Risk evaluation - 1,588 entries found
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Occupational health and safety: Consolidating achievements and engaging further commitment - Strategic plan 2007-2012
This strategic plan for the Occupational Health and Safety Authority (OHSA) of Malta for the years 2007 to 2012 starts with the vision and mission of OHSA and translates them into a set of strategic objectives that are to be addressed during the six-year period. The key strategic objectives include: legislation and enforcement; capacity building; seeking partnerships; taking appropriate action against existing and emerging risks; evaluating the effectiveness of actions taken. The document includes a review of historical statistical trends in injury rates, fatality rates and fatalities in the construction sector.
Occupational Health and Safety Authority, 17, Triq Edgar Ferro, Pieta', PTA 1533, Malta, no date. 17p. Illus.
Strategic_plan_2007-2012.pdf [in English]
Gerardo Ribeiro M., dos Reis Pedreira Filho W., Riederer E.E.
Qualitative evaluation of chemical hazards - Basic guidance for controlling exposures to chemicals in foundries
Avaliação qualitativa de riscos químicos - Orientações básicas para o controle da exposição a produtos químicos em fundições [in Portuguese]
The purpose of this publication is to help foundries to improve their practices with respect to the storage, handling and identification of chemicals. It offers a qualitative approach to assessing chemical risks, determine control measures, and implement and evaluate the proposed improvements. This approach allows estimating the expected exposure in specific situations and proposes control techniques appropriate for each case.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2011. 93p. Illus. 18 ref.
Avaliação_qualitativa_de_riscos_químicos_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Portuguese]
Guida F., Papadopoulos A., Menvielle G., Matrat M., Févotte J., Cénée S., Cyr D., Schmaus A., Carton M., Paget-Bailly S., Radoï L., Tarnaud C., Bara S., Trétarre B., Luce D., Stücker I.
Risk of lung cancer and occupational history - Results of a French population-based case-control study, the ICARE study
The objective of this French population-based case-control study was to assess the risk of lung cancer associated with occupations and industries. It included 2923 cases and 3555 controls. Lifelong occupational history was collected. Two lists of occupations known (A) or suspected (B) to be associated with lung cancer were used. Among men, the smoking-adjusted odds ratio was 1.97 for list A (attributable fraction: 12.3%), 1.4 for list B (due especially to carpenters/joiners and transport workers). Among unlisted occupations, excess risks were found for welders, plumbers, and several construction crafts. Odds ratios among women were elevated for list A, list B (due especially to launderers/dry cleaners), cleaners and hairdressers. These results confirm the role of known occupations and give insight into new occupational risk factors among men and women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1068-1077. 43 ref.
Risk_of_lung_cancer_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Waters T.R., Lu M.L., Piacitelli L.A., Werren D., Deddens J.A.
Efficacy of the revised NIOSH lifting equation to predict risk of low back pain due to manual lifting
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) is a valid tool for assessing risk of low back pain (LBP) due to manual lifting by using combined data from two cross-sectional studies of 1-year prevalence. Results from a symptom and occupational history questionnaire and RNLE analysis for 677 subjects employed in 125 manual lifting jobs at nine industrial sites were combined from two studies. The odds of LBP increased as the lifting index (LI) increased from 1.0 to 3.0. A statistically significant odds ratio (OR) was found for both the 1 < LI ¿ 2 (OR = 1.81) and the 2 < LI ¿ 3 categories (OR = 2.26). For jobs with an LI value greater than 3.0, however, the OR remained non-significant. The 2 < LI ¿ 3 group remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and psychosocial factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1061-1067. 34 ref.
Efficacy_of_the_revised_NIOSH_lifting_equation_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Waters T.R., Dick R.B., Krieg E.F.
Trends in work-related musculoskeletal disorders - A comparison of risk factors for symptoms using quality of work life data from the 2002 and 2006 General Social Survey
The objective of this study was to assess trends in risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Results from two similar national surveys (2002 and 2006) examined trends in relationships between individual, psychosocial, and physical factors and MSDs. Findings between years were similar, but important differences included a stronger effect of "Work Stress" on "Pain in Arms," and a stronger combined effect of "Hand Movement" and "Work Stress" on "Pain in Arms." Also, two interactions were statistically significant in the 2006 data, but not in the 2002 data, revealing potentially increased risks. These were "Hand Movement" and "Work Stress" on "Back Pain," and "Heavy Lifting" and "Work Stress" on "Pain in Arms." New strategies for preventing both low back and upper extremity MSDs should focus on work stress, heavy lifting, and hand movement, individually and in combination.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1013-1024. Illus. 15 ref.
Trends_in_work-related_musculoskeletal_disorders_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Bennett J.B., Broome K.M., Schwab-Pilley A., Gilmore P.
