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Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found

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CIS 02-1575 Road passenger transport
Transporte de personas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in road passenger transport (loading, driving and issuing tickets) and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1576 Flower shops
Floristerías [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in flower shops and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; method for risk assessment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 41p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1571 Greenhouses
Invernaderos [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in greenhouses and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals (in particular pesticides); biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 55p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1573 Automobile washing and lubricating workshops
Talleres de lavado y engrase de coches [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in automobile washing and lubricating workshops and the principal applicable prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 47p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1590 Rubio Romero J.C.
Considerations on the concepts of danger, hazard and hazard evaluation
Reflexiones sobre los conceptos de peligro, riesgo y evaluación de riesgos [in Spanish]
This article explores the concepts of danger, hazards and hazard evaluation. These frequently-used concepts are not clearly defined in Spanish legislation and depending on the documents or regulations, may have slightly different meanings. The ambiguity between the meanings of the terms "danger" and "hazard" is highlighted. Different types of hazards (such as personal, social or occupational) are discussed. Finally, the different meanings of the term "hazard evaluation" (general hazard evaluation, workplace evaluation, overall hazard evaluation) are also discussed.
Prevención, Apr.-June 2002, No.160, p.20-33. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1867
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling risks around explosives stores: Review of the requirements on separation distances
Storage of more than 30kg of explosives in the United Kingdom requires a licence and the respect of minimum distances between the point of storage and neighbouring buildings. Recent trials carried out by the Ministry of Defence suggest that the quantity of debris generated by an explosion and the distance to which they would be projected could be considerably higher than what was previously thought. This report makes recommendations with respect to revised minimum distances that take the latest experimental data into account. Contents: risk models; estimating the number of fatalities; case studies; approach used for developing recommendations for new requirements on separation distances; other risk reduction measures; tables providing proposed distances as a function of the quantity of explosives stored and the density of the surrounding population.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. 75p. Illus. 14 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1834
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Man-made vitreous fibres
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 9-16 October 2001 on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans of man-made vitreous fibres. Special-purpose glass fibres such as E-glass and 475-glass, as well as refractory ceramic fibres were rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic in humans); insulation glass wool, continuous glass filaments, rock wool and slag wool were rated 3 (not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2002. vii, 418p. Illus. Approx. 500 ref. Index.

CIS 02-1861 Kondo S., Takahashi A., Tokuhashi K., Sekiya A.
RF number as a new index for assessing combustion hazard of flammable gases
A new index called "RF number" has been proposed for assessing the combustion hazard of several flammable gases and their mixtures. The RF number represents the total expectancy of combustion hazards in terms of flammability limits and heat of combustion for each known and unknown constituents. The advantages of the RF number over other indices such as R-index and F-number for classification of the combustion hazard of hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 2002, Vol.93, No.3, p.259-267.11 ref.

CIS 02-1589 Farrow S., Hayakawa H.
Investing in safety - An analytical precautionary principle
Governments and businesses must respond to increasing safety requirements and balance the associated costs with productivity and competing pressures. A real options approach has been introduced for decision making in the private sector; this approach is adapted for regulatory decisions that can involve irreversible and uncertain safety impacts, social costs that differ from direct costs, and differences in perception among the stakeholders. The outcome is an economic decision gage that determines if it is optimal to invest in safety even if the estimated costs significantly exceed the estimated benefits. Potential applications include civil aviation, ground transportation, pipelines, nuclear facilities, natural disaster planning and terrorism.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.165-174. 29 ref.

