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Economic aspects - 615 entries found

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CIS 02-623 Krause N., Frank J.W., Dasinger L.K., Sullivan T.J., Sinclair S.J.
Determinants of duration of disability and return-to-work after work-related injury and illness: Challenges for future research
The purpose of this literature review was to identify critical data and research needs in addressing the questions of the primary factors that affect the time lost from work, return-to-work (RTW), subsequent unemployment, and changes in occupation after disabling illness or injury. Approximately 100 different determinants of RTW outcomes were identified. It is proposed that priority be given to studies meeting the following criteria: amenability to change; relevance to users of research; general applicability across health conditions, disability phases, and settings; "degree of promise" as derived from qualitative exploratory studies; and capacity to improve measurement instruments. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.464-484. Illus. 173 ref.

CIS 02-622 Reville R.T., Bhattacharya J., Sager Weinstein L.R.
New methods and data sources for measuring economic consequences of workplace injuries
Evaluation of programmes and policies to reduce the incidence of workplace injuries require that the consequences of injury be estimated correctly. Data availability is often the largest obstacle to this estimation. This article reviews the literature on the consequences of workplace injuries for both workers and employers, focusing on data sources, including administrative data from different public agencies, public-use survey data, primary data collection, and linked employee-employer databases. Recent advances in the literature on the economic consequences of workplace injuries for workers have been driven to a great extent by the availability of new data sources. It is expected that these new data sources should lead to rapid advances in the understanding of the economic consequences of workplace injuries for both workers and employers. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.452-463. 61 ref.

CIS 02-621 Weil D.
Valuing the economic consequences of work injury and illness: A comparison of methods and findings
Workplace injuries and fatalities in the US create significant economic costs to society. Although economic costs should measure the opportunity cost to society arising from injuries and fatalities, estimating them in practice often proves difficult. This paper compares methods of economic valuation. It surveys the literature published in the past 25 years to measure different aspects of economic consequences. It concludes that estimates of the costs of injuries and fatalities tend to understate the true economic costs from a social welfare perspective, particularly in how they account for occupational fatalities and losses arising from work disabilities. Researchers should attempt to more fully integrate such approaches into estimation procedures and interpretation of their results. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.418-437. Illus. 127 ref.

CIS 02-996 Dembe A.E.
The social consequences of occupational injuries and illnesses
Most outcome studies of occupational injuries and illnesses focus on direct economic costs and duration of work disability and only rarely on the broader social consequences of work-related disorders or their impacts on injured workers' families, coworkers, and community. This literature survey examines a wide range of social consequences and proposes a conceptual framework. Complex and multi-factorial relationships are described whereby occupational injuries and illnesses produce a variety of social consequences involving filing and administration of workers' compensation insurance claims, medical care experiences, domestic function and activities of daily living, psychological and behavioural responses, stress, vocational function, rehabilitation and return to work, and equity and social justice. A research agenda is proposed for guiding future investigations in this field. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.403-417. Illus. 101 ref.

CIS 02-995 Boden L.I., Biddle E.A., Spieler E.A.
Social and economic impacts of workplace illness and injury: Current and future directions for research
On 13-15 June 1999, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) hosted a conference in Denver (Colorado) on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury. This conference brought together researchers to discuss future directions for research on the social and economic consequences of workplace illnesses and injuries and on research concerning occupational health services. This article reviews the papers presented during this conference, grouped under the following headings: workers' costs of workplace illnesses and injuries; employers' costs of occupational illnesses and injuries; improving our understanding of return-to-work; utilization of workers' compensation; adequacy of workers' compensation benefits; methodological and data issues.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.398-402. 36 ref.

CIS 02-981 Ingelgård A., Norrgren F.
Effects of change strategy and top-management involvement on quality of working life and economic results
The results of this study indicate that changes concerning ergonomics may be enhanced by including a learning strategy which involves employees in work organization, thus giving them an influence on the implementation of the change process. This approach might lead to promising outcomes in terms of quality of working life and economic output related to a learning strategy for change.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.93-105. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 02-853 Rosenman K.D., Sims A., Hogan A., Fialkowski J., Gardiner J.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of following up laboratory reports of elevated blood leads in adults
A report of a state-wide laboratory-based blood-lead surveillance system in the state of Michigan (USA). The effectiveness of inspection of companies in which at least one worker had a blood lead level (BLL) of 30-39µg/dL (but not higher) was considered. Companies where lead exposures occurred were identified and enforcement inspections performed. In addition, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted, employing three endpoints: 1) identification of cases of elevated blood lead levels, due to occupational exposure; 2) identification of workplaces that had received a citation for violating the lead standard; 3) identification of workers at risk of exposure to lead at problem work sites. Workplaces with blood lead citations also had increased overall citations and penalties, when compared with control workplaces not using lead. The cost to identify lead-exposed workers at problem worksites was USD 125 per worker. It is recommended that routine inspection be instituted for all companies in which even one employee is identified with blood lead levels ≥30µg/dL.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.371-378. 11 ref.

