and standards. The guide ends with a review of existing prevention and protection techniques and their particular installations in these plants.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 1995, No.21, p.3-7. Illus. (Supplément Sciences et Techniques).

CIS 95-1251 Risk assessment - An approach to life
Complete training programme based on two videotapes, a computer diskette and a manual (presenter's guide). Main topics covered: overview of important legislation in the United Kingdom concerning risks at work (general, manual handling, display screens, work equipment, personal protective equipment); risk assessment (review, individual and group exercises concerning laboratory work, the taking of samples, the filling of tanks with flammable liquids and painting with a toxic solvent). The diskette contains support programs for the group exercises. Quizzes are used throughout to test the knowledge acquired by students.
Training Video Associates, Claro Court Business Centre, Claro Road, Harrogate, HG1 4BA, United Kingdom, 1993. 2 videotape (length: 2 x 18min) + computer diskette (3.5", MS-DOS) + presenter's guide (20p., illus.). Price: GBP 499.00 + VAT.

CIS 95-1472 Hauptmanns U.
Investigations of the safety of start-up and shut down procedures in the production of nitroglycol
Untersuchungen zum Arbeitsschutz bei An- und Abfahrvorgängen einer Nitroglykol-Anlage [in German]
The explosion hazard of a plant producing dinitroglycol was investigated. The procedures used in the safety analysis are explained. They include the use of fault tree analysis. Simple design changes were identified which reduced the explosion risk by a factor of 4.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Feb. 1995, Vol.67, No.2, p.179-183. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 95-1446
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Wood dust and formaldehyde
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 11-18 October 1994. Epidemiological studies have shown increased risks of cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses associated with exposure to wood dust; these findings are supported by numerous case reports. Adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses is clearly associated with exposure to hardwood dust. Epidemiological studies suggest a causal relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and nasopharyngeal cancer and cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses. IARC final classifications: wood dust is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); formaldehyde is probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. viii, 405p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 80.00.

CIS 95-1518 Schlosser O., Roudot-Thoraval F.
Occupational exposure to sewage and hepatitis A risk
Exposition professionnelle aux eaux usées et risque d'hépatite virale A [in French]
The availability of a first hepatitis A vaccine in 1992 raised the issue of its use among sewage workers. A cross-sectional study was made to estimate the occupational hazard of hepatitis A comparing the prevalence of antibodies to the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in 110 workers exposed to sewage with the prevalence in 110 non-exposed controls from the same firm, matched for age and educational level. History of jaundice, travelling in endemic areas and duration of occupational exposure were noted. The seroprevalence of HAV antibodies was 52.7% globally, significantly higher in exposed workers (60.9%) than in controls (44.5%) (p<0.02). This seroprevalence increased with age, and was related to educational level in each group. These results emphasize the role of occupational exposure to sewage in HAV infection. The vaccination of exposed workers is to be recommended because of the frequency of the symptomatic form of hepatitis A in adults, sometimes of considerable severity.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.23-27. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 95-1377 Pagliéro D., Gouerne R.
Welding and cutting robots - Assessment and control of risks generated by new metalworking techniques
Robots de soudage et de découpe - Evaluation et prévention des risques engendrés par les nouvelles technologies d'usinage (laser, jet d'eau hyperbare et plasma) [in French]
In order to deal with the risks generated by new welding and cutting techniques (laser, pressurized water jet, plasma) used in conjunction with industrial robots, a preliminary survey was carried out in France. The resulting report lists the hazards related to such methods (general and specific hazards, hazards of specific metalworking methods), together with proper protective measures (relationship between safety functions and safety measures, protective devices: personal protection, specific sensors, active or passive peripheral devices) and how to implement and adjust them. Appended are reference texts (regulations or standards), tolerable laser radiation limits and a model presentation of special safety instructions.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, Note No.1980-158-95, p.15-33. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 95-1465 Risk-benefit analysis of existing substances
This guide was elaborated by a joint government-industry working group in the United Kingdom in application of the European Union's Council Regulation (EEC) No.793/93 on the evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances (CIS 93-1430). Contents: introduction; principles of risk-benefit analysis; valuation of environmental and human health risks; economic consequences of control measures; steps in risk-benefit analysis. Annexes: US approach to analyzing the risks of dangerous substances; discounting; techniques for monetary valuation of environmental effects; the example of tributyltin.
Department of the Environment, Room A334, Romney House, 43 Marsham Street, London SW1P 3PY, United Kingdom, Feb. 1995. vi, 69p. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 95-1464 Risk reduction for existing substances
This guide outlines various risks to which people or the environment may be exposed as the result of the manufacture, use or disposal of a substance, ways in which the risks can be reduced and how a risk reduction strategy can be developed to fit an individual case. It was elaborated by a joint government-industry working group in the United Kingdom in application of the European Union's Council Regulation (EEC) No.793/93 on the evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances (CIS 93-1430). Examples of existing EU measures to control dangerous substances are given, as are examples of risk reduction strategies for tributyl tin, epichlorohydrin and vinyl chloride.
Department of the Environment, Room A334, Romney House, 43 Marsham Street, London SW1P 3PY, United Kingdom, Feb. 1995. vi, 29p. Illus.

