Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Marine risk assessment: Concept and criteria
This document is presented as a proposal to complement the European Union convention specified in the Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment of New and Existing Chemicals (see CIS 97-932), in particular for risk assessment in the marine environment. Two approaches are proposed, one for local assessment, the other for regional assessment. For local areas of increased exposure, risk is assessed by comparing environmental concentration and data on biological effects. For regional areas, a modified risk assessment method is proposed, based on the identification and evaluation of substances whose discharge can lead to short- or long-term marine pollution.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. 34p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Gibb H.J., Lees P.S.J., Pinsky P.F., Rooney B.C.
Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production
To assess the risk of lung cancer among chromate production workers, a cohort of 2,357 workers first employed between 1950 and 1974 at a chromate production plant was identified. Work histories of cohort members were compiled from the beginning of employment through 1985, the year the plant closed. Vital status of the workers was followed until 1992. Annual average exposure estimates, based on historical exposure measurements, were made for each job title in the plant for the years 1950-1985. These exposure estimates were used to calculate the cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure of each subject of the study population. Following closure of the plant, settled dust samples were collected, analysed, and used to estimate cumulative chromium exposure for each individual in the study cohort. It was found that cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure was associated with an increased lung cancer risk, while cumulative trivalent chromium exposure was not. The excess risk of lung cancer associated with cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure was not confounded by smoking status.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.115-126. Illus. 24 ref.
Schneider T., Lepicard S., Oudiz A., Gadbois S., Hériard-Dubreuil G.
A comparison of the carcinogenic risk assessment and management of asbestos, nickel and ionising radiation
French regulations and methodologies used for the assessment and management of the carcinogenic risk of asbestos, nickel aerosols and ionizing radiation are discussed and compared. The data collected reveal some significant similarities in the principle on which the assessment and management of risks of low-level exposure are based, and although the procedures used are based on relatively distinct instruments, they produce results that are not dissimilar and that in general reflect the shared concern to devise reasonable solutions with regard to the prevention of carcinogenic risks.
OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine St-Germain, 12 Boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, Nov. 2000. 83p. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Control of chemicals in printing: COSHH essentials for printers
Aimed at employers in the printing industry, this document contains advice and guidance for the assessment of their activities under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 00-620). The regulations require employers to limit the exposure to hazardous substances to protect the health of their employees. The guidance proposes a step-by-step approach for each chemical used in the printing shop: allocating a hazard group; identifying the quantity being used; identifying the volatility; finding the appropriate control guidance sheet; implementing and reviewing preventive actions. 35 information sheets offering guidance on the implementation of engineering control measures are included, grouped under the headings of general ventilation, engineering control, containment, special situations and general advice.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2000. iv, 16p. lllus. 6 ref. + 35 safety data sheets. Price: GBP 15.00.
Analysis of chemical hazards associated with the use of resins during the laying of floorcovering
Analyse des risques chimiques dans la mise en œuvre des résines lors de l'application de revêtements de sols [in French]
The use of chemicals in the construction industry can cause risks to health and give rise to fire and explosion hazards, both for workers and neighbouring populations. This article presents a questionnaire aimed at SMEs in the construction industry, aimed at helping them to identify hazards resulting from the use of resins during the laying of floorcovering, and to implement appropriate preventive measures with the help of the occupational physician.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.101-112.
Trethewy R., Atkinson M., Falls B.
Improved hazard identification for contractors
The formal identification of workplace hazards is a fundamental principle on which successful safety management is founded and an essential component of OHS legislation in Australia. Environment legislation requires a similar control of workplace hazards. However, contractors do not always have the ability of to carry out this process in a formal way and to document an appropriate safe work procedure. Also, the requirement to review such procedures is also problematic for those who control a workplace. For some contractors, hazards can be so ingrained in the work process that they are considered the "norm". In addition, more subtle injury mechanisms such as repetitive lifting may be completely ignored due to the perceived inability to control such hazards at source. This article reports on some useful methods to assist contractors in hazard identification.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2000, Vol.16, No.6, p.507-520. Illus. 11 ref.
Stayner L.T., Dankovic D.A., Smith R.J., Gilbert S.J., Bailer A.J.
