Anthropometry - 151 entries found
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Čajnova L.D., Kuhtina I.G., Lidova V.B., Černyševa O.N.
A method for multifactorial ergonomic evaluation of the cabs of grain combines
Metodika kompleksnoj sravnitel'noj ėrgonomičeskoj ocenki kabin zernouboročnyh kombajnov [in Russian]
A presentation for the non-specialist of the way in which expert opinion, psychophysiological and anthropometric studies are combined to identify and eliminate negative features of combine cab design.
Tehničeskaja ėstetika, 1983, No.11, p.12-14. Illus. 5 ref.
Ergonomic checklist for industrial trucks
Ergonomisk checklista för truckar [in Swedish]
Contents of this checklist devised by the Committee on Industrial Trucks of the Swedish Research Commission on Transportation Vehicles: anthropometric data for driver's cabs; choice of work posture; driver's cabs; vibration - maximum permissible intensity and evaluation points; driver's seat and its adjustment; visibility; lighting; means of access to the cab; noise level within the cab; instruments and warning lights; microclimate of the cab; overall evaluation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 29p. Illus. 32 ref.
Design parameters for video display terminal workstations
Civilian body dimensions for men and women aged 20 to 60 years in the United States were analysed to determine minimum and maximum equipment dimensions or adjustment ranges for video display terminal workstations. Values are given for leg room height, width and depth, seat height, support surface height, and eye height above seat. The approach presented is generally useable but specific parameters are applicable only to American and European body dimensions.
Journal of Safety Research, 1983, Vol.14, No.3, p.131-136. 2 ref.
Das B., Grady R.M.
The normal working area in the horizontal plane. A comparative analysis between Farley's and Squires' concept
Squires' concept provided a substantial increase over Farley's concept in the 1-handed, 2-handed and total normal working areas and in the normal front range for all types of operators and gave a relatively small decrease in the normal side range in all but one instance. The minimum and maximum increases in the total normal working area were 398 and 1194 cm2, respectively, and the corresponding percentage increases were 24 and 43%. Considering the overall increase in the normal working area and the dynamic nature of the movement of the arm while the hand sweeps an arc in the normal horizontal working area, Squires' concept is preferable to Farley's.
Ergonomics, May 1983, Vol.26, No.5, p.449-459. Illus. 4 ref.
Das B., Grady R.M.
Industrial workplace layout design - An application of engineering anthropometry
Workplace layout design paramaters were determined mathematically from existing anthropometric data. The parameters were based on the performance of industrial tasks from sitting, standing or combined sitting-standing positions, and were calculated for male or female operators, or operators of both sexes; clothing and posture were taken into account. Reach dimensions were based on the most common industrial operations which require a grasping movement. Appropriate allowances were provided to adjust the reach dimensions for other types of operations. Horizontal and vertical clearance dimensions and reference points for the horizontal and vertical clearances were established. For the determination of the normal working area in the horizontal plane, Squires' concept seems preferable to Farley's (see abstract hereunder).
Ergonomics, May 1983, Vol.26, No.5, p.433-447. Illus. 19 ref.
Rodgers S.H., Eggleton E.M.
Ergonomic design for people at work - Vol.I: Workplace, equipment, and environmental design and information transfer
A handbook on the ergonomics of the workplace to be used by engineers, medical and safety personnel and supervisors. It covers: scope and purpose; workplace design (dimensions for seated and standing work; workplaces with VDUs; design of chemical hoods; stairs and ladders; conveyors; possible adjustments to layout, seats, tools, products); equipment design (ease of maintenance; safety; displays, controls, and keyboards; hand-tool design); information transfer (design of instructions, forms, questionnaires, labels, signs, coding; style, comprehensibility, legibility of the same; inspection performance; process control; batch release); environment (hazards and control of electric shock, noise and vibration; lighting and colours; temperature and humidity). Appendix: anthropometric data; human factors/ergonomics surveys; environmental measurement protocols. Vol.II will include guidelines for job design, manual materials handling and shift work.
