Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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European oil industry guideline for risk-based assessment of contaminated sites
This report describes a uniform approach to deciding on the corrective action requirements of contaminated oil industry sites in Europe. The approach uses principles of risk-based corrective action whereby the action is appropriately tailored to site-specific conditions and hazards. The three-tired approach involves an initial assessment of the site and collection of data for the Tier 1 assessment. Collected data are compared with risk based screening levels and other criteria. If these criteria are exceeded, further assessment is carried out in Tier 2 and Tier 3 studies. Corrective action techniques are outlined.
CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, Apr. 1997. vi, 40p.
Health and Safety Executive
This report presents the results of an investigation into the methods developed so far to compare and rank risks. The methods reviewed focus primarily on risks to health, safety and the environment. Types of ranking models used in a variety of circumstances are summarized, and a conceptual framework for the development of a ranking model is established, with illustrative examples drawn from the literature. The report concludes with a generalized discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of applying a risk ranking approach as an aid to priority setting, and puts forward recommendations for the use of this technique.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. ix, 143p. 48 ref. Price: GBP 44.00.
A fresh look at risk assessment
Problems associated with the definition of risk assessment are discussed with reference to: risk assessment terminology (meaning of hazard and risk); the role of risk assessment in health and safety management; the nature of hazard identification; and the nature of risk rating. It is argued that problems with risk assessment terminology arise from fundamental difficulties with the meaning of hazard identification and risk rating. Puts forward an approach to hazard identification based on an investigation of the ways in which activities are carried out, by whom, and under what conditions.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Feb. 1997, Vol.15, No.2, p.36-41. Illus. 4 ref.
Cox S., Cheyne A., Raw G.
Buildings and safety: Evaluating the risks
The development of a procedure for evaluating the safety risks associated with various aspects of buildings and building use is described. The study involved: development of a scale for measuring the severity of a range of possible harms; estimation of the seriousness and frequency of harms to individuals; and development of a procedure for converting the severity and frequency data into a risk index. Use of the procedure is illustrated by tabulating risk indices for safety hazards in domestic and non-domestic buildings, with hazards grouped into four levels of risk. The procedure may be used to identify priorities for risk control.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Feb. 1997, Vol.15, No.2, p.31-34. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Dispersion of releases of hazardous materials in the vicinity of buildings. Phase II - CFD modelling
This report describes the application of a commercially-available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (STAR-CD) to the assessment of building effects in the dispersion of hazardous releases. For the three test cases studied, good qualitative and reasonable quantitative agreement was achieved, except where atmospheric turbulence was the dominant mixing mechanism. While it is not yet appropriate to include CFD routinely in safety cases, the technique can be used to provide an insight into the detailed effects of buildings, release conditions and atmospheric conditions on gas dispersion.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. viii, 116p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: GBP 32.50.
Lines I.G., Deaves D.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Dispersion near buildings - Application of simple modelling
This report summarizes simple models currently used to describe building wake effects in the assessment of the dispersion of hazardous releases near buildings. The work follows an earlier study of the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to dispersion around buildings. The report focuses on the effects of wind angle on wake dispersion and dense gas releases in building wakes. Potential applications of simple modelling techniques are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. 31p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Barton J., Rogers R.
Chemical reaction hazards
Contents of this revised guide to the assessment of chemical reaction hazards: introduction to chemical reaction hazards, legal requirements and the assessment strategy; process assessment and process definition techniques for evaluating chemical reaction hazards; interpreting data with respect to process operation and plant design; process risk analysis; selecting and specifying a basis of safety; general hazards of plant operation; operating procedures and instructions. In appendices: case histories of incidents; example of a chemical hazard assessment; example of the use of HAZAN; assessing fire and explosion hazards in a simple batch reactor; typical table of contents for the technical description of a process.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1997. viii, 225p. Illus. 134 ref. Index.
