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Economic aspects - 615 entries found

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CIS 03-1981 McCall B.P., Horwitz I.B.
Workplace violence in Oregon: An analysis using workers' compensation claims from 1990-1997
This study examined 2028 workers' compensation claims for workplace violence in the US state of Oregon between 1990 and 1997, and used Current Population Survey data for risk analysis. The rate of workplace violence was 1.86 per 10,000 employees annually, with females and workers under 35 years of age experiencing the most violence. The average claim resulted in approximately 40 days of indemnity and USD 6,200 in costs. Workers on evening and night shifts had significantly higher rates of being victims of violence, as did those working on weekends. Preventive interventions should be targeted at younger workers and those with less tenure. Special measures should be focused on ensuring the safety of workers during evenings, nights and weekends.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.357-366. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 03-1605 Pujol Senovilla L., Maroto Gómez V.
Indicators for evaluating the intangibles of occupational safety and health
Indicadores para la valoración de intangibles en prevención [in Spanish]
This information note presents a simplified approach for evaluating the intangible assets of an enterprise that result from the improvement of working conditions and the implementation of preventive measures, based on the analysis of various indicators. Contents: advantages of hazard prevention at the enterprise; values of tangible and intangible assets; cost-benefit analysis of the prevention and methods of evaluating intangible assets (benchmarking, EFQM, SPRL); definition of indicators that may be used as a basis for the analysis.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 6p. Illus. 8 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1099 Personal protective equipment of forestry workers - Example of cost calculations - 2004 edition
Equipements de protection individuelle du personnel forestier - Exemple de calcul des coűts - édition 2004 [in French]
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung für das Forstpersonal - Kostenbeispiel - Ausgabe 2004 [in German]
Dispositivi di protezione individuale per il personale forestale - Esempio di calcolo dei costi - Edizione 2004 [in Italian]
Swiss law specifies that the employer has to provide personal protective equipment and ensure that it is in always in perfect condition. Aimed at employers in the forestry sector, this booklet lists the costs of new equipment for newly hired workers, as well as the annual replacement costs of the equipment based on its average lifetime. The following protective equipment is considered: helmets with built-in earmuffs, face shields and neck protection; ear muffs; jackets; trousers; gloves; boots; weatherproof coats. Update of CIS 02-598.
Suva, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 10th ed., 2004. 4p. [in German] [in French] [in Italian]


CIS 07-77 Lowe G.S.
Healthy workplaces and productivity: A discussion paper
Milieux de travail sains et productivité: Un document de travail [in French]
This paper was prepared for the Economic Analysis and Evaluation Division, Health Canada. It examines two main issues: the work environment and organizational factors that positively influence workers' health and wellbeing, and the relationship between healthy workplaces and productivity. Topics covered include: an overview of the major perspectives on health, work and productivity; measurement issues in the areas of health outcomes and organizational-level productivity; characteristics of healthy and unhealthy workplaces and their economic impact; challenges faced in trying to create workplaces that are healthy and productive; recommendations for employers, researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders.
Internet document, Apr. 2003. 52p. 118 ref. [in English] [in French]

