Safety and health information - 550 entries found
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McCunney R.J., Harzbecker J.
The influence of occupational medicine on general medicine - A look at the journals
Citation analysis was used to assess the effect of occupational medicine on general medical practice and the reverse. Occupational medical journals were almost 50 times more likely to cite the general medical literature than the converse. The most likely journals to cite articles in the core occupational medical literature were the American Review of Respiratory Diseases and the American Journal of Epidemiology. It was also found that during the 1986-1990 period, occupational medical journals published 2.5 times as many source items than during the 1976-1980 period. Major occupational medicine topics covered by journals were also analyzed: pneumoconiosis, reproductive hazards, lead poisoning and noise-induced hearing loss were the topics most frequently addressed by the occupational medical journals. Occupational topics better covered by general medical journals than by the specialist journals were gas poisoning and toxic hepatitis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.279-286. Illus. 22 ref.
Health and safety: A guide to sources of information
Third edition of a manual surveying sources of information in the occupational safety and health (OSH) field in the United Kingdom (for first ed., see CIS 83-1197). Contents: introduction; organisation of OSH information; awareness of legislation at the United Kingdom and the European Communities level; associations, organisations, libraries and information services in OSH; bibliographies, booklists, encyclopaedias, yearbooks and guides; magazines (including secondary sources, e.g. indexing/abstracting services); reports, pamphlets, books and translations; chemical and material safety data sheets; standards; computerised services (with a section on CD-ROMs); audiovisual resources; searching and finding information. In appendix: important addresses.
Capital Planning Information Ltd., 52 High Street, St. Martin's, Stamford PE9 2LG, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1992. 116p. Index. Bibl.ref.
Chemical manufacturing: List of HSC/HSE publications
This catalogue lists HSE leaflets and booklets of use to firms in the chemical manufacturing industry. They cover the following categories: occupational health and hygiene; control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH); dangerous substances; new substances; storage and handling; safe plant and working practices; electrical safety; fire and explosion; hazardous installations; management issues; incident reports; audio visual materials and journals. A brief summary of the contents of each item is provided along with price and ordering information. Order forms are also included.
Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, May 1992. iv, 33p.
Althouse R.B., Castellan R.M., Wagner G.R.
Pneumoconioses in the United States - Highlights of surveillance data from NIOSH and other federal sources
This paper reviews information from the US National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) programmes and some other federal data sources that can be used to help target preventive efforts for coal workers' pneumoconiosis, silicosis, and asbestosis and to track progress toward their elimination. The data sources reviewed include: the NIOSH Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) Program; the NIOSH Coal Workers' X-ray Surveillance Program (CWXSP); the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) multiple-cause-of-death mortality data tapes; the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) conducted by NCHS; the Medicare Provider and Analysis Review (MEDPAR) files of the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA); the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports of occupational injuries and illnesses.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Apr.-June 1992, Vol.7, No.2, p.197-208. Illus. 22 ref.
Hanlon D., Hindin D.A., Morse M.E.
Pollution prevention resources and training opportunities in 1992
This annual guide contains information about publicly sponsored pollution prevention resources and training opportunities available in the United States. It provides information on: pollution prevention documents and videos; state pollution prevention programmes; university-affiliated pollution prevention research and training centres; US EPA pollution prevention resources, environmental education activities and libraries; pollution prevention clearinghouse and associations; pollution prevention events. Details are given on how to obtain the books and videos and contact the various programmes and organisations mentioned.
US Environmental Protection Agency, 401 M Street SW, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Feb. 1992. 115p. Illus.
WHODOC. List of recent publications and documents
WHODOC: liste des publications et documents récents OMS [in French]
This catalogue lists WHO publications, articles in WHO periodicals, and technical and policy documents and press releases produced by WHO, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), as well as books and articles arising from WHO programmes that are published outside the Organization. Items are listed in subject categories (including a section on occupational health) along with subject and author indexes. Details on how to obtain the publications are provided.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 270p. Indexes.
Fingar A.R., Hopkins R.S., Nelson M.
Work-related injuries in Athens county 1982 to 1986 - A comparison of emergency department and workers' compensation data
In this study, two sources of data on occupational injuries were examined for one US county in the State of Ohio for the years 1982 to 1986. The data sources were: emergency department visits for occupational injuries as reported in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS); lost-work time claims to the Bureau of Workers' Compensation (BWC). Based on comparison of the NEISS and BWC data sets, it is concluded that neither data set alone gives a complete or accurate picture of occupational injuries in the county. The two may provide a more complete representation of occupational injuries when examined together. Using the NEISS and BWC data sets in combination results in a total number of injuries higher than that predicted by national norms.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.34, No.8, p.779-787. 4 ref.