Process safety analysis - An introduction
This manual is aimed at undergraduate students and engineers with no formal training in the techniques of safety analysis. Contents: introduction to the importance of safety and safety assurance; the concept of risk (perception and quantification of risk, acceptance criteria, cost benefit analysis); safety in design and operation; conducting a HAZOP (hazard and operability) study; failure mode and effect analysis; basic quantitative risk assessment; quantification of logic trees; consequence modelling; human factors (role of the operator, control room design, human error assessment methods). Includes sample problems and solutions.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1997. xi, 213p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association
The use of lasers in the workplace - A practical guide
Istiẖdām al-līzar fī makan al-(amal [in Arabic]
Arabic translation of an ILO publication abstracted under CIS 94-703. This document is one of a series of practical guides on occupational hazards arising from non-ionizing radiation providing basic knowledge of issues concerning the use of lasers in the workplace. The following topics are covered: characteristics of laser radiation; the biological and health effects; occupationally related exposure type and effects; hazard evaluation; instrumentation and measurement techniques; occupational exposure limits and safety standards; control of and protection from exposure to laser radiation; and the principles of an administrative structure needed to ensure laser safety in workplaces
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. 155p. Illus. 33 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some pharmaceutical drugs
This criteria document evaluates the following pharmaceutical compounds with respect to their carcinogenicity in humans: benzodiazepines and related compounds and phenytoin (diazepam, doxefazepam, estazolam, oxazepam, prazepam, ripazepam, temazepam, phenytoin); anti-oestrogenic compounds (droloxifene, tamoxifene, toremifene); hypolipidaemic drugs (clofibrate, gemfibrozil). Tamoxifene is classified in group 1 (carcinogenic in humans). Oxazepam and phenytoin are classified in group 2B (possibly carcinogenic in humans). All others fall under group 3 (not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 1996. iv, 514p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 80.00.
Yi Q., Zhang Z.
The survival analyses of 2738 patients with simple pneumoconiosis
To explore whether the inhalation of coal mine dust increases the risk of premature death in miners, a survival analysis was conducted in a cohort of 2738 patients with simple pneumoconiosis in the Huai-Bei coal mine in China. During a follow up period (mean 8yrs) 3.2% of patients with simple pneumoconiosis developed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). The patients with PMF presented higher age specific mortalities than those remaining in a state of simple pneumoconiosis (SMR: 3.42). After adjustment for tuberculosis and duration of work, the relative risk (RR) of premature death due to development of PMF was 2.4. Tuberculosis was found to be a main risk factor which not only facilitated premature death (RR=2.0), but was also a strong facilitator for development of PMF (RR=7.0). Also, a long term of work underground and drilling as a main job were identified as risk factors for development of PMF.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.53, No.2, p.129-135. 30 ref.
Kreiss K., Zhen B.
Risk of silicosis in a Colorado mining community
The exposure-response relationship for silicosis was investigated among 134 men over age 40 who had been identified in a previous community-based random sample study in a mining town. Thirty-two per cent of the 100 dust-exposed subjects had radiologic profusions of small opacities of 1/0 or greater at a mean time since first silica exposure of 36.1 years. Of miners with cumulative silica exposures of 2mg/m3-years or less, 20% had silicosis; of miners accumulating > mg/m m3-years, 63% had silicosis. Logistic regression models demonstrated that time since last silica exposure and either cumulative silica exposure or a combination of average silica exposure and duration of exposure predicted silicosis risk. Exposure-response relations were substantially higher using measured silica exposures than using estimated silica exposures based on measured dust exposures assuming a constant silica proportion of dust, consistent with lower levels of exposure misclassification.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.30, No.5, p.529-539. Illus. 17 ref.
Armendáriz Pérez de Ciriza P., Rupérez Calvo M.J.
Optical radiation hazards from light sources
Riesgos por radiaciones ópticas procedentes de fuentes luminosas [in Spanish]
Topics: arc lamps; artificial lighting; discharge lamps; electric lighting equipment; eye injuries; filament lamps; hazard evaluation; infrared radiation; lighting; radiation injury; skin injuries; Spain; ultraviolet radiation; visible radiation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 26p. 29 ref.
