Anthropometry - 151 entries found
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Kirchner A., Kirchner J.H., Kliem M., Müller J.M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Spatial ergonomic design - Handbook
Räumlich-ergonomische Gestaltung - Handbuch [in German]
Chapter headings: anthropometry for engineers and designers; somatography, the draftsman's representation of the human body; spatial ergonomic design (relating the shape of objects and spaces to body dimensions, postures and movements); collected data for spatial ergonomic design. The references cover not only research publications and standards but also sources of templates.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaften GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 334p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Contemporary ergonomics 1992
Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society's Conference held in Birmingham, England, 7-10 April 1992. Papers presented cover: motion sickness; information display; musculoskeletal studies; environmental studies; upper limb disorders; inspection; risk, injuries and the injured; working postures and anthropometry; stress; safety; military ergonomics; drivers and driving; alarms and automatic speech recognition; selection and work stress; knowledge elicitation; ergonomics applications; human computer interaction; software usability and icons; methodology; task analysis and decisions; workload; keyboards and controls; process control; videotelephony.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hants RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1992. x, 565p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes.
The use of adjustable furniture: Evaluation of an instruction programme for office workers
A programme was designed in which instruction was given in the optimal adjustment of seat and desk height based on individually measured body dimensions. The programme was evaluated by means of measurement of seat and desk height before and after instruction to an experimental group in comparison with a control group to which no instruction was given. In the experimental group, prior to instruction, the mean deviation from the ideal sitting posture measured 71mm for seat height and 70mm for desk height. After instruction this deviation decreased by 11mm for seat height and 18mm for desk height. Although this is a statistically significant change, it is of limited practical importance since for seat height only 7% (3 of 41) and for desk height 13% (5 of 40) adjusted their furniture effectively as they were advised. The reasons for this meagre result are assumed to be the arbitrary concept of an ideal sitting posture, difficulties in obtaining extra adjustments in the form of footrests and desk elevation, the social acceptability of the advice given, and practical impediments that can occur while adopting an ideal sitting posture.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1991, Vol.22, No.3, p.179-184. 10 ref.
Lohman T.G., Roche A.F., Martorell R.
Anthropometric standardization reference manual - Abridged edition
Measurement procedures are given for over 40 anthropometric dimensions. They reflect the consensus of North American experts from many fields. This edition is "abridged" in that it lacks the texts of conference presentations that appeared in the first edition. Chapters cover: stature, recumbent length and weight; segment lengths; body breadth equipment and measurement techniques; circumferences; skinfold thickness and measurement technique. Participants in the initial consensus conference (Airlie, Virginia, USA, Oct. 1985) are listed, and a list of equipment and suppliers is given in an appendix.
Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076, USA, 19 July 1991. 90p. Illus. 233 ref. Price: USD 16.00.
Yao C.H., Slattery M.L., Jacobs D.R., Folsom A.R., Nelson E.T.
Anthropometric predictors of coronary heart disease and total mortality - Findings from the US Railroad Study
Prospective data from the US Railroad study were used to investigate the relationships of several anthropometric variables to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in males initially free of cardiovascular disease. Anthropometric indicators of total body fat and central body fat were significantly and directly associated with age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality. When systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, cigarette smoking, and vital capacity were also taken into account, the ratio chest circumference/shoulder diameter (central body fat) remained significantly associated with coronary heart disease mortality. Total, central, and peripheral body fat had a "U"-shaped relation with all-cause mortality. These results indicate that certain anthropometric measurements, especially those that may indicate central adiposity, are positively related to the development of fatal coronary heart disease and quadratically related to all-causes death rates.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Dec. 1991, Vol.134, No.11, p.1278-1289. 31 ref.
Quéinnec Y., Daniellou F.
International Ergonomics Association
Designing for everyone
Conception ergonomique pour tous [in French]
Proceedings of the 11th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, held in Paris in 1991. Topics covered: measurement and assessment of physical work; work and task analysis; information processing; assessment of workplaces; workplace and product design; analysis and design of production systems; transport; ergonomics and specific needs; the worker and work improvement; skills and practice of ergonomists; the future of ergonomics.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1991. 3 vols. 2063p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 136.00.