CIS 02-1922 Jørgensen F., Pedersen P.A.
Drivers' response to the installation of road lighting: An economic interpretation
An economic model of drivers' behaviour is introduced in order to explain recently published empirical findings according to which road lighting increases speed, decreases concentration and reduces accidents. The model, combined with the empirical results, indicate that drivers perceive speed and concentration as complementary safety variables, while common sense suggests that speed and concentration influence real accident rate as substitutable safety means. If this holds, a positive but concave relationship between subjective and objective risks exists, which means that as the objective accident risk rises, it has less influence on perceived risk.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2002, Vol.34, No.5, p.601-608. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1599 Toffel M.W., Birkner L.R.
Estimating and controlling workplace risk: An approach for occupational hygiene and safety professionals
Meeting safety and health objectives requires financial resources. This article proposes that risk decisions should be made with probabilistic processes used in financial decision-making, which are familiar and recognizable to business managers. It develops the processes and demonstrates the use of incident probabilities, past outcome information and incremental impact analysis to estimate risk of multiple alternatives in the chemical industry. It also analyses how the ethical aspects of decision-making can be addressed in formulating safety and health risk management plans. It is concluded that easily understood applied probabilistic risk assessment methods used by business to assess financial and outcome risk have applicability to improving workplace safety and health.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.477-485. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1696 27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health - Grenoble, 4-7 June 2002
27e Congrès national de médecine et santé au travail - Grenoble, 4-7 juin 2002 [in French]
Proceedings of the 27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health held in Grenoble, France, 4-7 June 2002. Main topics covered: microbiological and toxicological risks of water-based paint; household waste treatment and health hazards; PAH; violence in the workplace; new strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders; prevention by routine medical examination; pluridisciplinarity; occupational medicine and quality; influence of the Internet on practices in occupational medicine; ethics and occupational health; perception of hazards and risk-taking; ionizing radiation; sleep and work (diagnosis of hyper-somnolence); nutrition; occupational asthma and options for prevention; occupationally-related cardiovascular risk; effects of company restructuring on health; working after the age of 50; socio-occupational health inequalities.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2002, Vol.63, No.3-4, p.133-354 (whole issue). Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1408 Fuertes Peña J., Rubio Romero J.C.
The FRAME method for evaluating fire risk
El método FRAME de evaluación del riesgo de incendio [in Spanish]
This article presents the FRAME (Fire risk assessment method for engineering) method for evaluating the risk of fire in buildings as a function of three parameters: the value (building envelope and contents), the occupants and the activities carried out within the building. The calculations take into account the potential hazard, the admissible risk and the level or protection, together with a number of additional factors such as thermal load, propagation, geometry, floors, ventilation, access, activation, evacuation time, contents, reserves in water and fire resistance.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2002, No.159, p.52-66. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-1008 Regulation of 9 September 2002 concerning the risk evaluation of the working environment, machinery and structures presenting a high level of danger (Text No. 1844) [Croatia]
Pravilnik o ispitivanju radnog okoliša te strojeva i uređaja s povećanim opasnostima [in Croatian]
This Regulation specifies the requirements for risk evaluation in workplaces with high levels of danger in the working environment, machinery or structures. Procedures for authorization to work when the employer proceeds to do the evaluation alone are described, as are procedures to withdraw such authorizations.
Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4309-4312.

CIS 02-1003 Regulation of 9 September 2002 to amend and supplement the Regulation on danger evaluation (Text No. 1839) [Croatia]
Pravilnik o izmjenama i dopunama Pravilnika o izradi procjene opasnosti [in Croatian]
This Regulation modifies the 1998 Regulation on the same topic. It provides for the obligation of the employer to evaluate hazards in the workplace in areas with a particular risk of occupational accident or disease.
Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4299-4300.

CIS 02-1433
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Non-ionizing radiation, part 1: Static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields
Report of an IARC working group on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans from exposure to static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields held in Lyon, France, 19-26 June 2001. Contents: general introduction and definitions; ELF sources, exposure and exposure assessment; studies of cancer in humans; studies of carcinogenicity in experimental animals; other data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary and evaluation of reported data. It is concluded that ELF magnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic in humans (group 2B), and that static and ELF electric fields are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2002. ix, 429p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 02-1411 Mooney J., Walker G.
Health and Safety Executive
The derivation and use of population data for major hazard accident modelling
The aim of the project was to identify sources of population data to be used in major accident hazard modelling and quantitative risk assessment (QRA). Requirements include national cover and a level of detail that takes into account the diurnal changes in population patterns. Postcode geography was used as a foundation, enriched by cartographic data, remotely sensed land use data, postcode data, commercial directories and other socio-economic data. The project has shown that significant advances are possible in the quality, diversity and accuracy of population data used in major accident hazard modelling and QRA. The enhanced data can be used for the assessment of pipeline, transport and fixed site risks, for making changes to accident modelling assumptions to reflect variations in population vulnerabilities, for the development of macro-level indicators of changes in population exposure to risk and for the use of data in regulatory impact assessments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 109p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: GBP 30.00. [in English]

CIS 02-877 Huré P., Triolet J.
General principles of technical preventive measures against chemical hazards
Principes généraux de la prévention technique du risque chimique [in French]
For enterprises using a large number of chemicals, French regulations concerning the prevention of hazards include provisions concerning the responsibilities of suppliers as well as users of chemicals. For users, preventive measures should be the result of a hazard evaluation at the place of work involving the detection, identification, quantification and evaluation based on reference systems such as that of occupational exposure limit values. Regulations also address the question of the order in which preventive measures should be implemented: training, information, substitution, collective prevention measures (collection and ventilation) and personal preventive measures. In order to be fully effective, the control of chemical hazards within the enterprise requires a combination of preventive measures to be implemented with the active support of all involved.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 7p. 15 ref.