Human cancer risk and exposure to 1,3-butadiene - A tale of mice and men
The purpose of this study was to evaluate empirically the relevance of animal-bioassay-based models for predicting human risks from exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) using epidemiological data. Relative-risk results obtained with a regression model in a recent epidemiological study were used to estimate leukaemia risk for occupational and environmental exposures to BD and to compare these estimates with those previously derived from an analysis of animal bioassay data. The estimates of risk were found to be highly dependent on the model used when low levels of exposure were evaluated that are of environmental concern, but not at the levels of occupational concern.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.322-330. Illus. 36 ref.
Hassi J., Mäkinen T.
How to assess and manage cold-related risks in northern workplaces?
Exposure to low temperatures at work can give rise frostbite and hypothermia. Indirect effects and effects from longer-term exposure include a reduction of mental alertness, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and hyper-reactivity to cold, such as cold-induced urticaria, common in Finland. This article describes a European Union project aimed at developing tools for cold work risk assessment and management in order to reduce or prevent cold-related adverse effects.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2000, Vol.3, No.1-2, p.23-26. Illus. 5 ref.
Major J., Jakab M.G., Tompa A.
HPRT mutation frequencies in benzene-exposed oil refinery workers during an eleven-year-long follow-up study
Mutation and variant frequencies (VF) of the hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) loci of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 43 occupationally benzene-exposed, 30-40-year-old workers with increased chromosome aberration frequencies were investigated by autoradiography in an eleven-year-long follow-up study in order to assess the cancer risk. Data were compared to those of 87 age-matched controls. Ambient air benzene concentrations were measured with gas chromatography. Compared to the controls, the values of the labelling indices in PBLs of the exposed donors were decreased indicating a reduced response to lectine stimulation in the genotoxicologically compromised cells. In the years 1992-1993, the mean hprt VFs of the exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the controls, but not in the previous or subsequent years. The distribution of the individual VFs also indicated exposure-related increases in the years 1991-1993. The data indicate that occupational exposure to benzene can increase the cell mutation frequencies.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.288-299. Illus. 45 ref.
Das B., Sengupta A.K.
Evaluation of low back pain risks in a beef skinning operation
Low back pain risks in a beef skinning workstation were evaluated. The increases in compressive forces at the lower back (L5/S1) between normal and severe, and between normal and very severe bent back postures were 387N or 28% and 616N or 45%, respectively. The high spine load coupled with high level of repetition can give rise to fatigue failure in the spine structural members. Non-neutral back posture for a large portion of the total work time can be a low back pain risk factor. Videotape analysis showed that the times involved during the task performance for the bent back (more than 25°) and severe bent back (more than 45°) were 48.4 and 33.5% of the total cycle time, respectively. The upper limit from OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysis System) for bent back posture is 30% of the total cycle time. The bent and twisted back posture (both more than 25°) time was 10.4 % compared to OWAS limit of 5%. This indicated that actions are needed to alleviate the risk of low back pain, including ergonomic redesign of the workstation.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.347-361. Illus. 23 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some industrial chemicals
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 15-22 February 2000. 16 industrial organic chemicals were reviewed: three were rated 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), five were rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and eight were classified 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). For each chemical, the following aspects are covered: exposure data; studies of cancer in humans; studies of cancer in experimental animals; other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary of reported data and evaluation.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 2000. iv, 563p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Pośniak M., Skowroń J.
Polish system of assessing occupational risk posed by chemical compounds
According to the Polish Labour Code, employers are legally obliged to provide workers with information about occupational safety and health hazards. Maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) and the results of determining chemicals in workplace air are used for assessing occupational exposure and risk. A computer-assisted system, "STER", developed in the Central Institute for Labour Protection is described; it helps to analyse all the information to identify the hazards, to assess the risk and to identify and document all actions that should be taken.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Special issue, p.103-109. Illus. 6 ref.
Plan for the removal of asbestos-containing friable materials - Analysis by the occupational physician
Plan de retrait de matériaux friables contenant de l'amiante - Analyse par le médecin du travail [in French]
Article 23, Section 4, of French Decree No.96-98 of 7 February 1996 (see CIS 96-404) on the protection of workers against hazards due to the inhaling of asbestos dust requires that all asbestos-removal work be submitted to the opinion of the industrial physician. A working group of company physicians was set up in order to share their experiences and to propose a method for analysing the various elements of the asbestos-removal plan which require the attention of industrial physicians. The objective is to help the company physicians reach a reasoned opinion on the aspects of the removal plan that are of particular concern to them, knowing that the plan is also submitted to the hygiene and safety committees, or in their absence, to workers' representatives. One month prior to the start of work, this plan is communicated to the labour inspection and occupational health authorities for the approval of technical aspects.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.82, p.115-123. Illus. 8 ref.