Lifetine Learning Publications, 10 Davis Drive, Belmont, CA 94002, USA, 1983. 406p. Illus. Bibl.
(Polish Committee for Standardisation, Measures and Units)
Ergonomic data for design - Zone of foot movement - Angular dimensions
Dane ergonomiczne do projektowania - Granice ruchu stopy - Wymiary kątowe [in Polish]
This standard (effective 1 July 1982) presents curves showing maximum and minimum attainable angles between the shin and the sole of the foot for different degrees of leg flexion. Separate curves are given for men, women and for the two sexes together. Values for angular movement in other planes are also given.
Wydawnistwa Normalizacyjne, Warszawa, Poland, 1982. 4p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: PLZ 8.00.
(Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda)
Methodological recommendations for the use of anthropometric data for the design of industrial equipment
Metodičeskie rekomendacii po ispol'zovaniju antropometričeskih dannyh pri konstruirovanii proizvodstvennogo oborudovanija [in Russian]
An outline of general principles and rules for calculating paramaters of industrial equipment based on the method of quantiles. Among the general principles: differences within groups of individuals are greater than differences between groups; the difference between individual measurements and averages must always be kept in mind; rounding off of tabulated data should not exceed 1cm or 1°; calculations should not be based only on arithmetic means; 20-25-year-old data should not be used. Appendices contain: definitions of terms used in the main document; anthropometric characteristics that differ with sex, ethnic group and age; tables giving 42 measurements for 18-21-year-olds, listed separately for men and women, for 3 Soviet nationalities, and for the 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th and 99th percentiles of each group; tables of amplitudes of hand, foot and head movements, given as 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles of the general population.
VCNIIOT VCSPS, Obolenskij per. 10, 119021 Moskva, USSR, 1982. 40p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Rbl.0.40.
Earth-moving machinery - Human physical dimensions of operators and minimum operator space envelope
Engins de terrassement - Dimensions ergonomiques des conducteurs et espace enveloppe minimal [in French]
This standard is intended as a guide for determining the minimum normal operating space envelope around the operator for operator enclosures generally used on earth-moving machinery. Physical dimensions of male operators are defined and minimum operating space envelopes are specified (standing and sitting posture) for seated clothed and standing clothed operator enclosures (diagrams).
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1982. 7p.
Hin Liau Y., Bhattacharya A., Ayer H., Miller C.
Determination of critical anthropometric parameters for design of respirators
Anthropometric data were collected from 2 direct and 5 indirect facial measurements from front and side view slides of 243 industrial workers fit-tested in a continuing respirator fit-test programme. A correlation was established between these data and the protection factor obtained from quantitative fit-testing of 4 different brands and 10 sizes of half-mask respirators. The most important anthropometric parameters for these respirators are mouth width and face width.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1982, Vol.43, No.12, p.897-899. Illus. 8 ref.
Hand-arm function during the operation of controls
Hand-arm-funktion vid reglagemanövrering [in Swedish]
Following a review of the anatomy of the hand and arm, anthropometric data are given on hand length and width and grip circumference, diameter and area, and the importance of these data in the design and layout of machine controls is emphasised. The distinguishing biomechanical features of the hand-arm unit, the finger-hand unit and the finger-arm unit are discussed. Stress injuries and damage to the hand are considered.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1982. 41p. Illus. 29 ref.
(Polish Committee for Standardisation, Measures and Units)
Ergonomic data for design - Zone of arm reach - Dimensions
Dane ergonomiczne do projektowania - Granica zasięgu rąk - Wymiary [in Polish]
This standard (effective 1 July 1981) presents curves showing minimal (5th percentile of the Polish population) and maximal (95th percentile) reach distances for men and women in 12 horizontal planes above and below the shoulders.
Wydawnistwa Normalizacyjne, Warszawa, Poland, 1981. 8p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: PLZ 7.20.