Oleske D.M., Hahn J.J., Leibold M.
Work-related injuries to the foot - Data from an occupational injury/illness surveillance system
In 1988, 990 work-related foot injuries were characterised in an occupational injury/illness surveillance system maintained by a network of occupational health centres. The mean age of injured workers was 34.2yrs (±12.0), with 83% of injuries occurring among men; 22.3% of the cases were fractures or sprains/strains. Jobs involving extensive manual material handling or vehicular operations were the most often listed occupations among those with foot injuries. Across occupational groups, being struck by an object accounted for 58.4% of the injuries. Regardless of industry group, metal items and vehicles were related to 50.7% of all work-related foot injuries. Specifically, injuries were found to be associated with being struck by boxes, metals, or vehicles, or to being caught in, under, or between vehicles or machinery. A peak of injuries is observed during the summer months.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1992, Vol.34, No.6, p.650-655. Illus. 29 ref.
Faus-Kessler T., Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Scherb H., Tritschler J., Weigelt E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Introduction to epidemiology in occupational medicine
Einführung in die arbeitsmedizinische Epidemiologie [in German]
This book provides an introduction to the epidemiological approach in making causal inferences in occupational medicine and discusses the requirements and potential biases of occupational epidemiologic studies. Contents include: basic concepts (risk causality); examples of epidemiological practice (cancerogenicity of wood dust and association between workload and coronary heart diseases); design options (case and case-control studies; prospective, cohort and cross-sectional studies; disease clusters); sources of bias and control of bias (selection, information bias, control of confounding by stratification and standardisation); exposure assessment; basic concepts of statistical analysis (populations and samples, error probabilities, confidence intervals and curves); statistical modelling, appropriate software for analysis; use of data provided by the authorities for epidemiological purposes; access to data (legislation in Germany); review of important English-language books on epidemiology. Summaries in French, German, English.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, D-W-2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany. 1992. 330p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Swuste P., Hale A.
Databases on measures to prevent occupational exposure
Recent initiatives to provide information on preventive measures in an abbreviated, eventually electronic format, the so-called Solution databases, are a new development in the field of occupational health and safety. In the United Kingdom (Noise control databank, BOHS air contaminant control case histories), Australia (SHARE), the United States (NIOSH Control Technology Database), Sweden (Miljöbanken) and Canada (SOLUTIONS) such databases are either at an experimental stage, or a prototype has already been developed. In this report a survey of these data banks is presented. Attention is given to: status, purpose and size of the data banks; contents and output; keyword coding; classification of sources and solutions; user and provider groups. Interviews were held with representatives of potential user groups in the Netherlands to establish their current practice in searching for preventive measures and the consequences of this for the storage and accessibility of the information in the data banks. The lack of a classification of preventive measures and production processes in the present data banks restricts the general applicability of preventive measures and their transferability between various branches of industry. Detailed summary in Dutch.
Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, Aug. 1992. iii, 26p. Illus. 23 ref.
Safety and health information systems: Analysis of local, national and global methods
Doctoral thesis, providing an analysis of safety and health information systems at the company, national and international level. Contents: relationship between information and protection; trends in OSH; the theoretical framework (safety and health as elements of production; safety information cycles - company-level information systems, safety management, national and global safety information systems); factors of current safety and health information systems (information as part of production; safety information in production and consumer systems; role and types of safety information systems); materials and methods of the study (in Kenya, Thailand and at CIS); results, discussion and conclusions (emphasising the role of up-to-date techniques in information dissemination, including CD-ROM and microcomputer databases and artificial intelligence). In annex: eight key articles on the subject by the author, covering, among others: development and use of the walk-through survey method; univariate and log-linear analysis of the data collected in Thailand; graphical presentation of results; machine translation of chemical safety data sheets; use of databases.
Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 527, 33101 Tampere, Finland, 1992. 242p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: FIM 120.00. Also available from: International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland (Price: CHF 35.00). CIS can also supply a machine-readable (MS-DOS) version on diskette.
The NFPA catalog - Fire safety products and services from the National Fire Protection Association
Contents of this catalogue: codes and standards; fire protection equipment; hazardous materials; management of a fire service; fire safety education; special groups (hotels, health care, business and industry); law and reference books.