Contemporary ergonomics 1991
Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society's Conference held in Southampton, United Kingdom, 16-19 April 1991. Papers presented cover: seating and vibration assessment; accidents, errors and risk; methodology; military ergonomics; speech input and synthesis; the human-computer interface; noisy and hot environments; illness and performance; vision; VDU interaction; upper limb disorders; physiology, stress, workload and memory; simulation, fidelity and evaluation; job and workplace design; musculoskeletal studies; user interface and evaluation; ergonomic assessment; vehicle ergonomics and drivers.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1991. 493p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 35.00.
Coblentz R., Mollard R., Ignazi G.
Three-dimensional face shape analysis of French adults, and its application to the design of protective equipment
In a preliminary survey, anthropometric measurements were collected on 301 females and 208 males and a sampling strategy was designed to select 30 females and 30 males as test subjects. A stereophotogrammetric method was used for face data acquisition and stereorestitution was made on pairs of photographs placed in an analytical plotter. Three-dimensional values for each subject were processed using computer-aided design software and five groups of fore-faced size were identified. The study demonstrates that stereometric measurements of the face can be used as basic data for the design of protective equipment for the fore-face.
Ergonomics, Apr. 1991, Vol.34, No.4, P.497-517. Illus. 38 ref.
Be aware of diversity and work - A challenge for ergonomics
Conhecer a diversidade e trabalhar com a flexibilidade: um desafio para a ergonomia [in Portuguese]
In order to help make appropriate ergonomic plans for the future Brazilian workforce, this article analyses anthropometric data based on 2 Brazilian surveys: one on 3,100 industrial workers in Rio de Janeiro (1988), the other on a representative sample of the whole Brazilian population (1975). Variables considered: height as a function of age, regional origin and race; height as a function of race and salary. Data of subsidiary interest include: calory and protein intake per person per day in Japan (1910-1980); height and weight as a function of age and socio-economic status in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), 1977-78; height as a function of age for boys, 5-17yrs old, Japan, in 1949 and 1979; selected comparative anthropometric data for the French, the Chinese, for Bantu workers, for industrial workers in Mexico and in Rio de Janeiro (1987-88).
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 1990, Vol.18, No.71, p.50-61. Illus. 8 ref.
Li C.C., Hwang S.L., Wang M.Y.
Static anthropometry of civilian Chinese in Taiwan using computer-analyzed photography
In this study, 95 body measurements were taken from a total of 933 subjects randomly selected from the population of Taichung County. Five measurements were taken directly, the rest were taken from photographs. The data were entered via a digitiser into a microcoputer and the resulting anthropometric database was analysed to provide a statistical tabulation organised by age, sex and occupation. Problems associated with the photographic technique and the sampling strategy are discussed, and results are compared with previous studies. The study is said to demonstrate a systematic and efficient method for the collection and updating of anthropometric data.
Human Factors, June 1990, Vol.32, No.3, p.359-370. 11 ref.
Mebarki B., Davies B.T.
Anthropometry of Algerian women
An anthropometric study was carried out in Algeria between March 1986 and September 1987. A set of body dimensions were taken from a sample of 666 Algerian female subjects, age range 16-65 years. The subjects were selected randomly and covered a mix of occupational groups. The measurements were taken as part of a fuller study, and were chosen for their relevance to furniture design and workplace layout. Results are presented, discussed, and compared with those for other female populations.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1990, Vol.33, No.12, p.1537-1547. Illus. 26 ref.
Diebschlag W., Heidinger F.
Ergonomic seat design to prevent back disorders due to sedentary work
Ergonomische Sitzgestaltung zur Prävention sitzhaltungsbedingter Wirbelsäulenschädigungen [in German]
Constructional features of ergonomically designed office chairs and driver's seats of automobiles are illustrated and outlined. Sitting surface, back elements and arm rests of these chairs can be adjusted to individual proportions. Seat and back elements are elastic. Regular change of sitting posture on office chairs is recommended.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.3, p.123-126. Illus. 32 ref.
Jürgens H.W., Aune I.A., Pieper U.
International data on anthropometry
This English edition of the original document (Internationaler anthropometrischer Datenatlas) issued in co-operation with the CIS presents an international overview of ergonomically relevant body measurements and their distribution among populations so that an interested international readership may consider to what extent and in what way an international harmonisation of consumer goods and workplace design is necessary and possible.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1990. 113p. Illus. 366 ref. Price: CHF 17.50.