CIS 06-41 Bernacki E.J., Tsai S.P.
Ten years' experience using an integrated workers' compensation management system to control workers' compensation costs
Data are analysed on ten years of experience using an integrated workers' compensation claims management system that allows safety professionals, insurance institutions and selected medical and nursing providers to collaborate in a process of accident prevention. The system was instituted in 1992, servicing a population of approximately 21,000 individuals, growing to 39,000 in 2002. The frequency of lost-time and medical claims rate decreased 73% and 61% respectively, between 1992 and 2002. The number of days paid per 100 persons insured decreased by 77%, while total workers' compensation expenses including all medical, indemnity and administrative, decreased by 54%. These data suggest that workers' compensation costs can be reduced by using a small network of health care providers who address individual workers' psychological as well as physical needs, and where communication between all parties is constantly maintained.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.508-516. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 06-39 Goetzel R.Z., Hawkins K., Ozminkowski R.J., Wang S.
The health and productivity cost burden of the "top 10" physical and mental health conditions affecting six large U.S. employers in 1999
Data for 374,799 employees from six large employers were analysed to identify the most costly physical and mental health conditions affecting American businesses. Absence and disability losses constituted 29% of the total health and productivity related expenditures for physical health conditions and 47% for all of the mental health conditions examined. The ten most costly physical health conditions were: angina pectoris; essential hypertension; diabetes mellitus; mechanical low back pain; acute myocardial infarction; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; back disorders not specified as low back; trauma to spine and spinal cord; sinusitis; and diseases of the ear, nose and throat or mastoid process. The five most costly mental health disorders were: bipolar disorder, chronic maintenance; depression; depressive episode in bipolar disease; neurotic, personality and non-psychotic disorders; alcoholism.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.5-14. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 05-267 Romay López R., Santín González D., L. de Guevara J.
Management of temporary invalidity benefits with the help of artificial neural networks
Gestión de la prestación por incapacidad temporal mediante redes neuronales artificiales [in Spanish]
In Spain, temporary invalidity (TI) gave rise to approximately three billion euros of direct costs and twelve billion euros of indirect costs in 1997. Furthermore, current methods do not allow the detection of cheating. The purpose of this work was to propose a model for TI management using neural networks (artificial intelligence) to lower individual costs of TI compensation in a rational manner. The application of this model to all cases of absenteeism processed in the province of Guadalajera between 1995 and 2002 would have resulted in estimated savings of 18 million euros for all cases where absenteeism exceeded double the length of time predicted by the model. If a third of these cases involved cheating, the net savings for the period would have been six million euros. Use of this model therefore allows a rationalization of the management of cases and a control of benefits granted.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Aug. 2003, Vol.XLX, No.192, p.47-65. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 05-111 Alonso Blasi N., Rodríguez Ares M.J.
Occupational accidents in the stevedoring sector of the Cadiz Bay Port. 1995-2002
Accidentes laborales en el sector de la estiba del Puerto de la Bahía de Cadíz. 1995-2002 [in Spanish]
This study analyses occupational accidents in the loading and unloading sector of the Port of the Bay of Cadiz between 1995 and 2002. It considers disability, absenteeism rates and the average duration of incapacitation, as well as factors such as occupational group, accident cause, diagnosis and injury severity. Results show a decreasing trend: the average duration of incapacitation declined from 11.32 to 3.74 days, incidence rates declined from 32.5% to 11.58% and the average duration of absenteeism per worker declined from 3.1 to 1.3 days.
Medicina Marítima, Dec. 2003, Vol.3, No.2, p.125-133. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 03-1641 Cohen P., Darling C., Hampson A., Downs K., Tasset-Tisseau A.
Influenza vaccination in an occupational setting: Effectiveness and cost-benefit study
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-like illness and absenteeism among workers of a large steelworks. The study was a prospective, randomized trial conducted during the 2000 influenza season. Healthy adults aged 18-64 years were randomized into two groups: 270 received parenteral influenza vaccine (VAXIGRIP) and 270 had no intervention. Data were collected using self-reporting questionnaires for a total period of six months. This study suggests that influenza vaccination programs for healthy, working-age adults may represent a cost-effective intervention strategy from the employer's perspective during the influenza season, especially during the peak period of the disease.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2003, Vol.19, No.2, p.167-182. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 03-1592 Lancaster R., Ward R., Talbot P., Brazier A.
Health and Safety Executive
Costs of compliance with health and safety regulations in SME's
This report presents the findings of a study carried out to assess whether the costs of compliance with health and safety regulations are disproportionately high for small enterprises, as well as the nature of safety and health-related expenditure and how effective it is in improving safety and health performance. The study involved postal questionnaires, followed by vists of 30 enterprises. It was indeed found that that the costs of compliance were disproportionately high for small enterprises, although the threshold at which these costs became disproportionate varied across the different items of legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 238p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1642 Fernández Jiménez M., Herrero García M.
Quantification of occupational absenteeism in the enterprise. An indicator of enterprise safety and health performance
Cuantificación del absentismo laboral en la empresa. Una herramienta para la medición de los niveles de seguridad y salud en la empresa [in Spanish]
Absenteeism indicators are an important tool for evaluating the state of health of employees and the efficiency of preventive measures. Various accident frequency and morbidity indicators used for analysing absenteeism in the enterprise are reviewed, including: absenteeism; general absenteeism; frequency rates; severity rates; incidence rates; average length of absence; presenteeism. The factors that should not be taken into account for analysing absenteeism (paid holidays, maternity leave, and in Spain absences related to commuting accidents) are discussed, as well as those that may distort the analysis. Given the importance of this analysis and the large number of indicators, a harmonized system at the European level would be useful for making comparisons.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.28, p.4-10. Illus. 7ref.