National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, Fall 1992. 83p. Illus.
Strader C.H., Petersen G.R.
Evaluating strategies for health surveillance - Health event ascertainment at a nuclear facility
The US Department of Energy's Health Surveillance System is a pilot project to design, implement, and evaluate a system of routine morbidity surveillance based on routinely collected occupational medical data at participating Department of Energy facilities. At the Hanford Site (Richland, Washington), most health events were ascertained using a 21-day threshold-of-absence criterion. This provisional threshold, established under the assumption that it would capture all important morbidity, has been criticised as potentially omitting morbidity of interest. A review of all health-event absences occurring over a one-year period revealed that the efficacy of the 21-day threshold varies widely by diagnosis and that absence-based eligibility criteria are not useful for all morbidity of interest. Future development will require supplementation of health-event ascertainment by other, diagnosis-based criteria to ensure completeness of ascertainment.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.45-52. Illus. 22 ref.
Documentation of hazard and operability studies
In the United States, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Process Safety Management Standard both require that hazard evaluations be completed on all facilities that handle hazardous chemicals. Reports of the hazard evaluations must be kept on file and will be subject to inspection during an OSHA compliance audit. This paper presents a suggested outline and format for the completion of a Hazards and Operability (HAZOP) Study. The goal of the HAZOP report is to allow a person who was not a member of the original HAZOP team to understand what was reviewed and what needs to be done to improve the system. Included in this paper are a list of documents needed to complete a HAZOP review, a typical HAZOP worksheet, and a suggested table of contents for a final HAZOP report.
Hazard Prevention, 1st Quarter 1992, Vol.28, No.1, p.14-17. 4 ref.
Quality assurance when documenting chemical hazards to health and environment - Final summary report
Documentation of chemical hazards is created by so many different processes, in so many different organisations, that all parties to the hazard communication process (regulators, manufacturers and users of chemical products) are unsure of the value of the information contained in chemical safety data sheets. Personnel in most of the organisations surveyed for this report were unfamiliar with quality assurance terminology and principles, even though the regulations and guidelines published by some of the organisations did in fact reflect those principles. International standards for quality assurance exist, in the series ISO 9000. General recognition and application of these standards would facilitate the exchange of data, especially through national and international product registers. Attached to this report are two examples of guidelines for documenting chemical hazards of products for use in the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry.
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Prof. Olav Hanssensvei 10, P.O. Box 600, 4001 Stavanger, Norway, Apr. 1992. 30+20+11p. Illus. 11 ref.
Houck P., Milham S.
Quality of death certificate occupation data for a cohort of aluminum industry workers
Occupational data from death certificates have been used extensively in health studies but their quality has been questioned. In this study, data from the death certificates of aluminium plant workers were analysed. Aluminium industry employment was indicated in the certificate occupation/industry statement of 321 (80%) of the 403 total workers, 263 (94%) of the 280 workers who had been employed for 10 years or more, 156 (94%) of the 166 workers who died while employed, and 131 (95%) of the 138 workers who died after retirement. Of 82 certificates that did not indicate aluminium industry employment, 57 (70%) were from workers who were employed for fewer than 10 years and terminated employment for reasons other than death or retirement. This study supports the usefulness of death certificate occupational information.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1992, Vol.34, No.2, p.173-175. 9 ref.
Rasmussen K., Gow H.B.F.
The importance of information on industrial risk: A new documentation centre
The objectives and activities of the Community Documentation Centre on Industrial Risk (CDCIR) are described. The objective of the Centre, set up in January 1989 by the Commission of the European Communities, is to facilitate the exchange of information between member states on the control of major hazardous industrial activities. The CDCIR contains information on the national approaches to the implementation of the EEC Directive on Major Hazards and technical guidelines concerning the industrial activities covered by this Directive. Accident reports are also collected. A bulletin containing summaries of the new documents in the Centre is issued twice a year, along with reviews on specific subjects.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1992, Vol.30, No.3, p.355-359. 11 ref.
Flyvholm M.A., Andersen P., Beck I.D., Brandorff N.P.