Anthropometry and workplace design
Anthropométrie et aménagement des lieux de travail [in French]
Anthropometric and biomechanical data which are established by the measurement and modelling of the human body enable workplaces to be adapted to the dimensions of a population in order to avoid unfavourable postures with harmful consequences and to facilitate a better work performance. The use of these data in classical methods of geometrical construction of workplaces and in computer assisted construction techniques is described. The general methodology of the dimensional design of a workplace is explained in terms of definition of the population of operators concerned, analysis of the work activity and definition of the dimensional characteristics of the workplace.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications-Pathologie du travail, 1989, 6p. Illus. 27 ref.
Contemporary ergonomics 1989
Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society Conference held in Reading, United Kingdom, 3-7 April 1989. Papers presented cover: workplace stress; attitudinal aspects of workplace safety; design and evaluation methods; the HUFIT toolset - human factors tools for the design of information technology products; computer-aided design; expert systems; process control; working at video display terminals; control design and manual control; equipment and workplace design; anthropometry; posture and seating; work physiology and manual handling; musculoskeletal disorders; the use of symbols and icons; information presentation and acquisition; performance in noisy environments; mental workload.
Taylor & Francis Ltd., 4 John Street, London WC1N 2ET, United Kingdom, 1989. 514p. Illus. Bibl. Index.
Variety of physical characteristics in industrially developing countries - Ergonomic consequences
Data concerning the physical characteristics of populations obtained in 39 countries and described in 103 publications were collected. Their evaluation does not only take ethnic differences into account, but also focuses on the influence of biological, social, economic and geographical factors such as sex, age, health condition, socio-occupational background, altitude and climate. The ergonomic consequences considered affect production locations and products themselves, as well as the physical capacities of the workers.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 1989, n°4, p.117-138. Illus. 103 ref.
Gite L.P., Yadav B.G.
Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design - An Indian case study
Fifty-two body dimensions were identified which were considered useful for farm machinery design and measurements were taken on 39 male farm workers in the 15-60 age range. The collected data were analysed to calculate means, standard deviations and ranges, and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for different dimensions. Examples are given to illustrate the use of the data in the design of agricultural equipment.
Applied Ergonomics, Sep. 1989, Vol.20, No.3, p.191-196. Illus. 15 ref.
Engineering anthropometry is turning from static physical measurements to dynamic procedures using photogrammetric and laser techniques, with new mathematical and statistical procedures emerging. The design of garments, equipment, and workstations often requires prediction of missing anthropometric dimensions from measured ones. For this, regression methods are often used. The careful matching of design dimensions and anthropometric measures can be done in a simple stepwise procedure.
Ergonomics, July 1989, Vol.32, No.7, p.767-784. Bibl.
Ergonomic aspects of the use of mobile visual display terminals on fork-lift trucks
Ergonomische Aspekte beim Einsatz mobiler Datenstationen auf Flurförderzeugen [in German]
Recommendations concerning installation and design of visual display terminals on fork-lift trucks address: (1) anthropometric aspects (e.g. use without postural strain), (2) ergonomic keyboard design, (3) ergonomic presentation of characters on the display screen, (4) software which permits the user to decide procedural matters.
Sicherheitsingenieur, 1989, Vol.20, No.9, p.78-82, 84-86. Illus. 17 ref.
Workspace for disabled people
The investigation embraced a group of young people with motor dysfunction of lower extremities. Seventeen measurements were taken of 32 boys and 45 girls aged 15-18. There are significant differences in functional dimensions of the arm between the healthy and the disabled populations. The differences clearly indicate that there is a need for different shaping of space in which people of limited motor efficiency must function. A method based on Das and Grady's concept was used in determining workspace. This method was modified by the author. The method allows determination of workspace by means of several simple anthropometric measurements. Workspace for young people investigated was determined for the sitting position in transverse and sagittal planes. The results of the investigation constitute data for design and estimation of workplaces for disabled young people with motor dysfunction of lower extremities. The results can also be used to determine functional space in classrooms, school workshops, and educational and rehabilitation centres.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1989, Vol.32, No.9, p.1077-1088. Illus. 10 ref.