CIS 95-869 Tools for making acute risk decisions with chemical process safety applications
This manual provides an introduction to risk decision making and the decision aids available to support these decisions. Main subjects covered: risk decision making as a natural extension of methodologies developed to identify hazards and assess risks; key concepts (evaluation criteria, economic evaluation principles, value of life, risk analysis); framework for the classification of available decision aids; selection of appropriate decision aids; case studies from the chemical process industry; detailed studies and applications of selected decision aids; implementation of formal risk decision making in an organization; future developments.
Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1995. xxiv, 472p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 140.00 (US and Canadian orders); USD 195.00 (elsewhere).


CIS 12-0015 Barker L.D., eds.
Agricultural safety and health for engineers - An ASAE instructional module
The objective of this manual is to introduce safety and health topics to trainers delivering machinery and systems courses. Contents: agricultural accident statistics; agricultural hazards; human factors; hazard analysis; engineering for hazard control and injury prevention.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2950 Niles Road, St.Joseph, Michigan 49085-9695, USA, 1994. 101p. Illus. 10 ref.
Agricultural_safety_and_health_for_engineers_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 98-1750 de Arquer M.I., Nogareda C.
Human reliability: Basic concepts
Fiabilidad humana: conceptos básicos [in Spanish]
Topics: behaviour study; data sheet; ergonomics; hazard evaluation; human factors; human failure; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 6p. 11 ref.

CIS 97-776 Wallberg A., Abrahamsson L., Hallgren L.
ASA - Work safety analysis
ASA - Arbetssäkerhetsanalys [in Swedish]
The ASA technique (arbetssäkerhetsanalys, work safety analysis) is a simple and practical method for the identification of risks and for the taking of safety measures in manual operations and production systems. It is a tool for developing products and increasing safety at work, applicable in most industries. It can be used for the identification of disturbances in production, when planning reconstruction or changes in production, for raising awareness of risks and for the prevention of accidents. Main topics: systematic safety work; work safety analysis (when and how to use it, who should participate); planning of the work with the analyses; examples of analysis made in a warehouse and a paper mill.
Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1st ed., 1994. 56p. Illus.