Guide to risk assessment
Guide d'évaluation des risques [in French]
In France, the average direct cost of an occupational accident is FRF 15,000. Indirect losses, including lost work time, production losses and equipment repairs can represent a further one to three times this amount. The purpose of this safety guide is to help companies organize their approach to hazard prevention in a simple manner: identify the hazards, select the hazards to be addressed in priority, implement solutions. It includes a one-page sheet for each of 18 frequent occupational hazards, describing typical causes and suggesting solutions. Replaces CIS 01-363.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Oct. 2000. 25p. Illus. Price: EUR 5.00.
Franks A., Hughes G., Hanif S.
Health and Safety Executive
A comparison of accident experience with quantitative risk assessment (QRA) methodology
Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) methodology for industrial process plants was studied and compared with accident theory and accident experience drawn from various accident databases. Analysis of the data indicates that the proportion of accidents occurring when the plant is in some abnormal state may be 40% or more. Maintenance appears to be a particularly frequent abnormal state. It is recommended that maintenance operations be considered in all cases where the QRA is to be used for producing recommendations for risk reduction. Contents of this research report: description of QRA methodology; use of failure data in QRA; uncertainty and quality in QRA; QRA studies; QRA and accident theory; analysis of major accidents based on accident database information.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. viii, 97p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
Khan F.I., Abbasi S.A.
Analytical simulation and PROFAT II: A new methodology and a computer automated tool for fault tree analysis in chemical process industries
Fault tree analysis (FTA) is based on constructing a hypothetical tree of base events (initiating events) branching into numerous other sub-events, propagating the fault and eventually leading to the top event (accident). It has been a powerful technique used traditionally in identifying hazards in nuclear installations and power industries. As the systematic articulation of the fault tree is associated with assigning probabilities to each fault, the exercise is also sometimes called probabilistic risk assessment. But powerful as this technique is, it is also very cumbersome and costly, limiting its area of application. This article describes a new algorithm based on analytical simulation, which makes the application of FTA simpler, quicker, and cheaper, thus opening up the possibility of its wider use in risk assessment in chemical process industries. A computer-automated tool based on the methodology has been developed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 2000, Vol.75, No.1. p.1-27. Illus. 40 ref.
Martí Veciana A
Assessment of hazards due to chemicals: Guide to the selection and use of the analytical method
Evaluación de riesgos por agentes químicos: Guía par la selección y la utilización del método analítico [in Spanish]
This information note defines the criteria to be taken into consideration when selecting an analytical method for evaluating exposure to hazardous chemicals. Contents: standardized and validated analytical methods (Spanish UNE and INSHT standards, ISO standards and standards of other recognized public institutions); appropriateness and reliability of the selected analytical method; carrying out the analytical method; analysis report.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 10 ref.
Martí Veciana A.
Assessment of hazards due to chemicals. Analytical methodology: Basic aspects
Evaluación de riesgos por agentes químicos. El método analítico: aspectos básicos [in Spanish]
Aimed at occupational safety and health professionals, this information note describes the design methodology for developing analytical techniques for evaluating the exposure to hazardous chemicals. Aspects covered include technical characteristics of the analytical methods and their incidence on the results found, as well as the procedure for validating an analytical method. It also describes the various elements which an analysis report needs to contain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 5p. 13 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Ionizing radiation, Part 1: X- and gamma (γ)-radiation, and neutrons
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 26 May-2 June 1999 on cancer risks from X-radiation, γ-radiation and neutrons. All three are classified in group 1 (carcinogenic to humans). For each form of radiation, the following aspects are covered: exposure data; studies of cancer in humans; studies of cancer in experimental animals; other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary of reported data and evaluation.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 2000. x, 491p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Tolley's practical risk assessment handbook
Manual containing practical guidance on conducting risk assessments, with reference to United Kingdom legislation. Contents include: requirements of the 1992 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations (see CIS 92-1754); special cases; carrying out risk assessments; assessment records; examples of risk assessments; specialised risk assessment techniques; implementation of precautions; Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) assessments; noise assessment; assessment of manual handling; assessment of display screen equipment (DSE) workstations; assessment of personal protective equipment requirements; fire risk assessment.