Reach distance and safety standards
The reach of British males of 99th percentile stature over different height barriers was determined to establish reach distances for a proposed Comité European de Normalisation (CEN) standard. The distances recorded are considerably in excess of those given in the draft West German standard DIN 31001 1984, and those given in the recently published British standard code of practice for safety of machinery BS.5304. Data are included from earlier experiments which show that the safety distances would also be inadequate for the 95th percentile stature British male. It is suggested that reasons for the discrepancies arise mainly from the differences in the way that the reach measurements were obtained.
Ergonomics, Sep. 1989, Vol.32, No.9, p.1061-1076. Illus. 8 ref.
Fernandez J.F., Malzahn D.E., Eyada O.K., Kim C.H.
Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers
Results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data were collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilised equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than to that of the Japanese female.
Ergonomics, 1989, Vol.32, No.5, p.491-495. Illus. 7 ref.
Adams A.S., Hall R.R., McPhee B.J., Oxenburgh M.S.
International Ergonomics Association
Ergonomics International 88
Proceedings of the 10th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association held in Sydney, Australia, 1-5 August 1988. Papers given at the Congress are presented under the following headings: design ergonomics; work and workplace design; making ergonomics work; ergonomics in developing countries; manual handling; data bases and analysis; measurement of workload; the musculoskeletal system at work; mental workload and decision-making; stress in the workplace; visual ergonomics; transport ergonomics; human-computer interaction; robotics; systems ergonomics; organisational design and management.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 0PR, United Kingdom, 1988. xxii, 772p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price: GBP 90.00.
Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour
Human dimensions of Chinese adults
Zhongguo chengnianren renti chicun [in Chinese]
This standard (effective 1 July 1989) contains 12 tables of anthropometric measurements of men and women in various age categories between 18 and 60. First, 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, 95th and 99th percentile values are given.
China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, 12 Dec. 1988. 17p. Price: CNY 0.90.
Ong C.N., Koh D., Phoon W.O., Low A.
Anthropometrics and display station preferences of VDU operators
The anthropometric dimensions of three major ethnic groups in Singapore were studied on 94 female VDU operators. The postural preferences at the VDU work stations were also investigated. Few anthropometric differences were noted for the Chinese, Malays and Indians. However, when compared to data from Germany and the USA, the three Asian cohorts are smaller in body size. Owing to the smaller body build, the Singapore operators preferred to have a sitting height of about 46cm, and a working height of about 74cm, compared with the 47cm and 77cm, respectively, preferred by European operators. Despite the anthropometric differences, the Singapore VDU operators, like their counterparts in Europe and the USA also preferred to sit in a pronounced backward leaning posture with a slightly open elbow angle. This sitting posture seems to ignore the traditional recommended upright trunk position of 90°.
Ergonomics, Mar. 1988, Vol.31, No.3, p.337-347. Illus. 22 ref.
A biomechanical strength model for use in industry
This paper reviews the development of a biomechanical model that can be used to predict static muscle and low back strengths of workers in industry. The development traces the use of simple mechanics to estimate joint forces and moments during the performance of manual exertions. The moments at each joint predicted by the model are compared to muscle strengths obtained from isometric tests of several thousand workers which together provide manual performance limits. Forces predicted at the low back are compared to NIOSH limits. Demonstrations of the use of the model to analyse two manual materials handling tasks are presented, along with discussions on the limitations and the need for improved models.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Mar. 1988, Vol.3, No.3, p.79-86. Illus. 30 ref.
(Polish Committee for Standardisation, Measures and Units)
Ergonomic data for design - Dimensions of the human body
Dane ergonomiczne do projektowania - Wymiary ciała ludzkiego [in Polish]
This standard (effective 1 July 1976) presents minimum and maximum values of 40 dimensions of body parts and limits of movement for Polish men and women.
Wydawnistwa Normalizacyjne "Alfa", Warszawa, Poland, 3rd edition, 1988. 4p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: PLZ 32.00.
Abeysekera J.D.A., Shahnavaz H.
Body size data of Sri Lankan workers and their variability with other populations in the world: Its impact on the use of imported goods
A national anthropometric survey of Sri Lankan workers has provided up-to-date information on the body sizes of both males and females. This data that was previously lacking in Sri Lanka can be of great benefit for the designers and importers of goods for Sri Lankans. Simple and anthropologically spread techniques have been used to collect the data. Comparisons of body sizes between developing countries (including Sri Lanka) with those of developed countries revealed wide variations which have been responsible for the incompatibility in the use of imported goods. Anthropometric data of homogenous populations in different countries are not usually available and this is even more so in developing countries. It is emphasised that such data be developed in all countries or in every ethnic group or on a regional basis. The designers, manufacturers, and importers of goods should have access to this data. It is suggested that the techniques and methods described in this paper can be used by developing countries which lack similar data.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1987, Vol.16, No.2, p.193-208. Illus. 13 ref.