PROBAS: the Danish Product Register Data Base - A national register of chemical substances and products
The structure, contents and purpose of the Danish Product Register Data Base (PROBAS) are described. The data base contains information on the use and adverse effects on health and the environment of substances and products used in Denmark. Data sources are notifications of hazardous chemical products and data from investigations on occurrence or use of chemicals made by, for example, the Danish National Institute of Occupational Health. Tables show available information categories along with the most frequently recorded product categories and industrial areas of use. The limitations of the use of such a data base are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 1992, Vol.30, No.1, p.59-69. Illus. 24 ref.
Occupational safety and health - CIS Thesaurus.
Translation into Korean of the index of terms for the retrieval of information contained in the CISDOC database (see CIS 77-300). It is addressed at safety and health professionals, government officials, employers' and workers' organizations, and documentation specialists. It includes both the main descriptors printed in the alphabetical subject index of the CIS Abstracts bulletin and the secondary descriptors in the CIS computer files. More than 10,000 descriptors and synonyms are covered, arranged in three parts: a systematic part, which lists the descriptors by facet, each with its English equivalent and its Korean translation; an alphabetical listing in Korean; an alphabetical listing in English.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. 490p.
Caillier J., Bruant A., Mahieu B., Paris J.M., Zitter M., Cervantes P., Bertrand J.P., Pham Q.T.
Sample selection using a study of inter-observer agreement: Application to coalworkers suspected of pneumoconiosis
Constitution d'un échantillon de sujets à l'aide d'une étude de concordance inter-observateurs - Application à des mineurs suspects de pneumoconioses [in French]
A study of inter-observer agreement was conducted in order to obtain a sample of 80 coalminers in whom chest radiographs showed signs of pneumoconiosis. A total of 264 chest radiographs of coalworkers, classified as ILO category 1/1 or less for small combined opacities was submitted to interpretation by four independent readers. The Kappa coefficient among the readers was 0.35±0.02. Three readers classified 198 slides in the same category, which was called the majority opinion. Slides included in the sample were those classified as suspect by at least three readers and by readers that were the most in agreement on the suspect category with the majority opinion.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.541-547. 24 ref.
OSHA publications and audiovisual programs
This catalogue contains details of safety and health publications and audiovisual programmes issued by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the US Government Printing Office, the National Audiovisual Center, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) and other related organisations.
US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Publications Office, Room N3101, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington D.C. 20210, USA, 1991. 21p. Illus. Index.
Parodi S., Malacarne D., Taningher M.
Examples of uses of databases for quantitative and qualitative correlation studies between genotoxicity and carcinogenicity
Some examples are presented of using genotoxicity and carcinogenicity databases for quantitative and qualitative correlation studies between short-term tests and carcinogenicity. Database quality is obviously important but quantity is as well: one of the major deficiencies of present databases is that they are too small. Using relatively small, different databases, different results can be obtained. With small databases it is difficult to disaggregate data for homogeneous chemicals classes or other types of subsets. Using the databases of Gold (carcinogenicity) and Würgler (genotoxicity), the carcinogenic potency of genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens for different chemical classes has been investigated.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.61-66. Illus. 24 ref.
Hayashi M., Nakadate M., Osada T., Ishibe T., Tanaka S., Maekawa N., Sofuni T., Nakata Y., Kanoh N., Hashiba S., Takenaka Y., Ishidate M.
A fact database for toxicological data at the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Japan
A computerised database (biological database, BL-DB) for chemical toxicity data was constructed at the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences, Tokyo, Japan. The BL-DB stores textual-numeric data on mutagenicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, and other toxicological tests that have appeared in the scientific literature. Information includes: chemical identification; test system; results of assays; and a bibliography. Many kinds of test data are stored in the same formats to facilitate data retrieval. Currently, there are mainly mutagenicity data (about 20,000 test data on 1700 substances), especially on the Salmonella/microsome assay and the rodent micronucleus assay. These data can be retrieved and used for structure-activity relationship studies.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.57-60. Illus.
Dearfield K.L., Quest J.A., Whiting R.J., Stack H.F., Waters M.D.
Characteristics of the U.S. EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs' Toxicity Information Databases
Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP), toxicity testing data are submitted and entered into various databases which contain the information used for hazard evaluations as part of the OPP review of pesticides. The studies are listed in an archival database to catalogue and allow retrieval of the study for review. Reviews of toxicity studies are then placed in a separate database that can be retrieved to support a regulatory position. Toxicity information for health effects other than cancer and gene mutations from chronic exposure is reviewed through a reference dose (RfD) approach, and these decisions and supporting data are entered into an RfD database. Carcinogenicity data are peer reviewed and the decisions are entered into a database to show the regulatory decision with supporting data. The mutagenicity data are reviewed and acceptable data are entered into the Genetic Activity Profile system to catalogue and display the information.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.53-56. 8 ref.