Butterworths Tolley, 2 Addiscombe Road, Croydon, Surrey CR9 5AF, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2000. v, 344p. Illus. Index. Price: GBP 50.00.
Hodgson J.T., Darnton A.
The quantitative risks of mesothelioma and lung cancer in relation to asbestos exposure
Mortality reports on asbestos-exposed cohorts which gave information on exposure levels from which (as a minimum) a cohort average cumulative exposure could be estimated were reviewed. At exposure levels seen in occupational cohorts it is concluded that the exposure specific risk of mesothelioma from three principal commercial asbestos types is broadly in the ratio 1:100:500 for chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite, respectively. For lung cancer the conclusions are less clear cut. Cohorts exposed only to crocidolite or amosite record similar exposure specific risk levels, but chrysotile-exposed cohorts show a less consistent picture. An excess risk is recorded by cohorts with mixed fibre exposures (generally <1%). It is suggested that a best estimate lung cancer risk for chrysotile alone would be 0.1%, with a highest reasonable estimate of 0.5%. The risk differential between chrysotile and the two amphibole fibres for lung cancer is thus between 1:10 and 1:50. Based on these considerations, and a discussion of the associated uncertainties, a series of quantified risk summary statements for different levels of cumulative exposure are presented.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 2000, Vol.44, No.8, p.565-601. Illus. 73 ref.
Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer: A risk assessment
To investigate exposure-response relationships for silica, silicosis and lung cancer, a quantitative review of the literature identified in a computerized literature search was carried out. The findings of the most significant studies are that the risk of silicosis following a lifetime of exposure at the current OSHA standard of 0.1mg/m3 is likely to be at least 5-10% and lung cancer risk is likely to be increased by 30% or more. The exposure-response relationship for silicosis is nonlinear and reduction of dust exposures would have a greater than linear benefit in terms of risk reduction; available data suggests that 30 years exposure at 0.1mg/m3 might lead to a lifetime silicosis risk of about 25%, whereas reduction of the exposure to 0.05mg/m3 might reduce the risk to under 5%. In conclusion, the lifetime risk of silicosis and lung cancer at an exposure level of 0.1mg/m3 is high. Lowering exposures to the NIOSH recommended limit if 0.05mg/m3 may have substantial benefits.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.8-18. 26 ref.
Hessel P.A., Gamble J.F., Gee J.B.L., Gibbs G., Green F.H.Y., Morgan W.K.C., Mossman B.T.
Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer: A response to a recent working group report
On the basis of numerous studies on crystalline silica and lung cancer, IARC has determined that there was sufficient evidence to conclude that quartz and cristobalite were carcinogenic in humans. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent and, when positive, only weakly positive. Other, methodologically strong, negative studies have not been considered. Several studies viewed as providing evidence supporting the carcinogenicity of silica have significant methodological weaknesses. Silica is not directly genotoxic and is a pulmonary carcinogen only in the rat, a species inappropriate for assessing carcinogenesis in humans. Data on humans show a lack of association between lung cancer and exposure to crystalline silica. Studies in which silicotic patients were not identified from compensation registries, and in which enumeration was complete, did not support a causal association between silicosis and lung cancer, which further argues against the carcinogenicity of crystalline silica.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2000, Vol.42, No.7, p.704-720. Illus. 84 ref.
Innos K., Rahu M., Rahu K., Lang I., Leon D.A.
Wood dust exposure and cancer incidence: A retrospective cohort study of furniture workers in Estonia
In a retrospective cohort study of furniture workers, cancer incidence in 3723 men and 3063 women between 1968 and 1995 was compared to the incidence in the general population of Estonia. Cancer risks were analysed by employment duration and occupation. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers did not differ significantly from one. Two men and one woman had sinonasal cancer (expected 1.07 and 0.53, respectively). Significantly increased risk of colon cancer was seen in the cohort (SIR 1.65). Subjects employed for 10 years and over had significant excess of colon cancer (SIR 2.29) and rectal cancer (SIR 2.10) in the analysis by employment duration using exposure with a latency of 20 years. The non-significant excess of pharyngeal cancer in men (SIR 1.82) and lung cancer in women (SIR 1.43) was restricted to short-term workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2000, Vol.37, No.5, p.501-511. 36 ref.