CIS 02-696 Conne-Perréard E., Glardon M.J., Parrat J., Usel M.
Conférence romande et tessinoise des offices cantonaux de protection des travailleurs
Effects of working conditions that are unfavourable to health, and their economic consequences
Effets de conditions de travail défavorables sur la santé des travailleurs et leurs conséquences économiques [in French]
Topics covered in this literature survey on the economic effects of working conditions that are hazardous to health: general considerations; shift work; psychosocial factors; musculoskeletal diseases; cardiovascular diseases; mental health; occupational cancers; cost of occupational diseases in Switzerland, recommendations and conclusions.
Office cantonal de l'inspection et des relations de travail, 23 rue Ferdinand-Hodler, 1207 Genève, Switzerland, Dec. 2001. xi, 110p. Illus. 252 ref.

CIS 02-711 Schneiders S., Donham K., Hilsenrath P., Roy N., Thu K.
Certified safe farm: Using health insurance incentives to promote agricultural safety and health
Telephone interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on health insurance premiums, co-insurance rates and deductibles from 260 farmers in northwest Iowa, USA. Data were also collected on the injury and illness experiences of the subjects. 39% of primary farm operators and 63.5% of spouses worked off the farm. Of those who worked off-farm, 30% of the primary operators had coverage through their off-farm employer, and 27% of the spouses received health insurance through their off-farm employer. There was no significant relationship between the cost of coverage and the number of health care visits. However, persons with off-farm employer-sponsored coverage had significantly lower premiums than those without off-farm coverage. Additionally, those with family coverage from an off-farm employer had significantly lower deductibles. Implications for use of health insurance premium reductions as an incentive for safe farms are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.25-36. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-614 Leichnitz K.
External relations of the European Union are a global commitment
This article mentions some of the development programmes funded by the European Union (EU), such as the "Phare" programme aimed at EU candidate countries, and the programmes aimed at African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. It describes a project funded by the "Phare" programme on the "training of trainers" in occupational safety and health. The project involved presentations, case studies, discussions, practical demonstrations, visits to workplaces, visits to research laboratories and individual and group exercises.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2001, Vol.11, No.3, p.64-65. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 02-611 Freeman K., LaFleur B.J., Booth J., Doyle E.J., Pugh W.M.
Why federal agencies should estimate their long-term occupational injury and illness costs
The U.S. government's annual cost for compensating work-related injuries and illnesses incurred by its civilian labor force is approximately USD 2 billion. To control these costs, federal agencies rely primarily on annual or prevalence-based cost accounting to evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention efforts. Since most of the annual bill is for the older, persistent and costlier cases, this approach may obscure recent safety trends and can lead to faulty assumptions. Workers' compensation costs in the US Navy were analysed using an incidence-based approach, which considers only new injuries and illnesses occurring in a given year and projects their likely course, duration, and long-term associated costs. It provides the truest measure of the costs of that year's operation. It promotes accountability and cost containment, and allows organizations to hold managers accountable for costs incurred specifically during their tenure.
Journal of Safety Research, Fall 2001, Vol.32, No.3, p.277-287. 27 ref.

CIS 02-692 Muto T., Takata T.
Financial assistance in promoting occupational health services for small-scale enterprises in Japan
This study was conducted to survey the degree of Japanese government financial assistance in promoting occupational health services (OHS) for small-scale enterprises (SSE). The Ministry of Labor initiated the policy of subsidizing OHS for SSE in the early 1960s. Activities to be subsidized through four mechanisms included primary and secondary prevention of occupational injuries and diseases. The amount of the subsidy ranged between one third to two thirds of the costs. There was a fourteen-fold increase in the amount of subsidies for SSE from USD 7 million in 1986 to USD 98 million in 1998. The long history of financial assistance for SSE and the increasing amount of subsidies suggest that the Ministry of Labour recognizes the importance of financial assistance in promoting OHS in small scale enterprises.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.14, No.2, p.143-150. 57 ref.