A web-based approach to address cardiovascular risks in managers - Results of a randomized trial
The objective of this study was to examine whether a Web-based health and leadership development programme designed specifically for managers was associated with changes in self-reported and biometric indicators of cardiovascular disease within the context of a randomized control trial. A total of 145 managers from eight organizations participated in a six-month Internet-based programme or a control condition. They completed pre- and posttest assessments that included both self-reported attitudes (on diet, exercise, and mental health) and biometric measures (body weight, waist circumference). The intervention was associated with improvements in dietary attitudes, dietary self-efficacy, and exercise, and reductions in distress symptoms. Women in the program reduced their waist circumference significantly more than controls. The programme showed promise for reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors. Similar results across diverse organizations suggest the program may be useful across industry types.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.53, No.8, p.911-918. Illus. 40 ref.
A_web-based_approach_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
The single document, ten years after
Le document unique, dix ans après [in French]
Since November 2001, all French enterprises are obliged to keep records of occupational hazards in a continuously-updated single document. This collection of articles takes stock of the situation ten years after the coming into force of this requirement. Topics addressed: degree of adoption by enterprises; interview of a specialized lawyer; experience of an SME in creating and updating their single document.
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2011, No.146, p.14-19. Illus.
Le_document_unique_dix_ans_après_(INFO)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Le_document_unique_dix_ans_après_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Binet S., Drais E., Chazelet S., Fontaine J.R., Radauceanu A., Reynier M., Ricaud M., Witschger O.
Hazards related to nanoparticles and nanomaterials
Risques liés aux nanoparticules et nanomatériaux [in French]
Report on a conference on the hazards related to nanoparticles and nanomaterials held in Nancy, France, 5-7 April 2011. The 56 presentations were grouped under the following sessions: evaluation of the health effects of nanoparticles; production and properties of nanoparticles; instrumentation and exposure evaluation; reducing emissions and personal protective equipment; hazard evaluation and management.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2011, No.224, p.29-41. 56 ref.
Risques_liés_aux_nanoparticules_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Sewage systems - Risky work
Réseaux d'assainissement - Des interventions à risques [in French]
Extension and renovation of sewage systems involve hazards, for which prevention requires hazard evaluation, safety and health plans, continuous monitoring of workplace atmospheres, training and the use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Sept. 2011, No.145, p.36-37. Illus.
Réseaux_d'assainissement_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]
Foresight of new and emerging risks to occupational safety and health associated with new technologies in green jobs by 2020
This report describes the work carried out in the first phase of a project aimed at identifying key contextual drivers of change that could contribute to creating new and emerging risks associated with new technologies in green jobs within ten years. The report serves as an interim report to the whole project, which has several phases.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2011. 55p. Illus. 21 ref.
Foresight_of_new_and_emerging_risks_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Summary of the Making Green Jobs Safe Workshop
This report summarizes the topics discussed at a workshop on making green jobs safe held in Washington DC, USA, 14-16 December 2009. Green jobs, which are defined broadly as jobs that help improve the environment and enhance sustainability, offer opportunities as well as challenges for workers. Examples of green jobs include manufacture, installation, and maintenance of solar panels and generators; construction and maintenance of wind energy turbines; jobs related to recycling; jobs related to the manufacture of green products; and jobs where green products are used in traditional fields such as agriculture, healthcare, and the service sector. In some instances, the hazards to workers may be similar to those in established industries. However, some green and sustainable practices may pose new health concerns for workers.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug. 2011. xi, 70p. 17 ref.
Summary_of_the_Making_green_jobs_safe_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Eickmann U., Falcy M., Fokuhl I., Rüegger M., Bloch M.
Surgical smoke: Hazards and preventive measures
Fumées chirurgicales. Risques et mesures de prévention [in French]
Surgery techniques that use heat or ultrasonics expose operators to pyrolysis products. These fumes contain mixtures of various substances which may include biologically-active substances, carcinogens, mutagens and reprotoxic. Acute poisoning symptoms include migraine, weakness, nausea, and irritation of the eyes and respiratory system. There is a lack of epidemiological studies on the risks of surgical smoke to operator health. Preventive measures rely on collective protection (smoke aspiration, mechanical ventilation of the work environment), organization (information and training of personnel) and, where required, the use of personal protective equipment.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2011, No.127, p.383-395. 61 ref.
Fumées_chirurgicales_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Chinniah Y., Gauthier F., Lambert S., Moulet F.
Experimental analysis of tools used for estimating risk associated with industrial machines
Analyse expérimentale des outils d'estimation du risque associé aux machines industrielles [in French]
From 1999 to 2003, 64,000 accidents and 100 deaths were determined to be attributable to hazardous machines in Quebec industries. Although the tools and methods for estimating the risks associated with this equipment offer a first-line prevention strategy, a recent study revealed that they come in very different forms. As part of a thematic program intended to provide a better understanding of the processes for estimating the risks associated with industrial machines, the objective of this study was to explore the theoretical efficiency and limitations of a sample of these tools and methods, so as to open up avenues for improving the selection of the means of estimating the risks associated with industrial equipment. It involved selecting a sample of evaluation tools, defining an equivalence scale for each of these tools, analyzing the equivalence scales, applying each of these tools to 20 dangerous situations and analyzing the findings.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. ix, 69p. Illus. 42 ref.
Analyse_expérimentale_des_outils_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Hohnen P., Hasle P.