Gilliland F.D., Hunt W.C., Pardilla M., Key C.R.
Uranium mining and lung cancer among Navajo men in New Mexico and Arizona, 1969 to 1993
Navajo men who were underground miners have excess risk of lung cancer. To further characterize the long-term consequences of uranium mining in this high-risk population, lung cancer incidence among Navajo men residing in New Mexico and Arizona was examined from 1969 to 1993 and a population-based case-control study was conducted to estimate the risk of lung cancer for Navajo uranium miners. It was found that uranium mining contributed substantially to lung cancer among Navajo men over the 25-year period following the end of mining for the Navajo Nation. Sixty-three (67%) of the 94 lung cancers among Navajo men occurred in former uranium miners. The relative risk for a history of mining was 28.6. Smoking did not account for the strong relationship between lung cancer and uranium mining. The Navajo experience with uranium mining is a unique example of exposure in a single occupation accounting for the majority of lung cancers in an entire population.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.42, No.3, p.278-283. 23 ref.
Special issue: Quantified risk assessment
Collection of 28 articles on quantified risk assessment, risk management and environmental protection in connecxtion with work with hazardous materials. Main topics covered: airports; LPG installations; hazardous materials transportation; nuclear plants; electroplating industry; offshore oil production and oil refineries; safety policies; risk analysis and modelling; emergency planning.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan. 2000, Vol.71, No.1-3, p.i-xiii; p.1-526 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Artes gráficas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in the graphic arts sector and corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment (entanglement, cuts and sectioning, falls of objects or flying objects, falls from heights or on the level); electrical hazards; physical hazards (noise, burns, exposure to radiation); dangerous chemicals; fires and explosions; design of workplaces; work organization; list of relevant laws and regulations in Spain; hazard evaluation methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 49p. Illus. 46 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_015.pdf [in Spanish]
de Sèze R.
Developing a strategy for evaluating health hazards due to electromagnetic fields
Elaboration d'une stratégie d'évaluation des risques pour la santé liés aux champs électromagnétiques [in French]
The objectives of this literature survey were to establish the current state of scientific understanding with respect to occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and to develop a framework enabling medical biophysics departments to evaluate their possible harmfulness for workers. This framework comprises five points: precise definition of exposure; study of relevant regulations and standards; study of literature on epidemiology and biological effects; protection in cases of accidental over-exposure; sending of documentation in support of the answer given.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2000. Approx. 150p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Frick K., Langaa Jensen P., Quinlan M., Wilthagen T.
Systematic occupational health and safety management: Perspectives on an international development
This book examines the origins, development and application of occupational safety and health management (OSHM) and contains contributions from leading international experts which provide an international perspective on the effectiveness in managing ill-health at work. It also examines the impact of recent changes in economic, labour market, organizational and regulatory structures. Main topics covered: politics and strategies to promote systematic OSHM; applicability of OSHM in changing labour markets and business structures; implementation in 4 member states of the European Union, Norway, the UK and Canada, and effects; integrating OSHM into business and management development.
Elsevier Science Ltd., The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, United Kingdom, 2000. xxi, 527p. Approx. 890 ref. Index. Price: USD 105.00; EUR 91.21.
Cirujano González A.
Assessment of occupational hazards
La evaluación de riesgos laborales [in Spanish]
Aspects that need to be taken into consideration when evaluating hazards are reviewed. The structure of the hazard evaluation approach must be defined so as to take into account the risks inherent to the organization (analysis of the organization and its management, sectors and worksites, workplaces and individual characteristics of the workers) and risk factors linked to the various working conditions identified. The preparatory aspect of the evaluation includes informing occupational safety and health delegates and workers' representatives, as well as preparing detailed technical documentation. Persons responsible for the assessment need to have appropriate qualifications and should be capable of calling on experts when necessary. The evaluation itself consists of a definition of tolerable risks, as well as an estimation of their probability of occurrence and the damages they would cause. This system of hazard classification determines the preventive actions than need to be implemented. The whole procedure needs to be documented so as to enable its a posteriori review and analysis.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2000, Vol.20, No.79, p.3-19. Illus. 14 ref.