Courtney A.J., Evans W.A.
A preliminary investigation of bus cab design for Cantonese drivers
Using static data and manikins, a bus cab was designed to suit the anthropometric characteristics of Hong-Kong bus drivers. In addition to overall body dimensions, the relationships between pedals, steering wheel, and seat were determined and the range of seat adjustment was specified. This "recommended" cab design was compared to some of the cabs in current use in Hong Kong and none of them satisfied all the "recommended" design specifications; the most serious deviation was the excessive height of the seat above the floor and pedals, and insufficient lateral separation between the pedals.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 1987, Vol.16, No.2, p.163-171. Illus. 10 ref.
New equipment for anthropometric measurements
Novo equipamento de medições antropométricas [in Portuguese]
This guidance note covers: statistical basis; survey form for anthropometric data; various anthropometric measurements for sitting and standing posture.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente, 710, 05409 São Paulo SP, Brazil, 1987. 31p. Illus. 4 ref.
Braune W., Fischer O.
The human gait
This is a translation of the classic research results published in 1895-1904 on the mechanics of walking. The external and internal forces involved in walking were calculated, based on movement of the centres of gravity of the body and different body segments, together with centres of different joints. The kinematics and kinetics of movement were described in detail.
Springer-Verlag GmbH & Co., Heidelberger Platz 3, Postfach, 1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 440p. Illus. Price: DEM 248.00.
Ponce de León Gutiérrez J., Sado de la Cruz V., Fernández Peña H.
Goniometry: Articulation of limbs, structure, muscular dynamics and standard goniometric values
Gonometría - Articulaciones de los miembros, estructura, dinámica muscular y valores goniométricos normales [in Spanish]
Aspects covered in this manual: the goniometer; limits of movement of upper and lower limb joints; glossary; references.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México, D.F., Mexico, 1987. 40p. Illus. 5 ref.
Moustafa A.W., Davies B.T., Darwich M.S., Ibraheem M.A.
Anthropometric study of Egyptian women
An anthropometric survey was carried out in Egypt in the period between June 1982 and March 1983. A set of 44 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 4960 Egyptian female subjects, age range 20-65 years. The subjects were selected randomly and covered all socioeconomic, religious, and ethnic groups. A specially designed portable anthropometer and four other traditional instruments were used throughout the survey. Findings and data from the survey are presented in a format usable as a reference by designers and engineers. The results show that there are significant differences in the body build, dimensions and proportions between Egyptian women on one hand, and European and American women on the other.
Ergonomics, July 1987, Vol. 30, No.7, p.1089-1098. Illus. 18 ref.
Goswami A., Ganguli S., Chatterjee B.B.
Anthropometric characteristics of disabled and normal Indian men
This paper describes a preliminary study of the anthropometric characteristics of disabled Indian men, undertaken in order to facilitate the design of mobility aids. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were made in 61 men with disabilities of the lower extremities caused by poliomyelitis or spinal cord injury, and in 140 normal men. The study reports reduced growth of the affected parts and also some acquired deformity in the upper limbs. Inter-correlations between the body dimensions were different in the disabled and normal groups.
Ergonomics, May 1987, Vol.30, No.5, p.817-823. Illus. 21 ref.
Bodyspace - Anthropometry, ergonomics and design
This manual discusses the principles and practice of allowing for human diversity in the design of equipment and environments. Contents: principles and practice of anthropometrics; human diversity; static anthropometric data; anthropometry of special regions of the body; body segment parameters - Newtonian anthropometry; dynamic anthropometry of clearance and reach posture; hidden dimensions - the perception of space; people with disabilities; seating; office, industrial and domestic workstations; the driver's workstation; handles and handtools; controls and displays; glossary of terms.
Taylor and Francis Ltd., Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hants RG24 OPR, United Kingdom, 1986. 275p. Illus. ca. 320 ref. Index. Price: GBP 20.00.
Flügel B., Greil H., Sommer K.