CIS 97-548 Manno M., Saia B.
Biotransformation in occupational medicine: The role of liver cytochrome P-450 in the mechanism of action and biological monitoring of occupational toxic substances
La biotrasformazione in medicina del lavoro: ruolo del citocromo P-450 epatico nel meccanismo d'azione e nel monitoraggio biologico dei tossici occupazionali [in Italian]
Review of the important enzyme system involved in the biotransformation of industrial chemicals: cytochrome P-450. The study of the various metabolic reactions of this peculiar group of enzymes has contributed to a) the clarification of the mode of action of toxic and/or carcinogenic substances present in the work environment, such as aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated alkanes, benzene compounds etc.; and b) the improvement of risk assessment in the biological monitoring of exposed workers.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol.85, No.1, p.11-21. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 97-476 Piqué Ardanuy T., Cejalvo Lapeña A.
Probabilistic Risk Analysis: "Fault Tree Analysis"
Análisis probabilístico de riesgos: Metodología del "Arbol de Fallos y Errores" [in Spanish]
This information note presents the basics of the Fault Tree Analysis methodology. Contents: introduction; background; description of the methodology; Fault Tree development, including symbols and graphic representation; Fault Tree exploitation, involving both qualitative and quantitative evaluation; exercise on the implementation of the methodology.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/ Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 8p. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 97-234 Kundiev Y.
Health, safety and ergonomic aspects in use of chemicals in agriculture and forestry
These proceedings of an international symposium held on 8-11 June 1993 in Kiev, Ukraine, deal with pesticide use in agriculture and forestry. Some topics discussed in the 29 papers: international perspectives in the safe use of pesticides; trends in the development of new pesticides; the IRPTC databank; safe use of pesticides in forestry; ergonomics in agrarian reform; metabolic degradation of pesticides; EC rules for pesticides and their residues; mechanisms of acute poisoning of agricultural workers by pesticides after re-entry; cardiac work-load on pesticide workers; pesticide residues after spraying in greenhouses; holistic approach to exposure risk assessment; pre-screening methods for the evaluation of pesticide carcinogenicity; delayed neurotoxic effects of combinations of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides; morbidity and mortality among alachlor manufacturing workers; pesticide biomonitoring; evaluation of hazard from the combined effects of triazine herbicides and sodium nitrite using cytochromes P-450; combined action of pesticides; modifying effect of formulation components on δ-methrin activity; health effects of polymers used in forestry; detoxication of organochlorine compounds in agrobiocenosis; chromatographic methods for the determination of microquantities of organic substances; membrane toxicity as a marker of adverse effects.
Institute for Occupational Health, 75, Saksagansky St., Kiev, Ukraine, 1994. v 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-1877 Balbino P.
Risk factors in passenger lifts
Situazioni di "Rischio" negli ascensori [in Italian]
This brief study covers probable risk factors in passenger lifts with an analysis of accident causes. This is graphically represented by means of three typical "fault trees" (analysis of possible sequences of events), which are commented.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.7, No.3, p.34-39. Illus.

CIS 96-1649 Cianotti R., Di Mambro A.
Analysis of risks at the workplace - Elements for an approach to a methodical procedure
Analisi dei rischi sui luoghi di lavoro - Elementi di approccio ad una procedura metodologica [in Italian]
This report concerns provisions of Italian Decree D.L. 626/94 (of 19 Sep.), introduced in line with Directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401) on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers. One of the provisions of the Decree is the introduction in Italy of "enterprise safety documents", whose aim is to assess the different risks of manufacturing processes and eventually to remove unsafe situations dealt with by CEN standard EN 1050 as well. This latter concerns the dangers of work equipment and machinery. Risk factors and risk assessment procedures, to be included in safety documents, are also analyzed.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.6, No.3, p.59-70. Illus.

CIS 96-1424 Coluccio V.M.
Lead-based paint hazards: Assessment and management
This book deals with different aspects of lead pollution, which remains a serious problem for workers and the public despite its early regulation as a result of environmental concerns. While this comprehensive text focuses on the assessment and mitigation of lead-based paint hazards, other sources of lead and their relative contribution to lead poisoning problems are also described. Topics covered include: source of lead contamination; health consequences of exposure; US federal environmental regulations; occupational safety; abatement studies; assessment of hazards; liability and insurance considerations. In annex: acronyms; glossary; information sources in the US; summaries of the lead-based paint risk assessment process and of OSHA General Industry Standard (29 CFR 1910.25); OSHA fact sheets for lead exposure in construction; the National Lead Abatement Council Mission Statement.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1994. xvi, 320p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 54.95, GBP 37.50.

CIS 96-519 von Däniken F.
Occupational safety in sewage treatment plants
La sécurité dans les stations d'épuration des eaux usées [in French]
Sichere Kläranlagen für Abwasser [in German]
Impianti di depurazione acque sicuri [in Italian]
Main contents of this training brochure on the sources of mechanical hazards associated with control procedures and construction in sewage treatment plants (the chemical aspects of this type of plant are dealt with in CNA publication ref. 66055 concerning the safety of biogaz installations, CIS 94-1544); general purpose of safety; general requirements relating to technical installations and equipment; safety devices in sewage treatment plants; building components for normal operating procedures; building components for specific operating procedures; complementary information.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1994. 24p. Illus.

