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Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found

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  • Risk evaluation

1999

CIS 03-703 Restaurants, bars and cafeterias
Restaurantes, bares y cafeterías [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in restaurants, bars and cafeterias and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 33p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_011.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 03-708 Dry cleaning
Tintorerías [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in dry cleaning and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 37p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_013.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 03-702 The food canning industry
Industria de las conservas alimenticias [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in the food canning industry and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 45p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_010.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 03-707 Office work
Trabajo en oficinas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in the office environment and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 45p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_012.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1839 Monitoring and modelling of industrial organic chemicals, with particular reference to aquatic risk assessment
Alongside fate and exposure models, monitoring and laboratory data each have their specific roles to play in comprehensive risk assessments. The general principle concerning risk assessment data is that measured data should take precedence over model results but only after they are judged to be of adequate reliability. In practice, laboratory and field result data are used to provide parameters for the models, while monitoring data are used to validate the models' predictions. Comprehensive risk assessments therefore require the integration of laboratory and monitoring data with the model predictions. This report provides guidance on the general principles that should be adopted when planning a monitoring project, with particular reference to aquatic pollution risk assessment.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Jan. 1999. 103p. Illus. 129 ref.

CIS 02-1494 Rogers A.S., Spencer M.B., Stone B.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Validation and development of a method for assessing the risks arising from mental fatigue
This report describes a programme of work to validate and develop further a procedure for assessing the risks associated with fatigue in a range of industries. The method involves a Fatigue Index, which incorporates five factors known to be related to the build-up of fatigue, namely the time of the day, shift duration, rest periods, breaks and cumulative fatigue.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 1999. iii, 31p. Illus. 153 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 02-218 Lasfargues G.
Mode of collecting data on health effects during epidemiological studies on occupational safety and health
Mode de recueil des effets sur la santé en épidémiologie des risques professionnels [in French]
The preferred mode of collecting epidemiological data on the health effects of occupational hazards depends on the type of the health effect being followed and its latency, as well as the research methodology. Various modes of data collection are described: active collection by means of questionnaires, evaluation scales, recording of pathologies or clinical symptoms during medical examination and standardized clinical tests, collection of morbidity and mortality data from useable sources. Examples of modes of data collection are given for selected diseases: neurobehavioural disorders, mental health, respiratory diseases, repetitive strain injury. Use of a suited mode of data collection strongly determines the reliability of the data, and can influence the conclusions of the study and the corresponding occupational safety and health action plans.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 1999, No.125, 7p. 57 ref.