Making work environment auditable - A "critical case" study of certified occupational health and safety management systems in Denmark
This article discusses the impact of certification on occupational health and safety management (OHSM) systems. Most research in the field has focused on how well such systems comply with voluntary standards such as OHSAS 18001 or with national and international legislation. However, even in cases of compliance, the certified systems have problems dealing with a range of contemporary complex work environment issues. Furthermore, certification also transforms the kinds of topics addressed and the procedures and activities applied in the system. Using the development of certified OHSM system in a manufacturing company in Denmark as a critical case, it is shown how certified OHSM systems unintentionally yet actively create an environment of "measurable and auditable facts" shaped not only in response to legal and market demands for a safe work environment, but also as a consequence of the external demands for a visible and accountable work environment standard.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.49, p.1022-1029. 25 ref.
Making_work_environment_auditable.pdf [in English]
Occupational injuries and health problems in the Egyptian Mediterranean fisheries
The objective of this study was to explore and identify the types and causes of occupational accidents and diseases in the Egyptian marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional sample of 686 fishermen in an Egyptian port were interviewed for collecting relevant data. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the significance of the association of some factors, such as age, experience, education and fishing gear with the occurrence of injuries and illnesses. Findings show that the Egyptian fishing sector involves many hazardous work conditions and practices that result in high injury, morbidity and mortality rates. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.50, p.113-122. Illus. 25 ref.
Occupational_injuries.pdf [in English]
Pinto A., Nunes I.L., Ribeiro R.A.
Occupational risk assessment in construction industry - Overview and reflection
The construction industry is plagued by occupational risky situations and poor working conditions. Occupational risk assessment (ORA) on workplace sites is the first and key step to achieve adequate safety levels, particularly to support decision-making in safety programs. Most construction safety efforts are applied informally under the premise that simply allocating more resources to safety management will improve safety on site. Moreover, there are many traditional methods to address ORA, but few have been adapted and validated for use in the construction industry, particularly in the design stage, for which traditional approaches do not give adequate answers. Based on a literature survey, this article presents a state-of-the-art on ORA traditional methods for the construction industry, discussing their limitations and highlighting the advantages of using fuzzy sets approaches to deal with ill-defined situations.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.49, p.616-624. 113 ref.
Occupational_risk_assessment.pdf [in English]
Dorrian J., Baulk S.D., Dawson D.
Work hours, workload, sleep and fatigue in Australian rail industry employees
This study investigated fatigue in a cross-sectional sample of Australian rail employees. Participants included 85 men and five women from four companies. Data were analysed for a total of 713 shifts. Subjects wore wrist actigraphs, evaluated their subjective fatigue scale, and completed sleep and work diaries for 14-days. Average sleep length, prior wake at shift end, shift duration and fatigue were within limits generally considered acceptable from a fatigue perspective. However, 13% of participants received 5h or less sleep in the prior 24 h, 16%, were awake for at least 16h at the end of shift and 7% worked at least 10h on 7% of shifts. While on average, sleep loss, extended wakefulness, longer work hours and work-related fatigue do not appear problematic in this sample, there is still a notable percentage of shifts that are likely to be associated with high levels of work-related fatigue. Given the size of the Australian rail sector with thousands of shifts occurring each day, this is potentially of operational concern. Further, results indicate that, in addition to sleep length, wakefulness and work hours, workload significantly influences fatigue. This has possible implications for bio-mathematical predictions of fatigue and for fatigue management more generally.
Applied Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.42, p.202-209. Illus. 38 ref.
Ramli A.A., Watada J., Pedrycz W.
Possibilistic regression analysis of influential factors for occupational health and safety management systems
The code of occupational safety and health (OSH) is an influential regulation to improve the on-the-job safety of employees. A number of factors influence the planning and implementation of OSH management systems (OHSMS). The evaluation of OHSMS practice is the most important component when forming a safety and health environmental policy for employees. The objective of this research was to develop an intelligent data analysis (IDA) in which possibilistic regression is used to support the analysis of essential factors that influence OHSMS. Given such subjective terms, the obtained samples can be conveniently regarded as fuzzy input/output data represented by membership functions. The study offers this vehicle of intelligent data analysis as an alternative to evaluate the influential factors in a successful implementation of OSH policies and in this way decrease an overall computational effort. The obtained results show that several related OHSMS influential factors need to be carefully considered to facilitate a successful implementation of the OHSMS procedure.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.49, p.1110-1117. Illus. 41 ref.
Possibilistic_regression.pdf [in English]
Reiman T., Pietikäinen E.
Leading indicators of system safety - Monitoring and driving the organizational safety potential
An indicator can be considered any quantitative or qualitative measure that seeks to produce information on an issue of interest. Safety indicators can play a key role in providing information on organizational performance, motivating people to work on safety and increasing organizational potential for safety. This article discusses the challenges of monitoring and driving system safety. It presents a theoretical framework for utilising safety performance indicators in safety-critical organizations that incorporate outcome, monitor and drive indicators. Examples are provided for each type of indicator and the application of the framework in organizational safety management is discussed.
Safety Science, 2011, 8p. Illus. 36 ref.