Helbig K., Jürgens H.W., Pieper U.
Basic anthropometric data for the manufacture of men's safety footwear
Anthropometrische Grundlagen für Sicherheitsschuhwerk für Männer [in German]
Research report on foot and body measurements in 1415 workers required to wear safety footwear: basis for the design and manufacture of safety footwear (foot morphology, function and anatomy, shoe sizing systems, Mondopoint system), determining foot shape (measurements and methods), results of measurements in the selected population and their interpretation, draft foot width scale, sizes needed for men's safety footwear. The framework of the Mondopoint system has been supplemented by corresponding safety footwear measurements. A system of 5 widths for each Mondopoint size is proposed.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 82p. Illus. 9 ref.
Applications of anthropometry in civil engineering work
Aplicação da antropometria na construção civil [in Portuguese]
Study on the anthropometry of workers employed in the civil engineering and construction sector in Brazil: tables of height, width, length, circumference and other measurements of limbs and fingers, feet; reach distances; analysis of human joint mechanics and movements; work with hammers and saws; pushing wheelbarrows; manual digging with spades (proposals of ideal prototype models for each tool). Appended: table of 17 anthropological measurements of 59 workers.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-May-June 1981, Vol.9, No.34, p,48-73. Illus. 17 ref.
Earthmoving machinery - Minimum access dimensions
Engins de terrassement - Dimensions minimales de passages [in French]
This standard, which is based on international standard ISO 2860, provides engineers and designers with numerical data so that they can build into earthmoving machinery access doors and openings of the correct size for inspection, fitting and repair work both on site and in the workshop. The data relate to openings for the hands, head, body, arms and two hands outstretched.
Association française de normalisation, Tour Europe, 92080 Paris-la-Défense Cedex 7, France, Feb. 1981. 4p. Illus.
"Video somatography" - A new method for workplace design and layout
Video-Somatographie - Ein neues Hilfsmittel bei der Arbeitsplatzgestaltung [in German]
Somatography based on anthropometric patterns is replaced by showing on a visual display unit the image of a human subject superimposed on schematic drawings of a workplace. The description of the method is accompanied by photos and diagrams, and various technical problems such as scales of reproduction are considered. Anatomical simplifications and age-linked limitations of the use of somatography are eliminated in this method, which is recommended for the design and layout of a workplace for handicapped persons and for motion studies.
Fortschrittliche Betriebsführung und Industrial Engineering, Feb. 1981, Vol.30, No.1, p.21-26. Illus. 11 ref.
USSR State Standards Committee (Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Manufacturing equipment - General ergonomic requirements
Oborudovanie proizvodstvennoe - Obščie ergonomičeskie trebovanija [in Russian]
Contents of this standard (effective 1 Jan. 1982) applying to all newly designed or reconstructed machinery and plant used in the national economy: general requirements (observance of permissible levels of harmful physical, chemical and biological agents; safeguards to be designed so as not to interfere with work; man-machine interfaces; anthropometric and other requirements); design and layout of workplace, control elements and visual displays; enforcement of the observance of these requirements. 4 appendices cover: statistical anthropometric data on men and women (seated and standing); seat heights and leg space for men and women; relationships between permissible handwheel actuating forces and handwheel diameter; permissible pushing forces for actuating pedals in a sitting posture.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 17 July 1980. 20p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.10.
Booth R.T., Thompson D.