CIS 01-1797
Health and Safety Executive
Risks from gasoline pipelines in the United Kingdom
Individual and societal risks of four gasoline pipelines of varying diameter and operating pressure were compared in both rural and urban areas of the United Kingdom. The effects on the risk of soil type, burial depth, valve shut-off time and sensitivity to failure rate data were also considered. It was found that all pipelines located in urban areas showed individual risk levels in excess of 1x10-6/year, with the 16 inch pipeline having a risk level in excess of 3x10-6/year. Pipelines located in rural locations mostly showed individual risk levels below 1x10-6/year, but in excess of 3x10-7/year. The study showed that the maximum distances from the pipeline to the 1x10-6/year risk level were generally limited in extent, ranging from about 100 metres to 26 metres for the 16 inch and 6 inch pipelines, respectively. In terms of societal risk, pipelines in urban locations show the highest frequency per kilometre of multiple fatalities. As expected, larger pipelines showed the highest number of fatalities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. xii, 47p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 01-1771 Alvear-Galindo M.G., Mendez-Ramirez I., Villegas-Rodriguez J.A., Chapela-Mendoza R., Eslava-Campos C.A., Laurell A.C.
Risk indicator of dust exposure and health effects in cement plant workers
A frequent problem in developing countries is the lack of reliable records on occupational hazards. This article proposes and evaluates a two-phase method for estimating particle exposure. The first phase uses the focal group technique to reconstruct the production process and estimate the level of dust exposure. The second phase applies the technique of individual history of exposure to hazards at work, an index that accumulates current and previous exposure. This method was introduced in a cement plant to assess the dust-exposure levels of workers and to evaluate its usefulness in the association between estimated exposure levels and the frequency of health effects. Results obtained showed that it is possible to reconstruct the history of exposure to cement dust during each worker's occupational history. The results also showed that estimated exposure is related to respiratory damage; higher exposure resulted in more serious diseases. This supports the usefulness of the suggested methodology.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.654-661. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1492
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some chemicals that cause tumours of the kidney or urinary bladder in rodents and some other substances
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 13-20 October 1998. 21 chemicals or classes of chemicals were reviewed: eight were rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and 13 were classified 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). For each chemical, the following aspects are covered: exposure data; studies of cancer in humans; studies of cancer in experimental animals; other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary of reported data and evaluation. The chemicals are: allyl isothiocyanate; ortho-anisidine; atrazine; butyl benzyl phthalate; chloroform; chlorothalonil (= 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile); cyclamates; dichlorobenzenes; hexachlorobutadiene; hexachloroethane; d-limonene; melamine; methyl tert-butyl ether; nitrilotriacetic acid and its salts; paracetamol (= acetaminophen); ortho-phenylphenol and its sodium salt; potassium bromate; quercetin; saccharin and its salts; simazine.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1999. iv, 674p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 01-1507 Knoche C., Meunier P., Smolik H.J.
Advantages and disadvantages of the main methods for assessing hearing risk caused by noise
Avantages et inconvénients des principales méthodes d'évaluation du risque auditif lié au bruit [in French]
There are two types of methods for assessing hearing risk caused by noise: measurement of the stressors or sonometry (dosimetry, sound spectrometry, 8h exposure dosimetry) and evaluation of the resulting strain (audiometry, evoked potential, otoacoustic emission). Based on their 15 years of experience, the authors sum up the main principles of these different techniques, their practical applicability and their advantages and drawbacks.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.4, p.425-429. 7 ref.

CIS 01-1187 Curtat C.
Using physical models for evaluating fire hazards
Utilisation de modèles physiques pour l'évaluation des dangers du feu [in French]
This article describes an engineering approach based on a series of models and computer software enabling the implementation of fire hazard safety measures in a building, taking into account the activities that take place within it. Contents include: physical modelling of fire; application of fire simulation tools to safety; quantification of thermal and chemical hazards of fire; example of the calculation of thermal radiation near large open flames.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 1999, No.45, p.53-60. Illus.

CIS 01-1116 Estimation by occupational physicians of the asbestos risk
Estimation du risque amiante par le médecin du travail [in French]
A questionnaire survey was conducted among occupational physicians in the Poitou-Charentes region of France concerning their perception of the risks caused by asbestos. At a time when the involvement of occupational physicians in the prevention of asbestos risk is being discussed, this survey contributes interesting information, in particular on their perception of this risk and the difficulties of risk assessment.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.78, p.145-156. 7 ref.

CIS 01-1062 Benford D.J., Cocker J., Sartorelli P., Schneider T., van Hemmen J., Firth J.G.
Dermal route in systemic exposure
To evaluate risk from dermal exposure, the amount of material on the skin must be measured. The potential for dermal uptake must then be assessed for the potential health effects from systemic exposure. No standard methods exist for studying these processes. Methods for measuring skin and surface contamination will require the development of reference contaminated surfaces and skin as part of quality control procedures. Biological monitoring is a valuable tool in the assessment of dermal absorption. It will be necessary to conduct detailed investigations to support risk assessment for dermal exposure. Ultimately, predictive models will be established for exposure and for dermal absorption to support a generic approach and allow risk assessment strategies appropriate to actual workplace situations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1999, Vol.25, No.6, p.511-520. 31 ref.