Leading_indicators.pdf [in English]
Cheng J., Yang S.
Data mining applications in evaluating mine ventilation system
Ventilation systems are an important component of underground mines. They provide a sufficient quantity of air to maintain suitable working environment. Based on former findings and in-depth analysis of mine ventilation systems, this article proposes an early warning model to improve the mine ventilation safety. The model itself is comprised of two sub-models, and two data mining techniques are used to assist in building each sub-model. One is the optimal indexes selection model which applies the Rough Set theory (RS) to assist the selection of best ventilation indexes. The other is the risk evaluation model based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) to classify the risk ranks for the mine ventilation system. Testing cases are used to demonstrate the applicability of this integrated model.
Safety Science, 2011, 5p. Illus. 15 ref.
Data_mining_applications.pdf [in English]
Safety management in different high-risk domains - All the same?
The aim of this article is to discuss what different high-risk industries can learn from each other and what limits for generalizing safety management methods within and across industries exist. After presenting core components of safety management, attributes crucial to any organization's functioning are described, which also affect the way safety management systems should be designed, run and assessed. By discussing safety management in the context of these attributes, contingencies are outlined that can help decision-makers in companies tailor safety management to their own situation and support regulators in drawing up and evaluating safety management requirements for different industries while also promoting learning between different high-risk domains. Standards and procedures, safety training, incident reporting and investigation, and safety culture are taken as examples to illustrate why and how different aspects of organizational functioning should be taken into account when designing and evaluating safety management systems or elements thereof.
Safety Science, 2011, 10p. Illus. 60 ref.
Safety_management.pdf [in English]
Andersen S., Mostue B.A.
Risk analysis and risk management approaches applied to the petroleum industry and their applicability to IO concepts
Due to changes introduced by Integrated Operations (IO), it is possible that traditional risk analysis and risk management approaches in the oil and gas industry are also challenged. This article discusses the impact on these approaches of the Norwegian oil and gas industry. An explorative approach was chosen and the empirical findings are based on a survey of risk analysis and risk management in different business sectors in the oil and gas industry, qualitative interviews about the generation of knowledge for decisions that involve risk in an operating company and qualitative interviews of people working with risk analyses in different companies exploring their use of risk analysis methods. It is concluded that due to IO, it is necessary to look for other inputs to risk analyses, establish suitable assessment approaches to human and organizational issues, develop resilience-based approaches for operational risk assessment and, utilize IO to improve the risk management process.
Safety Science, 2011, 10p. Illus. 31 ref.
Risk_analysis.pdf [in English]
Report on endocrine disruptors, time for precaution
Rapport sur les perturbateurs endocriniens, le temps de la précaution [in French]
The increased incidence of certain hormone-dependant cancers (breast, prostate) and concerns with respect to human fertility are the subject of wide debate. Substances designated as being endocrine disruptors are strongly suspected of playing an important role. This report addresses the impact of these disruptors on the environment and on human health, as well as the means of managing these risks, both at the French and European levels, based on available scientific data.
Direction de l'information législative et administrative (DILA), Edition La Documentation française, 29 quai Voltaire, 75007 Paris, France, July 2011, Internet document.
Perturbateurs_endocriniens.pdf [in French]
Occupational hygiene and risk prevention: A complementary science to occupational medicine
Hygiène du travail et prévention des risques: une science complémentaire à la médecine du travail [in French]
The purpose of occupational health is to ensure healthy working conditions and healthy workers. Occupational hygiene focuses on the working environment in order to manage the hazards and thus protect workers from disease. This review article presents this branch of activity with its specific aspects, highlighting its complementarity with occupational medicine.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2011, No.171, 10p. Illus. 25 ref.
Person Severo K.G., da Silva Oliveira J., Carneiro M., de Moura Valim A.R., Carlosso Krummenauer E., Goncalves Possuelo L.
Latent tuberculosis in nursing professionals of a Brazilian hospital
Tuberculosis (TB) is considered an occupational disease among health-care workers (HCWs). Direct contact with TB patients leads to an increased risk to become latently infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of latent M. tuberculosis infection among nursing professionals of a hospital in Brazil, assessed by tuberculin skin test (TST). From November 2009 to May 2010, latent M. tuberculosis infection was assessed by TST in 55 nursing professionals. Epidemiological information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. A positive TST result was observed in 47.3% of the HCWs tested. There was no significant difference in TST positivity when duration of employment or professional category (technician or nurse) was evaluated. The results of this work reinforce the need for control measures to prevent latent M. tuberculosis infection among nursing professionals at the hospital where the study was conducted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, No.6:15, 12p. 17 ref.
Latent_tuberculosis.pdf [in English]
Milosavljevic S., McBride D.I., Bagheri N., Vasiljev R.M., Carman A.B., Rehn B., Moore D.