Waters M.D., Stack H.F., Garrett N.E., Jackson M.A.
The Genetic Activity Profile Database
A Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) is a graphic data matrix on the genetic and related effects of selected chemicals. The profiles provide a visual overview of the dose and test result data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Data are available on 299 compounds selected from volumes 1-50 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Priority Substances. By examining the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluating chemical analogues. GAPs have provided useful data for the development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from assessing the GAPs of component chemicals.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.41-45. 33 ref.
Auletta A.E., Brown M., Wassom J.S., Cimino M.C.
Current status of the Gene-Tox Program
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Gene-Tox Program is a multiphased effort to review and evaluate the existing literature in genetic toxicology. Phase I of the programme selected assay systems for evaluation, generated expert panel reviews of the data, and recommended testing protocols for the systems. Phase II established and evaluated the database of chemical genetic toxicity data for its relevance to identifying human health hazards. Phase III is devoted to the continued review of selected assays and updating of the database, now publicly available through the National Library of Medicine TOXNET system. Currently, data exist on over 4000 chemicals in 27 assay systems. Two additional assay systems will be included in phase III. Differences between Gene-Tox and National Toxicology Program databases relating to chemical selection criteria, testing protocols, and chemical class distributions are discussed in the paper.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.33-36. 6 ref.
Huff J., Haseman J.
Long-term chemical carcinogenesis experiments for identifying potential human cancer hazards: Collective Database of the National Cancer Institute and National Toxicology Program (1976-1991)
The carcinogenicity database used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The extensive files contain, among other sets of information, detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprising nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. The paper presents conclusions derived from a study of the database contents.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.23-31. 71 ref.
Gold L.S., Slone T.H., Manley N.B., Garfinkel G.B., Hudes E.S., Rohrbach L., Ames B.N.
The Carcinogenic Potency Database: Analyses of 4000 chronic animal cancer experiments published in the general literature and by the U.S. National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program
The Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) contains positive and negative long-term animal cancer test results. The CPDB has been published in four earlier papers that include results for approximately 4000 experiments on 1050 chemicals. This paper describes the CPDB goals, inclusion criteria, information fields, and plot format. The plot format of the database readily permits comparisons of carcinogenic potency and many other aspects of cancer tests, including for each experiment the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level, histopathology and tumour incidence, carcinogenic potency, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. A combined plot of all results from the four separate papers is available in printed form or on computer tape or diskette.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.11-15. 30 ref.
Abell M.T., Doemeny L.J.
Monitoring the performance of occupational health laboratories
To monitor the performance of occupational health laboratories analysing workplace air, the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), with assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has established four national quality assurance programmes. They are the Proficiency Analytical Testing (PAT) Program, the AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Program, the Asbestos Analysts Registry, and the Bulk Quality Assurance Program. This paper focuses on the PAT Program, a quality audit programme that provides samples of asbestos, silica, metals, and solvents to laboratories quarterly. PAT data for asbestos, silica, and lead were examined for trends in precision. Simple graphs of coefficient of variation during the 18-year history of the programme provide evidence of improved agreement among laboratories performing these analyses. The improvement took place in spite of growth in the number of laboratories and decreases in the levels being analysed. The improvement is attributed to several factors, including improved analytical methods and the very existence of the PAT and AIHA Laboratory Accreditation Programs.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.336-339. Illus. 8 ref.
The right to know. An employee guide to information about workplace hazards
This guide describes important types of occupational safety and health information, where it is found, how to get access to it, the legal issues concerning this information and how to put it to good use. Contents: employer injury and illness records; hazard communication and information on hazardous chemicals in the workplace; exposure records; employee medical records; accident reporting, investigation records and workers' compensation data; right to information under labour law in the US.
Labor Education and Research Center, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA, Mar. 1991. 40p. 6 ref.
Systems for the monitoring of working conditions relating to health and safety - Extensive descriptions
A working paper for the Survey on Working Conditions Related to Health and Safety in the EC. It provides details of systems for the monitoring of working conditions related to health and safety in France, Greece, the United Kingdom, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). France and the UK have a large number of monitoring systems (respectively 9 and 11), while Greece has only two. The ILO and OECD only deal with second-hand sources or minor instruments. Suggestions are given for improvements in the monitoring of working conditions in Europe.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 171p. 37 ref.