Anthropological atlas - Fundamentals and data - German Democratic Republic
Anthropologischer Atlas - Grundlagen und Daten - Deutsche Demokratische Republik [in German]
Collection of anthropometric data on the population (juvenile and adult) of the German Democratic Republic. Reviews of human development, medical anthropology and anthropometric methodology are included.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28/30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1986. 367p. Illus. 73 ref.
(Polish Committee for Standardisation, Measures and Units)
Ergonomics - Basic anthropometric measurements
Ergonomia - Podstawowe pomiary ciała ludzkiego [in Polish]
In this standard (effective 1 Jan. 1987), the measuring points and reference planes are defined, and values are given for 48 measurements. This standard is a modification of Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 7250; differences between the Polish standard and the international one are listed.
Wydawnistwa Normalizacyjne "Alfa", Warszawa, Poland, 1986. 20p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: PLZ 90.00.
Kroemer K.H.E., Kroemer H.J., Kroemer-Elbert K.E.
This manual is intended for engineers, designers and managers whose task it is to design or improve work procedures, equipment and tools or the work environment. Contents: anthropometry, the skeletal system, skeletal muscle, the neuromuscular control system, biomechanics, the respiratory system, the circulatory systems, the metabolic system, interactions of the body with the thermal environment.
Elsevier Science Publishers, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1986. 247p. Illus. Price: US$66.75; Glds.150.00.
Characterizing the anthropometric extremes of the population
Equipment designers frequently choose 5 percentile female and 95 percentile male dimensions as design limits. However, in the more complex design problems which involve several body dimensions, it is important to consider also the interactions or relationships between body dimensions. These have been investigated using data from an anthropometric survey, which was carried out by the Motor Industry Research Association in the United Kingdom, in order to develop models which represent the extreme body sizes of male and female populations.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1986, Vol.29, No.2, p.281-301. Illus. 6 ref.
Väyrynen S., Ojanen K., Kuusisto A.
Computer Aided Design of a workplace - A survey and an experiment
Työpisteen tietokoneavusteinen suunnittelu - katsaus ja kokeilu [in Finnish]
Survey of the internationally most widely used ergonomics (anthropometric) modelling programme developed for CAD systems. In addition, an ergonomic programme developed in Finland to evaluate man-machine interaction is described. This programme creates a 3-dimensional man-model which can be modified and it puts it into the model of a working environment. Of the various routines for analysing the human-environment interface, such as reach analysis, viewpoint of the human model and evaluation of the model's posture by joint angles, the Finnish programme also includes evaluation of the man-environemnt interaction by parameters such as visual contact with the work object, calculation of the height and depth position of a given object, calculation of the distance between the man-model's extended arm and the object, as well as an OWAS working posture analysis.
Työterveyslaitoksen tutkimuksia, 1985, Vol.3, No.3, p.332-336. Illus. 7 ref.
Lee J.F., Wheway G.
Reach distances between two horizontal photoelectric beams
Evaluation of the maximum distance that a hand can reach between 2 photoelectric beams, set various distances apart, before the beams are interrupted. The object is to produce formulae from which the maximum reach distance can be calculated for any gap between 0 and 64mm so that this reach can be taken into account when photoelectric safety systems are used for safeguarding machinery.
Ergonomics, Jan. 1986, Vol.29, No.1, p.87-97. Illus. Bibl.
Viitasalo J.T., Era P., Leskinen A.L., Heikkinen E.
Muscular strength profiles and anthropometry in random samples of men aged 31-35, 51-55 and 71-75 years
Strength was measured on special dynamometers for grip, trunk and knee extension and trunk and elbow flexion. The anthropometric characteristics included body weight, height, body-mass index, skeletal weight, fat weight and a weight factor. Grip was found to have the highest correlation with chronological age and to be the least affected by anthropometric variables. The body-mass index was found to be an important variable to be controlled in studying differences between age groups in muscle strength.
Ergonomics, Nov. 1985, Vol.28, No.11, p.1563-1574. Illus. 25 ref.
Courtney A.J., Wong M.H.
Anthropometry of the Hong Kong male and the design of bus driver cabs
This study investigated the proposition that the cabs of buses imported into Hong Kong were not suited to the anthropometric characteristics of the local Chinese bus drivers. A 'recommended' cab design was derived from static anthropometric data. The most serious deviations observed in the current designs were the excessive height of the seat above the floor and pedals and insufficient lateral separation between the pedals.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1985, Vol.16, No.4, p.259-266. Illus. 16 ref.