CIS 01-787 De Gaudemaris R.
Evaluation of actitivities designed to prevent occupational hazards
Evaluation des actions de prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
The methodology for applying the results of epidemiological studies is well established. The main steps consist of analysing the epidemiological data on the hazard through a survey of literature, creating a logical model for selecting the prevention approach to be evaluated, defining the evaluation criteria and selecting the "intervention" (implementing the preventive action and validating its efficiency). The intervention to be evaluated can involve individual, collective or organizational prevention actions, or behavioural changes. The measurement of the effect of the prevention action can be either direct (prevention of mortality or morbidity), or indirect (lowering of risk levels, training, changes in behaviour). However, studies which are methodologically sound, and which alone truly allow the measurement of the efficiency of the prevention actions, are often difficult to implement in practice. It is therefore essential to develop linkages with the companies' political and business structures.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1999, No.124, 4p. 26 ref.

CIS 01-767 Zawieski W.M
Occupational risk evaluation: 1. Methodical basis
Ocena ryzyka zawodowego: 1. Podstawy metodyczne [in Polish]
This publication reviews basic methods of risk assessment in various work-related hazards. Contents: hazardous chemical substances; dust; noise; infrasound; ultrasound; mechanical vibration; electrical lighting; non-laser ultraviolet and infrared radiation; laser radiation; electromagnetic fields and radiation; heat load; mechanical factors; biological factors; static and dynamic physical load; psychological work load; explosive atmospheres; risk evaluation as a component of an occupational safety and health management system.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 344p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-554 Sinay J., Badida M.
Quantification of the risks involved in crane operations
Quantifizierung der Risiken beim Kranbetrieb [in German]
A procedure for identifying and quantifying the hazards involved in crane operations, tested in a steel plant, is presented. Information on working conditions is obtained from crane operators and other workers. Hazards are identified according to the EN 292 and EN 1050 standards. Scales are used to quantify the hazards posed by the crane itself and by the surrounding factors such as the illumination, the design of the operator's cabin with or without air conditioning system, the ease of safe manipulation, and the qualification of the crane operator. The total risk is calculated from the scaled ratings given to each hazard. Checklists and the scales for assessing each hazard as well as the results obtained for an overhead travelling crane are presented.
Fördern und Heben, Apr. 1999, Vol.49, No.4, p.273-276. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 01-363 Guide to risk assessment
Guide d'évaluation des risques [in French]
In France, the average direct cost of an occupational accident is FRF 15,000. Indirect losses, including lost work time, production losses and equipment repairs can represent a further one to three times this amount. The purpose of this safety guide is to help companies organize their approach to hazard prevention in a simple manner: identify the hazards, select the hazards to be addressed in priority; implement solutions. It consists of information sheets for each of the main occupational hazards, with corresponding tables that need to be filled in.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., Dec. 1999. Folder including 12 information sheets. Illus.

CIS 01-398 Hoffmann B., Stürk P.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Risk assessment - Assistance in risk assessment to enterprises by the Mutual of Industrial Accident Insurance Associations
Gefährdungsbeurteilung - Unterstützung der Betriebe bei der Gefährdungsbeurteilung durch die gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften [in German]
This report provides a listing of all guidance documents on hazard evaluation developed as of 30 September 1999 by the German Mutual of Industrial Accident Insurance Associations. Introductory chapters briefly present the basic requirements of the new German law on the implementation of preventive measures for the protection of health and safety of employees at work (or Work Safety Act), and the responsibilities and steps to be taken in implementing the law. Summaries in English, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Sep. 1999. 30p.

CIS 01-93 Floyd P.J., Footitt A.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk ranking for small and medium enterprises
The objective of this study was to develop a simple system of risk assessment and prioritization for SMEs. The methodology is divided into six steps: identification of hazards; likeliness of occurrence of each identified hazard; injuries and illnesses that might result should each hazard occur; determination of the number of people likely to be affected by the hazard; evaluation of the risks; ranking the risks. The method was refined after field tests in three workplaces.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. viii, 59p. 6 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 01-92 Lee J.F.
Health and Safety Executive
Education of undergraduate engineers in risk concepts: Scoping study
Report of a study commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) of the United Kingdom on the education of engineering graduates in concepts of risk assessment and risk control. The main conclusions are that the educational material provided and the method of teaching must encourage students to think creatively and not simply to rely on following standards and rules. The provision of appropriate educational material by the HSE is also seen as essential.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 1999. 32p.