CIS 03-1676 Walton S.M., Conrad K.M., Furner S.E., Samo D.G.
Cause, type and workers' compensation costs of injury to firefighters
Work-related injury rates in firefighting exceed those for most other industries. However, little is known about the cost of injury to firefighters. In this study, 1,343 claims collected from workers' compensation records collected in northeastern Illinois (United States) between 1992-1999 were analysed in detail. Regression analysis enabled summary statistics to be presented by cause, nature and cost of injury to firefighters. Overexertion accounted for over one third of all injuries to firefighters, typically involving injuries to the back, and was associated with significantly higher costs than other types of injuries. The per-claim average workers' compensation cost of injury to firefighters was USD 5,168 and the average for injuries caused by overexertion was USD 9,715. Overexertion is a costly source of injury to firefighters, although it can probably be reduced through policy intervention.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.454-458. 13 ref.

CIS 03-1033 Health and Safety - The Biocidal Products (Amendment) Regulations 2003 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations introduce an industrial charge in connection with the authorization and registration of biocidal products under the 2001 regulations (see CIS 01-1299).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2003. (Also: TSO Online Bookshop, 9p. Price: GBP 2.50. [in English]

CIS 03-1192 Karjalainen K.
Multidisciplinary interventions for low back pain: Evaluation of effectiveness
The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation of low back pain and to develop a feasible intervention for patients with subacute low pain not requiring operative treatment as well as to assess its effectiveness, cost and modifying factors. 164 patients were randomly assigned into three groups: 56 underwent a mini-intervention (patient's history, examination by a physician and a physiotherapist, exercises and advice), 51 a mini intervention plus a worksite visit and 57 a conventional treatment. Pain, quality of life, satisfaction of care, sick leave, consumption of health services and costs were measured at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. The results show that the mini-intervention is cost-saving and effective for most patients with subacute low back pain. A worksite visit supplementing the intervention does not seem to produce any beneficial effects.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2003. 98p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-1124 Grant K.A., Garland J.G., Joachim T.C., Wallen A., Vital T.
Achieving health, safety, and performance improvements through enhanced cost visibility and workplace partnerships
Reduction in the environment, safety and occupational health (ESOH) component of operational costs requires not only a better understanding of ESOH costs and requirements, but also the formation of effective partnerships between ESOH professionals, finance personnel and shop workers to identify viable improvements to current practices. This article presents two case studies of efforts to enhance productivity and lower ESOH-related costs in corrosion control facilities at two air force bases in the United States. At each site, activity-based cost models were created to increase the visibility of ESOH-related costs and target improvement opportunities. Analysis of the aircraft strip-and-paint processes revealed that a large proportion of operating costs were tied to ESOH requirements and practices. In each case ESOH professionals teamed with shop personnel to identify potential improvements in personal protective equipment use, waste disposal, tool selection, and work methods. This approach yielded alternatives projected to reduce total shop costs by 5-7%.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.660-667. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1191 Spicker P.
Distinguishing disability and incapacity
Unterscheidung zwischen Behinderung und Arbeitsunfähigkeit [in German]
La distinction entre handicap et incapacité [in French]
Un distingo entre discapacidad y incapacidad [in Spanish]
The distinction between disability and incapacity for work is discussed from both a theoretical and an operational perspective. Disability refers mainly to a functional limitation of everyday activity whereas incapacity for work concerns people who are unable to work because of a medical condition. Although the two terms overlap, they are conceptually different. People can be disabled without being unable to work, and unable to work without being disabled. It is important to clarify these distinctions for policy, as social security benefits for disability are liable to be given on different principles from benefits for incapacity. The implications for social security systems in development are considered.
International Social Security Review - Revue internationale de sécurité sociale, Apr.-June 2003, Vol.56, No.2, p.31-43. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 05-277 Bastiani A., Müller R.
Rating systems - An international comparison of workers' compensation insurance
Contents of this international comparison of workers' compensation rating systems: general survey of rating systems; international comparison of premium calculation models (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Portugal, United States); financing of workers' compensation systems; State control of financing.
Münchener Rückversicherungs-Gesellschaft, Königinstrasse 107, 80802 München, Germany, 2002. 89p. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 04-580 Kobielski W.
Rehabilitation in the social insurance system of farmers
Rehabilitacja lecznicza w systemie ubezpieczenia społecznego rolników [in Polish]
Review and assessment of the activities of the Polish Agricultural Social Insurance Fund, with emphasis on the establishment and improvement of the rehabilitation system for farmers. The legal rules regulating the activity on prevention and rehabilitation in rural areas are listed. Numerical details concerning the financial effectiveness of the therapeutic rehabilitation of farmers are presented.
Ubezpieczenia w Rolnictwie - Materiały i Studia, 2002, Vol.16, No.4, p.32-38.