CIS 02-690 Musich S., Napier D., Edington D.W.
The association of health risks with workers' compensation costs
To investigate the association between health risks and workers' compensation (WC) costs, a study was conducted among Xerox Corporation's long-term employees focused on 1996-to-1999 costs. High WC costs were related to individual health risks, especially the Health Age Index (a measure of controllable risks), smoking, poor physical health, physical inactivity, and life dissatisfaction. WC costs increased with increasing health risk status (low-risk to medium-risk to high-risk). Low-risk employees had the lowest costs. In this population, 85% of WC costs could be attributed to excess risks (medium- or high-risk) or nonparticipation. Among those with claims, a savings of USD 1238 per person per year was associated with Health Risk Appraisal participation. Addressing WC costs by focusing on employee health status provides an additional strategy for health promotion programmes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.534-541. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-717 Dingsdag D., Gardner D.
Safety performance in coal mining: An examination of some underlying issues
The availability of detailed and reliable data on health, safety and other performance indicators has made the coal mining industry a valuable source of information on possible interrelationships between OHS and productivity. Using this data, it has been possible to demonstrate that a number of factors influence both safety and productivity in the industry. The present article explores some factors that to date have received little attention, including the role of the Joint Coal Board of New South Wales (Australia) and the impact of the production bonus and changes to workers' compensation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.485-489. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-461 Brophy M.O., Achimore L., Moore-Dawson J.
Reducing incidence of low-back injuries reduces cost
Report on an ergonomics programme employing mechanical lifting devices in order to reduce musculoskeletal injuries in nursing personnel in a nursing home. Comparisons in health and financial outcomes were made between the pre-intervention period (two years) and the intervention period (four years). There was a significant reduction in the number of low-back injuries and the total number of lost workdays was reduced from 1,476 before to 625 per year after the intervention. There was a significant reduction in the average yearly cost associated with low-back injuries.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.508-511. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 02-174 Rosenmann K.D., Hogan A., Reilly M.J.
What is the most cost-effective way to identify silica problem worksites?
State-based surveillance systems to identify cases of silicosis have been developed to target worksite interventions to reduce the incidence of silicosis. Using data from the Michigan silicosis surveillance system, an analysis was conducted to determine the most cost-effective way to identify problem worksites. The initial reporting source of all 470 confirmed cases of silicosis reported to the Michigan surveillance system from 1989 to 1995 was identified. The cost of identifying confirmed cases, worksites, problem worksites, silica problem worksites and the number of current silica-exposed workers was determined for four reporting sources: hospitals, physicians, workers' compensation records and death certificates. It was found that using hospital reports was the most cost-effective way to identify cases (USD 143), worksites (USD 313), and problem worksites (USD 454). Using hospital discharge records was the most cost-effective approach to identify individuals with silicosis as well as worksites with problems.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.629-635. 7 ref.

CIS 01-1274 Health and Safety - The Health and Safety (Fees) Regulations 2001 [United Kingdom]
These regulations update and replace previous versions of Health and Safety (Fees) Regulations (last to be abstracted: CIS 00-604). They determine the fees payable by an applicant to the Health and Safety Executive in respect of an application made under various British Acts and Regulations for the approval of protective equipment, safety examinations, licences etc. The regulations also fix the fees to be paid in respect of medical examinations and surveillance by an employment medical adviser, required under certain relevant statutory provisions. These Regulations do not apply in Northern Ireland.
The Stationery Office Ltd., P.O. Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN, United Kingdom (also:, 2001. 31p. Price: GBP 6.00. [in English]

CIS 01-727
Health and Safety Executive
Cost and effectiveness of chemical protective gloves for the workplace
This guidance booklet provides practical advice to employers on the cost and effectiveness of chemical protective gloves used in the workplace. Main topics covered: legal requirements; cost factors (purchase and replacement; comfort and dexterity; protection level; storage, maintenance and disposal; training); glove resistance to permeation, penetration and degradation; selection of suitable protective gloves. Appendices include examples of cost calculations of protective glove programmes, as well as permeation, penetration and degradation resistance test methods and standards.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2001. iv, 24p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.