CIS 96-1007 Cohen B.L.
Dose-response relationship for radiation carcinogenesis in the low-dose region
The present knowledge of the effects of low-level radiation gained in in-vitro and epidemiological studies is reviewed. Included are the studies of the effects of radon in homes. The in-vitro studies provide evidence that low-level radiation greatly enhances the efficiency of DNA repair. The epidemiological studies of people exposed to low levels of radiation have shown that cancer incidence is not higher than in the general population. The linear, no-threshold, dose-response relationship used to predict cancer incidence caused by exposure to high radiation doses does not apply for exposure to low doses of radiation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.66, No.2, p.71-75. 39 ref.

CIS 96-756 Spirtas R., Heineman E.F., Bernstein L., Beebe G.W., Keehn R.J., Stark A., Harlow B.L., Benichou J.
Malignant mesothelioma: Attributable risk of asbestos exposure
A case-control study of malignant mesothelioma was evaluated through patterns of exposure to asbestos based upon information from telephone interviews with next of kin. Potential cases, identified from medical files and death certificates, included all people diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma and registered during 1975-1980 by the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program, the New York State Cancer Registry (excluding New York City), and 39 large Veterans Administration hospitals. Cases whose diagnosis was confirmed in a special pathology review as definite or probable mesothelioma (n=208) were included in the analysis. Among men with pleural mesothelioma or peritoneal cancer, the attributable risk (AR) for exposure to asbestos was 88% and 58%, respectively. For women (both sites combined), the AR was 23%. Most of the pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas in the men studied were attributable to exposure to asbestos. The situation in women was less definitive.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.51, No.12, p.804-811. 66 ref.

CIS 96-980 Gemne G.
Where is the research frontier for hand-arm vibration?
How to combine diagnostics with exposure evaluation so that reliable risk assessments can be made for different tools and processes is a fundamental problem for current hand-arm vibration research. The scientific foundation of the model, in ISO 5349 (see CIS 90-1698), for white finger (WF) risk prediction has been shown to be insufficient. Prospective epidemiological studies are needed to establish exposure-response relationships addressing the specific aetiological factors. Another important research field concerns WF pathogenesis, which is likely to be a vessel wall lesion causing vasodilatory deficiency. A model is presented for the manifestation of cold-triggered WF in persons with exposure to vibration and other environmental stressors as a result of lowered symptom threshold and a raised level of sympathetic activity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1994, Vol.20, Special issue, p.90-99. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 96-390 Kirwan B.
A guide to practical human reliability assessment
This guide describes techniques for the estimation and reduction of human error in systems. The risk assessment process is described and the role of human reliability assessment (HRA) in this process is discussed. Details of the HRA process are then described: problem definition, task analysis, human error analysis, representation issues, human-error quantification, impact assessment, error reduction analysis, quality assurance and documentation, practical framework for HRA, management and organizational issues. Future directions in HRA are outlined. Appendices include brief reviews of forms of human error in recent accidents, a human factors checklist, and a number of HRA case studies.
Taylor & Francis Ltd, Rankine Road, Basingstoke RG24 8PR, Hampshire, United Kingdom, 1994. v, 592p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 60.00 (cloth), GBP 25.00 (paper).

CIS 96-294 Patrick D.R.
Toxic air pollution handbook
Contents of this manual: introduction to sources of air pollutants and legal requirements for their control; health assessment (evaluation of toxicological data, risk assessment and management of inhaled toxic air pollutants, cancer risk assessment); exposure assessment (source sampling and analysis, emissions estimation, air dispersion and deposition models, atmospheric transformation and removal of air toxics, human intake, population and activity analysis, ecological risk assessment); regulatory strategies (legal considerations, ambient concentration limits, technology standards, risk assessment and management, cost-benefit approaches); control methods; special sources of toxic air pollutants; risk communication.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1994. xx, 588p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 75.00.