CIS 02-876 Hervé-Bazin B.
Chemical hazards and defining exposure limits
Risques chimiques et détermination des valeurs limites d'exposition [in French]
This article describes the principles of toxicological studies and exposure evaluation relating to dangerous chemicals. Contents: different types of hazards and classification of hazardous substances; types of toxicological studies (acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity, regulatory aspects); chemical hazard evaluation at the workplace (detection of hazards, conditions of exposure, exposure evaluation and characterization); general aspects of chemical hazard management (prevention, precaution principle, responsibilities); occupational exposure limits (general context, definitions and purpose of exposure limits, different exposure limit systems and values, examples of implementation, meaning of exposure limits and their limitations); biological exposure limits; procedures to be followed in the absence of exposure limits.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 12p. 23 ref.

CIS 02-991 Niño Escalante J.
Evaluation of occupational hazards and psychosocial factors
Evaluación de los riesgos laborales y factores psicosociales [in Spanish]
Psychosocial factors need to be taken into account in work management and organizational objectives aimed at improving working conditions, productivity and workers' satisfaction. This article outlines the methodology for evaluating psychosocial factors. It is based on an analysis of working conditions likely to give rise to hazards. Examples of psychosocial risk factors include mental workload, having responsibilities, organizational factors and the means at one's disposal, ambiguity and conflicting roles, social support, hours of work and intrinsic and extrinsic activity. Statistical analysis of absenteeism and health effects of the evaluated hazards, as well as surveys of working conditions and individual or group discussions enable the highlighting of hazard inductors. As a result of this analysis, practical proposals can be made for improving working conditions.
Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.85, p.25-35. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-522 Decree No.131 of 1 July 2002 adopting the Order on the final assessment of risks to persons and the environment due to new chemical substances [Bulgaria]
Postanovlenie N°131 ot 1 Juli 2002 g. za priemane na Naredba za okončatelnata ocenka na riska za čoveka i okolnata sreda ot novi himični veštestva [in Bulgarian]
Regulation on the risk assessment of new chemicals. Effective: 1 Jan. 2004.
Dăržaven vestnik, 12 July 2002, No.67, p.3-7.

CIS 02-629 Barth C., Dörr R., Hamacher W., Kliemt G., Voullaire E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Assessment of working conditions under the Occupational Safety and Heath Act - Models of good practice
Beurteilung der Arbeitsbedingungen nach dem Arbeitsschutzgesetz - bewährte Praxisbeispiele [in German]
According to the German Occupational Safety and Health Act (Arbeitsschutzgesetz, see CIS 02-501), employers need to carry out an assessment of working conditions to determine what occupational safety and health measures need to be implemented, and to strive for the continuous improvement in working conditions. These provisions can be met only if a suitable occupational safety and health organization system is implemented within the company. This report presents examples of good practices in the assessment of working conditions implemented by enterprises in the following sectors: non-ferrous metal foundry; regional bus transport operator; care institution for the elderly; brewery; chemical company; sugar manufacturer; textile company; water supply; laundry; cleaning tasks in day nurseries; hospital; machinery manufacturer; police force.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 142p. Illus. Price: EUR 14.00.

CIS 02-337 The use of T25 estimates and alternative methods in the regulatory risk assessment of non-threshold carcinogens in the European Union
In the European Union, new and existing chemical substances are required to undergo a regulatory risk assessment and where the hazard of carcinogenicity exists, this should be taken into account. A simplified method for this assessment, the T25 estimation, has been proposed for estimating carcinogenic potency from the results of animal experiments, which estimates the dose of carcinogen that will produce cancer in 25% of the animals that would not have developed cancer spontaneously. A human HT25 is the derived. This document discusses this proposal and other alternative methods.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Jan. 2002. 35p. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 02-68
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Principles and methods for the assessment of risk from essential trace elements
The risk assessment approach described in this monograph applies only to essential trace elements (ETEs) involved in human health. It gives methods for analysing the boundaries between deficient and excess oral intakes of ETEs. It focuses on the concept of acceptable range of oral intake (AROI). Contents: introduction (purpose, criteria for essentiality of trace elements, definitions); acceptable range of oral intake; variability of human populations; effects of deficiency and excess; application of homeostatic model in human risk assessment to exposure of ETEs.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. xviii, 60p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: CHF 26,00 (CHF 18,20 in developing countries). [in English]