Code of practice for manual handling
Topics: Australia; directive; hazard evaluation; implementation of control measures; manual handling; risk factors; Western Australia; work design; workplace design.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, Nov. 1996. 54p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: AUD 3.00.
Safety management in coal mines - Risk assessment
Topics: coal mining; fatalities; frequency rates; hazard evaluation; occupational accidents; Poland.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1996, Vol.2, No.3, p.243-250. Illus. 7 ref.
Workplace evaluation by external assessors
Externe Fachkräfte in der Evaluierung [in German]
Topics: Austria; cost of safety; data sheet; expertise; hazard evaluation; job study.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, 1996. 10p. Illus.
Hazard evaluation; Assessment - Control (Workplace assessment). An introduction
Gefahrenermittlung; Beurteilung - Massnahmen. (Arbeitsplatzevaluierung) Eine Einführung [in German]
Topics: Austria; danger zones; hazard evaluation; implementation of control measures; job study; safety analysis; safety guides.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, 1996. 18p. Illus.
Maddison T., Atkinson G., Kinsman P.
The assessment of individual risks from fires in warehouses containing toxic materials
Topics: chemical industry; computer applications; fire behaviour; fire hazards; hazard evaluation; mathematical models; toxic substances; warehouses.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Dec. 1996, No.132, p.29-34. Illus. 12 ref.
Chemical warehouse fire risk assessment
Topics: chemical industry; dangerous substances; fire hazards; fire protection; hazard evaluation; segregation; sources of ignition; warehouses.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Dec. 1996, No.132, p.25-28. Illus. 7 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The contribution of attitudinal and management factors to risk in the chemical industry
Topics: analysis of accident causes; chemical industry; hazard evaluation; human factors; literature survey; questionnaire survey; report; role of management; safety consciousness; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. x, 202p. 37 ref. Price: GBP 50.00.
Zocchetti C., Della Foglia M., Colombi A.
The concept of risk and its estimation
Il concetto di rischio e la sua stima [in Italian]
In the context of recent Italian Decree 626/94 (CIS 96-1531) concerning the protection of workers, the concepts of risk assessment and adverse health effects are discussed and clarified. An algorithm is proposed for calculating the probability of being exposed to a definite dose. Given that a specific hazard is present (Pr(e/p)) and the probability of occurrence of a health effect as a consequence of that exposure (Pr(d/e)), risk can be defined as a sequence of measurable events, starting with hazard identification and terminating with disease occurrence. In formula: R(d/p)=Pr(e/p)*Pr(d/e). Hazard given by exposure [Pr(e/p)] must be evaluated in the situation under study. For the estimation of the occurrence of adverse health effects [Pr(d/e)] a "direct" estimation of the damage might be conducted through specific epidemiologic studies and "indirect" estimation might be obtained using information either from the scientific literature or check lists and other available data.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.330-347. 23 ref.
García Molina C., García Bonet J., Boix i Ferrando P.
Hazard evaluation of musculoskeletal injuries in the job
Evaluación de riesgos de lesiones musculoesqueléticas en el puesto de trabajo [in Spanish]
This article presents a method for the hazard evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders in different activities and work stations, developed in Spain during the years 1994 and 1995. The steps followed to develop this method were: bibliographic review; data base analysis; classification and selection of work stations; design of the analytical protocol; field study; and data processing.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1996, No.137, p.38-53. Illus. 23 ref.
Delfrade Ollaquindía J.J., Cardarelli Murua I.
Guide for hazard evaluation and safety plan implementation as a practical tool for professional risk management (Law 31/1995)
Guía para la evaluación del riesgo y la implantación del plan de seguridad como herramienta práctica de la gestión profesional del riesgo (Ley 31/1.995) [in Spanish]
This article presents a model for hazard evaluation and control in accordance with the requirements established by the Spanish Law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 95-1921). Tables for hazard identification and evaluation, as well as for safety planning, are included.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1996, No.137, p.8-24. Illus. 12 ref.