CIS 07-983 Harwood H.J., Reichman M.B.
The cost to employers of employee alcohol abuse: Review of the literature in the United States of America
Le coût de l'abus d'alcool par les travailleurs pour les employeurs: étude des travaux publiés aux Etats-Unis d'Amérique [in French]
It is widely recognized that alcohol and drug abuse by workers can adversely affect their performance and the productivity of the workplace. The specific ways in which substance abuse can be harmful are well understood. Major elements of the costs incurred (for example, in lost productivity and earnings of workers and in deaths at the workplace) are captured in the most recent cost studies, as well as in the international guidelines for estimating the economic costs of substance abuse. However, no studies have rigorously measured the full economic burden on the workplace alone. Both employers and workers recognize the nature of the problem and have worked together through bodies such as the International Labour Organization to find common solutions and formulate multilateral policies. Data for the United States show that policies are frequently established at the workplace to reduce alcohol and drug abuse by workers.
Bulletin des stupéfiants, 2000, Vol.LII, No.1-2, p.45-59. Illus. 16 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1316 Dorman P.
The economics of safety, health, and well-being at work: An overview
Occupational injury and illness are matters of health, but they are also matters of economics, since they stem from work, and work is an economic activity. The economic perspective on occupational safety and health (OSH) encompasses the role of economic factors in the aetiology of workplace ill-health and the effects this has on the economic prospects for workers, enterprises, nations and the world as a whole. The purpose of this article is to indicate the most important contributions that economic analysis has made to the understanding and management of OSH, to analyse the costs of occupational injury and illness to individuals, communities and enterprises, and to suggest directions for future work in this area.
International Labour Office, Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), route des Morillons, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. Internet document (html format), 41p. Illus. 64 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-718 HIV/AIDS: A threat to decent work, productivity and development
VIH/SIDA: Une menace pour le travail décent, la productivité et le développement [in French]
VIH/SIDA: Una amenaza para el trabajo decente, la productividad y el desarrollo [in Spanish]
This document was prepared for discussion at the special high-level meeting on HIV/AIDS and the world of work, held in Geneva in June 2002. It reviews the nature and magnitude of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and discusses its social and economic implications, including the impact on the workforce and on employers and their organizations. Current approaches to addressing the problem are outlined along with the elements of an ILO response to HIV/AIDS in the world of work.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. 49p. Illus. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 04-299 Occupational safety and health in marketing and procurement - Summary of an Agency report
La sécurité et la santé au travail: outils de marketing et critères d'achat de produits et de services - Résumé d'un rapport de l'Agence [in French]
La seguridad y la salud en el trabajo en las actividades de marketing y adquisición de bienes y servicios - Resumen de un informe de la Agencia [in Spanish]
This fact sheet summarizes a report of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work on occupational safety and health in marketing and procurement which brings together 22 case studies of voluntary initiatives taken by companies, sector organizations and governments (see CIS 02-147). This fact sheet is also available in Danish, Greek, Estonian, Finnish, German, Italian, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese and Swedish (see
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2000. 2p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French]

CIS 04-483 Inventory of socio-economic information about work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the Member States of the European Union
Inventaire des informations socioéconomiques concernant les troubles musculosquelettiques liés au travail dans les Etats membres de l'Union européenne [in French]
Los trastornos musculoesqueléticos de origen laboral en los Estados miembros de la Unión Europea: inventario de factores socioeconómicos [in Spanish]
This inventory of socio-economic information with respect to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) brings together existing information from European Member States about specific cost elements related to these disorders. It aims to present basic socio-economic information that can be used in the prevention of MSDs and/or the reintegration into employment of workers with this disorder. This fact sheet is also available in German (see
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2000. 4p. Illus. 25 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French]

CIS 03-134 Bull N., Riise T., Moen B.E.
Compensation of occupational injury and disease in Norway: Ranking of job groups
The health risk of various job groups in Norway was estimated by ranking them according to compensation cost per worker. This was done by dividing the cost of work-related injury and disease from 1991 to 1996 in various job groups by the number of workers in these groups. Occupational groups were also ranked according to total annual costs. The five occupational groups with the highest total costs were metalworkers, woodworkers, nursing-related workers, fisheries workers and teachers. The groups with the highest annual cost per worker were the shoe and leather industry, oil an gas extraction, fisheries, mining and quarrying, and merchant shipping. Fisheries workers and ship's officers were ranked among the top ten positions on both lists and deserve priority in preventive measures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.42, No.6, p.621-628. 36 ref.