Factors associated with quad bike loss of control events in agriculture
The objective of this study was to determine personal and workplace factors associated with quad bike loss of control events (LCEs) on New Zealand farms. Rural community databases were used to sample 130 farmers and farm workers. Fieldwork and survey investigated for prevalence of LCEs, farm type, farm terrain, personal measures and vehicle driving exposures. Seventy nine workers (61%) described a total of 200 LCEs. Increased driver height, increased body mass, non-flat farm terrain, increased driving speed and distance and greater whole body vibration exposure were significantly associated with LCEs. Taller and heavier drivers of quad bikes should be particularly vigilant for risk of an LCE. Vehicle speed, distance driven and choice of driving routes over difficult terrain are potentially modifiable factors which have behavioural components and should be considered as management strategies for reducing risk of on-farm quad bike LCEs.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.317-321. Illus. 21 ref.
Makol A., Reilly M.J., Rosenman K.D.
Prevalence of connective tissue disease in silicosis (1985-2006) - A report from the State of Michigan surveillance system for silicosis
The risk of developing clinical connective tissue disease (CTD) has been reported to be increased among individuals with silica exposure. This study consisted of reviewing the medical records of individuals reported to the Michigan Silicosis Surveillance system from 1985 to 2006 to confirm the diagnosis of silicosis and determine the presence of CTDs. From 1985 to 2006, 1,022 cases were confirmed to have silicosis. Medical records of 790 cases were available. Thirty-three individuals had rheumatoid arthritis (prevalence 4.2%, prevalence ratio (RR) ranging from 2.26 to 6.96 depending on the reference rate used), two had scleroderma (prevalence 0.3%, RR 28.3), one had systemic lupus erythematosus (prevalence 0.1%, RR 2.53), two had Sjogrens syndrome (prevalence 0.3%, RR 0.42) and six had anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) vasculitis (prevalence 0.8%, RR 25.3). There was no difference between those with and without CTD with respect to age, race, industry type, history of tuberculosis, application for workers' compensation, or severity of fibrotic changes on chest X-ray. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.255-262. 40 ref.
Eng A., 't Mannetje A., Ellison-Loschmann L., McLean D., Cheng S., Pearce N.
Ethnic differences in patterns of occupational exposure in New Zealand
The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in occupational exposure between Māori (New Zealand's indigenous people) and non-Māori. Participants were randomly selected from the Electoral Roll. Exposure to occupational risk factors was assessed through telephone interviews and exposure prevalences of 273 Māori and 2724 non-Māori workers were compared. Subsequently, Māori were matched with non-Māori on current occupation to assess whether ethnic differences also exist within occupations. Māori were more likely to report exposure to physical strain. Part of these differences remained when Māori were compared with non-Māori in the same job. In addition, Māori women were twice as likely to categorize their job as very or extremely stressful than non-Māori women in the same job, while Māori men were twice as likely to report exposure to dust. Marked ethnic differences exist in risk factors for occupational ill-health, due to both occupational distribution and the distribution of tasks within occupations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.410-418. Illus. 40 ref.
Tak S., Calvert G.M.
The estimated national burden of physical ergonomic hazards among US workers
The objective of this study was to estimate the national burden of physical ergonomic hazards among working adults in the United States. The population prevalence and the total number of workers who are exposed to physical ergonomic hazards, such as vibration, working in cramped space, kneeling, body bending or twisting, climbing and repetitive motions were estimated using Occupational Information Network (O*NET) data and the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), stratified by occupation title. Repetitive motion was the most prevalent of all ergonomic hazards (27% of workers are estimated to be exposed continually). Bending or twisting of the body more than half their time at work was also common, involving over 32 million workers (25% of the workforce). Kneeling, crouching, stooping, or crawling was another ergonomic hazard that 14 million workers perform more than half their time at work. Almost 4 million workers climb ladders, scaffolds, poles, etc. for more than half their time at work. It is also estimated that over 13 million workers (10% of the workforce) are exposed to cramped workspace that requires getting into awkward positions every day. Finally, about 3.5 million workers (2.7% of the workforce) are estimated to be exposed to whole body vibration every day.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.395-404. Illus. 36 ref.
Electromagnetic fields - When work aptitude is an issue
Champs électromagnétiques - Quand l'aptitude est en question [in French]
The return to work of an employee with a heart implant raises questions regarding the possible interference between the implant and the electromagnetic fields that are present in the work environment. This article discusses concerted solutions involving the employer, the occupational physician and the concerned worker, aimed at avoiding medical inaptitude and reconciling health and employment.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.12-14. Illus.
Champs_électromagnétiques.pdf [in French]
Chinniah Y., Gauthier F., Lambert S., Moulet F.
Experimental analysis of tools used for estimating risk associated with industrial machines
From 1999 to 2003, 64,000 accidents and 100 deaths were determined to be attributable to hazardous machines in Quebec industries. Although the tools and methods for estimating the risks associated with this equipment offer a first-line prevention strategy, a recent study revealed that they come in very different forms. As part of a thematic programme intended to provide a better understanding of the processes for estimating the risks associated with industrial machines, this study explored the theoretical efficiency and limitations of a sample of 31 tools and methods. The results show that the structure of the tools and terminology used in the tools can potentially lead to biased or incorrect risk estimations. Implications are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. ix, 63p. Illus. 42 ref.
