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Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found

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  • Risk evaluation

1996

CIS 96-1078 Nicas M.
Refining a risk model for occupational tuberculosis transmission
A probability model is presented to describe the variation with time of levels of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol experienced by health care workers. Based on this model, analytical solutions are presented for an individual worker's cumulative risk of tuberculosis infection, and for the worker population mean cumulative risk of infection, with and without use of respiratory protection. Given exposure estimates and a definition of acceptable risk, the risk equations developed in this analysis may be used to assist in the selection of respiratory protection for health care workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.16-22. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 96-320
Health and Safety Executive
Dispensing petrol: Assessing and controlling the risk of fire and explosion at sites where petrol is stored and dispensed as a fuel
This guidance applies to petrol filling-stations, farms, commercial goods vehicle depots, private businesses and other premises where petrol is kept as a fuel. Contents: fire and explosion hazards of petrol; risk factors associated with the storage and dispensing of petrol and key precautions to prevent fire and explosion; detailed risk assessment and identification of control measures for delivery and venting, storage, pipework systems and dispensing. In appendix: systems of work; training; risk assessment examples; relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. ix, 58p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 96-142
Health and Safety Executive
Use of risk assessment within government departments
This report by the Interdepartmental Liaison Group on Risk Assessment describes current risk assessment practices used by government departments in decision-making related to health, safety and the environment in the United Kingdom. A review of the principles and practice of risk assessment is presented and its use within each department is analyzed, including that of the Health and Safety Commission and Executive. Common approaches are identified and recommendations are made for increasing coherence and consistency in certain areas.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. vii, 46p. 6 ref.

CIS 96-210 Pitblado R., Turney R.
Risk assessment in the process industries
This manual describes techniques of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) in the process industry with emphasis on developments during the past decade. Contents: the need for risk assessment; hazard identification procedures; consequence analysis (modelling the effects of dispersion, vapour cloud explosions, thermal radiation); quantification of event probabilities; application of risk assessment (limitations of QRA, tolerability and acceptability of risk, cost-benefit analysis); specific applications (offshore QRA, transport risks, safety management systems, chemical warehouse storage, environmental effects of accidents, safety-critical computing systems).
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1996. viii, 138p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 28.00.

CIS 95-2053 Sadgrove K.
The complete guide to business risk management
Manual on the identification, assessment and management of the risks confronting modern businesses. Among the topics covered: environmental pollution; health and safety; fire protection; contingency planning and crisis management. Case studies, self-assessment exercises and checklists throughout.
Gower Publishing Ltd., Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, United Kingdom, 1996. 238p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 42.00. ###

1995

CIS 05-420 Heikkilä J., Rasmussen B., Rouhiainen V., Suokas J.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Methods for investigating management impact to causes and consequences of specific hazards - MIMIX
MIMIX (Method for Investigating Management Impact to Causes and Consequences of Specific Hazards) is a new method for the identification of deficiencies in managerial means and practices used for maintaining and improving plant safety. The report includes guidelines for carrying out a MIMIX analysis, together with practical experiences, case studies and an example of the preparation of incident scenarios. The report also summarizes the first findings of a programme entitled "An Overall Knowledge-Based Methodology for Hazard Identification" (TOMHID), funded by the STEP (Science and Technology for Environmental Protection) European research programme.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 1995. 53p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: EUR 35.00 (+ 8% VAT).

CIS 00-105 Safety and health at work - Self-audit handbook for SMEs
Topics: air temperature; bakery products industry; check lists; dangerous substances; European Communities; evaluation of control measures; explosion hazards; fire hazards; first-aid organization; garages; hazard evaluation; lighting; machinery; maintenance and repair; materials handling; noise; personal protective equipment; plant safety organization; printing industry; small enterprises; training material; ventilation; vibration; woodworking industry; workers participation.
Directorate-General V, Occupational health and hygiene unit, Jean Monnet building - C4, BP 1907, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1995. 280p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1333 Bellido F., Belmar J.M., Bernaola M., Cabrera J.A., Corredera P., Domingo C., Gallardo E., Guibelalde E., López G., Montejo J.M., Rupérez M.J., Sánchez M., Vaello L.
Some considerations on laser safety
Algunas cuestiones sobre seguridad láser [in Spanish]
Topics: chemical hazards; electricity; hazard criteria; hazard evaluation; health hazards; laser damage thresholds; laser radiation; lasers; legislation; medical prevention; physical hazards; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. xviii, 398p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-456 de Arquer M.I.
Human reliability: Methods
Fiabilidad humana: métodos [in Spanish]
Reference to CIS 98-1750 (basic concepts of human reliability). Topics: data sheet; description of technique; hazard evaluation; human behaviour; human factors; human failure; nuclear power stations; probability analysis; reliability; safety analysis; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 6p. 14 ref.