CIS 01-1798 Barton J.
Dust explosion prevention and protection - A practical guide
Dust explosions can have potentially-fatal consequences when adequate safety measures are not in place. Dusts of many materials including coal, wood, rubber, pharmaceuticals and some metals can explode if they come into contact with an ignition source. This guide compiles the current best practices on measures to prevent dust explosions and protect plant and personnel. It revises and updates an earlier three-part guide (see CIS 86-8, 93-1322 and 93-1323) by incorporating legislative changes in the United Kingdom and the results of new research done over the past decade. Contents: background to dust explosions; determination of dust ignitability, flammability and explosibility characteristics; control of ignition; inerting; explosion containment; explosion suppression; explosion venting; explosion propagation; protection of pipelines and isolation techniques.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 2002. xiv, 352p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 90.00.


CIS 12-0065 Guidelines on the implementation of safety management system for the metalworking industry
An occupational safety and health management system (OSH-MS) is a systematic process for managing workplace safety and health, providing for goal setting, planning, performance measurements, and clear management commitments and direction. In Singapore, OSH-MSs mandatory for many types of workplaces. Integral to the OSH-MS is risk assessment. All workplaces must conduct risk assessments to identify the source of risks and shall take all reasonably practicable steps to eliminate any foreseeable risk to any person who may be affected by the undertaking in the workplace. Where it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk, other reasonably practicable measures must be taken to minimize the risk. This guide explains how to implement an OSH-MS in the metalworking industry.
Ministry of Manpower, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 059764, July 2001, 20p.
Guidelines_on_the_implementation_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 07-298 Deeb. H.
International Labour Office, Geneva; General Federation of Trade Unions in the Syrian Arab Republic
Evaluation and control of the working environment
Taqayīm wa murāqaba bī'a al-(amal [in Arabic]
Topics covered in these guidelines: introduction to occupational safety and health; occupational exposure limits; investigation of manufacturing processes and understanding mechanisms of exposure; monitoring the working environment; measuring strategies and collection of samples from the working environment; direct measuring equipment; techniques for collecting air in the working environment; risk assessment in the workplace.
International Labour Office, Regional Office for the Arab States, rue Justinian, Al-Qantari, B.P. 11-408, Riad al-Sulh, 11072150 Beirut, Lebanon, 2001. 136p. Illus. 8 ref. [in Arabic]