CIS 02-193 Chibnall J.T., Tait R.C., Merys S.C.
Disability management of low back injuries by employer-retained physicians: Ratings and costs
Data from employers' occupational physician files and public court records were examined for 184 workers having claimed compensation for low back injuries. Statistical analysis was used to predict ratings, costs, and settlement duration from medical, functional, social, and situational variables. Diagnosis, surgery, pain, rating year, and treating clinic predicted impairment ratings from employer-retained physicians. Diagnosis, surgery, tests ordered, legal representation, and impairment rating predicted disability ratings at the administrative law judge level. Diagnosis, tests, and impairment rating predicted costs. In conclusion, social and situational parameters influence disability management among employer-retained physicians, while functional variables have little impact.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.529-538. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 02-129 Pawłowska Z., Rzepecki J.
Impact of economic incentives on costs and benefits of occupational health and safety
The most common type of economic incentive used in the field of safety and health is the experience rating of insurance premiums. The impact of this incentive on occupational safety and health (OSH) costs in the company was analysed by comparing insurance costs with other OSH costs associated with inadequate working conditions, such as accident costs borne by a company. Accident costs were estimated on the basis of research carried out in 10 companies. Insurance costs and their adjustments according to the safety and health performance in a company were calculated according to an experience-rating model developed in the Central Institute for Labour Protection of Poland.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Special issue, p.71-83. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-147
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
Occupational safety and health in marketing and procurement
Collection of 22 case studies of how safety and health considerations are included in marketing and procurement procedures in member states of the European Union. Each of the schemes includes one or more of the following elements: tender criteria; management systems; certifications; labels; declarations; general communication; accounts. By level of application, the schemes include: marketing at company level (5 schemes); generic marketing schemes (4); government marketing initiative (1); procurement at company level (4); generic procurement systems (6); government procurement initiatives (2). By country, the schemes are from: Austria (1), Belgium (2), Denmark (5), Finland (1), France (4), Germany (2), Netherlands (2), Sweden (2), and the United Kingdom (3).
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2000. 172p. Illus. Price: EUR 9.00. Also available in German.

CIS 02-161 Economic advantages of workplace design
Approche économique lors de la conception des lieux de travail [in French]
With the help of ten practical examples, this guide highlights the economic advantages of good workplace design and layout, in particular through the integration of safety and health considerations, working conditions and work organization. Cases studied include: separation of light and heavy in-plant traffic; floors in the food industry; protection of roof edges against falls from heights; acoustic treatment of work premises; artificial lighting; maintenance of ceiling lights in high-ceiling premises; heating installations; fire protection; layout of loading platforms; natural lighting.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., July 2000. 47p. Illus.

CIS 00-1290 Gil Fisa A., Pujol Senovilla L.
Methodology for evaluating the economic impact of occupational accidents
Metodología para la evaluación económica de los accidentes de trabajo [in Spanish]
A simple method was developed to evaluate the cost of occupational accidents in small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). Variables taken into consideration include lost time during or because of the accident, losses caused by the accident, general expenses resulting from the accident and the time devoted to the accident by persons not directly involved (inquiry into the causes of the accident, administrative follow-up of the case). Data necessary for the evaluation were collected with the help of seven standard questionnaires and tables enabling the correction of certain factors as a function of the number of employees and the type of organization. An example of the application of the method is presented.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2000, No.7, p.27-38. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 00-1303 Chilton S., Dolan P., Jones-Lee M., Loomes G., Robinson A., Carthy T., Covey J., Spencer A., Hopkins L., Pidgeon N., Beattie J.
Health and Safety Executive
Valuation of benefits of health and safety control - Summary and technical report
This report describes a project aimed at determining, from a representative population sample, how much they value reductions in risks of premature death from various causes, and to make this information available to policymakers as input to the formulation of public policy in this area. In a first phase, the aim was to identify the monetary value of preventing a car driver or passenger fatality. In a second phase, the objective was to discover how persons would balance the prevention of car driver and passenger fatalities against the prevention of fatalities among train passengers, in domestic fires and in fires in public places. The value of preventing a statistical fatality (VPF) and the willingness to pay (WTP) are analysed. Proposals are made for future improvements in the models.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. ii, 35p. (summary), viii, 205p. (report). Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 00-1355 Rienstra S.A., Rietveld P., Lindeijer J.E.
Economic evaluation of traffic safety measures for transport companies
This paper addresses the economic feasibility of measures to reduce the material damage of transport companies. The results of a series of interviews among transport companies as well as from a postal questionnaire survey are presented. Calculations are made for three types of companies: a small family company, a large family company and a large, non family-controlled company. From the viewpoint of costs and benefits, damage prevention measures appear to be particularly interesting to larger companies. Small companies tend to have an informal culture in which measures are less effective. Measures perceived as particularly attractive by transport companies are those for which no large investments are needed, which influence the behaviour of drivers and which need not be contracted out.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2000, Vol.32, No.5, p.679-687. 12 ref.