CIS 04-288 Economic appraisal of preventing work accidents at company level
Řkonomisk vurdering af forebyggelse af arbejdsulykker pĺ virksomhedsplan [in Danish]
Wirtschaftspolitische Bewertung der Verhütung von Arbeitsunfällen auf Unternehmensebene [in German]
Oikonomikḗ axiológēsē tēs prólēpsēs tōn ergatikṓn atuhēmátōn se epípedo epiheírēsēs [in Greek]
Evaluación económica de la prevención de accidentes de trabajo en la empresa [in Spanish]
Ekonomisk bedömning av insatser för att förebygga arbetsolyckor pĺ företagsnivĺ [in Swedish]
Evaluation économique de la prévention des accidents au niveau de l'entreprise [in French]
Valutazione economica della prevenzione degli infortuni sul lavoro a livello aziendale [in Italian]
Economische evaluatie van de preventie van arbeidsongevallen op bedrijfsniveau [in Dutch]
Avaliaçăo económica da prevençăo dos acidentes de trabalho ao nível das empresas [in Portuguese]
Työtapaturmien ennaltaehkäisyn taloudellinen arviointi yritystasolla [in Finnish]
Improvement of safety and health at work can bring economic benefits for companies. Accidents and occupational diseases can give rise to heavy costs to the company. For small companies particularly, occupational accidents can have a major financial impact. This fact sheet describes a five-step approach to analyse the cost of accident prevention at the company level.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2002. 4p. Illus. 5 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French] [in Danish] [in German] [in Greek] [in Dutch] [in Portuguese] [in Finnish] [in Swedish] [in Italian]

CIS 04-305 Inventory of socioeconomic costs of work accidents
Oversigt over sociořkonomiske omkostninger ved arbejdsulykker [in Danish]
Bestandsaufnahme zu sozioökonomischen Kosten von Arbeitsunfällen [in German]
Katagrafḗ tou koinōnikooikonomikoú kóstous tōn epaggelmatikṓn atuhēmátōn [in Greek]
Inventario de los costes socioeconómicos de los accidentes de trabajo [in Spanish]
Inventering av arbetsolyckornas samhällsekonomiska kostnader [in Swedish]
Inventaire des coűts socio-économiques des accidents du travail [in French]
Inventario dei costi socioeconomici degli infortuni sul lavoro [in Italian]
Sociaal-economische kosten van arbeidsongevallen [in Dutch]
Przegląd społeczno-ekonomicznych kosztów wypadków przy pracy [in Polish]
Custos socioeconómicos resultantes de acidentes de trabalho [in Portuguese]
Työtapaturmien sosioekonomisten kustannusten arvioiminen [in Finnish]
Occupational accidents are a burden for many parties. Companies often do not bear the full costs of occupational diseases, occupational injuries or work-related illnesses. Accidents also lead to costs for other companies, individual workers and for society at large. This fact sheet presents an inventory of socioeconomic costs of occupational accidents. Topics covered: who supports the costs; benefits of accident prevention; cost factors of injuries and diseases at individual level and for society at large.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2002. 2p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English] [in French] [in Danish] [in German] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Finnish] [in Swedish] [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1577 Social security statistical yearbook 2002 and Historical supplement
Anuário estatístico da previdęncia social 2002 + Suplemento histórico [in Portuguese]
Compilation of social security statistics for the years 2000-2002, together with a historical supplement for the years 1980-2002. Among the contents of these documents: data on the cost of the Brazilian social security system (old-age pension and invalidity benefits, social benefits) by age group, sex, State, sector of activity and reason for the benefits; financial flows, collections and disbursements; staffing and infrastructure costs. Data on audits, contributions by enterprises as well as on economic indicators and demographics are also presented.
Ministério da Previdęncia Social, Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco F, CEP 70059-900, Brasília, Brazil, 2002. 868p. Illus. Index (yearbook); 154p. (supplement).