Health hazard evaluation program
A health hazard evaluation (HHE) is an evaluation of possible hazards at a workplace. This booklet and leaflet aimed at employees, employees' representatives and employers give basic guidance on the NIOSH health hazard evaluation programme. Main topics covered: definition and purpose of HHE; persons or organizations empowered to request an HHE; steps of the HHE procedure; confidentiality of the data; reporting of HHE results; form for requesting an HHE.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, June 2000. 12p. (booklet); 5p. (leaflet).
Kamel F., Boyes W.K., Gladen B.C., Rowland A.S., Alavanja M.C.R., Blair A., Sandler D.P.
Retinal degeneration in licensed pesticide applicators
Retinal degeneration is the leading cause of visual impairment in older adults. In a cohort of licensed pesticide applicators in the US, cross-sectional data from self administered questionnaires given at enrollment in 1994-1996 were used to compare pesticide use in 154 applicators who reported retinal degeneration and 17,804 controls. Retinal degeneration was associated with fungicide use (odds ratio = 1.8). This relationship was seen in subgroups defined by state of residence, demographic characteristics and medical history, as well as in the entire group. Risk increased with cumulative days of fungicide use and was greater when application methods involving greater personal exposure were used. Less significant retinal degeneration was also related to use of organochlorine or carbamate insecticides. These results suggest that exposure to some fungicides and insecticides may increase the risk of retinal degeneration.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.618-628. 20 ref.
Villeneuve P.J., Agnew D.A., Miller A.B., Corey P.N., Purdham J.T.
Leukemia in electric utility workers: The evaluation of alternative indices of exposure to 60Hz electric and magnetic fields
The association between adult leukaemia and exposure to electric and magnetic fields was explored by a case-control study of 31,453 Ontario (Canada) electric utility workers. The percentage of time spent above electric field thresholds of 20 and 39V/m was predictive of leukaemia risk after adjusting for duration of employment. Duration of employment was strongly associated with an increased risk of leukaemia. Those who had worked for at least 20 years, and were in the highest tertiles of percentage of time spent above 10 and 20V/m, had odds ratios of 10.17 and 8.23, respectively, when compared with those in the lowest tertile. Non-significant elevations in risk were observed between indices of magnetic fields and leukaemia. The results support the hypothesis that electric fields act as a promoting agent in the aetiology of adult leukaemia. Exposure assessment based on alternative indices of electric and magnetic fields should be incorporated into future occupational studies of cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.607-617. 36 ref.
Jöckel K.H., Pohlabeln H., Bolm-Audorff U., Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Wichmann H.E.
Lung cancer risk of workers in shoe manufacture and repair
A total of 4,184 people with primary lung cancer and 4,253 controls, matched for sex, age and region of residence were interviewed in Germany with respect to their occupational and smoking history. Individuals who had worked in shoe manufacturing or repair for at least half a year were identified. Based on 76 cases and 42 controls having worked in shoe manufacture or repair, a significant risk was noted (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.89). After adjustment for smoking, this risk was lowered to 1.69. The smoking-adjusted OR among men was 1.50 and 2.91 among women. Regression modelling showed a positive dose-effect relationship between duration of exposure in shoe manufacture and repair and lung cancer risk. The OR for 30 years of exposure varied between 1.98 and 2.24. The study shows an increased lung cancer risk for shoemakers and workers in shoe manufacturing, doubling after being 30 years in these occupations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2000, Vol.37, No.6, p.575-580. 20 ref.
Freedman D.M., Dosemeci M., Alavanja M.C.R.
Mortality from multiple sclerosis and exposure to residential and occupational solar radiation: A case-control study based on death certificates
To explore whether mortality from multiple sclerosis is negatively associated with exposure to sunlight, two case-control studies based on death certificates were conducted for mortality from multiple sclerosis and non-melanoma skin cancer (as a positive control). Cases were all deaths from multiple sclerosis between 1984 and 1995 in 24 states of the United States. Controls excluded cancer and certain neurological deaths. Results were adjusted for age, sex, race and socio-economic status. Unlike mortality from skin cancer, mortality from multiple sclerosis was negatively associated with residential exposure to sunlight (odds ratio 0.53 (multiple sclerosis) and 1.24 (skin cancer)). Odds ratios for the highest occupational exposure to sunlight were 0.74 for mortality from multiple sclerosis, compared with 1.21 for mortality from non-melanoma skin cancer. The OR was 0.24 for the combined effect of the highest levels of residential, and occupational exposure to sunlight on multiple sclerosis, compared with an OR of 1.38 for skin cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.418-421. 27 ref.