CIS 96-293 Ayers K.W.
Environmental science and technology handbook
Contents of this manual: environmental processes; human health risk assessment; ecological risk assessment; environmental chemistry and analysis of regulated compounds; air quality; air pollution control technologies; solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal; underground and aboveground storage tank technology; geology and groundwater hydrology; groundwater pollution control technologies; pollution prevention through total quality management.
Government Institutes Inc., 4 Research Place, Suite 200, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA, 1994. xxiii, 389p. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 95-2318 Wiil M., Gopher D., Erv I.
Readiness to take risks during troubleshooting
Hanetiya lnetilat sikun bet htmoddut im taqlot [in Hebrew]
Simulation of malfunctions during work with semiautomatic equipment of a type often encountered in the chemical industry (filling of containers with a hazardous solution) showed that in most cases the operator tended to "compensate" for the malfunction and continue to work, with manual intervention, instead of interrupting work and asking for the equipment to be repaired. Although such behaviour is irrational from the standpoint of system safety, it is motivated by an attempt, on the part of the operator, to gain time and increase productivity and thus remuneration.
Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Research Centre for Work Safety and Human Engineering, Haifa 32000, Israel, 1994. 86p. Illus. 95 ref.

CIS 95-2278 Berenguer Subils M.J., Guardino Solá X., Hernández Calleja A., Martí Solé M.C., Nogareda Cuixart C., Solé Gómez M.D.
Sick building syndrome: Evaluation methodology
El síndrome del edificio enfermo: metodología de evaluación [in Spanish]
After presenting some basic concepts of sick building syndrome (definitions, symptoms and risk factors), this book focusses on how to evaluate and control risks when dealing with this situation. Main aspects analyzed are: artificial lighting; noise and vibration; air temperature; humidity; ventilation; ergonomic and psychosocial factors; thermal comfort; chemical and biological hazards. Fourteen case studies as well as 5 annexes are included. The annexes deal with: (a) chemical and biological contaminants; (b) questionnaires; (c) measurement of indoor air quality; (d) organizations and publications on indoor air quality; (e) reference values.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 149p. Illus. 66 ref.