CIS 03-652 Bramley T.J., Lerner D., Sarnes M.
Productivity losses related to the common cold
The common cold has the potential to cause substantial productivity losses because of its high prevalence in working-age groups. This article presents the findings of a survey conducted to estimate productivity loss by measuring three sources of loss: direct absenteeism due to the cold, on-the-job productivity losses, and caregiver absenteeism, which in turn gives rise to the absenteeism of working women with young children. Each cold experienced by a working adult caused an average of 8.7 lost work hours (2.8 absenteeism hours; 5.9 hours of on-the-job loss), and 1.2 work hours were lost because of attending to children who were suffering from colds. It is concluded that the economic cost of lost productivity due to the common cold approaches USD 25 billion, of which USD 16.6 billion is attributed to on-the-job productivity loss, USD 8 billion is attributed to direct absenteeism, and USD 230 million is attributed to caregiver absenteeism.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.822-829. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 03-570
International Social Security Association (ISSA)
Estudios de la Seguridad Social - 30th Anniversary Edition
Estudios de la Seguridad Social - 30o aniversario [in Spanish]
Collection of articles on trends in social security in Latin America, published on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the journal. Main topics covered: profile of social security during the 20th century; study of the health service cost factors; social security reforms; social security planning in industrialized and developing countries; social security of the Americas in the global context; influence of demographics and globalization; technical aspects of work-related risk insurance; administrative problems of social security in Latin America; health benefit reforms in Latin American social security systems. An attached CD-ROM presents information on the AISS, and contains articles from several issues of the journal in PDF format, including the present issue.
Estudios de la Seguridad Social, 2002, No.90, p.9-234 (whole issue). Illus. 22 ref. + CD-ROM.

CIS 03-591 Rzepecki J.
Cost-benefit analysis of occupational safety and health in the enterprise
Analiza kosztów i korzyści BHP w przedsiębiorstwie [in Polish]
This booklet describes the principles of calculating the costs of occupational safety and health. Cost factors include: costs of insurance for occupational accidents and diseases; costs resulting from dangerous and strenuous working conditions; costs of prevention. It also presents an occupational health and safety cost-benefit model, as well as a computer program helpful for conducting this analysis.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 26p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 03-633 Vandenplas O., Larbanois A., Jamart J.
Socio-economic consequences of occupational asthma in Belgium
In this study, the socio-economic status of 86 subjects with a diagnosis of occupational asthma ascertained by specific inhalation challenges was examined. The follow-up assessment was performed a median of 43 months after the diagnostic evaluation. At that time, 33% of the subjects remained exposed to the causal agent, 38% suffered persistent work disruption and 64% reported a reduction in income. A reduction in income was more frequent among those who avoided exposure. The loss of earnings was offset by the disability indemnity in only 22% of those subjects who benefited from compensation by the Belgian Workers' Compensation Board. Logistic regression analysis showed that old age and low education level were the most significant predictors of unemployment, while asthma severity influenced employment status only minimally. These data indicate that the compensation system should be further directed at improving rehabilitation programs in order to reduce adverse economic and employment consequences of occupational asthma.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2002, Vol.XXXIX, No.1, p.5-12. 17 ref.

CIS 03-627 Álvarez Montero A.
Prevention of occupational hazards: Current assessment and future prospects
La prevención de riesgos laborales: Balance y perspectivas [in Spanish]
This CD-ROM consists of a compilation of the papers presented during the fifth Andalusian conference on labour relations, held on 21-22 November 2002 in Jaén, Spain, on the topic of "Prevention of occupational hazards: Current assessment and future prospects". Panel discussions organized during this conference addressed the following issues: role of the government in the field of occupational safety and health; cost-benefit analysis of occupational safety and health; hazards resulting from new forms of work; organization and management of occupational safety and health within the enterprise; legislation applicable to the protection against occupational hazards and its practical implementation.
Consejo Andaluz de Relaciones Laborales, Spain, [2002]. CD-ROM