Prins R., Verboon F.
Catalogue of systems for the monitoring of working conditions relating to health and safety
A working paper for the Survey on Working Conditions Related to Health and Safety in the EC. It describes a number of systems or instruments for monitoring working conditions and workers' health and safety in each of the EEC countries and in the EEC and the World Health Organization (WHO). The description of each system includes: a general overview of the responsible body with address and telephone number; the missions and objectives of the system or instrument; indicators used for measuring or describing aspects of working conditions or health; the way data or results are published and users of this information.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1991. 187p.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Hazard Communication Standard inspection manual
This instruction establishes policies and provides clarification to ensure uniform enforcement of the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Contents: text, clarifications and interpretations of the HCS; sample letter for enquiries regarding missing or deficient material safety data sheets (MSDS) and labels; general guidance for evaluation of hazards; guide for reviewing MSDS completeness; sample MSDS form; list of substances known to be carcinogenic; permissible exposure limits for air contaminants; voluntary training guidelines; access to employee exposure and medical records; occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories; hazardous waste operations and emergency response.
Government Institutes Inc., 4 Research Place, Suite 200, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, 3rd edition, May 1991. 203p. Bibl.ref.
Vaino H., Coleman M., Wilbourn J.
Carcinogenicity evaluations and ongoing studies: The IARC databases
The data publication activities of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) are described. The IARC has published evaluations of the carcinogenic risk to humans of over 700 chemicals, groups of chemicals and complex mixtures as a regular series of monographs. A database has been created containing summaries of all the relevant epidemiological, animal carcinogenicity, and other relevant biological data for each chemical or mixture evaluated. Additional databases have been created for ongoing epidemiological studies of cancer in humans, long-term carcinogenicity studies in rodents and information on genotoxic and related effects of chemicals. The IARC plans to publish these databases electronically in the form of a CD-ROM (compact disc, read-only memory).
Environmental Health Perspectives, 1991, Vol.96, p.5-9. 13 ref.
A listing of basic reference publications of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the US. There are 3 sections: publications containing occupational safety and health recommendations (criteria documents, occupational hazard assessments, special hazard reviews, joint occupational health recommendations, current intelligence bulletins and alerts); bibliographies; other selected publications. Details are included for obtaining the listed publications.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 1991. 29p.
Data pooling in occupational studies
Summarising epidemiologic data from multiple studies can be accomplished either by a meta-analysis of published findings or by pooling data and performing new analyses of enlarged data sets. Meta-analysis is relatively easy and inexpensive to perform but usually is restricted to examination of overall risks. Data pooling offers a more direct approach for subcohort analyses and for estimation of dose-response relationships. The advantages of pooling data from multiple studies of workers with similar exposure pertain primarily to enlarged study bases and a greater potential for evaluating statistically stable dose-response relationships than can be accomplished by meta-analysis. Valid methods for data pooling that are developed for cohort mortality studies of relatively large worker populations ultimately can be applied to studies of other health outcomes using different study designs.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.33, No.12, p.1257-1260. 12 ref.
Fayerweather W.E., Tirey S.L., Baldwin J.K., Hoover B.K.
Issues in data sharing and access: An industry perspective
Epidemiologic data sharing and access, and information sharing and access, are complex issues with no consensus within the industrial community. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction, as well as some personal perspectives, to the issues of data access and sharing. These perspectives include a discussion of types of data sharing, advantages and barriers to openness, and alternatives that lower the need for sharing of the raw data.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.33, No.12, p.1253-1256. 9 ref.
Tomenson J.A., Paddle G.M.
Better quality studies through review of protocols
The importance of a protocol is well recognised by scientists whose work is governed by good laboratory practices. Epidemiologists have used protocols for many years but have not always reaped the full benefits. Until relatively recently, there has been little consensus among epidemiologists about what constitutes a good protocol and, consequently, expectations of the pre-study review process may not be fulfilled. This paper examines some of the benefits to be derived from a good protocol and the importance of prestudy review. Experience suggests that peer review cannot substitute for a competent principal investigator supported by a strong study management team. If such a study management team exists, the most important contribution of the external peer reviewer should be to ensure the impartiality of the study. This paper will consider what is meant by pre-study review of a protocol and examine the impact of review on the overall quality of a study.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.33, No.12, p.1240-1243. 8 ref.