CIS 95-1858 Smith P.A.
Probabilistic laser safety - Ocular damage models for Q-switched neodymium and ruby lasers
International standards for eye protection from laser radiation define a distance beyond which an individual would not be expected to suffer any adverse biological effects. This nominal ocular hazard distance, and any associated hazard zones, are calculated using a deterministic technique. This technique does not consider the likelihood that an eye will be irradiated, or the probability that if any eye is exposed, then some ocular damage will result. An alternative, probabilistic, method of hazard assessment does so. An important element in this assessment is an ocular damage model which predicts the probability with which a laser exposure will cause permanent eye damage. This paper describes a rationale for the use of the minimum ophthalmoscopically visible lesion as a threshold criterion for the development of ocular damage models.
Health Physics, Apr. 1994, Vol.66, No.4, p.414-419. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 95-1856 Marshall W.J.
Comparative hazard evaluation of near-infrared diode lasers
Hazard evaluation methods from various laser protection standards differ when applied to extended-source, near-infrared lasers. The differences among laser standards are most apparent when determining the hazard class of a laser. Hazard classification is based on a comparison of the potential exposures with the maximum permissible exposures in the 1986 and 1993 versions of the American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Z136.1, and the accessible emission limits of the US federal laser product performance standard. Necessary safety design features of a particular system depend on the hazard class. The ANSI Z136.1-1993 standard provides a simpler and more accurate hazard assessment of low-power, near-infrared, diode laser systems than the 1986 ANSI standard. Although a specific system is evaluated, the techniques described can be readily applied to other near-infrared lasers or laser training systems.
Health Physics, May 1994, Vol.66, No.5, p.532-539. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 95-1748 Guerbet M., Jouany J.M., Capron R., Dittmar E.
Importance of an analysis into main components for the assessment of hazards due to the thermal decomposition of materials
Intérêt de l'analyse en composantes principales lors de l'évaluation du risque dû à la décomposition thermique des matériaux [in French]
A large amount of data must be taken into account for the overall assessment of toxicological hazards due to the thermal decomposition of materials in a fire. A simple study of correlations provides good information on the interaction of various factors but a determination of the main components remains undoubtedly the most effective statistical method for risk assessment.
Sécurité - sciences et techniques, Mar. 1994, Vol.2, No.11, p.17-26. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-1832 Lines I.G., Hall R.C., Gallagher P., Deaves D.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Dispersion of releases of hazardous materials in the vicinity of buildings
This report presents the results of the first phase of a research programme into the dispersion of hazardous releases in the vicinity of buildings. The current status of airflow and dispersion modelling around buildings is reviewed and requirements for future efforts are identified. Information was obtained for both CFD modelling of this problem and also for full scale and model scale tests. The report includes a specification for the second phase of the project.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. iii, 62p. 204 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 95-1831 Munday J.W.
Safety at scenes of fire and related incidents
This booklet provides guidance on safety during the investigation of fires and similar incidents. Contents: legislation; use of protective clothing; approaching and viewing the scene; assessment of building safety; examination of building structures; after-effects of firefighting; industrial processes and stored materials; disconnection of gas and electricity services; examining fire-damaged vehicles; other people at the scene; safe working practices; particulate materials; chemical hazards; biological hazards.
The Fire Protection Association, 140 Aldersgate Street, London EC1A 4HX, United Kingdom, 1994. 50p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 95-1686 Stewart W.F., Stewart P.A.
Occupational case-control studies: I. Collecting information on work histories and work-related exposures. II. Recommendations for exposure assessment
In the first of these two papers, methods for obtaining work and exposure history data are reviewed and their limitations with respect to exposure assessment are discussed. Problems with the exchange between an interviewer and the respondent and problems in conducting exposure assessments independent of interviewing are discussed and strategies designed to address these problems are presented. In the second paper, systematic procedures are suggested for evaluating occupational exposures in community-based case-control studies. The quality of the reported information and rater familiarity with the job are discussed. Development of an estimate of the probability is recommended and criteria for assessing exposures are identified.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.26, No.3, p.297-326. Illus. 63 ref.

CIS 95-1430 de Carvalho A.B., Kato M.
Evaluation of the risk of exposure to benzene and cyclohexane during maintenance and shut-down procedures in a petrochemical plant
Caracterização do risco de exposição a benzeno e ciclo-hexano em atividades de manutenção e procedimentos de parada em planta petroquímica [in Portuguese]
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.22, No.82, p.21-34. Illus. 9 ref. ###

CIS 95-1368 Tesch D., Heupel P., Marian B., Schröter W., Schwarz K.H.
Investigation of the health risk involved in cleaning work
Untersuchung tätigkeitsspezifischer Gesundheitsrisiken im Reinigungsgewerbe [in German]
Statistical data on the types of accidents and occupational diseases among cleaning personnel were evaluated to determine the accident and health risks of this trade. In addition, data from periodic medical examinations by industrial physicians and a questionnaire survey of 645 cleaners were used. All cleaners, including bottle washers and metal cleaners, were included in the study. The most frequent causes of accidents were slipping, falls on the level and among glass and window cleaners falls from heights. Among occupational diseases skin diseases, mainly skin allergies and eczema, were most frequent. Infectious diseases, mostly hepatitis B, ranked second in frequency.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaften, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1994. iii, 115p. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 95-1164 Regulatory Standard No.9 - Environmental hazards: Programme for the prevention of environmental hazards [Brazil]
Norma Regulamentadora n°9 - Programa de prevenção de riscos ambientais [in Portuguese]
This regulation approves a regulatory standard that requires all employers to prepare and implement a programme for the prevention of environmental hazards (PPRA), within the scope of the Programme of medical surveillance in occupational health (defined in CIS 95-1170). Environmental hazards may include chemical, physical and biological hazards. The PPRA should include: evaluation of the risks, implementation of control measures, establishment of action levels, monitoring, maintenance of records, responsibilities of employers and workers and information requirements. In annex: how to establish a hazard map for an enterprise.
Diário Oficial, 30 Dec. 1994, Year 132, No.248, p.21280-21282. [in Portuguese]

CIS 95-1488 SuperChems version 1.2
Microcomputer-based hazard analysis package, combining expertise in chemical hazard characteristics, advanced numerical computation and process safety analysis with detailed modelling capabilities for source terms, dispersion, fires and explosions. Advanced graphic and tabular capabilities. A user-expandable database of > 1200 chemical compounds is included. Also included is the PropertEASETM software package for the estimation of chemical properties.
Arthur D. Little, Inc., Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA. Computer software available for MS-DOS microcomputers (program runs on the DOS operating system). Price: USD 15,400.00.