R-684.pdf [in English]
Verger P., Cabut S., Viau A., Souville M., Pardon C., Charrier D., De Labrusse B., Lehucher-Michel M.P., Arnaud S.
Use of imaging in the follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: Practices in occupational medicine and its determinants
Application de l'imagerie pour le suivi médical des travailleurs exposés aux cancérogènes pulmonaires: pratiques en médecine du travail et ses déterminants [in French]
Occupational physicians' (OPs) practices of referrals for the imaging of workers occupationally-exposed to lung/pleural carcinogens and their related factors were studied. This cross-sectional telephone survey of 379 OPs practicing in Southeastern France showed that 81% referred exposed patients for chest radiographs, 33.5% for computed tomography (CT), and 16.1% for neither. Making no referral was positively associated with believing cancer risks are lower in one's own geographic sector than elsewhere and negatively associated with keeping employee risk records up-to-date. Referrals for CT were positively associated with work at in-house occupational health services (OHS), and completing employee exposure histories often/always. Both the OHS type and factors that may shape OPs' awareness of cancer risks in their sector appear to influence imaging referral practices. Occupational physicians would benefit from guidelines clarifying benefits and risks associated with imaging in such patients. An effort to harmonize regulatory provisions and guidelines also appears necessary.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.71-79. 27 ref.
The implementation of REACH: Initial perspectives from government, industry, and civil society
The European Union's 2006 Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) legislation represents a new wave in regulating chemicals and has set far-reaching goals for protecting and enhancing public health, the environment and markets. Despite substantial public debate during the development and passage of the REACH legislation, in interviews conducted from 2009-2010, respondents from government, industry, and civil society expressed general agreement on some key issues in the implementation of REACH, which are addressed in this study. At the same time, respondents expressed nuanced differences in how some of the outstanding implementation issues should be addressed. Industry respondents' main concern was their ability to comply with REACH; while government respondents reported wanting to ensure they can implement and enforce it; and civil society respondents wanted to ensure that REACH accomplishes its ambitious goals.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.57-62. 10 ref.
Abas A.B.L., Said A.R.E.B.M., Mohammed M.A.B.A., Sathiakumar N.
Non-fatal occupational injuries among non-governmental employees in Malaysia
This study is based on the analysis of data on non-fatal occupational injuries reported to Malaysia's social security organization from 2002 to 2006. There was a decrease in both the absolute number and the incidence rates of these injuries over time. About 40% of cases occurred in the manufacturing sector followed by the services (17%) and trading (17%) sectors. Agriculture sector reported the highest incidence rate (24.1/1000), followed by the manufacturing sector subcategories of wood-product manufacturing (22.1/1000) and non-metallic industries (20.8/1000). Men aged 40 to 59 and persons of Indian ethnicity had a greater tendency to sustain injuries. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.38-48. Illus. 37 ref.
Yokel R.A., Macphail R.C.
Engineered nanomaterials: Exposures, hazards and risk prevention
The understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates that the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards, including fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness of some of these controls are also included. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Mar. 2011, 6:7, 27p. Illus. 229 ref.
Engineered_nanomaterials.pdf [in English]
Lu Y., Li X.
A study on a new hazard detecting and controlling method: The case of coal mining companies in China
This article presents a new hazard detecting and controlling method based on system safety engineering. It enables the identification of hazards at different levels by dividing safety inspection into self-checking, working team checking, regional team checking and specialist team checking. A case study shows that this method is effective in improving safety within the coal mining industry in China.
Safety Science, Feb. 2011, Vol.49, No.2, p.279-285. Illus. 21 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
WHO human health risk assessment toolkit: Chemical hazards
Aimed at for public health and environmental professionals, regulators, industrial managers and other decision-makers, this WHO manual provides users with guidance to identify, acquire and use the information needed to assess chemical hazards, exposures and the corresponding health risks in their given health risk assessment contexts at local or national levels. It contains road maps for conducting a human health risk assessment, identifies information that must be gathered to complete an assessment and lists electronic links to international resources from which the user can obtain information and methods essential for conducting the human health risk assessment. Contents: description of human health risk assessment of chemicals; description of the toolkit; international risk assessment resources; case studies (drinking water, PM10 respirable particulate matter, pesticides).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2010, xv, 87p. Illus. Approx. 100 ref.
WHO_human_health_risk_assessment_toolkit_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Guide for analysis - Occupational accidents
Guia de análise - Acidentes do trabalho [in Portuguese]
Accident analyses carried out by enterprises in Brazil too often limit themselves to simply pointing fingers or hastily assigning human error to the victims or their fellow workers. This guide explains how to analyze accidents and adverse events in order to better understand the underlying causes and make honest appraisals of true responsibilities. It presents a four-step approach: data collection; analysis of the information; identification of means of control; action plan.
Ministério do trabalho e emprego, Secretaria de inspeção do trabalho, Departamento de segurança e saúde no trabalho, Vera Lúcia Ribeiro de Albuquerque, Esplanada dos Ministérios Bl. F, Anexo - Ala B, 1º Andar-Sala 176, 70059-900 Brasília, Brazil, 2010. 75p. Illus. 42 ref.