Anthropometer, a versatile design
Description of a portable anthropometer designed for use in remote areas. It is made completely of wood and is easy to build and assemble or disassemble. The linear measurements of body and limb dimensions can be made directly from scales incised in the components.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1985, Vol.16, No.2, p.147-149. Illus. 2 ref.
Hansson J.E., Attebrant Eriksson M., Carlsöö S., Roxenhed S.
Work posture and furniture design for office work
Arbetsställningar och möbelutformning vid kontorsarbete [in Swedish]
Ergonomic information about the design and furnishing of office workplaces was gathered as a 1st step towards proposing appropriate research projects. The project comprised literature reviews and interviews with experts in medicine and ergonomics, product developers and representatives of authorities responsible for various standards. Pilot studies about space requirements and head position were performed. There is general agreement regarding body measurements, work postures suitable as guidelines in dimensioning of office workplaces and the unsuitability of static work postures. Adjustability of modern office chairs is usually inadequate. Ergonomic requirements for chairs and tables are proposed, as well as new research projects.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden. 1984. 80p. Illus. 47 ref.
Workplace design for nursing personnel, based on anthropometric data concerning the staff and up-to-date ergonomic data
Conception des postes de travail des services de soins d'après les données anthropométriques du personnel et les données ergonomiques actuelles [in French]
Having determined the fact that nurses' workplaces are designed without consideration of anthropometric data, this study provides criteria for the choice of equipment to be bought and makes technical recommendations based on measurements. The study population consisted of 718 women. Summary: characteristics of the study population and tables showing their anthropometric data; application of this information to the design of workplaces: preparation area; bed of the patient; seat of the patient; nurses' room.
Médecine et travail, 1984, Vol.121, No.3, p.19-27. Illus. 6 ref.
Wilson J.R., Grey S.M.
Reach requirements and job attitudes at laser-scanner checkout systems
Ergonomic and psychological evaluation of the use of laser-scanner checkout systems by cashiers at supermarkets. The 2 areas of concern investigated were the reach requirements to operate the system and job satisfaction. The studied layout was found to be inadequate for small operators. Job satisfaction was low for operators of both laser scanners and electronic cash-registers.
Ergonomics, Dec. 1984, Vol.27, No.12, p.1247-1266.
Hand anthropometry of Hong Kong Chinese females compared to other ethnic groups
23 hand dimensions were measured on 100 Chinese female workers and the data compared with data from the United Kingdom, Japan and the USA. The Hong Kong Chinese had smaller hands overall than UK and USA females but larger hands than Japanese females. Other observed differences based on age and ethnic group are described.
Ergonomics, Nov. 1984, Vol.27, No.11, p.1169-1180. Illus. 8 ref.
Contemporary ergonomics 1984
Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society Conference held in Exeter, United Kingdom, 2-5 Apr. 1984. The papers presented cover: application of ergonomics; ergonomics and communication; selection and training; work physiology; human variability; ergonomics in product development; transport control; industrial noise.
Ergonomics, 1984, Supplement No.1 to Vol.27. 278p. Illus. Bibl.
Courtney A., Ng M.K.
Hong Kong female hand dimensions and machine guarding
Anthropometric study carried out on 100 subjects. The 24 hand measurements taken were those thought to be of special importance for the design of machinery and machine guards. The dimensions were checked against 3 internationally used standards (CIS/ILO Information Sheet No.10, Dec. 1964; British Standard BS 3402: 1971; German Standard DIN 31001, Part 1, 1976). The British Standard provided the best protection but some caution should be excercised when applying standards based on European hand dimensions to other populations.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1984, Vol.27, No.2, p.187-193. Illus. 4 ref.
Čajnova L.D., Kuhtina I.G., Lidova V.B., Černyševa O.N.
A method for multifactorial ergonomic evaluation of the cabs of grain combines
Metodika kompleksnoj sravnitel'noj ėrgonomičeskoj ocenki kabin zernouboročnyh kombajnov [in Russian]
A presentation for the non-specialist of the way in which expert opinion, psychophysiological and anthropometric studies are combined to identify and eliminate negative features of combine cab design.
Tehničeskaja ėstetika, 1983, No.11, p.12-14. Illus. 5 ref.
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