Anthropometry and machinery guarding: an investigation into forced reach over barriers and through openings. Part 1. Reach over barriers. Part 2. Reach through openings
The German standard DIN 31 001 was tested for its applicability to the British working population. The safety distances given in DIN 31 001 for forced reach over barriers, which were designed to protect 95% of the workforce, did not protect this proportion of the British workforce in tests using 200 male subjects. At certain barrier and hazard heights, subjects increased their forced reach distance by ≤20% by a small upward jump. Subjects over-balanced when reaching down over a 1000mm high barrier rail. This standard should not be adopted in Britain, and the standard used should be designed to protect ≥99% of the population at risk. Parts of the DIN 31 001 standard relating to reach through round and square finger-size openings and 10, 20 and 30mm slots were tested using 500 British female workers, and the degree of protection provided was comparable with that of BS 5304. Significant differences in limb dimensions were found in Asian,European and West Indian groups of workers tested. The square or round shape of the opening was a significant determinant of reach.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, Oct. 1980, Part 1, Vol.3, No.1, p.45-56. Illus. 12 ref.; and May 1981, Part 2, Vol.3, No.1, No.2, p.87-99. Illus. 6 ref.
Soleo L., Jacovone M.T., Misciagna G.
Anthropometric parameters in a female working population in Apulia - Preliminary results
Parametri antropometrici di un campione di popolazione femminile a lavoro in Puglia: primi risultati [in Italian]
228 women aged 26-51 years working in the shoe industry were studied. 31 sets of measurements are given for the standing and sitting positions.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Apr.-May 1980, Vol.4, p.139-156. Illus. 6 ref.
Application of anthropometry to the building industry
Aplicação da antropometria na construção civil [in Portuguese]
Studies in construction workers in 22 different occupations are reported. Data are given on: shoulder height, body weight, chest diameter, elbow height, finger height, arm and forearm length, sitting knee height, pelvis-knee distance, hand dimensions. The purpose of the study is to determine the adequacy of the tools used.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 1980, Vol.8, No.32, p.74-80. Illus.
Basic anthropometrical data for the study of safe distances - Hand and arm protection
Bases anthropométriques pour l'étude des distances de sécurité - Protection des membres supérieurs. [in French]
Study of French anthropometrical data used as a basis for drafting French Experimental Standard AFNOR E 09010 "Safety engineering measures for the prevention of accidents due to mechanical hazards of machinery and equipment - Safe distances for hand and arm". Situations in which the hand or arm may get stuck in openings (semicircular, square, and with parallel sides) are indicated (anthropometrical data/dimensional limits = "minimum width/maximum length").
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1288-101-80, p.541-550. Illus. 11 ref.
Davies B.T., Abada A., Benson K., Courtney A., Minto I.
Female hand dimensions hand guarding of machines
Anthropometric studies in 92 women are reported: 28 measurements useful for the design of machinery and machine guards are given. The dimensions for openings in fixed guards recommended in British and German standards are sufficiently small to prevent access to dangerous parts by all the hands measured.
Ergonomics, Jan. 1980, Vol.23, No.1, p.79-84. 3 ref.
Davies B.T., Abada A., Benson K., Courtney A., Minto I.
A comparison of hand anthropometry of females in three ethnic groups.
An anthropometric study of hand dimensions is reported for 51 West European, 21 Indian (Punjab) and 20 West Indian women workers. There were no significant differences between European and Indian groups. West Indian women showed significant differences from both other groups.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1980, Vol.23, No.2, p.179-182. Illus. 3 ref.
Rohmert W., Haider E.
Strain-oriented classification for work in the vertical arm movement range
Beanspruchungsorientierte Systematik für Arbeiten im Höhenbewegungsraum der Arme [in German]
The method was developed to allow the rating of strain caused by work in different arm positions, for ergonomic job evaluation. The scaling method is based on the principle that movements represent a sequence of momentary positions. The vertical range of arm movements is designated by percentage values of body height, and arm forces are classified in term of isodynes, i.e. curves of constant arm forces. An example shows the application of this evaluation method to the work on an engine assembly line.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1979, Vol.44, No.4, p.233-248. 15 ref.
Alba Riesco J., Arriaga Sanz J.M.