Guia_de_análise_Acidentes_do_trabalho_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Portuguese]
Schulte P.A., Heidel D., Okun A., Branche C.
Making green jobs safe
This editorial argues that while green jobs may be perceived to be safe, this is not necessarily the case considering that their prime purpose is to produce green products and services aimed at preserving or restoring environmental quality. It provides examples of where environmental protection has led to increased hazards for workers and recommends that occupational safety and health be duly considered on an equal footing with environmental protection.
Industrial Health, 2010, Vol.48, p.377-379. 12 ref.
Making_green_jobs_safe_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Madrigano J., Baccarelli A., Wright R.O., Suh H., Sparrow D., Vokonas P.S., Schwartz J.
Air pollution, obesity, genes and cellular adhesion molecules
This study examined the association between particulate matter and cell adhesion molecules, together with the modifying effect of genotype and phenotype variation to gain insight into the relevant biological pathways for this association. Mixed regression models were used to examine the association of PM2.5 and black carbon with serum concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1), markers of endothelial function and inflammation, in a longitudinal study of 809 participants in the Normative Ageing Study (1819 total observations). Whether this association was modified by genotype, obesity or diabetes status was also examined. Genes selected for analyses were related to oxidative stress, endothelial function, lipid metabolism or metal processing. Black carbon during the two days prior to blood draw was significantly associated with increased sVCAM-1 (4.5% increase per 1 μg/m3). Neither pollutant was associated with sICAM-1. Larger effects of black carbon on sVCAM were seen in subjects with obesity and who were GSTM1 null. It is concluded that black carbon is associated with markers of endothelial function and inflammation. Genes related to oxidative defence may modify this association.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.67, No.5, p.312-317. Illus. 37 ref.
Air_pollution.pdf [in English]
Nassar N., Abeywardana P., Barker A., Bower C.
Parental occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and risk of hypospadias in infants
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between both maternal and paternal occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and hypospadias. This registry-based case-control study considered 1202 cases of hypospadias in children born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2000 and 2583 male controls randomly selected from birth records for whom information regarding parental occupation was available. Occupational exposures to seven groups of potential EDCs were independently coded by two researchers according to a validated job-exposure matrix. Multivariable analysis showed a strong association with potential maternal occupational exposure to heavy metals with an over twofold increased risk of hypospadias (odds ratio OR 2.6), and women exposed to phthalates were more likely to have an affected son (OR 1.2). Compared with mild or isolated cases, the risks of moderate-severe hypospadias or multiple defects were increased up to two- and fivefold, respectively, with maternal exposure to most types of EDCs. Paternal occupational exposures to polychlorinated organic compounds (OR 1.3) and bi-phenolic compounds (OR 1.6) were also possible risk factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.67, No.9, p.585-589. 37 ref.
Aneziris O.N., Papazoglou I.A., Doudakmani O.
Assessment of occupational risks in an aluminium processing industry
The objective of this study was to quantify occupational risks in an aluminium plant located in Northern Greece. Risk assessment was based on the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM), which can assess occupational risks at hazard level, activity level, job level and overall company level. Twenty six job positions were identified for this plant. All risk profiles of workers were quantified and jobs were ranked according to their risk. Operators at the entrance of the painting unit have the highest fatality risk, followed by the workers at the storage area and the workers performing sandblasting. Occupational risks were also assessed for all plant units and the overall company. Findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.321-329. Illus. 42 ref.
Assessment.pdf [in English]
Chemicals in the enterprise: A policy evaluation tool
Agents chimiques en entreprise: un outil d'évaluation de la politique [in French]
This article comments the provisions of Belgian Royal Decree of 11 March 2002 on chemicals (see CIS 01-1586), and presents a chemical hazards evaluation tool suited for small enterprises, developed and validated by means of a questionnaire survey.
Prevent Focus, Oct. 2010, p.12-15. Illus.
Caicoya M., Delclos G.L.
Work demands and musculoskeletal disorders from the Spanish national survey
The objective of this study was to use the 2003 Spanish National Survey of Work Conditions to examine prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and physical load at work. Using a representative sample of 5236 persons from the Spanish workforce, the prevalence of carrying or lifting heavy loads, use of significant force and repetitive movements was examined among those with and without MSDs. Use of significant force and carrying heavy weights decreased inversely in relation to exposure time and was always higher among those with MSD symptoms or work-related injury. For repetitive movements, prevalence increased with longer duration of exposure and was also significantly higher in those with MSD symptoms, except in the shortest duration category. One-third of workers used significant force during part of their shifts, while 4% were exposed for >50% of their work shift, suggesting that 500,000 workers in Spain are at high risk of musculoskeletal injury. Moreover, repetitive movements involving >50% of the work shift affected 30% of workers. To reduce the high incidence of MSDs and work-related injury in Spain, preventive interventions should be directed at these risk factors.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.447-450. 10 ref.
Work_demands.pdf [in English]
Bortkiewicz A., Gadzicka E., Siedlecka J., Szyjkowska A., Viebig P., Wranicz J.K., Kurpesa M., Dziuba M., Trzos E., Makowiec-Dąbrowska T.