Guidance on risk assessment at work
Anleitung zur Risikobewertung am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Mémento pour l'évaluation des risques professionnels [in French]
This document provides practical guidance on implementing the risk assessment requirements of Council Directive 89/391/EEC on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in worker health and safety. Part 1 describes the principles and general practice of risk assessment at work and provides guidance on the selection, involvement and use of external consultants. Part 2 addresses the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises. Includes illustrative examples of situations and activities requiring risk assessment and lists workers who may be at risk. (Translation of CIS 96-1654).
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1996. 59p. Price: ECU 7.00.
Technical guidance document in support of Commission Directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances and Commission Regulation (EC) No.1488/94 on risk assessment for existing substances. Parts I-IV
This set of documents provides guidance for competent authorities appointed by EEC Member States to carry out risk assessments of new notified and existing substances, and for notifiers of new substances, and manufacturers and importers who have obligations to submit information for risk assessment. There are four parts. Part I: general principles and procedures of risk assessment; risk assessment for human health (exposure and effects assessment, risk characterization). Part II: environmental risk assessment. Part III: use of quantitative structure activity relationships; use categories; risk assessment report format. Part IV: emission scenario documents for specific industries (including the chemical industry, leather processing, metal processing, pulp and paper industry, textile processing, and the paint and varnish industry).
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1996. 4 vols. xv, 739p. Bibl.ref. Price: ECU 35.50, ECU 40.00, ECU 19.00, ECU 17.50.
Health and Safety Commission, Paper and Board Industry Advisory Committee
Guide to managing health and safety in paper mills. Parts 1 and 2
Part 1 of this guide covers the application of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-5) to the paper and board industry: risk assessment; suitability of work equipment; maintenance; information, instruction and training; conformity with Community Directives; safeguarding dangerous parts of machinery; controls and control systems; isolation from sources of energy. Part 2 covers risk assessment in paper mills: legal requirements; principles of risk assessment; risk assessment and successful health and safety management; carrying out a risk assessment exercise. In appendices: accident statistics and causes; examples of risk assessment forms; examples of safe systems of work; checklist for incident investigation and reports.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. viii, 73p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: Part 1 GBP 5.00, Part 2 GBP 5.00.
Order of 9 July 1996 of the Minister of Health and Social Welfare concerning the evaluation and measurement of harmful factors in the workplace [Poland]
Rozporządzenie Ministra Zdrowia i Opieki Społecznej z dnia 9 lipca 1996 r. w sprawie badań i pomiarów czynników szkodliwych dla zdrowia w środowisku pracy [in Polish]
This Order (effective 5 Aug. 1996) regulates the evaluation and measurement of harmful factors in the workplace, including the keeping of records and the communication of the investigation results to workers.
Dziennik Ustaw, 22 July 1996, No.86, p.1896-1898.
Health and Safety Executive
Upper limb disorders - Assessing the risks
This leaflet provides advice for employers and supervisors on the evaluation and prevention of work-related upper limb disorders (ULDs). Contents: symptoms of ULDs; work that can cause ULDs (repetition, force, awkward posture and insufficient recovery); assessing the risk; follow-up action and selection of preventive measures. Includes an assessment checklist.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1996. 21p. Illus. 7 ref.
Blettner M., Fehringer F., Seitz G.
Epidemiologic studies of the effect of low radiation doses on occupationally exposed persons
Epidemiologische Studien zur Wirkung kleiner Strahlendosen bei beruflich strahlenexponierten Personen [in German]
In Germany a registration system of persons exposed to low doses of radiation in the workplace has been initiated. The register includes personal data, radiation exposure, diseases and confounding factors such as smoking and other exposures. Periodic medical examinations are being offered to these persons even when they have entered jobs where they are no longer exposed to low doses of radiation. The life doses and the cancer incidence can be determined among those followed up. A survey of the data collected so far is given. The effort is part of an international study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the effects of the exposure to low doses of radiation at the workplace.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Feb. 1996, Vol.31, No.2, p.66-69. Illus. 5 ref.