CIS 98-1262 Ponce Molet J.A.
Risk identification, evaluation and control in compound feed manufacturing plants
Identificación, evaluación y control de riesgos en las fábricas de piensos compuestos [in Spanish]
Topics: airborne dust; dust explosions; feed production; hazard evaluation; job-exposure relation; noise level; questionnaire survey; respirators; risk factors; Spain.
Salud y trabajo, 1996, No.113, p.14-19. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 97-1190 Tagliaferro I., Collettini M., Sinibaldi L.
Relocation hypothesis of a hazardous industrial plant: The NERI distillery of Faenza
Ipotesi di delocalizzazione di una industria a rischio: la distilleria NERI di Faenza [in Italian]
This study concerns the project of relocation of a high-risk distillery plant, placed inside the town of Faenza in northern Italy. The size and the characteristics of the plant, which handles large quantities of agricultural products and dangerous chemicals, pose serious health and safety problems both to the town population and the surrounding environment. An impact assessment procedure was therefore carried out using qualitative and quantitative parameters in order to identify a limited number of relocation sites. This procedure included the simulation of possible chemical accident scenarios together with their countermeasures. Some locations for a new plant were excluded because of the vicinity of houses or the risk of polluting underground water supplies. A weighed factor evaluation system was developed (factors included visual impact, noise, traffic and contamination), leading to an eventual choice of a new location for this plant.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-June 1995, Vol.7, No.1-2, p.3-60. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 97-902 Cherrie J.W., et al.
Exposure to fine airborne fibrous dust amongst processors of para-aramid
Laboratory studies with animals exposed to high concentrations of fine fibrous dust (fibrils) derived from para-aramid fibres suggest that it may cause lung damage. A survey was undertaken in a selection of manufacturers of para-aramid-containing products to assess their 8-h time-weighted average exposure to respirable fibrils. Geometric mean concentrations for different jobs were generally low. Assuming a log-normal distribution, less than 1% of the exposure levels would be expected to exceed 0.5 fibres/mL and about 0.002% would be above 2 fibres/mL. Analysis of a selection of samples by fluorescence microscopy suggests that most of the fibrils in the majority of sites surveyed were para-aramid. At some sites a significant proportion of asbestos fibres were also found.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 1995, Vol.39, No.4, p.403-425. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 97-487 Swaen G.M.H., Meijers J.M.M., Slangen J.J.M.
Risk of gastric cancer in pneumoconiotic coal miners and the effect of respiratory impairment
This study was carried out to investigate the mortality patterns in a group of 3790 coal miners. The study population had abnormal chest X-ray films at a routine medical examination that was performed in the 1950's. The total group of 3790 coal miners was followed up for mortality up to 1 January 1992. Total mortality in this group of coal miners was significantly higher than expected, mainly a reflection of the increase in mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality from gastric cancer was also significantly increased. This risk of mortality from gastric cancer was confined to workers with no pneumoconiosis or only a mild from. Despite the strong relation to duration of employment and pneumoconiosis the group of workers with more severe manifestations of pneumoconiosis did not experience an excess in mortality from gastric cancer. This study confirms the earlier reported risk of gastric cancer in coal miners. Also it confirms the hypothesis that this risk of gastric cancer is limited to workers with a mild degree of pneumoconiosis or none. In workers with severe forms of pneumoconiosis the pulmonary clearance system is impaired in such a way that the inhaled coal dust does not reach the digestive tract.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.52, No.9, p.606-610. 15 ref.

CIS 97-180 Ong C.N., Kok P.W., Lee B.L., Shi C.Y, Ong H.Y., Chia K.S., Lee C.S., Luo X.W.
Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene
In order to evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene, analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolized benzene in urine, trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene (catechol, hydroquinone and phenol) in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene. Forty non-exposed subjects were also investigated. Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration. The results from the study showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone and atmospheric benzene suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.52, No.8, p.528-533. 26 ref.