CIS 00-1359 Sheu J.J., Hwang J.S., Wang J.D.
Diagnosis and monetary quantification of occupational injuries by indices related to human capital loss: Analysis of a steel company as an illustration
New indices of human capital loss from occupational injury, including cumulative injury rate, proportion of potential workdays lost, and potential salary lost were applied to occupational injury data from 1986 to 1994 at a steel company in Taiwan. Results show that the average disabling frequency rate and cumulative injury rate of the whole company were 4.12 and 0.41, respectively, and the average disabling severity rate and proportion of potential workdays lost of the whole company were 563 and 229 x 10-6, respectively. The average potential salary lost of the whole company was more than USD 2 million per year with a discount rate of 0.04, which was equivalent to 92 times of average annual income of a worker. The major monetary losses were due to non-traffic injuries of operators and traffic injuries of non-operators, which amounted to USD 145 and 152 per person per year. The new indices are useful supplementary tools for monitoring and analysing occupational injury data in a company.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2000, Vol.32, No.3, p.435-443. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 00-1173 Abrahamsson L.
Production economics analysis of investment initiated to improve working environment
The results of an evaluation of a new workplace for ladle preparation are described. A Swedish steel company initiated a development project related to ladle service work in order to come to grips with the difficult working environment and problems associated with absenteeism due to illness and occupational injuries. The evaluation was performed for the first three years after implementation of the project and shows that the new workplace considerably improved working conditions and increased both the quality and efficiency of production. Calculations show that an investment initiated to improve the working environment can be profitable.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 00-738 Lowery J.T., Glazner J., Borgerding J., Bondy J., Lezotte D.C., Kreiss K.
Analysis of construction injury burden by type of work
Injury rates and workers' compensation (WC) payment rates were calculated for 25 types of work based on claims and payroll data of the 32,081 construction workers who built Denver International Airport. Injury experience varied widely among the types of construction work. Workers building elevators and conduits and installing glass, metal or steel were at particularly high risk of both lost-work-time (LWT) and non-LWT injury. Median days lost by injured workers was highest for driving/trucking, and much greater than previously reported for most types of work: 40 days or more for 18 of the 25 types of work analysed. WC payment rates were generally not significantly different from expected losses except for driving and trucking, metal or steel installation, inspection and analysis, and elevator construction.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.390-399. 14 ref.

CIS 00-729 McGwin G., Scotten S., Aranas A., Enochs R., Roseman J.M.
The impact of agricultural injury on farm owners and workers in Alabama and Mississippi
To assess the consequences of agricultural injury comparing Caucasian and African-American farm owners and workers, 1,244 farmers were observed between 1994-1996 for farming-related injuries. One hundred and thirty-one subjects reported a total of 140 injuries. The majority of injuries were classified as minor or moderate and required medical attention. African-American farm workers tended to have more severe injuries. Nearly all injured subjects experienced acute residual effects (e.g., pain when moving), while persistent effects occurred in about half of the injured subjects, the latter being more common among African-American workers. Losing employment was a frequent nonmedical effect of the injury. African-American workers tended to be more likely to become unemployed and/or be hurt financially. Better medical care facilities for African-American farm workers may allow a reduction of the impact of agricultural injuries in this population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.374-381. 21 ref.