CIS 04-542 Portell Vidal M., Solé Gómez M.D.
The perception of risk: An evaluation procedure
Riesgo percibido: un procedimiento de evaluación [in Spanish]
This information note describes a method for the evaluation of hazards as perceived by workers. After a discussion of the theoretical and methodological aspects, it goes on to describe a procedure for the dimensional evaluation of hazards as perceived by workers. The evaluation is carried out by means of a questionnaire concerning various risk factors, which workers quantify on a scale from 1 to 7. A three-dimensional data structure is obtained from which various analyses can be carried out, in particular the characteristic profile for each of the hazards evaluated.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 8p. Illus. 9 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 04-684 Duarte Viejo G., Piqué Ardanuy T.
Risk evaluation in case of fire: Criteria
Evaluación del riesgo de incendio: criterios [in Spanish]
This information note specifies the criteria for evaluating fire hazards. Contents: general considerations on fire hazards; hazard evaluation (probability of initiation, damage caused by the fire); active and passive preventive measures; check-lists for risk factors (initiation and propagation factors) and safety measures (evacuation and means of fire fighting); methods for evaluating fire hazards (α factor methods, k coefficient method, Gretener method, Gustav Purt method); provisions concerning fire hazard evaluation according to the Regulations on fire precautions in industrial establishments (CIS 02-21).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 5p. 9 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1766 Van Hemmen J.J., Van der Jagt K.E.
Innovative exposure assessment of pesticide uses for appropriate risk assessment
An international workshop on the theme "Innovative exposure assessment of pesticide uses for appropriate risk assessment" was held on 20-22 September 2000, in The Hague, The Netherlands. The international experts represented industry, academia, specialized consultancy agencies and regulatory authorities in Europe, North America and Australia. The workshop was organized around four themes: toxicology studies that are relevant for worker risk assessment; probabilistic exposure assessment is essential for appropriately assessing risks; importance of field use information for assessing the risk of exposure; and appropriate terms for residential exposure. The main goal was to reach international consensus on the harmonization of exposure and risk assessment approaches, and the development of guidance elements for the various bodies in our society that deal with risk assessment for pesticide registration purposes in occupational and residential settings.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 2001, Vol.45, Suppl.1, p.S1-S174 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-1754 Letourneux M.
Evaluation of the risk of occurrence of benign asbestos-related diseases (dose-response relationship, time-response relationship and co-factors)
Evaluación del riesgo de que se produzcan patologías asbestósicas benignas (relación dosis-efecto, relación tiempo-efecto y cofactores) [in Spanish]
Despite the lack of precision of asbestos exposure assessments and the limitations of the main diagnostic tool (standard X ray films), several issues concerning the risk of development of asbestos-related diseases are well established. For asbestosis, now a rare disease, the existence of a positive dose-response relationship, with a threshold or no-effect level, has been clearly demonstrated. The slope of the relationship curve is steeper for amphiboles than for chrysotile, as it is for increased fibre length. Asbestosis is associated with an increased risk of bronchial carcinoma; however it is now known that exposure to asbestos increases the risk of cancer even in the absence of any radiographic signs of pulmonary fibrosis. Pleural plaques occur even when the level of asbestos exposure is low. They are not only dose-dependant but are also latency-related. They have no prognostic significance in asbestos-exposed workers, but are associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of mesothelioma and bronchial carcinoma when compared to the risk of the general population. Diffuse pleural thickening is associated with higher levels of asbestos exposure than those associated with pleural plaques.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 2001, Vol.XLVIII, No.191, p.87-96. 70 ref.

CIS 03-809 Pośniak M., Kozieł E., Jeżewska A.
Guidance on the evaluation of chemical hazards during the processing of phenol-formaldehyde resins and on their minimization
Wytyczne do oceny narażenia na szkodliwe substancje chemiczne wydzielające się w procesie przetwórstwa żywic fenolowo- formaldehydowych i ograniczania związanego z nimi ryzyka zawodowego [in Polish]
Contents of this booklet on exposure to harmful chemicals during the processing of phenol-formaldehyde resins: general characteristics of phenol-formaldehyde resins; emissions of toxic and harmful substances during their processing; exposure and hazard evaluation.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 50p. 31 ref.