CIS 97-273 Antonelli A., Silvano G., Bianchi F., Gambuzza C., Tana L., Salvioni G., Baldi V., Gasperini L., Baschieri L.
Risk of thyroid nodules in subjects occupationally exposed to radiation: A cross sectional study
Cross-sectional study to examine by ultrasonography the prevalence of thyroid nodules in medical workers occupationally exposed to X radiation at a hospital in Pisa, Italy. Fifty male medical workers exposed to radiation were randomly matched for age with 100 male workers not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation who lived in a slightly iodine deficient area (control group 1) and with 100 male workers not exposed to radiation who lived in Pisa (control group 2). Of the occupationally exposed subjects, thyroid nodules were detected in 19 (38%). Among controls, thyroid nodules were detected in 19 (19%) subjects of control group 1 and in 13 (13%) of control group 2. Comparison of exposed and control groups, stratified into 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 year old age subgroups, showed a higher significant relative risk for thyroid nodules in the exposed subjects. The results suggest that occupational exposure to radiation may be a risk factor for thyroid nodules.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.52, No.8, p.500-504. 18 ref.

CIS 97-111 Morabia A., Ten Have T., Landis J.R.
Empirical evaluation of the influence of control selection schemes on relative risk estimation: The Welsh nickel workers study
Empirical evaluation of the theory that relative incidence rate (RIR) and relative risk (RR) can be directly estimated from cas-control studies that have different sampling schemes of controls. With data from the workers of a nickel refinery in South Wales, a nested case-control study of the relation of nickel exposure to respiratory cancers was conducted within each of four fixed subcohorts that differed for stability of exposure, incidence rates and RIR. Respiratory cancers were not rare as risk of nasal and lung cancer in workers unexposed to nickel varied from 15% to 26% over the full risk period. The RIR was adequately estimated by the OR when controls were identified concurrently to case occurrence throughout the risk period. The RR was well approximated with the OR when controls were a sample of the study base. These results add empirical support to the theory that the RIR or the RR can be validly estimated in case-control studies. Overall, this theory is relatively tolerant of large departures from the stability assumptions of exposure and of incidence.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1995, Vol.52, No.7, p.489-493. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 97-305 Smedley J., Egger P., Cooper C., Coggon D.
Manual handling activities and risk of low back pain in nurses
Cross-sectional study of 2405 nurses employed by a group of teaching hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information about occupational activities, non-occupational risk factors for back symptoms, and history of low back pain. The study confirms that low back pain is highly prevalent among nurses and is associated with a high level of sickness absence. People who often reported non-musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly more likely to report low back pain. Specific manual handling tasks were associated with an increased risk of back pain. However, no such association was found with mechanized patient transfers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.160-163. 22 ref.

CIS 96-2211 Bauer H.D.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit
Dust exposure years
Staubjahre [in German]
In determining if dust is responsible for a disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis or emphysema among coal miners), "dust exposure years" should be taken as a yardstick. The term "dust exposure year" is an expression of the cumulative dose of dust, taken as the product of the level and duration of a particular person's exposure to dust. One year is taken to be 220 shifts, so if more than 220 shifts are worked per year, a factor of >1 is used in the calculation. The relevant data for calculating dust exposure years may be obtained from the documents detailing "proof of work and dust exposure" which all operations in Germany are required to keep and update monthly in accordance with mining authority regulations. This report details a method for determining dust exposure years for workers. Summaries in German, English, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1995. 129p. Illus. approx. 90 ref.

CIS 96-2308 Petter F.
Biological substances used at work from the viewpoint of the fire brigade
Biologische Arbeitsstoffe aus der Sicht der Feuerwehr [in German]
In some laboratories microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, hazardous cell cultures and radioactively marked substances are used. The local fire brigade needs to be informed of the biological agents used in all laboratories in its district. This information enables the fire brigade to determine the hazard posed in each case with the help of the classification of biological hazards in the European directive 90/679/EEC. All actions and protective measures by the fire brigade in case of a laboratory fire need to be based on the worst hazard that the particular laboratory poses.
Brandschutz, Jan. 1995, Vol.49, No.1, p.49-55. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 96-2269
Center for Chemical Process Safety
Guidelines for chemical transportation risk analysis
This manual provides an introduction to the concerns and techniques of transportation risk analysis (TRA). Contents: general framework of TRA (definitions, similarities to and differences from fixed facility evaluations); hazard identification and frequency analysis for pipelines, road and rail transport, barges, ocean-going vessels and intermodal containers; special topics (including release scenarios, population densities, transloading operations); sources of data; measurement, calculation and presentation of risk estimates; application examples; case studies; future developments.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, USA, 1995. xviii, 382p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 140.00 North America, USD 195.00. elsewhere.