CIS 95-1335 Mellemgaard A., Engholm G., McLaughlin J.K., Olsen J.H.
Occupational risk factors for renal-cell carcinoma in Denmark
Risk factors for renal-cell carcinoma, the most frequent type of kidney cancer, remain uncertain. Time trends in incidence and changes in the regional distribution of this cancer are suggestive of environmental risk factors. This study reports on occupational risk factors for renal-cell carcinoma in Denmark. In a population-based study, 365 persons with histologically verified renal-cell carcinoma and 396 controls were interviewed. Information was collected on occupation, education and occupational exposure to a number of suspected factors, including hydrocarbons, asbestos and radiation. Risk of renal-cell carcinoma was found to be associated with employment as a truck driver, exposure to gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and insecticides and herbicides. The risk of renal-cell carcinoma was higher in the lower socioeconomic strata for both men and women, and previously identified or suspected risk factors do not explain the excess in risk. This study adds additional support to the hypothesis of a link between renal-cell carcinoma and hydrocarbons and also demonstrates the need for further studies on occupational risk factors for renal-cell carcinoma.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.160-165. 35 ref.

CIS 95-1484 Dow's fire and explosion index hazard classification guide
This guide provides key information for evaluating the overall fire and explosion risk of individual chemical process units. Steps involved in the risk analysis procedure are described in detail, including: selection of process units to be studied; determination of the material factor of each unit; calculation of general and special process hazards; determination of the area of exposure surrounding the unit, the maximum probable property damage and the maximum probable days outage. Some sample calculations are included. Hazard factors of selected chemical compounds are listed in appendix. Previous edition: see CIS 89-631.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 7th ed. 1994. 83p. Illus. Price: USD 40.00 (USA), USD 56.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 95-1115 Feyrer K., Dudde F.
Protective measures to prevent uncontrolled movements of traction lifts
Schutzmassnahmen gegen unkontrolliertes Fahren von Treibscheibenaufzügen [in German]
The causes of 171 uncontrolled movements of traction lifts were studied. The incidents were recorded in Germany between 1972 and 1992. Through fault tree analysis and analysis of each incident the failure frequency of individual components was determined. The results were used to calculate the probability of uncontrolled movement of lifts of various designs. Through an additional brake and modification of the speed control device the incidence of uncontrolled movements of the lift cage in either direction can be cut to one fifth of the incidence observed.
Lift Report, Sep.-Oct. 1994, Vol.20, No.5, p.6, 8, 10, l2, 14. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 95-1029 Hazardous substances risk assessment: A mini-guide for municipalities and industry
This guide provides an introduction to the basic concepts involved in risk assessment along with results of such assessments for more than 200 common industrial and commercial chemicals. Tables indicate a minimum separation distance for each substance for quantities typically found in industrial or commercial sites. Recommended risk-based separation distances are tabulated for different classes of flammable gases and liquids and toxic gases and liquids. The risk management process is also outlined.
Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada, 265 Carling Avenue, Suite 600, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 2E1, Canada, 1994. vi, 39p. Price: CAD 59.50.

CIS 95-659 Delépine A.
Mercury exposure risk in the manufacturing of neon signs
Evaluation du risque hydrargyrique dans la fabrication des enseignes lumineuses [in French]
A survey has been made in neon sign manufacturing plants in France to assess mercury exposure and uptake among glass blowers. In this process, mercury is used in small quantities (about two kilos per year, per plant). Besides mercury, these workers are exposed to the risk of burns caused by blowpipes and to electrical accidents due to the use of power reaching up to 20,000 volts.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.275-279. Illus. 7 ref.

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