CIS 03-804 Pośniak M.
Chemical hazards in selected technological processes - Part 2
Zagrożenia chemiczne w wybranych procesach technologicznych - Część 2 [in Polish]
This publication is aimed at persons responsible for assessing occupational exposure to harmful substances involved in the manufacture of phenol-formaldehyde resins, and metals and metal compounds, as well as to asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust. For each substance or process, it discusses sources of chemical hazards, health effects, sampling and analysis methods in the work environment, methods of hazard control and methods of neutralizing the harmful substances. See also CIS 03-817, which covers several other industrial processes.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 101p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-837 Lefebvre V., Gimenez C., Brochard P.
Chemical hazards in molecular biology laboratories
Risque chimique dans les laboratoires de biologie moléculaire [in French]
As is the case with all new disciplines, molecular biology gives rise to new hazards. Aimed at scientists directly involved as well as at occupational safety and health specialists, and in at particular at occupational health physicians responsible for the medical supervision of persons working in molecular biology laboratories, this article presents current understanding in the field of prevention of chemical hazards. A new method of hazard evaluation is proposed, based on a theoretical approach and on job studies. Knowledge of substances used as a function of laboratory activity and operating procedures specific to each molecular biology technique allows us to propose modifications to preventive and medical surveillance measures. The proper analysis and comprehension of molecular biology techniques is a first requisite for job studies and hazard evaluation in these laboratories.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2001, No.85, p.3-31. Illus. 27 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-632 Malchaire J.
Evaluation and prevention of risks to the lumbar column: Classification of methods
Evaluation et prévention des risques lombaires: classification des méthodes [in French]
This article reviews 19 methods used for evaluating the risk of low back problems in a given work situation. Each of these methods is reviewed briefly and evaluated regarding its orientation towards "risk quantification" as opposed to "search of solutions". From this review, a coherent set of methods is proposed corresponding to the four levels of the SOBANE strategy (screening, observation, analysis and expertise).
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2001, Vol.XXXVIII, No.1, p.53-66. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 03-131 De Alwis W.R., Kurppa K., Riala R., Liang Y.X., Xia Z.L., Jin K.Z., Fu H., Zhu J.L., Le V.T., Doan D.H., Barnhart S., Horsawad V., Wickström G., Kwon J.Y., Tyagi P.
Risk surveys
This issue is primarily devoted to the theme of risk surveys. Contents: workplace survey as part of the workplace risk assessment; survey of occupational accidents and musculoskeletal disorders in China; risk survey report on rock crushing operations in the province of Hanam in Vietnam. Other topics: traffic police in Thailand; comments by an ILO official on progress made in occupational safety and health (OSH) in Thailand; comments of an official from the Korean OSH agency on a training programme organized by the Finnish OSH Institute; health problems among mine workers in the state of Rajasthan, India.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Mar. 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.1-23. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 02-1965 Jensen P.L., Alstrup L., Thoft E.
Workplace assessment: A tool for occupational health and safety management in small firms?
This paper discusses the capability of small firms in Denmark to comply with legislative demands for risk assessment. A national survey highlighted that only a minor fraction of small firms actually comply with this requirement. However, it is shown through two case studies that small firms would be perfectly able to meet the demands. An analysis of these cases leads to hypotheses on the preconditions favouring compliance, namely that many firms would need the help of an external person to mediate legislative demands and to act as an intermediary with company owners, their assistants or safety representatives. The necessary qualifications for this mediation role are discussed. It is concluded that to stimulate workplace assessment activities in small firms, support from occupational health or labour inspection services are required.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.433-440. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1035 Hazardous Substances (Minimum Degrees of Hazard) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]
These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe, for each intrinsic property of hazardous substances, the minimum degrees of hazard that must be met before a substance is considered hazardous for purposes of the Act. Contents: definitions; substances not considered hazardous (medicines, food); minimum degrees of hazard for different properties. In schedules: minimum degrees of hazard classified by criteria - explosive properties; flammable properties; oxidizing properties; toxic properties; corrosive properties; ecotoxic properties.
Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.675-699. [in English]