CIS 96-2112 Van Tongeren M., Kromhout H., Swuste P.
A protocol for systematic workplace investigation in the rubber manufacturing industry
A protocol for systematic workplace investigation in the Dutch rubber manufacturing industry has been developed. The protocol, based on results and experiences of an industry-wide hygiene study, makes it possible to evaluate and control hazardous working conditions in rubber manufacturing facilities not included in the hygiene survey. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of exposure to particulates, rubber fumes, solvents and noise, and of dermal exposure to contaminants, but also of exposure to vibration, extreme climate conditions, deleterious working postures, accident risks and unhealthy working habits. Data were collected by using questionnaires and check-lists with the analysis being performed using a large number of decision trees which are based on the best technical means of controlling hazardous working conditions. A test was carried out to compare the results of the protocol with results of the hygiene study. Although this test indicated that the protocol does not generate quantifiable results, it was concluded that it could be a very useful tool for evaluating control measures, for indicating better means of controlling hazardous working conditions and for setting priorities for exposure monitoring and workplace improvement.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1995, Vol.39, No.1, p.55-61. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 96-1341 Pearce A., Patterson C., Farr T., Wilks J.
A safety audit of work practices on Queensland golf courses
A safety audit of 152 golf courses in Queensland, Australia revealed workplace hazards similar to those in the farming industry. Less than half of the tractors currently in use were fitted with rollover protective structures. Only 4% of courses held material safety data sheets for chemicals stored on the premises. While the majority of courses provided personal protective equipment for their staff, very few supplied sun protection materials. Improvement notices or warnings were issued by inspectors to 86 courses mainly in relation to guarding of machinery, electrical testing and tagging, and chemical storage.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.67-73. 21 ref.

CIS 96-1511 Pichené A.
Quantification of biomechanical risk factors of carpal tunnel syndrome
Quantification des facteurs de risque biomécaniques du syndrome du canal carpien [in French]
Thesis. The biomechanical strain imposed on the wrists of operators in an automobile seat factory was determined by electromyographic, goniometric and video recordings. Fifteen workstations and/or tasks were analyzed. Indices of posture, force and repetitivity were calculated and used as factors in an equation expressing quantitatively the risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome. This quantitative indicator of risk was compared with other indices used in the literature.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 1995. ii, 201p. Illus. 62 ref.

CIS 96-1515 Dronsart-Broutin P.
Evaluation of lumbar strain in the working environment
Evaluation de la contrainte lombaire en milieu de travail [in French]
Thesis. After establishment of reference electromyogrammes at the level of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae under laboratory conditions with a volunteer, field studies were undertaken with six masons who specialized in work on industrial furnaces and chimneys. Electromyography was supplemented with video recording of working postures, quantitative recording of postural data with a dedicated pocket-sized computer ("Posturogramme") and electrocardiography. Maximum permissible loads were calculated for each subject by the method of the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In practice these values were often exceeded. Lumbar strain and the risk of backache were very high: some tasks involved heavy loads, some constrained postures and some both.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 1995. ii, 175p. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 96-1174 Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National Standards) Regulations (Amendment) [Australia]
Amendments to the 1994 Regulations (see CIS 96-393, previous amendments CIS 96-394). The principal modifications concern: hazard identification and risk assessment; control of risk after a risk assessment has been made; new part on hazardous substances (including definitions, determination of a substance as a hazardous substance, duties concerning Material Safety Data Sheets, labelling, ingredient disclosure, provision of information by employers, register of hazardous substances, risk assessment, instruction and training, risk control, atmospheric monitoring, health surveillance); new part on confined spaces. In schedules: changes in prohibited uses of hazardous substances (involving PCBs); health surveillance for specific kinds of hazardous substances (MOCA, acrylonitrile, asbestos, cadmium, crystalline silica, inorganic arsenic, inorganic mercury, isocyanates, organophosphate pesticides, PAHs, thallium, vinyl chloride).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995. 57p. Also in: Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, 6 Nov. 1995.

CIS 96-1497 Cail F., Aptel M., Pichené A.
Evaluation questionnaire on the occupational experience of employees exposed to the risk of musculoskeletal problems
Questionnaire d'évaluation du vécu du travail de salariés exposés à des risques de troubles musculosquelettiques [in French]
This article presents a computerized questionnaire for capturing the working conditions of workers in the secondary and tertiary sectors who are presumed to be at risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The history of the development of the questionnaire is followed by a presentation of its different parts: generalities, the worker's post, functional complaints, indicators of chronic psychological stress, open space for other observations. Computer aspects (use of database and spreadsheet programs) and the application of the questionnaire in the enterprise are also discussed. An appendix shows the two versions of the questionnaire.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.64, p.253-267. 10 ref.