CIS 01-186
Health and Safety Executive
A step by step guide to COSHH assessment
Advice and guidance to employers in the United Kingdom for the assessment of their activities under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH, CIS 00-620). Contents: gathering information about the substance, the work and working practices; evaluating the risks to health; deciding on the necessary measures to comply with Regulations 7 to 12 of COSHH; recording the assessment; when the assessment needs to be reviewed; competence of those carrying out the assessment; decisions on reasonable practicability. Examples of the application of the COSHH Regulations in specific industries are included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 1999. viii, 44p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: GBP: 5.00.

CIS 01-294 Weyman A.K., Kelly C.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk perception and risk communication: A review of literature
The review reports on the extensive literature on risk perception and risk communication. The main purpose was to summarize the principal insights and conclusions which can be drawn from this analysis of published research, with a view of advising the Health and Safety Executive of the United Kingdom in formulating future policies on the communication of workplace hazards. The findings are that there is little consensus between the main theoretical models, each of which possesses strengths and weaknesses which are critically reviewed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 1999. iv, 71p. 238 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 01-293 Gibson W.H., Megaw T.D.
Health and Safety Executive
The implementation of CORE-DATA, a computerized human error probability database
The CORE-DATA database has been developed with the objective of providing data on human error probabilities for use in quantitative risk assessment. The development steps consisted of user needs analysis, software development, software testing, usability analysis and data entry. The finalized database is described, together with the ways it could be used by industry, government regulators and consultants.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 1999. iv, 67p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 01-50
Health and Safety Executive
Health surveillance at work
This guide is aimed at persons responsible for managing health risks at work. It describes the requirements for health surveillance under the current safety and health regulations of the United Kingdom, lists reasons why health surveillance is desirable, gives advice on facts to be considered when assessing the need to introduce a health surveillance programme, describes the principles of effective health surveillance programmes and provides advice on keeping proper records. A comprehensive bibliography is included. Replaces CIS 91-483.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Oct. 1999. iv, 36p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: GBP 7.00.

CIS 01-265 Pan C.S., Chiou S.S., Hsiao H., Wassell J.T., Keane P.R.
Assessment of perceived traumatic injury hazards during drywall hanging
The objective was to identify plasterboard handling tasks and activities perceived as hazardous by workers. In the questionnaire survey, three installation plasterboard mounting tasks were included: on the ceiling, on the upper half of the wall and on the lower half of the wall. Each of the three tasks were divided into 10 to 12 constituent activities. Supportive elevated equipment was also evaluated. Workers rated the tasks and elevated equipment in regard to fall potential, perceived physical stress, and risk of being struck by or against objects. Results indicate that all the ratings of fall potential, perceived physical stress, and risk of being struckby or against objects while mounting plasterboard on the ceiling were greater than while performing the other two tasks. Activities involving lifting, carrying or holding plasterboard sheets were rated as most physically stressful. Workers perceived greatest physical stress and fall potential when wearing stilts as compared to using ladders or scaffolds.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 3 Nov. 1999, Vol.25, No.1, p.29-37. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 01-86 Lery L., Martin J.M., Dartois E.
Computer-assisted definition of tasks for occupational risk prevention at I.N.S.E.R.M.
Acquisition assistée de tâches pour la prévention des risques professionnels à l'I.N.S.E.R.M. [in French]
This article describes a computer system for the definition of tasks (SAT). This system is the first part of a method for occupational risk prevention. Using SAT, workers select themselves the tasks they execute, starting from task menus displayed on a microcomputer. For each selected task, the worker indicates the associated type of risk, the estimated intensity of exposure, and its estimated duration and frequency. Whenever possible, the worker's actual wording is retained. The use of this software package is made possible at I.N.S.E.R.M. because of the existence of a database of activities of engineers, technicians and administrative personnel. A large corpus of tasks (1,256 entries to date) has been built from this database. These tasks are executed by 5000 workers employed by I.N.S.E.R.M. The use of this software package by other public or private companies is discussed. A method is described for constructing such task corpuses.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.18-28. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 00-1586 Castellá López J.L.
Accidents, employment, workload and work risks
Accidentes, empleo, carga de trabajo y peligrosidad del trabajo [in Spanish]
This article shows that the number of accidents in a working population is related to the type of work, the workload and the level of risk of the work, and lays down the equations that link these factors. The objective of accident prevention is to decrease the number of accidents without decreasing the volume of work. Therefore the risks related to the work have to be reduced. The workload also has an influence on the number of accidents; this factor needs to be taken into account to avoid wrong conclusions when analysing statistical data.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 1999, No.1, p.29-36. Illus.