Three basic principles for improving epidemiology: An industry view
Three principles are presented that will improve the quality of epidemiologic studies now being done: (1) outcome foreknowledge should be disclosed and discussed (knowing some or several of the outcome cases prior to embarking on the study); (2) key data in the study should be well understood to include what influences it and its inherent variability; and (3) detailed exposure characterisation, whether it be occupational or personal risk factors, should be an integral part of all studies. The quality of epidemiologic studies resides in meticulous planning and execution, because not considering important confounders or poorly measuring an effect can mask or magnify associations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.33, No.12, p.1230-1232. 4 ref.
Chemical Manufacturers Association - Epidemiology Task Group
Guidelines for good epidemiology practices for occupational and environmental epidemiologic research
The Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices (GEPs) presented here propose minimum practices and procedures that should be considered to help ensure the quality and integrity of data used in epidemiologic research and to provide adequate documentation of the research methods. The GEPs address the process of conducting individual epidemiologic studies and do not prescribe specific research methods. The Guidelines cover the following areas: organisation and personnel; facilities, resource commitment, and contractors; protocol; review and approval; study conduct; communication; archiving; quality assurance. The Guidelines provide a useful framework for ensuring that all research issues are adequately addressed. Appendices provide an overview of standard operating procedures, a glossary of terms used in the Guidelines, and suggested references on occupational epidemiology methods.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.33, No.12, p.1221-1229. 7 ref.
Macaluso M., Delzell E., Cole P., Wongsrichanalai C., Cowles S.
Validity of a mortality study based on a corporate health surveillance system
The Shell Health Surveillance System (HSS) was evaluated through conducting two mortality studies at an oil refinery. Study A used the HSS to measure the mortality of active and retired workers during 1973 to 1982. Study B used additional information sources and followed up terminated employees. For subjects included in both studies, results were very similar. However, the mortality experience of terminees before 1973 (included only in study B) was different from that of study A subjects, reflecting differences in length of employment and time since hire. HSS-based studies provide valid measures of long-term effects of past exposures among retirees and of short-term effects of recent exposures among active employees. However, they cannot detect short-term effects of past exposures, and they have limited power for evaluating dose-response relationships.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.11, p.1180-1186. Illus. 18 ref.
Olsen G.W., Kusch G.D., Stafford B.A., Gudmundsen S.L., Currier M.F.
The positive known association design: A quality assurance method for occupational health surveillance data
The positive known association design is a population-based quality control strategy that can be used with occupational health surveillance data. It rests on the premise that there are well established biological associations that should be detected in any relatively large medical surveillance data base. The design offers the occupational health physician a method to test, on a population basis (i.e., high periodic medical surveillance examination participation rates by employees), the quality of periodic medical surveillance data. Several well established biological associations were evaluated and observed in the study, including a dramatic relation between white blood cell counts and smoking.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.9, p.998-1000. 8 ref.
Quality assurance when documenting chemical hazards to health and environment
The objective of this work was to evaluate how quality assurance principles are used in connection with the development and distribution of information about chemicals. Topics discussed include: aspects of quality assurance related to regulatory documentation, international guidelines and information systems; focal points for quality assurance (the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (UNEP/IRPTC), the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (ILO/CIS), DuPont's European Chemical Data Sheet System (ECDS), national product registers); information flow and responsibilities; validation of data. The work includes a review of the literature and of important national and international standards and guidelines.
Norwegian Petroleum Directorate, Prof. Olav Hanssensvei 10, P.O. Box 600, 4001 Stavanger, Norway, 1991. 62p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Hawkins N.C., Landenberger B.D.
Statistical control charts: A technique for analyzing industrial hygiene data
Industrial hygienists are often confronted with decisions regarding the acceptability of monitoring or other types of data. Professional judgment is most often used to make these evaluations, but some industrial hygienists are now beginning to apply more rigourous, quantitative methods such as statistical data analysis. In cases where monitoring data have been collected sequentially with a structured sampling plan, the statistical control chart may be a suitable method for evaluating results. Control charts facilitate the evaluation of time trends in data and allow the industrial hygienist to identify changes in the levels over time and in the variability of data gathered in monitoring campaigns. While a useful tool in some situations, control charting has some limitations as applied to industrial hygiene data.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1991, Vol.6, No.8, p.689-695. Illus. 8 ref.