CIS 03-255 Chagas de Araújo N.M.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Sharpening the pencil on the costs of implementing PCMAT
Custos da implantaçăo do PCMAT na ponta do lápis [in Portuguese]
Brazilian Regulatory Standard No.18 of 1995 on Working Conditions and the Working Environment in the Construction Industry (see CIS 96-1179) specifies that it is mandatory to prepare a working conditions and work environment plan (PCMAT) in all construction establishments with more than 20 workers. This publication presents the detailed calculations of the costs of implementing PCMAT using the example of the construction of a residential building of more than four floors. It is found that these costs amount to 1.49% of the total cost of construction.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, Săo Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2002. 142p. Illus. 76 ref. Price: BRL 15.00

CIS 02-1712 Wright D.W., Beard M.J., Edington D.W.
Association of health risks with the cost of time away from work
This study compared the cost of time away from work (TAW) with health risk status and individual health risks of 6220 hourly workers at an office equipment manufacturer. The study used three years (1998 to 2000) of TAW and health risk appraisal data. Higher TAW costs were associated with illness days, drug/medication use, the individual's lower perception of physical health, job dissatisfaction, high stress, life dissatisfaction and physical inactivity. More high-risk individuals (80.6%) had a TAW occurrence than medium- (72.8%) and low-risk (61.1%) individuals. High-risk individuals also had higher TAW costs than medium- and low-risk individuals. Of the total TAW costs, 36.2% was attributed to the excess risks of the medium- and high-risk individuals. If TAW costs follow risk reduction, annual savings of USD 1.7 million would be achievable within the enterprise.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1126-1134. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 02-1711 Green-McKenzie J., Rainer S., Behrman A., Emmett E.
The effect of a health care management initiative on reducing workers' compensation costs
The effects of a cost control and a health care management initiative on workers' compensation costs were assessed in seven cohorts of workers at a university hospital. Cost control measures started in 1993 included early return to work and injury prevention programs, internal administration of legal cases, and utilization of modified duty assignments. The health care management initiative fully in place in 1997 included aggressive case management and the setting up of an occupational medicine panel. Workers' Compensation costs and lost workdays incurred by each cohort were compared. A reduction of 41-59% in indemnity payments and a reduction of 46-67% in lost time cases were realized after the health care management initiative was fully in place. Accepted claims were reduced by 10-15%.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1100-1105.17 ref.

CIS 02-1988 Goetzel R.Z., Ozminkowski R.J., Sederer L.I., Mark T.L.
The business case for quality mental health services: Why employers should care about the mental health and well-being of their employees
Employers want to know whether their health care spending is improving the health of workers, and whether there is a productivity payback from providing good mental health care. This article addresses the subject of employee depression and its impact on business. The literature suggests that depressed individuals exert a significant cost burden for employers. Evidence is mounting that worker depression may have its greatest impact on productivity losses, including increased absenteeism and short-term disability, higher turnover, and sub-optimal performance at work. Although there is no conclusive evidence that physical health care costs decrease when depression is effectively treated, there is growing evidence that productivity improvements occur as a consequence of effective treatment, and those improvements may offset the cost of the treatment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.320-330. 67 ref.

CIS 02-1874 Franks A., Whitehead R., Crossthwaite P., Smail L.
Health and Safety Executive
Application of QRA in operational safety issues
The Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999, or COMAH (see CIS 00-24) came into force in Great Britain in April 1999. Under these regulations, every operator is to take all measures necessary to prevent major accidents and limit their consequences to persons and the environment. This general duty is consistent with the principle of reducing risks to a level that is "as low as reasonably practicable" (ALARP). This study has performed research into the use of risk in Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) operational decisions in the context of the COMAH regulations. The research focussed on the use of regulatory guidance, risk matrices and quantitative analysis (QRA) to demonstrate compliance with the ALARP principle. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses, for any particular situation. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) when used in conjunction with QRA is able to provide an economic justification as to whether risk reduction measures should be implemented.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 88p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1589 Farrow S., Hayakawa H.
Investing in safety - An analytical precautionary principle
Governments and businesses must respond to increasing safety requirements and balance the associated costs with productivity and competing pressures. A real options approach has been introduced for decision making in the private sector; this approach is adapted for regulatory decisions that can involve irreversible and uncertain safety impacts, social costs that differ from direct costs, and differences in perception among the stakeholders. The outcome is an economic decision gage that determines if it is optimal to invest in safety even if the estimated costs significantly exceed the estimated benefits. Potential applications include civil aviation, ground transportation, pipelines, nuclear facilities, natural disaster planning and terrorism.
Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.165-174. 29 ref.