CIS 00-1616 Melhorn J.M., Wilkinson L., Gardner P., Horst W.D., Silkey B.
An outcomes study of an occupational medicine intervention programme for the reduction of musculoskeletal disorders and cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace
Upper-extremity musculoskeletal pains or disorders (MSDs) account for a significant number of work-related illnesses in the US workforce. In 1995, an aircraft manufacturer established a unique risk management programme based on the individual risk assessment of newly hired employees. The MSD intervention programme was designed to prospectively evaluate each new employee for their individual risk of developing MSDs in the workplace. Before job placement, individuals at higher risk were assigned to a period of transitional work. During the four years of the programme, workers' compensation cost decreases per year were 16%, 3%, 24%, and 12% respectively, while work hours increased by 56%.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.10, p.833-846. Illus. 69 ref.

CIS 00-1659 Gupta J.P., Suresh Babu B.
A new hazardous waste index
Hazardous wastes, once generated, must be stored, transported, treated, disposed of and recycled, depending on the situation. With laws being tightened, attention to safety considerations must be increased. Before any operation is carried out, it is vital to know the hazardous characteristics of the waste to be handled. Because waste, generally, is a mixture instead of a pure compound, its hazardous characteristics are difficult to determine and generalize because of the different hazards of each component. A new Hazardous Waste Index (HWI) is proposed in this paper. The index measures hazards related to flammability, reactivity, toxicity and corrosivity as well as the pH value for a hazardous waste. Two examples are given for its use. The index can be modified to include radioactive or mixed waste.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1999, Vol.67, No.1, p.1-7. 7 ref.

CIS 00-1601 Computer system for hazard registration and risk assessment "STER". Version 2.6.
Komputerowy system rejestracji zagrożeń i oceny ryzyka zawodowego oraz dokumentowania wypadków przy pracy i chorób zawodowych "STER". Wersja 2.6. Demo [in Polish]
Topics: biological hazards; CD-ROM; chemical hazards; computer programme; dangerous substances; harmful substances; hazard evaluation; health hazards; health service records; occupational safety and health; physical hazards; Poland.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1st ed., 1999. CD-ROM. Price: PLN 4,000.00 for one user, network version for 5 users PLN 6,000.00.

CIS 00-1210 Decree No.5 of 11 May 1999 on the means, procedures and periodicity of risk evaluation [Bulgaria]
Naredba No.5 ot 11 maj 1999 g. za reda, načina i periodičnostta na izvăršvane na ocenka na riska [in Bulgarian]
This decree on hazard evaluation concerns procedures, equipment, workplaces, organization and work environment. Topics: Bulgaria; hazard evaluation; law; periodical checks; risk factors.
Dăržaven vestnik, 21 May 1999, No.47, p.7-10.