CIS 03-1689 Costs of mining safety, and reversing the trend
Costos e inversión en seguridad minera [in Spanish]
The purpose of this study is to highlight the advantages of safety interventions in medium-sized and large Peruvian mines. The study is divided into four parts: statistics of accidents having occurred between 1994 and 1998, by enterprise and cause; defining and identifying the elements that need to be taken into account when calculating the costs of an accident; calculation of the fixed and variable costs for each type of accident and for the mining sector as a whole; analysis of the reversal of the trend achieved thanks to the implementation of safety programmes, compared to the costs of accidents in the absence of such programmes.
Instituto de estudios energético mineros (IDEM), Lima, Peru, 1999. 99p, Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 02-1201 Schweres M., Sengotta M., Roesler J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Taking occupational health and safety into account in investment decisions - Software implementation and procedure applications
Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz in der Investitionsplanung - DV-Unterstützung für erweiterte Wirtschaftlichkeitsrechnungen [in German]
The investment stage of a project is the crucial starting point for the optimal design of work systems. It is indeed at this level that production methods are fixed for years to come. This report describes a software application based on a holistic calculation of investments, taking into account items such as the benefits of flexibility, occupational safety and health and environmental protection, enabling the calculation of a broader measure of return on investment. In addition to the software itself, the accompanying CD-ROM contains an interactive tutorial and online help.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 305p. Illus. 141 ref. + 1 CD-Rom. Price: EUR 27.00.

CIS 02-631 Braun M., Lang K.H., Langhoff T., Schmauder M., Volkholz V., Vorath B.J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Analysis and assessment of strategies for occupational safety and health organization systems in medium-sized and large companies
Beobachtung und Bewertung von Lösungsvorschlägen zur Organisation des betrieblichen Arbeitsschutzes in Mittel- und Grossbetrieben [in German]
This report presents the results of an investigation of the occupational safety and health (OSH) organization systems of large and medium-sized companies. Based on an analysis of human factors, the report shows how efforts in the field of OSH can help retain qualified human resources and thus bring in numerous benefits. The advantages of benefit-oriented OSH efforts are illustrated with the help of examples. Impact chains are used to show how the company can meet its internal targets. The importance of the role of OSH experts is emphasized. Finally, the key aspects for implementing a successful OSH organization system within the company are discussed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 113p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: EUR 12.50.

CIS 01-1676 Gil Fisa A.
Cost of occupational accidents: Assessment procedure
Costes de los accidentes de trabajo: procedimiento de evaluación [in Spanish]
Cost-benefit analysis and the implementation of preventive measures can only be undertaken if accurate data on the costs of occupational accidents are available. This information note presents a method for evaluating the cost of an occupational accident and its direct and indirect consequences, as well as a model of the form used for making this evaluation. An example of a calculation based on a practical case is also presented.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 8p. 4 ref.

CIS 01-1832 Marin M.G., Van Lieu J., Yee A., Bonner E., Glied S.
Cost-effectiveness of a post-exposure HIV chemoprophylaxis program for blood exposures in health care workers
A cost-effectiveness analysis of a post-exposure chemoprophylaxis programme for health care workers who sustained exposures to blood was performed. A programme of treatment with zidovudine (AZT) alone versus no treatment and a treatment with three-drug therapy versus no treatment was analysed. Assuming that 35% of exposures were to HIV positive sources, the ATZ regimen prevented 53 HIV seroconversions per 100,000 exposures, at a societal cost of USD 2.0 million per case of HIV prevented. The cost per quality-adjusted life year saved was USD 175,222. A three-drug chemoprophylactic therapy programme (postulating 100% effectiveness and 35 % source HIV positivity), prevented 66 seroconversions per 100,000 exposures, at a cost of USD 2.1 million per case of HIV prevented and USD 190,392 per quality-adjusted life year saved. Treating only workers exposed to sources known to be HIV-positive would be the most cost-effective strategy.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.41, No.9, p.754-760. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 01-1051 Caillard J.F, Westerholm P.
Social security systems and health insurance: Financing and implication in occupational health
Systèmes de sécurité sociale et d'assurance maladie: financement et implication dans la santé du travail [in French]
Proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the Scientific Committee "Health services research and evaluation in occupational health", held in Rouen, France, in 1997. Main topics covered: cost of work-related impairments; financing of occupational health services; social security and protection against occupational risks; participation of private insurance; compensation of occupational accidents and diseases; Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease; pneumoconiosis.
OCTARÈS Éditions, 24 rue Nazareth, 31000 Toulouse, France, 1999. xi, 352p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 24.39.

CIS 01-413 The TYTA model - Implement for evaluating the company's working environment costs
Accidents, sickness and the resulting absenteeism, labour turnover and disability which can be costly to companies can be evaluated in economic terms with the TYTA model, a spreadsheet-based tool (Excel files are supplied on a diskette). The costs of investing in the improvement of working conditions can also be calculated and compared with these economic costs. The aim of using this model is therefore to encourage companies to invest in improved working conditions.
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Department of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, 1999. 37p. Illus. + Diskette.