CIS 96-1335 Izmerov N.F., Kharitonov V.I.
Risk assessment and risk management in dangerous occupations (on an example of hot working forgers)
Socio-economic problems in Russian occupational health practice are outlined, focusing on the need to develop a concept of risk assessment and risk management within industry. Hazard assessment among hot working forgers at a machine-building enterprise showed the most significant risk factors to be heat load, high physical loads, local and whole-body vibration, and impulse noise. Risk severity and indices of occupational diseases are tabulated for each of these stress factors.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.4, p.311-318. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 96-1168 Damel R.
CNPP
Protection of industrial sites against terrorism
Protection des établissements industriels contre le terrorisme [in French]
Main contents: methodology for the assessment of the vulnerability of an industrial site; objectives; protection resources; general information on the industrial site; risk analysis; materials; uses; manufacturing and storage; other activities; buildings; vital centers of the site; dangerous areas; risk hierarchy; analysis of protection means; vulnerability of the industrial site.
La Médiathèque du Risque, 5, rue Daunou, 75002 Paris, France, no date. 80p. Price: FRF 185.00. ###

CIS 96-514 You're part of the team: Risk assessment in construction
This training package shows the role of designers, management and workers in risk assessment at all phases of a construction project. The provisions of relevant legislation, including those of the British Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (CIS 95-13), are discussed.
Workcare, Freepost CN 3145, P.O. Box 889, Mitcham, Surrey CR4 4YZ, United Kingdom, no date. Videotape (length: 22min) + trainer's guide. Price: GBP 325.00 + VAT. ###

CIS 96-1006 Barlier A., Salsi S.
Infrared radiation and cataract - Risk evaluation in the vicinity of an induction furnace
Rayonnement infrarouge et cataractes - Evaluation des risques à proximité d'un four à induction [in French]
A study was carried out in a steel recycling plant using an induction furnace to assess infrared exposure levels (a potential source of cataracts), the risks to workers and the efficacy of risk prevention measures. The parameters measured were: spectral irradiance between 200 and 3,000nm, and spectral radiance between 400 and 700nm in the vicinity of the furnace door. The spectral transmittance of both means of protection was measured between 200 and 3,000nm. A risk of cataract was shown to exist for staff working in the immediate and less immediate vicinity of the furnace. The face shield with reflective metal coating proved effective, but goggles with green filter lenses were found to provide insufficient protection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.161, Note No.2003-161-95, p.469-475. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 96-1098 Hüsing B., Knorr C., Menrad K., Strauss E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Survey of the state of technology involved in the unintended use of certain biological agents in the context of occupational safety
Erhebung des Standes der Technik beim nicht beabsichtigten Umgang mit bestimmten biologischen Arbeitsstoffen aus der Sicht des Arbeitsschutzes [in German]
Survey of the unintended uses of biological organisms and agents (bacteria, viruses, fungi, endoparasites, cell cultures, genetically modified microorganisms presenting possible health hazards to man) in agriculture, forestry, the food industry, work involving contact with animals and animal products, microbiological laboratories, health care institutions, waste water treatment plants and contaminated site recovery plants. For each of these economic sectors, the following information is surveyed: biological substances present in the workplace, biological hazards for exposed workers (infections, allergies, toxic syndromes), type and level of exposure, measures of protection and prevention. In addition, the shortcomings of exposure evaluation methods are shown. As a result of the survey, proposals are made for improving safety conditions in the use of these substances. Short summaries in German, English and French. Detailed summaries in German and English.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1995. xxiii, 428p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-966 Rodgers B.R., Petry F.S.
Center for Chemical Process Safety
Expert systems in process safety
Contents of this manual: introduction to expert systems; the tools of expert systems (knowledge-based reasoning, knowledge representation, expert systems shells, programming languages); safety related applications in chemical engineering (automated process hazard analysis, explosion vent design, reporting environmental releases, process hazard review, training in emergency procedures, hazard analysis for process design); building an expert system; case study of an expert system for reporting environmental releases; annotated list of selected software.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017-2395, USA, 1995. 51p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: USD 50.00 (USA and Canada); USD 70.00 (elsewhere).