CIS 00-1284 Li C.Y., Du C.L., Chen C.J., Sung F.C.
A registry-based case-control study of risk factors for the development of multiple non-fatal injuries on the job
In order to explore factors associated with risk of sustaining multiple non-fatal injuries in the workplace, a case-control study nested within a cohort of 77,846 active workers who experienced at least one incidence of non-fatal work-related injury between 1994 and 1996 was conducted using compensation records of Taiwan. Cases (n = 2,616) were workers with more than three incidences of non-fatal injury during the study period and controls (n = 3,974) were randomly sampled from workers who experienced only one incidence of non-fatal injury during the same period. Compared with construction workers, workers employed in mining and quarrying (OR = 2.7), manufacturing (OR = 1.2), commerce (OR = 1.6), transport, storage and communication (OR = 1.3) and social, personal and community service (OR = 1.4) were all at significantly elevated risk of multiple non-fatal injuries. Both age and wage showed a significant dose-response effect on the risk of developing multiple non-fatal injuries.
Occupational Medicine, 1999, Vol.49, No.5, p.331-334. 10 ref.

CIS 00-1396 Garabedian M.J., Hoppin J.A., Tolbert P.E., Herrick R.F., Brann E.A.
Occupational chlorophenol exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Occupational exposure to chlorophenols is suspected to increase non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) risk. This association was examined using data from a population-based case-control study of men aged 32 to 60 years. Potential chlorophenol exposure was characterized by intensity estimates and confidence ratings based upon review of verbatim job histories. Cases with substantial chlorophenol exposure had a significantly greater number of years of chlorophenol exposure; however, in conditional logistic regression models, the odds ratio for more than 8 years of substantial exposure was 1.51. Overall, the findings do not provide strong support for an association with NHL risk. Chlorophenol exposure in this study is not based upon measured values and, therefore, may fail to characterize actual chlorophenol exposures accurately. These results are consistent with other findings, which suggest that chlorophenol exposure is not likely to be a strong risk factor for NHL.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.267-272. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 00-1072 Krüger E., Straube E.
Exposure of pesticide applicators as a basis for risk assessment
Expositionsumfang bei Pflanzenschutzmittelapplikatoren als Grundlage für die Abschätzung der Belastung [in German]
The number of hours of exposure and the types of pesticides sprayed by workers on twelve farms in the Land of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, were determined. These data were collected for 28, 27 and 30 workers in the years 1995, 1996 and 1997. The total hours of exposure in those years ranged from 28 to 727 in 1995, from 4 to 906 in 1996 and from 1 to 983 in 1997. With an average of 56 hours of exposure in the 3 years, pesticides containing pyrethroids as active ingredients were applied the most often. They were followed by carbamate pesticides with an average of 48 hours of exposure over the 3 years and the organophosphorus pesticides with an average 3-year exposure of 38 hours. Only a small proportion of the applied pesticides belonged to the highly toxic or toxic groups. Herbicides were the most frequently used pesticides. From the widely varying extent of individual exposures and types of pesticides used by each worker it is concluded that personal sampling is needed to find the true exposure of each worker.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 1999, Vol.49, No.10, p.367-372. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-993 Yakovlev S.
Russian experience on attestation of workplaces according to their working conditions
Rossijskij opyt' attestacii rabočih mest po uslovijam truda [in Russian]
Russian regulations consider the attestation or certification of workplaces according to the working conditions they present as being a system of analysing and evaluating workplaces. The main aim of the certification is to ensure that production units meet the requirements of occupational safety and health. It involves an evaluation of working conditions based on different risk criteria. Thus, the attestation of workplaces is part of the certification of production units. The English-language literature uses only the term "certification" covering the whole procedure. In Russia the terminology adopted for workplace certification is "attestation".
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 1999, Vol.2, No.1, p.10-13 (English); p.23-26 (Russian). Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 00-906 Rules for the assignment of classes of professional risk to branches (subbranches) of the economy [Russian Federation]
Pravila otnesenija otraslej (podotraslej) ėkonomiki k klassu professional'nogo riska [in Russian]
Fourteen classes of professional risk are established and industrial sectors accordingly classified by Resolution No.975 approved by the Russian federal government on 31 August 1999. Its purpose is to determine the insurance contributions according to the number of accidents and work-related diseases (compensation payments) recorded during the preceding calendar year.
Bjulleten' Mintruda Rossii, 1999, No.9, p.29-32.