Anthropometric data as a basis for machine guard design
Datos antropométricos como fundamento para el diseño de elementos de protección de máquinas [in Spanish]
The authors define 26 anthropometric variables which it is essential to bear in mind for machine guard design, and group them in 3 major categories: general data (age, weight, height, level of eyes, of shoulders, etc.), specific measurements of upper limbs, specific measurements of lower limbs. A survey of 4,220 males enabled the mean value of these variables to be calculated for Spanish workers; these data (which are not reproduced) are of particular importance in view of the considerable emigration of Spanish manpower to other European countries where anthropometric variables are different.
Salud y trabajo, Aug. 1979, No.20, p.15-17.
Roozbazar A., Bosker G.W., Richerson M.E.
A theoretical model to estimate some ergonomic parameters from age, height and weight.
A model to predict anthropometric, biomechanical and work physiology parameters from age, height and weight is described. The capabilities and restrictions of the model are presented. Predicted values of 83 ergonomic parameters for a sample of 250 healthy males have shown close agreement with the values reported in the literature. Recommendations for refinement and improvement of the model are made.
Ergonomics, Jan. 1979, Vol.22, No.1, p.43-58. Illus. 25 ref.
El-Ghawabi S.H., Gaber M.F., Ahmed S.H., Sallam M.
Anthropometric data of Egyptian workers
Data for 87 body measurements and sociological variables are given for 7800 male and 2200 female workers. Statistics with percentile values for the indices are tabulated.
Journal of the Egyptian Medical Association, 1978, Vol.61, No.3-4, p.177-202. Illus. 9 ref.
Hack A.L., McConville J.T., Bradley O.D., Trujillo A.
Respirator protection factors: Part I - Development of an anthropometric test panel: Part II - Protection factors of supplied-air respirators.
Part I describes development of test panels for full-face, half, and quarter masks representing the majority of the working population in terms of relevant facial measurements. In each case the number of subjects in the panel was set at 25. Part II describes tests with continuous-flow, pressure-demand, and demand respirators using a polydisperse dioctyl phthalate aerosol. The protection factor (PF) is the ratio of the challenge concentration of test agent outside the facepiece to the concentration inside the facepiece. The effects of smiling and frowning and various tasks were tested. Most continuous flow respirators achieved the recommended PF values. Demand-type respirators are not recommended for use. In addition to respirator performance other equipment problems and malfunctions are reported. Recommendations for respirator specifications and regulatory requirements are made.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1978, Vol.39, No.12, p.970-975; May 1980, Vol.41, No.5, p.376-381. 15 ref.
Haberer G., Weinmann J.
Anthropometric workpost design
Anthropometrische Arbeitsplatzgestaltung [in German]
Presentation of a systematic method for determining the optimal vertical dimensions - especially height - of workplace chairs, tables and footrests. An enumeration of work-linked factors and individual factors influencing these vertical dimensions is followed by a description of a 5-phase method for calculating the ideal height for each component element of the workplace for sitting or standing posture. Some basic dimensions as a function of type of work and posture are given in tables. Criteria for correct work posture. Practical conclusions.
REFA Nachrichten, 1978, Vol.31, No.3, p.135-138. Illus. 9 ref.
Kvasnicka E.W., Radl G.W.
Workplace design for men over 40 - Anthropometric study to improve ergonomics and occupational safety aspects
Gestaltung der Arbeitsumwelt von über 40jährigen Männern - Anthropometrische Erhebungen zur ergonomischen und sicherheitstechnischen Gestaltung [in German]
This study is timely: firstly, because the last anthropometric studies in the field were carried out some 15 years ago, and secondly, because men over 40 now constitute 45% of the active male workforce of the Federal Republic of Germany. The authors measured 36 body dimensions in accordance with DIN standard procedure in a sample of 817 men. Contents: methods; results in relation to age, regional variations and social variations; significance of the results for industrial anthropology and workplace design from the ergonomics and safety viewpoints.
Forschungsbericht Nr. 190, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 17 02 02, 4600 Dortmund 17, Germany, (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 194p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: DM.22.00.