Teyssier Cotte C., Niezborala M., Gauthier A., Mercier M.
Health effects of combined exposure to a physical agent and two organizational work risk factors
Effets sur la santé de l'exposition simultanée à un agent physique et à deux contraintes d'organisation du travail [in French]
Transversal survey on the health effects of combined exposure to several work risk factors. A questionnaire provided information on married status, life style and leisure activities; medical history, functional symptomatology during the previous six months, work history; training, qualification and previous or current exposures. An exposure record card was made out for each of the risk factors considered. The 493 wage earners studied were divided into five groups: exposure to noise only (118); shift work only (25); noise and piece work conditions (204); noise and shift work (111); all three risk factors (35). Using the group exposed to noise only as reference, the relative risk was calculated for each of the other groups to present disorders, symptoms or pathologies studied in the survey. It appears that the specific pathologies brought about by noise (hearing loss) and repetitive work with a time constraint (osteoarticular pain) were not significantly influenced by simultaneous exposure to other risk factors; the frequency of sleep disorders was multiplied by two or three in the case of exposure to two or three risks; the non specific pathologies were the most frequent in the polyexposed groups. The effects of working conditions on workers' health must be approached in a global manner and not by considering each risk independently of other risks.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.193-199. 29 ref.
Bonderf J., Delemotte B.
Nitrate fertilizers: Hazards and their prevention
Engrais azotés. Risques. Prévention [in French]
Information note. If nitrate fertilizers are used under unsatisfactory conditions, they can present a risk to the farmer, the consumer and the environment. Principal hazards affecting the user: ammonia (eyes, skin, respiratory and digestive system); nitrous fumes (asphyxia in farm labourers, lung damage (silo filler's disease), chronic lung disease, dental caries).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.111, 4p. 20 ref.
Palmer K., Coggon D.
Investigating suspected occupational illness and evaluating the workplace
This information note covers the main reasons for suspecting work-related disorders, such as the occurrence of clusters of cases in the workforce. A walkthrough survey is recommended for evaluating the workplace and simple check lists are given for frequent hazards (physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial) and for control measures.
British Medical Journal, Sep. 1996, Vol.313, p.809-811. Illus. 2 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
The operation of the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 - Annual Report 1995-96
This report concerns activities within the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), set up under the 1989 Act (see CIS 91-1760). Contents: objectives and overview of NICNAS; new chemicals (256 assessments); existing chemicals (assessment work in progress for 5 priority existing chemicals); new and improved assessment methodologies; NICNAS information and consultation activities; finance and staffing; future directions. Appendices include lists of chemical reports published and permits issued.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1996. vi, 66p. Illus. 13 ref.
Practical steps to risk assessment on building projects
This simple risk assessment procedure is based on answering a set of basic questions regarding the nature of the building project, and highlighting areas where there is a shortage of information or other weakness. Specific issues requiring further evaluation can then be identified and control measures implemented. The method is suitable for small businesses undertaking projects with which they are already familiar.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 1996, Vol.14, No.6, p.35-36. Illus.
Risk assessment in 1996
The impact of recent legislation on risk assessment is reviewed. Effects on specific groups of workers are outlined (women, young persons, agency or contract workers, peripatetic workers), and difficulties encountered in judging the adequacy of control measures are discussed. Judicial decisions related to stress and hours of work as hazards are summarized. A risk assessment method suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises is suggested.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 1996, Vol.14, No.6, p.30-33. Illus.
Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National Standards) Regulations (Amendment) [Australia]
These Regulations (commenced on 1.6.1996) add Part 4 (Plant) to the provisions of the original 1994 Regulations (see CIS 96-393). The concept of plant, as defined here, includes any machinery, equipment or tool, and any component thereof. The following matters are covered (general duties are related to some or all of the following: hazard identification, risk assessment, elimination or control of risk, provision of information): duties of manufacturers, suppliers, erectors or installers of plant; duties of an employer regarding design, installation, commissioning, use, repair, storage and disposal of plant, and concerning training, information, instruction, supervision and record keeping; specific duties of an employer for control of risk (plant under pressure, plant with moving parts, powered mobile plant, plant with hot or cold parts, electrical plant (incl. plant exposed to electrical hazards), plant designed for lifting or movement, industrial robots and other remotely or automatically energized equipment, lasers and laser products, scaffolds, amusement rides); duties of an employee; licences to operate plants (applications, granting, renewal, conditions, notification of maintenance); registration requirements; special licences; miscellany. In annex: registration and notification requirements.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1996. 78p. Notified in: Commonwealth of Australia Gazette on 28 June 1996.
Industrial health risk assessment: Industrial hygiene for technology transition
A model for industrial health risk assessment is proposed which combines several elements of classical risk assessment with certain risk management goals. Elements of the model include: hazard inventory, identification and prioritization; qualitative exposure assessment, exposure modelling and monitoring; risk assessment, characterization and communication; and interfacing risk assessment with risk management. The principal goal of the model is to incorporate risk assessments early in the development of new industrial manufacturing and maintenance processes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.423-435. 33 ref.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
European workshops on ECO products: Evaluation of the "Design for Health Profiler" - Proceedings
Proceedings of workshops on the evaluation of a software tool called the "Design for Health Profiler", developed to help designers understand the environmental and health implications of design decisions. The system allows environmental criteria related to different user needs to be managed, evaluated and scored. The basic concepts of the system are described along with the evaluation technique used in the workshops and an overview of the findings. The system has the potential to audit or assess environmental concerns in fast screening techniques or in-depth studies.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1996. 52p. 4 ref. Price: ECU 7.00.
Feldman R.G., White R.F.
Role of the neurologist in hazard identification and risk assessment
This review emphasizes the difficulties in differentiating neurotoxic from non-neurotoxic disease when a suspicion arises of environmental substances capable of producing neurologic impairment. When many people are exposed to neurotoxicants, the effects may vary because of differences in susceptibility, duration of exposure, dosage of neurotoxicant and other risk factors. A comprehensive table is included, listing neurological symptoms, the possible causal neurotoxicants (metals, solvents, insecticides etc.) and their major uses in different industries. Sensitive electrophysiological and neuropsychological test batteries are described in terms of their usefulness in identifying subclinical impairment and in providing objective confirmation of abnormalities in the central and peripheral nervous systems. A detailed protocol is proposed on essential questions to be answered in order to arrive at the diagnosis of neurotoxic disease and to eliminate as many confounding variables as possible. This scheme (the Boston University Environmental Neurology Assessment - BUENA) attempts to combine epidemiologic methodology and clinical approaches to detect such effects. The advantages and limitations of such a strategy are discussed.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl. 2, p.227-237. 27 ref.
Simonato L., Boffetta P., Kogevinas M.
Epidemiological aspects of cancer risk associated with exposure in the occupational environment
The contribution and limitations of epidemiological research on cancer risks from exposure in the occupational environment is analyzed in this review, using essentially the information gathered through the years by the Monograph Programme of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Occupations and industries recognized as presenting a carcinogenic risk for which sufficient evidence has been found by IARC are listed in one table. A second table includes occupations and industries, for which the assessment of carcinogenic risk is not definitive. Among other critical aspects it is emphasized that this epidemiological research is carried out only in a few highly industrialized countries. It should be concluded that an overall estimate of the proportions of cancers due to occupational exposure is not feasible and can be misleading because extrapolation to different populations is not necessarily justified.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1996, Vol.87, No.1, p.5-15. 24 ref.