CIS 01-412 The economic viewpoint in occupational safety and health supervision: Memorandum
This booklet contains information on the economics of the working environment. It is aimed at OSH inspectors and its objective is to explain how economic approaches can be applied to occupational safety and health supervision. The most important objective of OSH inspections is to achieve permanent positive changes in working conditions. The evaluation of the economic impact is a means of accelerating the implementation of these improved working conditions.
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Department of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, 1999. 16p. Illus.

CIS 01-101 The economic viewpoint in occupational safety and health supervision
The most important objective of OSH inspections is to achieve permanent positive changes in working conditions. The discussion of the economic impact of improvements is also a means to speed up the development of working conditions. This booklet aimed at OSH inspectors explains how to apply economic thinking when conducting their evaluations.
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Sales Services, P.O. Box 536, Tampere, Finland, 1999. 16p. Illus.

CIS 01-239 National Seminar on Boilers in the 21st Century - Towards more efficiency, safety, economy and environment
Topics: economic aspects; India; legislation; pollution control; power generation and distribution; preventive maintenance; safety and productivity; safety by design; steam boilers; welding and cutting.
Multi Disciplinary Centre on Safety, Health and Environment, C-38, Unit 8, Bhubaneswar, 751 003, India, Mar. 1999. 125p. Illus.

CIS 01-91 Lehtinen S.
Occupational health and safety indicators
Special issue of the journal devoted to occupational health and safety indicators, with particular emphasis on Africa. Articles address: indicators of death, disease and disability at work; inter-regional consultation on the ILO SafeWork programme; occupational health and safety indicators in Kenya; occupational health and safety in the flower industry in Tanzania; cotton fabric dust exposures in a garment factory in Losotho (see CIS 01-130); learning from accidents as a basis for better safety; post-traumatic fibromyalgia.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 1999, Vol.9, No.3, p.58-79 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1638 Active strategies for an ageing workforce: Conference report, Turku, 12-13 August 1999
This document is the report of a conference held in Turku, Finland, on August 12-13, 1999 which examined measures in favour of the participation, performance and productivity of an ageing European workforce. It concludes that more integrated public policies involving employment, education, social and health sectors are required.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1999. viii, 61p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 00-1307 Schulz U.
The financing of the Berufsgenossenschaften in Germany
In Germany, occupational accident insurance institutions are responsible for all functions relating to occupational accidents and diseases, including prevention, medical and occupational rehabilitation and the provision of monetary benefits to insured persons and dependents. Prevention is encouraged by offering financial incentives. Contributions are paid solely by employers. The various methods for calculating the contributions are described, based on the sector of activity, the risk categories, the effectiveness of prevention measures and actual insured events occurring in the company.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, July 1999. 126p. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 00-1422 Hopkins A.
For whom does safety pay? The case of major accidents
Government agencies regularly use the argument that "safety pays" as a way of motivating employees to attend to occupational health and safety. This paper looks at the effectiveness of this argument in the case of catastrophic hazards. It suggests that, while it may be true that safety pays in an abstract sense, this is irrelevant unless it can be shown that safety pays for relevant decision makers. All too often it does not. The article illustrates its claims by drawing on the literature on the Zeebrugge, Bhopal and Piper Alpha disasters, as well as on a study of a mine disaster in Australia.
Safety Science, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.32, No.2-3, p.143-153. 15 ref.

CIS 00-1012 Ide C.
The value of "the medical"
Each year Strathclyde Fire Brigade (in Scotland) recruits between 70 and 110 new firefighters. In addition to an exhaustive selection procedure, the brigade puts potential recruits through a standard medical examination, but the usefulness of such exams has been questioned. The medical adviser to the Strathclyde Fire Brigade found that an analysis of the statistics allowed considerable pruning of the medical exam, and of the brigade's costs, while retaining the effectiveness of the examination.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 1999, Vol.17, No.10, p.30-33. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 00-704 Economic impact of occupational safety and health in the Member States of the European Union
This report covers the following topics: costs and benefits of OSH measures; economic impact of OSH policies; use of financial incentives; initiatives at the European Union level. In annex: definitions; abbreviations.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, [1999]. 68p.

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