Discussion paper on the standardisation of manholes and inspection openings
Ein Diskussionsbeitrag zur Normung von Befahr- und Besichtigungsöffnungen [in German]
As inspection openings and manholes are not indispensable and in fact are often considered to be undesirable from the engineer's point of view, this aspect of maintenance and safety is often neglected. This paper gives the historical background and current trends in the pertinent West German regulations, and reviews, with tables and diagrams, the dimensions and number of openings required for various types of equipment (boilers, pressure vessels, storage tanks, etc.) by the regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany and other European countries. The problem of accessibility to the openings is more difficult than that of their dimensions and number, but it is very important, having regard to safety and rescue of workers trapped inside. Using anthropometric measurements and data on visual capacity and the possibilities of movement of the human body it should be possible to standardise inspection openings, irrespective of the type of recipient concerned and its use.
TÜ, July-Aug. 1978, Vol.19, No.7-8, p.241-246. Illus. 17 ref.
Carlsöö S., Hansson J.E., Uppsäll M.
Optimum working range in the operation of levers
Optimala arbetsområden vid manövrering av handreglage [in Swedish]
In this study, 20 seated subjects themselves determined the best location for 2 types of lever at 3 different work heights. The load on the shoulder muscles was measured electromyographically in 6 subjects. The optimum range was quite small, and usually had the shape of an ellipse. Lever locations providing an elbow angle of about 105° when the arm was parallel to the trunk were the most comfortable. Use of an arm support increased the load on the shoulder in forward-backward movements, and reduced it in lateral movements. Optimum locations for levers are recommended: levers used more than 2-3h/day should be adjustable.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1978:12, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1978. 38p. 15 ref.
A model for the ergonomic study of working conditions
Maquette pour l'étude ergonomique des conditions de travail. [in French]
This note is based on: The shape of workspace data transformation on a model basis. Applied Ergonomics, Guildford, United Kingdom, Mar. 1977, Vol.8, No.1, p.31-34. Illus. (CIS 77-1769). A device is described which visualises the space limits for normal reach and the maximum reach range from the standing or sitting position. It consists of a wall of wooden elements 5x5x100cm, each of which can be pushed back by up to 85cm. A grid notation system of spatial data is used to characterise the machine layout. Application of the method to the design of a hydraulic press is illustrated.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1978, No.92, Note No.1131-92-78, p.413-416. Illus.
Determination of the spatial reach area of the arms for workplace design purposes.
The methods and apparatus used for these studies in 226 men and 204 women are described. The results are expressed as percentile values for the Polish population and are intended as a basis for designing the spatial structures of machines, installations and workplaces.
Ergonomics, July 1978, Vol.21, No.7, p.493-507. Illus. 16 ref.
Preventing access to danger areas which cannot be completely guarded by physical barriers
Interdiction d'accès aux zones dangereuses ne pouvant être totalement fermées par des écrans matériels. [in French]
On certain machines such as punching machines, nibbling machines and plate shears the guards must have permanent openings, where fingers or hands may be accidentally inserted. The French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) carried out hand measurements in 57 subjects, including 8 women, using templates. The results are given in a table indicating required distances between physical barriers and danger areas for openings with heights ranging from 8 to 50mm.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1977, No.88, Note No.1069-88-77, p.329-332. Illus.
Davies B.T., Shahnawaz H.
An anthropometer for use in developing countries.
Description of the anthropometer, developed in Iran. It consists of a base, a seat or a standing platform, a vertical column, and a horizontal moving arm.
Ergonomics, May 1977, Vol.20, No.3, p.317-320. Illus. 1 ref.
The shape of workspace data transformation on a model basis.
A device is described which visualises the space limits for normal reach and the maximum reach range from the standing or sitting position. It consists of a wall of wooden elements 5 x 5 x 100cm, each of which can be pushed back by up to 85cm. A grid notation system of spatial data is used to characterise the machine layout. Application of the method to the design of a hydraulic press is illustrated.
Applied Ergonomics, Guildford, United Kingdom, Mar. 1977, Vol.8, No.1, p.31-34. Illus.