CIS 00-1169 Spielholz P., Silverstein B., Stuart M.
Reproducibility of a self-report questionnaire for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder risk factors
A self-report questionnaire was developed to evaluate the potential for assessment of possible risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Visual-analogue and categorical scales were designed to represent responses relating to primary work as well as a second job and hobbies or non-work activities. 71 tree nursery workers completed the scales twice in consecutive weeks. Agreement between means of the two questionnaire administrations was 0.80 or higher for all scales. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.69 for the primary job hand/wrist responses and between 0.49 and 0.82 for non-work/hobby neck and upper arm scales. These results show potential for future application of similar scales in industry or temporary and seasonal work to evaluate exposure to upper extremity risk factors.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.30, No.5, p.429-433. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 00-1011 Friis L., Mikoczy Z., Hagmar L., Edling C.
Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers: Extended follow-up
To study cancer incidence in Swedish sewage workers, a cohort of all 711 employees at 17 Swedish sewage plants employed for at least one year during the years 1965-86 was analysed. Assessment of exposures was performed by classification of work tasks. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Total cancer incidence was not significantly increased (SIR=1.2) but the incidence of prostate cancer was (SIR=1.6), and based on two cases only, there seemed to be a significant increase of cancer of the nose and the nasal sinuses (SIR=12). The incidence of stomach cancer was also higher than expected (SIR=2.3). There was no relation between cancer incidence and level of sewage exposure. In conclusion, sewage workers did not have an increased risk of cancer, and the increased risk estimates for some specific cancer sites were not conclusive.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.672-673. 11 ref.

CIS 00-961
Health and Safety Executive
The technical basis for COSHH essentials: Easy steps to control chemicals
This booklet summarizes the technical basis of the generic risk assessment scheme used in the HSE guidance on easy steps to control chemicals under the 1999 Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH, see CIS 00-620) of the United Kingdom. It is aimed at suppliers and users of chemicals, occupational hygienists and other specialists who require more detailed information than that provided in the basic guide (see CIS 00-1098). Contents include a description of the risk assessment scheme and information on how to use the basic guidance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. 20p. 9 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 00-1050 Leng G., Lewalter J.
Role of individual susceptibility in risk assessment of pesticides
This study presents criteria for assessing the individual pesticide burden of workers in the chemical industry. A group of 1003 workers exposed to methylparathion or ethylparathion (alkyl phosphates), propoxur (carbamate) or cyfluthrin (pyrethroid) was investigated. After exposure, plasma concentrations of the products or their metabolites, p-nitrophenol concentration in urine, and activities of cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase were measured. At the same propoxur concentration, only workers with a low individual acetylcholinesterase activity reported symptoms. Workers who metabolized cyfluthrin rapidly reported fewer symptoms than workers with a lower rate of metabolism. This tendency was also evident in cases of mixed exposure (cyfluthrin and methylparathion). In the assessment of exposure to pesticides, susceptibility of the individual person has to be considered.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.56, No.7, p.449-453. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 00-1121 Hill K.
The management of exposure to hand-arm vibration
Glasgow City Council (GCC) employs approximately 35,000 people in all areas of work, including construction, engineering, manufacturing and horticulture. Of these employees, around 4,000 are exposed to occupational vibration at varying levels as part of their normal work activities. In this article, GCC's health and safety officer explains the GCC approach to tackling and managing Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV).
Safety and Health Practitioner, July 1999, Vol.17, No.7, p.28-32. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 00-951 Robert-Phelps G.
Risk assessment
Self-study workbook on risk assessment in British enterprises, covering four main areas: safety legislation; safety in the workplace; practical risk assessment; risk assessment checklists.
Gower Publishing Limited, Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, United Kingdom, 1999. 97p. Illus. Price: GBP 16.99.