Guidance on risk assessment at work
This document provides practical guidance on implementing the risk assessment requirements of Council Directive 89/391/EEC on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in worker health and safety. Part 1 describes the principles and general practice of risk assessment at work and provides guidance on the selection, involvement and use of external consultants. Part 2 addresses the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises. Includes illustrative examples of situations and activities requiring risk assessment and lists workers who may be at risk.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1996. 57p. 8 ref. Price: ECU 7.00.
Occupational hazards, risks and solutions
The objective of this thesis is to deal with the management of risk factors in industries by a systematic approach. The relevant issues are covered from a general point of view and with reference to the specific Dutch experience: toxic substance hazards in the rubber industry and hand-arm vibrations risks in the construction industry. The design analysis of safety in the workplace requires the management technique of the "problem solving cycle", i.e. a three-step description of the production process. The first step is the "function" (what is produced), the second is the "principle" (how the function is to be carried out) and the third is the means by which the production is performed ("form"). A detailed classification of production processes is also proposed. Alternative strategies and solutions ought to be considered in the production design (or re-designed) phases, assessing the hazardous consequences (exposures and accidents). For the choice of a solution, other factors beside those of safety are also influential (purchase costs, training, environmental effects etc.). The experience gained through such research has led to the setting up a prototype database of solutions to occupational hazards of possible usefulness for prevention in different industries and working conditions.
Delft University Press, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, Netherlands, 1996. 219p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
Abiteboul D., Leprince A., Carruel F., Fleury L., Forestie-Auter A.F., Joly N., Neuville K., Patey O.
Blood-borne infections. Occupational risks and prevention
Infections transmissibles par le sang. Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
Report on the 1st colloquium organized by the International Section on the Prevention of Occupational Risks in Health Services of the International Association of Social Security on the prevention of blood-borne infections (Paris, France, 8-9 June 1995). Organized to survey the most recent scientific knowledge obtained from cases, this meeting attracted medical experts from various fields (occupational physicians, OSH and infection specialists, hygienists, nurses, laboratory technicians, etc.), researchers, university professors, manufacturers and equipment designers, health care institution managers, etc. Main topics: epidemiological data: prevalence of major blood-borne infections; HIV occupational contaminations; work-related hepatitis B and C; infections by other pathogens (including non conventional agents and prions); exposure risk factors (surgery, obstetrics, gynaecology; laboratories; odontology, dental medicine; home care services; other exposed occupations (garbage workers, cleaners, workers in city cleaning and hygiene services, sewage workers, workers in funeral homes and penitentiary institutions, etc.)); waste disposal; vaccination; procedure in case of accident and compensation; risk assessment and control.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.66, p.131-147.
Glendon I., Stanton N.
Risk homeostasis and risk assessment
Risk homeostasis theory (RHT) asserts that accident loss (all costs associated with accidents) is not determined by the intrinsic risk within the environment, but by the outcome of individual estimates of the costs and benefits of risky versus cautious behaviour, leading to the establishment of a target level of risk. Risk reduction occurs when a person perceives that actual risk exceeds the target level for an activity, and so changes behaviour or replaces the activity with another. Proponents of risk assessment (RA) argue that reducing the level of intrinsic risk (i.e., making the environment safer) will have a corresponding effect on accident loss. While RHT was formulated to describe driving behaviour, its implications are broader. The origins of RA lie in industrial loss control. The papers collected here include both theoretical and empirical studies within the two paradigms. Data are still to scanty to give a clear advantage to either approach. Many of the papers were presented at a conference held in March 1994 in Birmingham, England.
Safety Science, 1996, Vol.22, No.1-3, p.1-262. Illus. Bibl.ref.
A guide to risk assessment requirements - Common provisions in health and safety law
This guide outlines the risk assessment provisions of eight sets of United Kingdom Regulations concerning management of health and safety at work, manual handling, personal protective equipment, display screen equipment, noise, hazardous substances, asbestos and lead. Common features are summarized and the practical significance of differences in these features is highlighted.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 1996. 10p. 17 ref.