Estryn M., Vaichère E., Marcelin J.
Anthropometric study of female personnel of Paris hospitals - Value for workpost design
Etude anthropométrique du personnel féminin des hôpitaux de Paris - Intérêt dans la conception des postes de travail. [in French]
Samples of 431 and 60 women were studied. Standards are proposed for hospital equipment, especially in respect of beds and the nurses' station. Present posts, inadapted to the stature of the persons studied, cause postures to be adopted which are all the more arduous in that some 25% of this personnel are obese, some are elderly and several tasks require considerable muscular effort. Adoption of correct postures would help reduce the arduousness of the work and would have a preventive effect on vertebral disorders, in which mechanical factors also play a role.
Travail humain, 1976, Vol.39, No.2, p.285-297. Illus. 13 ref.
McConville J.T., Churchill E.
Human variability and respirator sizing.
This report presents the anthropometry of the head and face relevant to respirator design, with related statistical data. Design and sizing concepts are examined, and recommendations made. Appendices: landmarks of the head and face; illustrated description of head and face measurements, anatomical glossary, etc.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-146, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Mar. 1976. 80p. Illus. 43 ref.
Anthropometric features in relation to the dentist's workplace
Caractéristiques anthropométriques concernant le poste de travail du praticien de l'art dentaire. [in French]
This documentation sheet, which is a sequel to NF S 91-012 "The study of the working space of the dentist" (CIS 75-275), sets out in tabular form the anthropometric values used as a basis for calculating the dimensions of the working space (various body dimensions, interarticular segments), stressing the importance of eye-task distance.
Fascicule de documentation NS S 91-013, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, 92080 Paris la Défense Cedex 7, France, Apr. 1975. 5p. Illus. 2 ref.
Kopka T., Jürgens H.W.
Design of safety shoes for women
Gestaltung von Sicherheitsschuhwerk für Frauen [in German]
Studies of the differences between men's and women's feet were performed to establish whether safety shoes designed for men could also be used by women. After the basic principles of shoe construction, the booklet deals above all with the anatomy of the foot, the demands to be made of a safety shoe, and foot form. Foot types and data to serve as a basis for lasts for a women's safety shoe were derived from measurements made in 682 women in North and South Germany and Mediterranean countries. Finally, practical hints are given relating to the different foot and lower leg dimensions found in women.
Forschungsbericht Nr.136, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1975. 80p. 12 ref.
The determination of functional arm reach boundaries for operation of manual controls.
The functional arm reach of a representative sample of 110 light-aircraft pilots (75 men, 35 women) was measured. The measuring and recording apparatus is described, and the procedure for measuring maximum arm reach to 170 positions in space around each subject, firmly retained by a three-point safety belt, is outlined. The results are presented in tables and diagrams.
Ergonomics, May 1974, Vol.17, No.3, p.375-388. Illus. 23 ref.
Safety shoes - An ergonomic approach
Chaussures de sécurité - Approche ergonomique. [in French]
In France, shoes in general and safety shoes in particular are not sufficiently adapted to the individual characteristics of the feet (respective sizes of the toes, fallen arches, variations in foot width for a given shoe size). Detailed review of these points and statistical data on their distribution. In view of the complexity of the problems involved in safety shoes, the setting up of ergonomic groups is necessary both at the factory and at the design stage.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1974, Vol.35, No.12, p.996-1004. Illus.
Earthmoving machinery - Minimum access dimensions
Engins de terrassement - Dimensions minimales de passage. [in French]
This standard, which corresponds to a large extent to ISO international standard 2860, provides engineers and designers with information in order that access openings provided in equipment and machinery for purposes of inspection, adjustment and maintenance are made large enough for efficient performance of the intended function by the man in the field or shop. The data given cover access openings for the hands, head, body, 2-handed access and reach access (both arms).
Norme française enregistrée NF E 58-051, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, Cedex 7, 92080 Paris-la-Défense, France, Jan. 1974. 4p. Illus.