CIS 96-1053 Frieze P.A., Lewis T.C., Miller B.L.
Health and Safety Executive, Offshore Technology Report
Criteria for jack-ups manoeuvring in close proximity to jacket platforms
Risks associated with the manoeuvring of jack-ups onto location next to a fixed installation were investigated. In order to establish likely impact locations and velocities, a typical procedure for such a manoeuvre was drawn up. Impact modelling studies show that if the mean clearance cited in the procedure can be maintained, the likelihood of impact under normal circumstances is extremely small. The resulting graphs can be used to determine the risk level for a given seastate, duration and intended clearance between the jacket and the jack-up.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. i, 58p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 96-1052 Sharrock I., Wong S.
Health and Safety Executive, Offshore Technology Report
Development of walkdown procedures and pilot study for the assessment of topsides equipment subject to blast induced vibrations
A methodology for the assessment of offshore platform topsides equipment was developed based on walkdown techniques: methodical, on-site visual evaluations of the equipment. The methodology was verified in a pilot study of a mid 1980s vintage North Sea platform. Two critical safety related systems with representative mechanical and electrical equipment were selected for demonstration purposes. Conclusions are presented which show the feasibility of the method and discuss key points required for its correct implementation, limitations to its use and potential further applications. Glossary.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vi, 73p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 24.00.

CIS 96-588 De Greef M., De Gruyter R., Gebruers B., Heselmans M., Jacobs H., Van den Broek K., Eede Vanden R., Van der Steen M.
Legislation in practice - 7. Risk evaluation
Législation en pratique - 7. Evaluation du risque [in French]
Wetgeving in de praktijk: 7. Risico-evaluatie [in Dutch]
This booklet contains recommendations to Belgian enterprises as to how to implement legislation concerning risk evaluation. Main topics covered: relevant European (89/391/EEC) and Belgian legislation (table presenting correspondences); practical implementation (generalities, a five-stage approach to risk evaluation). In annex: examples of potential hazards (work equipment, work habits, electricity, chemical hazards etc.); sample risk evaluation check list; survey of the main techniques used for hazard identification (safety audits, FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis), HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study), What-if, SWIFT (Structured What If Technique), Quantified Risk Assessment, TOR (Technique of Operations Review), Human Reliability Analysis, fault-tree analysis, MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), STEP (Sequentially Timed Events Plotting)).
Nationale verenining tot voorkoming van arbeidsongevallen (NVVA), Gachardstraat 88, Bus 4, 1050 Brussel, Belgium, 1995. 22p. 20 ref.

CIS 96-994 Adant C., Quaeghebeur L.
Health effects of very-low-frequency electromagnetic fields - Present knowledge
Effets des champs électromagnétiques de très basse fréquence sur la santé - Etat actuel de la question [in French]
De invloed van electromagnetische velden van extreem lage frequentie op de gezondheid - Huidige stand van zaken [in Dutch]
This article is an overview of the present-day knowledge of the carcinogenic effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields. Experimental and epidemiologic data provide no definitive evidence on a causal relationship, and even if EM fields do have an adverse effect on health, the risk involving a single person is very low. A summary table provides information on the studies conducted in this field (childhood and adult cancer, leukaemia, brain and breast cancer). For each study, information is provided on the author(s), year of the study, type of study, number of experimental subjects, type of exposure, confounding factors and risk evaluation. Summary in English.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1995, Vol.32, No.4, p.257-277. 84 ref.

CIS 96-763 Utterback D.F., Rinsky R.A.
Benzene exposure assessment in rubber hydrochloride workers: A critical evaluation of previous estimates
Many risk assessments for leukaemia associated with benzene exposure have been based on a 1981 mortality study among a cohort of rubber hydrochloride workers. A re-examination of this study in 1992 resulted in retrospective benzene exposure estimates far greater than those previously reported; this suggests that calculated risk estimates for benzene were lower than previously estimated. The 1992 reanalysis is critically examined and it is concluded that the approach falls short of the claim of providing more plausible exposure estimates for the cohort. The original exposure estimates remain the most consistent with all the information available on rubber hydrochloride manufacturing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.661-676. 35 ref.

CIS 96-1096
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Human papillomaviruses
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 6-13 June 1995. The nature of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is described (molecular biology of HPVs, serological response, detection of HPV infections, epidemiology, pathology, therapy and vaccination), along with studies of cancer in animals and humans, and molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. There is compelling evidence that some HPV types are human carcinogens. Overall evaluation: HPV types 16 and 18 are carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); HPV types 31 and 33 are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A); some other HPV types are possibly carcinogenic in humans (Group 2B).
IARC Press, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1995. viii, 409p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 80.00.

CIS 96-64 About risk assessment
Training booklet on risk assessment in the workplace: what will be assessed (OSH management, workplace conditions, manual handling, work equipment and work practices, personal protective equipment, VDUs); how assessment is carried out; risk assessment in special situations (hazardous substances, manual handling, use of equipment, use of PPE, noise, VDUs). Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 96-336 Principles and application of collective dose in radiation protection
This report reviews the historical development and current applications of the concept of the collective radiation dose. Scientific bases for collective dose are described with reference to cellular, animal and human studies on the mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of radiation. Limitations of the concept are also discussed. The meaning and utility of the concept are examined in relation to risk assessment, risk management and radiation protection for workers and the general public.
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 7910 Woodmont Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814-3095, USA, Nov. 1995. vi, 106p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 25.00.