CIS 00-774 Leigh J.P., Hoskin A.
Hazards for nearby residents and cleanup workers of waste sites
This study weighs the risks to workers of cleaning up Superfund sites in the US against the risks to residents if the sites were not cleaned up. Risks are measured by the number of deaths and disabilities due to injuries and diseases, as well as by the costs of these deaths and disabilities. Three methods are proposed for the cleaning up of sites: one that is labour-intensive and two that are not. Twenty-four are posited hypothetical sites, with varying numbers of residents and levels of cancer death and cancer disability rates. Depending on the cleanup method, the number of residents and the rates, it was found that the risks to workers frequently outweighed the risks to residents. It is concluded that risks to workers should be accounted for in Environmental Protection Agency judgements regarding which and how Superfund sites should be cleaned up.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.331-348. 42 ref.

CIS 00-810
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Volume 71: Re-evaluation of some organic chemical, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide (three parts)
Topics: animal experiments; biological hazards; carcinogenic effects; carcinogens; hydrazine; hydrogen peroxide; criteria document; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; hazard evaluation; IARC; literature survey; mutagenic effects; organic compounds; toxic effects; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. vi, 1,586p. (3 vols.). Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 00-771 National Congress of Occupational Medicine - Theme No.1: Evaluation of chemical hazards at the workplace
Journées nationales de médecine du travail - Thème n°1: Evaluation du risque chimique en milieu de travail [in French]
Proceedings of the National Congress of occupational medicine on the evaluation of chemical hazards at the workplace, held in Strasbourg, France, from 23 to 26 June 1998. Papers presented covered general topics (methodology for evaluating risk, hierarchical classification of risks, levels of confinement, software and evaluation tools, biological monitoring) as well as the evaluation of the exposure to chemicals that are present in specific industrial settings.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1999, Vol.60, No.5, p.391-516 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-512 Davies P.A., Quinn D.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk assessment results: Sensitivity to weather data
The risks of harming persons in the vicinity of major hazardous industrial sites are calculated to evaluate the tolerability of risks against established criteria. The objective of this study is to examine the sensitivity of risk assessment results to weather parameters (wind speed, weather stability, release orientation). Mathematical models are used for risk calculations performed with five weather sets.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. vi, 86p. Illus. Price: GBP 30.00.

CIS 00-423 Stewart R.E., Dennis L.K., Dawson D.V., Resnick M.I.
A meta-analysis of risk estimates for prostate cancer related to tire and rubber manufacturing operations
A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies that used standard mortality ratios and of three case-control studies that used odds ratios was conducted to investigate the association between prostate cancer and exposure to tyre and rubber manufacturing environments. The pooled results from the cohort studies showed a standard mortality ratio of 101, whereas the pooled results from the case-control studies showed an odds ratio of 1.10. The overall risk estimate from all 12 studies was 1.03. The conclusion of this meta-analysis was that work exposure in a rubber and tyre manufacturing environment does not result in an increased risk of prostate cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.12, p.1079-1084. 46 ref.

CIS 00-99 Carrier G.
Scientific uncertainty and its implications for risk management
L'incertitude scientifique et ses conséquences sur la gestion des risques [in French]
Topics: backache; epidemiology; hazard evaluation; hazard identification; health hazards; research; risk factors; safety planning; toxic effects; toxicology.
Travail et santé, June 1999, Vol.15, No.2, p.7-11. Illus.

CIS 00-243 Safety of machinery - Principles of risk assessment
Sécurité des machines - Principes pour l'appréciation du risque [in French]
Topics: conditions of exposure; electricity; ergonomics; harmful physical agents; hazard evaluation; hazard identification; human factors; ISO; machinery; mechanical hazards; reliability; standard.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Feb. 1999. iv, 18p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 00-164 Díaz González P.M.
Exposure to vanadium, hazards and evaluation
Exposición al vanadio, riesgos y valoraciones [in Spanish]
Topics: vanadium; gastrointestinal diseases; hazard evaluation; health hazards; implementation of control measures; neurotoxic effects; obstructive ventilatory impairment; silicosis; toxic substances; toxicology; uses; vanadium and compounds.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1999, No.147, p.7-15. Illus. 3 ref.

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