General considerations relating to the chair/desk workpost assembly - Conditions for the adaptation of the workpost
Considérations générales relatives au poste de travail siège-bureau - Conditions d'adaptation du poste de travail. [in French]
On the basis of the major ergonomics textbooks listed in the appended bibliography, this information sheet reviews ergonomic and anthropometric data required for adequate adaptation of the workpost to each user. Recommendations deal with the dimensional characteristics of the workpost and the seating arrangement (height, depth, breadth, back and arm rests), the chair/desk relationship (foot rest, seating, work and sight planes) for general use or for typing, space for placing feet and legs and, finally, useful interior dimensions of drawers.
Fascicule de documentation NF D 67-607, French Standards Association (Association française de normalisation), Tour Europe, Cedex 7, 92080 Paris La Défense, France, Feb. 1973. 11p. Illus. 17 ref.
Webb Associates, Yellow Springs, Ohio.
Anthropometry for respirator sizing.
Final report of an anthropometric research carried out to establish parameters for the correct sizing and design of dust respirators. It is concluded that, although an adequate source of head and face anthropometry based on industrial workers does not exist, the US Air Force surveys of 1967 and 1968 are satisfactory for the design and sizing of respirators for industrial workers. Differences in the head and face size of racial and ethnic subgroups are of little practical significance in respirator design. A variety of sequential sampling procedures for testing masks are described; the extensive data that constitute the results are appended.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, 30 Apr. 1972. 112p. Illus. 32 ref.
Hughes J.G., Lomaev O.
An anthropometric survey of Australian male facial sizes
An anthropometric survey was carried out among 538 men in both a general and an industrial population with a view to obtaining basic data for the design of respirators. The results ar presented and discussed, mean values and standard deviations being given for 8 facial dimensions. Small but significant differences exist between Australian-born, United Kingdom-born, and other foreign-born groups.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1972, Vol.33, No.2, p.71-78. Illus. 7 ref.
A biokinematic model for workplace design
A computerised biokinematic model was developed to simulate the spatial relationships between a seated operator and his workplace. This required the definition of link systems and spatial excursion envelopes in order to enable the operator's configuration to be predicted. The model predictions were validated by using triaxial orthogonal photogrammetry. Applications of the model are discussed.
Human Factors, June 1972, Vol.14, No.3, p.237-247. Illus. 18 ref.
Anthropometrics for designers
This book provides designers with the necessary material required to fit their products to the user, whether these products are clothing, furniture, automobiles or production machines. From the designer's point of view, the body may be viewed as a human machine and this machine is considered successively in terms of growth, figure typing, measurement and human engineering. Individual chapters are devoted to such aspects as: range ratios of body measurements; anatomical movements; joints and muscles; the use of limbs in operator functions; movement of levers and wheels; reach distances; seats and seating dimensions; viewing, work plane heights; clearances for seated operators, etc.
B.T. Batsford Ltd., 4 Fitzhardinge Street, London W1H OAH, United Kingdom, 1971. 176p. Illus. 69 ref.
Adaptation of work to man and occupational health problems in countries undergoing industrial development
Problèmes d'adaptation du travail à l'homme et de médecine du travail dans les pays en voie de développement industriel [in French]
This report examines the implications of trying to adapt work to man in countries undergoing industrial development. It is suggested that it might be wrong to apply the ergonomic principles established in a Western society to these new situations. Basic research in anatomy and physiology is necessary before designing equipment best suited to these countries. Other issues that need to be taken into account when planning occupational health services include the role of rites and religions, and the problems relating to the state of health, diet and infections.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1964. 19p.
Ergonomics of machine guarding
Ergonomie und Maschinenschutz [in German]
Protection des machines et ergonomie [in French]
This information note explains how human measurements should be taken into account in the design of machine guards. It focuses on reach distances in relation to various guard designs.
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Dec. 1964. 18p. Illus. 11 ref.
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