CIS 96-196 Zhao W., Hetzel G.H., Woeste F.E.
Defining farm safety research priorities by a cost-risk approach
Based on a risk analysis of farm-related injury data, priority areas for farm safety research and education were identified. Risk was identified as the Expected Injury Cost (EIC) index per farm worker per year. The expected costs of farm-related injuries were correlated with risk factors of employment status, gender and age of farm worker, hours of exposure, type of agricultural operation, and common hazards on the farm. Since the EIC index combines the probability of injuries with the severity of injuries, it provides a scientific basis for defining agricultural safety research and educational priorities.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.1, p.7-19. 13 ref.

CIS 96-209 Gould G.W., Au S.Y.Z.
Health and Safety Executive
A methodology for hazard identification on EER assessments
A study was carried out to investigate the possibility of applying a "HAZOP" type approach to the assessment of evacuation, escape and rescue (EER) from offshore installations. A model of the EER process was defined based on: alarm, access, muster, egress, evacuation, escape and rescue. For each stage, potential hazards due to design, physical conditions, command and control errors, and human failures were identified. A trial HAZOP was carried out for the first three stages. Overall, it is considered that identification of hazards during the EER process can be significantly improved by applying a HAZOP type technique.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. vii, 85p. 45 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 96-208
Health and Safety Executive
Update of the UKCS risk overview
An updated risk overview of the offshore industry on the United Kingdom Continental Shelf (UKCS) is presented. The annual fatality rate (AFR) is predicted to lie in the range 8-40; the main contributory factors being process events, occupational accidents, structural events and helicopter crashes. It is estimated that 75% of major hazard fatalities are associated with evacuation, escape and rescue. In terms of installation type, large, old-style integrated platforms and flotels are the most significant contributors to the AFR. Risks of environmental damage, economic loss and uncertainties in the analysis are also discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 241p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 50.00.

CIS 96-277 Olin S., Farland W., Park C., Rhomberg L., Scheuplein R., Starr T., Wilson J.
Low-dose extrapolation of cancer risks: Issues and perspectives
This book considers the methodologies used in assessing the carcinogenic potential of a compound by administration of large doses of the compound to experimental animals and extrapolation of the results to predict the risks to human health at lower exposure levels. The first six chapters provide an overview of the subject: historical perspective and current practice; mathematical dose-response models; use of biological data in cancer risk assessment; estimation and evaluation of dose; uncertainty characterization and expert judgment. A further 15 papers provide details of specific modelling techniques and applications.
International Life Sciences Institute, 1126 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036-4804, USA, 1995. xiv, 355p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 50.00.

CIS 95-2173 Mirkova E., Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Hinkova L., Antov G., Muhtarova M.
Cytogenetic effects (frequency of micronuclei) in peripheral lymphocyte cultures from workers in automobile tyre manufacture
Citogenetični efekti (čestota na mikronukleusi) v limfocitni kulturi ot periferna krăv na rabotnicite ot proizvodstvoto na avtomobilni gumi [in Bulgarian]
Studies at the Preparatory Workshop of a plant for automobile tyres included chemical analyses for levels of identifiable human carcinogens in the working area (benz(a)pyrene, mineral oils, 2-naphthylamine), questionnaire investigations, cytogenetic analysis by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus method in peripheral lymphocyte cultures from 23 workers in occupational groups at risk and urinanalysis for mercapturic acids. The control group was 13 nonexposed subjects from outside the plant. For levels of benz(a)pyrene and mineral oils exceeding 2.5 to 3.5 times the respective exposure limits, cytogenetic analysis showed a 4-fold increase in indicators of genotoxicity (frequency of micronucleated binucleated lymphocytes, number of micronuclei per 1,000 binucleated lymphocytes). These results imply an increased risk of cancer in the exposed workers. Summary in English.
Problemi na higienata, 1995, Vol.20, p.146-162. 13 ref.