Strategy for prevention and control of the risks due to noise
An easy-to-implement strategy for controlling exposure to noise is proposed, consisting of three stages. Stage 1 is observation, simple and easy to use by the workers to recognize the problems, identify straightforward solutions and call for assistance when needed. Stage 2 is analysis, more complex but more costly, performed with the assistance of occupational health specialists to identify more technical control measures and set up a programme to conserve hearing. Stage 3 is expertise, performed with the assistance of acoustic experts for special measurements and control measures. The proposed strategy uses the competence of the workers and management with respect to their working environment and recognizes that knowledge and measurements of acoustics are not an absolute prerequisite for solving noise problems. It attempts to organize in sequence and optimize the cooperation between workers, occupational health specialists and experts in acoustics.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.361-369. 18 ref.
Kearney P.J., Li G.
Geographic variations in crash risk of general aviation and air taxis
Data regarding general aviation and air taxi crashes in the United States during 1992-94 were analysed and crash risk was calculated for each state and region. During the 3-year period, the calculated United States crash rate was 8.9 crashes per 100,000 flight hours. Alaska and the Northwest Mountain region had the highest crash and fatal crash rates. This is the first study to report on geographical differences in rates determined as crashes per 100,000 pilot hours. It shows that crash rates and fatal crashes are highest in mountainous regions.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2000, Vol.71, No.1, p.19-21. 9 ref.
Vincent R., Bonthoux F., Lamoise C.
Chemical risk assessment - Ranking of "potential risks"
Evaluation du risque chimique - Hiérarchisation des "risques potentiels" [in French]
The first step when assessing chemical risk in factories is to collect data pertaining to substances or products used. A simplified method, based on responses proposed by industrial hygiene experts, has been developed for ranking "potential chemical risks" on the basis of information derived from safety data sheets and labels. This method is a valuable aid to chemical risk assessment and priority setting in factories when establishing risk prevention policies.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2000, No.178, Note No.2121-178-00, p.29-34. Illus. 7 ref.
Castellá López J.L.
Accidents, employment, workload and degree of risk of work
Accidentes, empleo, carga de trabajo y peligrosidad del trabajo [in Spanish]
This article presents a mathematical model for estimating trends in the rate of occupational accidents as a function of the level of employment, based on the hypothesis that the number of accidents is a function of the number of workers employed, workload and degree of risk of the work. This model is used for analysing the trends in accidents during the period ranging from 1994 to 1999 and to estimate the accidents avoided thanks to improvements in working conditions and safety from 1977 to 1999.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2000, No.7, p.16-25. Illus.
Weldon M., VanEgdom M.J., Hendricks K.A., Regner G., Bell B.P., Sehulster L.M.
Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus in drinking water workers and wastewater workers in Texas from 1996 to 1997
To determine if wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) than drinking-water workers, 359 wastewater and 89 drinking-water workers were evaluated for risk factors by questionnaire and tested for anti-HAV. Anti-HAV positivity was 28.4% for wastewater and 23.6% for drinking-water workers. After adjustment for age, educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity, the odds ratio for the association between anti-HAV positivity and wastewater industry employment was 2.0. Among wastewater workers, never eating in a lunchroom, ≥8 years in the waste water industry, never wearing face protection, and skin contact with sewage at least once per day were all significantly associated with anti-HAV positivity. Wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of anti-HAV than drinking-water workers, which suggested that wastewater workers may have been at increased risk of occupationally acquired hepatitis A.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.821-826. 18 ref.
Fathallah F.A., Grönqvist R., Cotnam J.P.