Users guide to hazardous substance data banks available in OECD member countries
Guide de l'utilisateur des banques de données sur les substances dangereuses disponibles dans les pays membres de l'OCDE [in French]
This users' guide is based on a survey carried out in 1989/90 on behalf of the OECD Environment Programme's ad hoc Group of Experts on Accidents Involving Hazardous Substances. For each of the 27 data banks, the following information is provided: data bank name; languages; description; contact for further information; general data bank characteristics (intended uses and users, limitations and restrictions, sources and documentation); contents; functionalities (modelling, statistical profiling, report generation); requirements for hardware, software and interfaces; cost and conditions of acquisition, training and support; review of the data bank based on questionnaires and follow-up with users.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France, 1991. 109p.
Register of work environment periodicals 1990-1991
Répertoire des périodiques: environnement du travail, 1990-1991 [in French]
This register lists some 830 work environment periodicals published in 50 different countries. Entries are arranged by country and include the name and address of the publisher. Subjects covered: occupational safety; occupational health, hygiene and industrial medicine; ergonomics; fire protection; environment and pollution; standardisation. It is intended that the list will be regularly updated.
International Social Security Association, International Section on Information in the Field of Prevention of Occupational Risks, c/o ANPAT, Rue Gachard 88, Boîte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1991. 44p.
McDiarmid M.A., Bonanni R., Finocchiaro M.
Poor agreement of occupational data between a hospital-based cancer registry and interview
With occupation recognised as a risk factor for various cancers, the collection of occupational and industry data by a number of registers of vital statistics, including cancer registers, has developed. Registers may be data sources for cancer aetiology research and occupational disease surveillance, despite concerns that their data are fragmentary and may lack validity. To improve completeness and validity of occupational information in a hospital-based cancer register, this study compared information obtained through abstracting medical records for the register with information obtained through lung-cancer patient interviews. Statistically significant agreement was generally poor, largely due to data missing in the medical records. Data quality of hospital based cancer registries can be improved by employing trained cancer registrars in order to elicit occupational histories from patients.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.726-729. 26 ref.
Safety in Colombia and the Colombian Safety Council
La seguridad en Colombia y el Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad [in Spanish]
After a short history of attempts to protect the safety and health of workers in the world and in Colombia, this booklet traces the history of the Colombian Safety Council (Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, CCS): first publication of the journal Protección y Seguridad (1954); establishment of the National Commission for Accident Prevention (Conalpra) (1955); the National Conference on Industrial Safety (Bogotá, 22 Sept. 1955); changing of Conalpra into CCS (1957); various conferences and conventions; first publication of Seguridad y Trabajo; changes and reforms (to 1990); establishment of the CIS National Centre; publications; creation of CISPROQUIM (a phone-in service for chemical emergencies), 1988; establishment of the Technological Institute for Safety (Inteseg), 1988. In annex: list of national congresses (1957-1990).
Consejo Colombiano de Seguridad, Carrera 20 No.39-62, 6839 Bogotá, Colombia, 1990. 110p. Illus. 56 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational health and safety material in Australian libraries
This booklet contains information on the OSH holdings of 62 special libraries in Australia. The libraries are grouped by State and Territory. Under the name of each library, the information is provided under the following headings: mission (purpose); main clients; description of holdings (number of monographs, journal titles, technical reports and audiovisual materials); strengths; networks the organisation has joined; services provided; opening hours; number of staff; name of person in charge and of the interlibrary loan officer; address; telephone and telefax numbers; other information.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1990. xii, 68p. Index. Price: AUD 9.50.
Systems for monitoring working conditions related to health and safety in the USA
A working paper for the Survey on Working Conditions Related to Health and Safety in the EC. An overview of current US systems for monitoring working conditions including the collection of statistics on occupational accidents and diseases is followed by a reference list of available data bases, with a description of their organisation and content and contact details.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Loughlinstown House, Shankill, Co. Dublin, Ireland, 1990. 98p.
The company health report helps to locate missing information
Betrieblicher Gesundheitsbericht hilft Defizite abbauen [in German]
The company health report is compiled by insurance institutions for one company or an entire industrial branch from notifications of occupational diseases. It provides information on age, sex, work and position of the company's employees, on company health programmes, and on the incidence and type of diseases of all employees and certain groups of employees, as compared with other companies. A sample report is presented. It was prepared for a fictitious company supplying parts to the automobile industry.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, 31 Oct. 1990, No.11, p.24-27.
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