CIS 02-1449
Health and Safety Commission
Railways (Safety Case) Regulations 2000 including 2001 amendments - Guidance on regulations
This publication is aimed at managers, safety advisers and safety representatives of railway operators, including owners of infrastructure, train operators and station operators. It contains Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance on the Railways (Safety Case) Regulations 2000 as amended by the Railway Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2001. They require all operators to prepare a comprehensive safety plan ("safety case"), covering the safety an health of all staff and the public, They replace the 1994 regulations (see CIS 94-1757). The main changes are that the function of accepting and safety plans now rests with the HSE, safety audits by independent external bodies are required, and risk assessment needs to be done in greater detail.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., 2001. iv, 73p. 35 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 02-1198
Health and Safety Executive
Reducing risks, protecting people: HSE's decision-making process
This document describes HSE's philosophy for securing the safety, health and welfare of persons at work and for protecting them against risks to safety and health arising from work activities. Contents: overview of risk and risk management issues; developments that have influence the decision-making approach; approach to reaching decisions on risk. In appendices: conventions adopted for undertaking risk assessments; identifying and considering options for new regulations, approved Codes of Practice and guidance; issues relevant to assessing risk-reduction options; statistics for comparing risks from different hazards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 74p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 02-744 Santos Guerras J.J.
Evaluation of hazards for handicapped workers
Evaluación de riesgos para trabajadores discapacitados [in Spanish]
This article presents a method for evaluating the hazards to which handicapped workers are exposed. Various types of risk were coded (from 00 to 23). For each hazard highlighted in the analysis of the conditions of work, the level of risk is evaluated by determining the potential seriousness of the injury and its probability of occurrence. Specific preventive measures depend on risk levels highlighted. Four check-lists for hazard evaluation are included, applicable to persons in wheelchairs, with walking difficulties, with handling difficulties (problems in using arms or hands) and with vision problems.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2001, No.16, p.18-26; 35-36. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-618 Favaro M.
Evaluation of occupational hazards - Overview of the complexities of the problems facing the company occupational safety and health specialist
Evaluer les risques professionnels - Aperçu de la complexité des problèmes pour le préventeur [in French]
Aimed at persons responsible for safety and health within the enterprise, this article presents the main elements of the approach for evaluating occupational hazards. It provides definitions of "risk", "accident" and "danger". Various methods and approaches for hazard evaluation within the enterprise are presented (including standardized, safety engineering and comprehensive approaches), as well as the selection criteria for the most suited method given the specific conditions prevailing within the enterprise.
Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2001, No.56, p.40-45. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 02-941 Scherrer Y., Boillat M.A.
Are guards in the penitentiary system of the Canton of Vaud at risk of occupational exposure to blood-transmissible diseases?
Les surveillants travaillant dans le système pénitentiaire vaudois sont-ils soumis à un risque d'exposition professionnelle à une maladie transmissible par le sang? [in French]
Prison staff is at risk of blood-transmissible diseases given the nature of the of inmate population they are confronted with, in particular in the course of searches, acts of violence and accidents. The objective of this study conducted in a Swiss canton was to characterize the real and perceived risk of occupational blood-transmissible diseases in this occupation. Hepatitis B (HB) was used as an indicator of blood transmissible diseases, and HB serology of all employees (n = 248) was determined. Furthermore, a questionnaire was addressed to all employees. 19% of the warders had been wounded during searches in cells and 8.2% when searching inmates. One third of the guards had been at least once in contact with the blood of a prisoner. However, no increases in the number of seroconversions were observed. Finally, risk perception remains intense, concerning 73% of the guards and 20% of the remaining staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.83-91. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-900 Malchaire J., Kampmann B., Mehnert P., Gebhardt H., Piette A., Havenith G., Den Hartog E., Holmer I., Parsons K., Alfano G., Griefahn B.
Evaluation of heat load risk during work in hot environments
Evaluation du risque de contrainte thermique lors du travail en ambiances chaudes [in French]
The objective of this project was to coordinate the work of the main European research teams in order to develop and improve methods to assess the risks encountered during work in hot conditions. Methods and formulas were developed that take into account the dynamic effects associated with forced convection and the pumping effect associated with body movements and exercise, as well as more severe conditions in terms of radiation, humidity and different clothing. Criteria concerning the maximum increase in core temperature and the acceptable water loss, for acclimatized and non-acclimatized subjects, were reviewed and updated. These limits intend to protect 95% of the population. A strategy was developed to assess the risks in any working situation with varying conditions of the climate, of metabolic rate or of clothing. A methodology was developed for observation and analysis. The Predicted Heat Strain model developed as part of this project is presently proposed for the revision of the ISO 7933 standard.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2001, Vol.XXXVIII, No.3, p.101-112. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-997 Hemmann E., Merboth H., Richter P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Regulation of actions and safety-critical work situations in maintenance tasks
Handlungsregulation und sicherheitskritische Arbeitssituationen in der Instandhaltung [in German]
In this project on work psychology, components of action-regulating mechanisms in safety-critical maintenance tasks were investigated in a field study. Eighteen maintenance workers involved in two different maintenance activities were observed. Analysis of the mental representations of task-related critical incidents revealed that more difficult task demands were characterized by a higher level of anticipated safety risks. In practice, however, more risk situations occurred during the performance of tasks with more restrictive demands. The differences identified between expected risks in complex tasks and observed risks in routine tasks can form the basis for defining preventive safety measures. Finally, observed differences between experts and novices can form the basis for defining training programmes.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 126p. Illus. 103 ref. Price: EUR 13.00.

CIS 02-969 Grzybowski W.
A method of ergonomic workplace evaluation for assessing occupational risks at workplaces
New trends are discussed in workplace analysis. A method is presented for ergonomic workplace evaluation based on 14 criteria grouped into four categories of strenuousness: the physical working environment; physical strain factors; psychological strain factors; technological and organizational factors. The method is a response to demands from industry for tools supporting occupational risk assessment. Benefits of applying the method in occupational safety management systems are presented.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.223-237. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 02-699 Bates M.N., Fawcett J., Garrett N., Arnold R., Pearce N., Woodward A.
Is testicular cancer an occupational disease of fire fighters?
A previous investigation showed an increased risk of testicular cancer among firefighters in Wellington City, New Zealand, during the 1980s, while other studies of firefighters had not identified testicular cancer as an occupational disease. The present cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence involved all professional New Zealand firefighters, from 1977 to 1995. It confirms the increased risk of testicular cancer, even after excluding cases from the previous investigation, with a standardized incidence ratio for 1990-96 of 3.0. There was no evidence that firefighters were at increased risk from other cancers nor from any particular cause of death. While this study confirmed that New Zealand firefighters are at increased risk of testicular cancer, the reasons remain unknown.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.263-270. 26 ref.