Secretaría de Salud
Official Standard. Establishes the standard method for the evaluation of health hazards due to environmental agents [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana, que establece el método normalizado para la evaluación de riesgos a la salud como consecuencia de agentes ambientales [México] [in Spanish]
Standard issued in accordance with the Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization. Effective: 10 Jan. 1996. Contents: aims and scope (all establishments where chemical, physical or biological agents might pose a risk to health); definitions; evaluation specifications; establishment of degree of epidemiological risk to health; determination of health protection measures; corrective measures (with an indication of the time of their introduction).
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 9 Jan. 1996, Vol.507, No.6, p.36-42. 10 ref.
Mahieu B., Mayer L., Bertrand J.P., Frache A.
Chart of occupational risks relating to the reconstitution of job histories in the Lorraine coal mines
Cartographie des risques professionnels au service de la reconstitution des carrières aux Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine [in French]
Good knowledge of present and past occupational risks and estimation of workers' exposure levels allow improved prevention by occupational physicians. In France, types of work in mines requiring specific medical surveillance are regulated and cover 80% of the employees in the Lorraine coal mines. Occupational physicians have added to this list a few additional risks. To assess occupational exposure levels, two methods are used: 1) collection of occupational hazards through the telematic transmission system of daily staff checking, with automatic and individual recording of single or serial nuisances defined for a work activity; 2) creation of a chart taking into account present and former occupational risks for each worker, representing a real reconstitution of the occupational hazards history based on computerized data of the jobs and a job-exposure matrix resulting from a study of 170 activities (each activity is a job family with the same hazards). Occupational physicians can carry out personal and specific medical surveillance of a worker - or of a group of workers - exposed to detected risks and then select populations presenting the same exposure criteria for the purpose of epidemiological studies.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.32-36. 3 ref.
Rew P.J., Deaves D.M., Hockey S.M., Lines I.G.
Health and Safety Executive
Review of flash fire modelling
This research report discusses the present understanding and modelling of flash fires and presents a proposed framework for the modelling of flame propagation within flash fires. Current methodologies are reviewed with emphasis on the interaction between dispersion and flame propagation, with the aim of identifying conditions under which propagation is retarded or halted. A review is also presented of the way in which flash fires are treated in risk assessments. Examples of risk calculations are given.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iv, 65p. Illus. 127 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
Beard A., Lines I.G.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a software model for missile impact damage - Final report
This research report considers potential loss of containment in pipework or vessels initiated by rupture or perforation due to the impact of flying debris. A missile of specified mass and velocity is assumed to impact on a target of steel, concrete or pipework. Current methods for addressing this problem were reviewed and a selection of appropriate formulae were incorporated into a missile impact model. A sample calculation is presented along with possibilities for further development.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 24p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Hazard identification and risk assessment
This manual describes ways of carrying out hazard analysis in the process industries, with reference to the way in which major incidents develop. Contents: introduction to hazards and risk; concept hazard analysis; preliminary process hazard analysis; critical examination of system safety; hazard and operability studies (Hazop); fault tree analysis; task analysis and human factors; task analysis and hazard identification; risk criteria; risk assessment. In appendices; development of piping and instrumentation diagrams; Hazcheck listing; example of a Hazop study.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1996. v, 302p. Illus. 21 ref. Index.
Refining a risk model for occupational tuberculosis transmission
A probability model is presented to describe the variation with time of levels of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol experienced by health care workers. Based on this model, analytical solutions are presented for an individual worker's cumulative risk of tuberculosis infection, and for the worker population mean cumulative risk of infection, with and without use of respiratory protection. Given exposure estimates and a definition of acceptable risk, the risk equations developed in this analysis may be used to assist in the selection of respiratory protection for health care workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.16-22. Illus. 18 ref.
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