Work-related risk factors of myocardial infarction
The aim of the study was to find out which occupational factors account for the risk of the myocardial infarction. It was conducted in the form of a questionnaire survey of 1053 patients (692 men and 361 women) hospitalized at a Polish University Hospital. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part comprised demographic data, health status at admittance, traditional risk factors for the ischaemic heart disease and was filled-in by physicians. The second part was administered by occupational hygiene specialists and referred to education, job title and characteristics, employment data, self-assessment of work-related and general stress, fatigue, socio-economic status, physical activity, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking and dietary habits. Findings indicate that, among a wide spectrum of occupational factors, stress, noise and fine particulate dust are major contributors to the increased risk of myocardial infarction.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.23, No.3, p.255-265. Illus. 41 ref.
Work-related_risk_factors.pdf [in English]
Sellappa S., Sadhanandhan B., Francis A., Vasudevan S.G.
Evaluation of genotoxicity in petrol station workers in South India using micronucleus assay
In this study, the micronucleus (MN) frequency was assessed as a measure of genotoxicity in exfoliated cells of buccal mucosa extracted from 110 service station attendants and 100 controls. For each individual, 3000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed. The individuals used in the study were grouped based on their smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, and tobacco chewing habits. After controlling for smoking, alcohol consumption, age and length of occupation, there was a significantly higher frequency of micronucleated cells among the workers exposed to gasoline than in the unexposed control population. The significant increase in the induction of the MN in the exposed population suggests that the studied individuals may be at a higher risk of developing cancer and therefore should be monitored for possible long-term adverse effects of the exposure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.852-856. 32 ref.
Evaluation_of_genotoxicity.pdf [in English]
Arimura M., Imai M., Okawa M., Fujimura T., Yamada N.
Sleep, mental health status, and medical errors among hospital nurses in Japan
Medical error involving nurses is a critical issue since nurses' actions will have a direct and often significant effect on the prognosis of their patients. To investigate the significance of nurse health in Japan and its potential impact on patient services, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted among nurses working in hospitals, with the specific purpose of examining the relationship between shift work, mental health and self-reported medical errors. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between the shift work system, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores and nurse errors: the odds ratios for shift system and GHQ were 2.1 and 1.1, respectively. It was confirmed that both sleep and mental health status among hospital nurses were relatively poor, and that shift work and poor mental health were significant factors contributing to medical errors.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.811-817. 25 ref.
Sleep_mental_health.pdf [in English]
Tanaka K., Otsubo T., Tanaka M., Kaku A., Nishinoue N., Takanao T., Kamata N., Miyaoka H.
Similarity in predictors between near miss and adverse event among Japanese nurses working at teaching hospitals
Near miss-based analysis has been recently suggested to be more important in the medical field than focusing on adverse events, as in the industrial field. To validate the utility of near miss-based analysis in the medical fields, this study investigated whether or not predictors of near misses and adverse events were similar among nurses at teaching hospitals. Of the 1,860 nurses approached, 1,737 (93.4%) were included in the final analysis. Potential predictors provided for analysis included gender, age, years of nursing experience, frequency of alcohol consumption, work place, ward rotation, frequency of night shifts, sleepiness during work, frequency of feeling unskilled, nurses' job stressors, working conditions, and depression. Ordinal logistic analysis showed that predictors of near misses and adverse events were markedly similar. Parameters that were significantly related to both near misses and adverse events were years of experience, frequency of night shifts, internal ward, and time pressure.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.775-782. 36 ref.
Similarity_in_predictors.pdf [in English]
Tanarro Gozalo C.
Evaluation of the risk of exposure to nanoparticles by means of simplified methodologies
Evaluación del riesgo por exposición a nanopartículas mediante el uso de metodologías simplificadas [in Spanish]
Although the use of nanotechnology is increasingly common, there is little data on its human toxicity to humans and no established occupational exposure levels specifically applicable to nanoparticles, making it difficult to conduct quantitative assessments. This technical note proposes a simplified method for assessing hazards (control banding), similar to that used for the hazard evaluation of chemical agents.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 12 ref.
NTP_877.pdf [in Spanish]
Alonso Martín M.C.
Evaluation of the specific hazards due to explosive atmospheres (ATEX)
Evaluación de los riesgos específicos derivados de las atmósferas explosivas (ATEX) [in Spanish]
The objective of this technical note is to provide knowledge and tools necessary to perform explosive atmospheres (ATEX) risk assessments in accordance with the provisions of Spanish Royal Decree RD 681/2003 on the protection of health and safety of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres at the workplace.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 8p. 11 ref.
NTP_876.pdf [in Spanish]
Hernández Calleja A., Luna Mendaza P.
Occupational hygiene report. Guidelines for production
El informe higiénico. Pautas de elaboración [in Spanish]
This technical note on the occupational hygiene report following the hazard assessment and exposure evaluation to chemical, physical and/or biological agents during tasks performed within the enterprise, describes the elements which this document has to include as well as its structure.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2010. 6p. Illus. 3 ref.
NTP_863.pdf [in Spanish]
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