CIS 02-803 Rice F.L., Park R., Stayner L., Smith R., Gilbert S., Checkoway H.
Crystalline silica exposure and lung cancer mortality in diatomaceous earth industry workers: A quantitative risk assessment
Data from a cohort mortality study of 2342 white male California diatomaceous earth mining and processing workers exposed to crystalline silica dust (mainly cristobalite) were analyzed using different exposure-response models. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was a significant predictor in nearly all of the models evaluated and the linear relative rate model with a 10-year exposure lag seemed to give the best fit in the Poisson regression analysis. For those who died of lung cancer, the linear relative rate model predicted rate ratios for mortality from lung cancer of about 1.6 for the mean cumulative exposure to respirable silica compared with no exposure. Results show that a male worker exposed to 0.05mg/m3 of respirable silica dust containing cristobalite over a 45 year working lifetime has an increase in lifetime risk of lung cancer of about 2%. The predicted number of deaths from lung cancer suggests that current occupational health standards may not be adequately protecting workers from the risk of lung cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.38-45. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 02-836 Chen W., Zhuang Z., Attfield M.D., Chen B.T., Gao P., Harrison J.C., Fu C., Chen J.Q., Wallace W.E.
Exposure to silica and silicosis among tin miners in China: Exposure-response analyses and risk assessment
A cohort study of 3010 miners exposed to silica dust and employed for at least 1 year during 1960-5 in one of four Chinese tin mines was conducted. There were 1015 miners identified with silicosis. Among these, 684 developed silicosis after exposure ended (a mean of 3.7 years after). The risk of silicosis was strongly related to cumulative exposure to silica dust, with the risk of silicosis less than 0.1% when the Chinese measure of cumulative exposure to total dust (CTD) was under 10mg/m3-years (or 0.36mg/m3-years of respirable crystalline silica), increasing to 68.7% when CTD exposure was 150mg/m3-years (or 5.4mg/m3-years of respirable crystalline silica). Latency period was not correlated to the risk of silicosis or cumulative dose of exposure. This study predicts an approximate cumulative risk of silicosis of 36% for a 45 year lifetime exposure to these tin mine dusts at the CTD exposure standard of 2mg/m3, and a 55% risk at 45 years exposure to the current United States standards of 0.1mg/m3 100% respirable crystalline silica dust.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 02-183 Blair A., Zheng T., Linos A., Stewart P.A., Zhang Y.W., Cantor K.P.
Occupation and leukemia: A population-based case-control study in Iowa and Minnesota
A population-based case-control study (513 cases and 1,087 controls) was conducted in Iowa and Minnesota to evaluate the association between various occupations, industries, and occupational exposures and leukaemia risk. A lifetime occupational history and other risk factor information were collected through in-person interviews, and a job-exposure matrix was used to assess possible risks associated with specific exposures. A significantly increased risk of leukaemia was observed among agricultural service industries and among nursing and healthcare workers. Janitors, cleaners, and light truck drivers also experienced increased risk. Those employed in plumbing, heating and air conditioning industries, and sales of nondurable goods (such as paints and varnishes) had an increased risk. Printers, painters, and workers in the food and metal industries had a non significantly increased risk of leukaemia. Analyses by specific exposures and histology of leukaemia showed that risk of leukaemia associated with occupational or industrial exposures may vary by histological type of the disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.3-14. 57 ref.

CIS 02-304 Arévalo Fernández T.
Management of environmental risks: Key factor in enterprise decision-making
Gestión de los riesgos medioambientales: factor clave en las decisiones empresariales [in Spanish]
Environmental impact is increasingly taken into consideration by enterprises. Before any major decisions, environmental criteria are analysed and evaluated. Consequently, environmental management must be recognized as being an essential element of company expansion policy. In this article, a tool for managing the risks to the environment, ranking them by importance and classifying them is presented. It assists decision-making required for avoiding or eliminating environmental hazards. The economic aspects of environmental risk management with respect to the remediation of polluted sites must also be taken into consideration.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol.21, No.84, p.31-37. Illus.

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