CIS 95-2215 Cantin R.
EPIDHERME. A method for determining hierarchies of risks and preventive action strategies
EPIDHERME - Une démarche de hiérarchisation des risques et des stratégies d'actions de prévention [in French]
The EPIDHERME approach is designed to help occupational risk prevention specialists, manufacturers and social partners to establish a hierarchy of the risks present in a firm, a sector of activity or a geographical area, and to determine suitable action strategies to deal with the problems actually encountered in the field, with an appropriate order of priority. This methodology is illustrated by the example of the metal drawing and cutting industry in the Department of Loire (France). The example shows in particular how certain adjustments are needed to put the method into practice.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1995, No.159, Note No.1991-159-95, p.243-250. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-2194 Haag Grönlund M.
An introduction to health risk assessment of chemicals
Risk in this context is the probability that harm will occur when persons are exposed to specific amounts of a substance for a specific period of time. Risk assessment involves the collection, evaluation and presentation of data from research and testing so that regulators, plant operators and others can set priorities and take appropriate decisions to minimize that probability. This report describes the principles and methods used in risk assessment, and the problems encountered. The advantages and disadvantages of different mathematical models are compared. Trends in the field are described.
Information Secretariat, The Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P. O. Box 1384, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. 78p. Illus. 141 ref. Price: SEK 150.00.

CIS 95-2066 Risk evaluation: Guidelines by DG V of the EEC; Guidelines for small and medium-sized enterprises
Valutazione del rischio - Linee guida DG V della CEE; Linee guida per la piccola e media impresa [in Italian]
Part A of these guidelines cover general recommendations concerning risk evaluation in the workplace: definitions; objectives (including a flowchart); base elements of risk evaluation; methodologies; responsibilities of employers; selection of persons charged with risk evaluation; information sources; evaluation schedules; monitoring; modification of working practices and reevaluation subsequent to risk evaluation; examples of work situations and activities requiring risk evaluation; choice of organisms outside the enterprise for consultancy or actual carrying out of risk evaluation activities. Part B covers recommendations for risk evaluation by small and medium-sized enterprises: choice of person to carry out the evaluation; evaluation of risks due to the current situation; reduction and evaluation of work hazards; use of personal protective equipment; definition of priorities for control measures. In annex: step-by-step introduction of risk identification and evaluation procedures. ISPESL comments on the guidelines are also attached: significance of risk evaluation; classification and definition of terms used in risk evaluation; procedure criteria; stages of risk evaluation; contents of the "Safety Document" (Documento della Sicurezza) produced in accordance with the Legislative Decree of 19 Sep. 1994, including illustrations of the safety signs and directions to be used within the enterprise.
Istituto Superiore Prevenzione e Sicurezza Lavoro (ISPESL), via Alessandria 220/E, 00198 Roma, Italy, 1995. 78p. Illus.

CIS 95-2127 Pezerat H.
Evaluation and reduction of risk in buildings with sprayed asbestos
Evaluer et réduire les risques dans les immeubles floqués à l'amiante [in French]
Within the European Union, several million people have weak to moderate levels of exposure to asbestos in buildings with sprayed asbestos. Recent data reveal that even exposure to low levels of asbestos may be responsible for a substantial number of pleural pathologies (e.g. mesotheliomas, fibrosis). Thus, it appears necessary to elaborate - if possible at the EC level - a strategy to define the areas at risk, based on inspection records of the buildings concerned, with a statement as to the principal factors potentially responsible for the release of asbestos. Information and hazard analysis may then permit a gradual approach to risk reduction, including the implementation in each building of a programme designed to prevent peak exposures, in particular during cleaning, renovation and maintenance activities.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.374-384. 47 ref.

CIS 95-1904 Moore J.S., Garg A.
The Strain Index: A proposed method to analyze jobs for risk of distal upper extremity disorders
A job analysis methodology was developed for the analysis of the risk of distal upper extremity disorders (cumulative trauma disorders affecting the upper extremities). It involves the measurement or estimation of 6 task variables (intensity of exertion, duration of exertion per cycle, efforts per minute, wrist posture, exertion speed, duration of task per day). A rating was assigned to each variable based on exposure data, then a multiplier value was assigned to each variable as well. The Strain Index (SI) is the product of these six multipliers. Preliminary testing suggests that the methodology accurately identifies jobs with a risk of distal upper extremity disorders. In appendix: user's guide for the Strain Index.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.443-458. Illus. 85 ref.

CIS 95-1808 van Leeuwen C.J., Hermens J. L. M.
Risk assessment of chemicals: An introduction
This book is intended to support capacity-building in developing countries and countries in transition, to support use of the Netherlands' Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances and to provide material for students in environmental sciences. Major headings: general introduction; emissions of chemicals; transport, accumulation and transformation processes; exposure modelling; toxicity testing and human health; ecotoxicological effects; properties of chemicals and estimation methodologies; procedures of hazard and risk assessment. A glossary is included.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, P.O. Box 17, 3300 Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995. xviii, 374p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

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