Estimated slip potential on icy surfaces during various methods of exiting commercial tractors, trailers, and trucks
Many commercial vehicles are equipped with steps and grab-rails to help drivers safely enter and exit the vehicle. Nevertheless, many drivers do not use these aids. The purpose of this study was to assess the slip potential of various exit methods from five common types of commercial vehicles under icy conditions. The study assessed the required coefficient of friction of 10 male subjects as they exited cab-over-engine and conventional tractors, a step-van, the back of a box trailer, and the back of a cube-van. The results showed that the estimated probability of a fall was high (over 0.9 for wet ice conditions) when the exit aids were not utilized. Full use of the steps and grab-rails resulted in a substantial decrease in the estimated probability of a fall. An approach to safety that emphasizes optimal design of entry/exit aids, and driver training and education, can minimize exit-related slips and falls and their corresponding potential injuries.
Safety Science, Nov. 2000, Vol.36, No.2, p.69-81. Illus. 11 ref.
National seminar on management of hazardous chemicals: Safety, health and environment
Proceedings of a conference on safety, health and environmental issues relating to hazardous chemicals held in Bhubaneshwar, India, 21-22 January 2000. Contents include general principles on managing risks from hazardous chemicals, risk planning tools and methods, standardization, Indian legislation and regulations. Examples and case studies are drawn from specific industries or geographical settings (mining, paper industry, the Port of Paradip, the State of Orissa, fire in a bleaching powder warehouse).
Multi Disciplinary Centre on Safety, Health and Environment, C-38, Unit-VIII, Bhubaneshwar 751 003, India, 2000. 252p. Illus.
Kotel'nikov V.S., Klovač E. V., Kručinina I.A., Pečerkin A.S., Sidorov V.I., Šalaev V.K.
Apartment buildings as hazardous production sites
Žiloj dom, kak opasnyj proizvostvennyj ob"ekt [in Russian]
Arguments are provided why apartment buildings with lifts can be regarded as hazardous industrial installations in the sense of the 1997 law of the Russian Federation on Industrial safety of major hazard installations. Accidents can occur during repair work, the lift requires inspection and must be checked, insurance must be paid although premiums should be lowered in view of favourable accident statistics.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 2000, No.4, p.48-50.
Health and Safety Executive
Handle with care - Assessing musculoskeletal risks in the chemical industry
This manual is aimed at employers and employees to help them assess the risks of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) arising from the various tasks, workloads and work environments in the chemical industry. It includes check lists for assessing the risks from manual handling and working at screens, as well as assessing the MSD risks to the upper extremities. 14 case study exercises based on typical tasks carried out within the chemical industry are described, and the readers or participants are encouraged to conduct the risk assessment themselves or in group work. Suggested answers are included for each of the cases. A blank form enables users to describe the tasks they carry out and to assess the MSD risks of their specific job.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 112p. (perforated sheets for ring binder) Illus. 14 ref.
Niño Escalante J.
Risk factors, indicators and markers in occupational risk prevention
Factores, indicadores y marcadores de riesgo en prevención laboral [in Spanish]
A methodology for risk assessment based on risk factors, markers and indicators including risk identification, evaluation and control is presented. It is applicable to all technical fields. Risk factors are determined by the type of work and working conditions. Risk indicators are parameters of the accident susceptibility and risk markers are objective elements to estimate risk factors derived from practical working situations. Five examples of risk assessment and control measures are given (hazards: silicosis, traffic accidents, efforts when handling loads, postural overstrain, occupational stress).
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 2000, Vol.20, No.77, p.31-45. Illus.
Punzet M., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in printing and bookbinding workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach poligraficznych i introligatorskich - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in printing and bookbinding workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 23+48p. 52+8 ref.
Kowalik K., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in boiler rooms - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w kotłowniach - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in boiler rooms is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998-1999. 25+24p. 55+3 ref.
Kowerski A., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in locksmith workshops and machine assembly plants - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach ślusarskich i budowy maszyn - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in metalworking shops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 22+33p. 70+9 ref.
Wieczorek Z., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in the plastics industry - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach przetwórstwa tworzyw sztucznych - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in the plastics industry is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1998-1999. 25+32p. 49 ref.
Taller de cerámica [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of possible hazards in ceramic workshops and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 49p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_014.pdf [in Spanish]
Restaurants, bars and cafeterias
Restaurantes, bares y cafeterías [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in restaurants, bars and cafeterias and corresponding prevention elements is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 33p. Illus.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_011.pdf [in Spanish]
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