CIS 02-1599 Toffel M.W., Birkner L.R.
Estimating and controlling workplace risk: An approach for occupational hygiene and safety professionals
Meeting safety and health objectives requires financial resources. This article proposes that risk decisions should be made with probabilistic processes used in financial decision-making, which are familiar and recognizable to business managers. It develops the processes and demonstrates the use of incident probabilities, past outcome information and incremental impact analysis to estimate risk of multiple alternatives in the chemical industry. It also analyses how the ethical aspects of decision-making can be addressed in formulating safety and health risk management plans. It is concluded that easily understood applied probabilistic risk assessment methods used by business to assess financial and outcome risk have applicability to improving workplace safety and health.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.477-485. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1995 Rantanen J., Lehtinen S., Kurppa K., Lindström K., Saarela K.L.
Work in the global village
Proceedings of a conference held on 15-17 October 2001 in Helsinki, Finland. The main topics of the papers included the impact of globalization on working conditions, social and economic issues of working life, occupational safety and health, and future trends in working conditions in an increasingly-global economy.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. viii, 173p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1261 Bödeker W., Friedel H., Röttger C., Schröer A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Cost of occupational diseases
Kosten arbeitsbedingter Erkrankungen [in German]
The cost of occupational diseases in Germany is estimated at EUR 28 billion each year. This report investigates the relationship between the cost of occupational diseases (including lost productivity due to absenteeism) and several workload factors, with the objective of assigning a cost to each factor, so as to enable the planning of the most efficient prevention strategies. The most important workload factors were found to be "heavy physical workloads and lifting", and "low control". The greatest contributions to overall cost were mainly musculoskeletal disorders, diseases of the digestive system and injuries. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 180p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: EUR 16.00.

CIS 02-1436 Drawer S., Fuller C.W.
An economic framework for assessing the impact of injuries in professional football
Injury rates in professional football are several orders of magnitude higher than those reported in other occupations. A major risk for clubs arises from players being unavailable for selection through injury, with the possible effect that this may have on the clubs' playing and financial performances. A statistically-based risk management model was developed, using four relationships involving the parameters of team-quality, team-performance, club-turnover and club-salary. The model was based on data from 91 league clubs in English professional football over the seasons 1993/1994 - 1997/1998. The model was shown to describe and assess the impact of injuries on the club's playing and financial performances. It is proposed that the model be used as a basis for cost-benefit analyses of injury prevention strategies in professional football. It may also be applicable within other organizational settings for assessing the costs of accidents and for use in cost benefit analyses.
Safety Science, Aug. 2002, Vol.40, No.6, p.537-556. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-598 Personal protective equipment of forestry workers
Equipements de protection individuelle du personnel forestier - Exemple de calcul des coűts 2002-03 [in French]
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung für das Forstpersonal - Kostenbeispiel 2002-03 [in German]
Dispositivi di protezione individuale per il personale forestale - Esempio di calcolo dei costi 2002-03 [in Italian]
Swiss law specifies that the employer has to provide personal protective equipment, with the exception of shoes, for which the employer is required to pay at least half the cost. Aimed at employers in the forestry sector, this booklet lists the costs of new equipment for new hires, as well as the annual replacement costs of the equipment based on their average lifetime. The following protective equipment is considered: helmets with built-in earmuffs, face shields and neck protection; ear muffs; jackets; trousers; gloves; boots; weatherproof coats.
Suva, Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 8th ed., Feb. 2002. 4p. Illus.

CIS 02-641 Global employment agenda
Agenda global pour l'emploi [in French]
The main purpose of the ILO's Global Employment Agenda is to make employment central to economic and social policies of all Member States. It outlines the seven key elements that aim to promote a virtuous circle of productivity, employment and output growth. A section is devoted to occupational safety and health (OSH), where the relationship between OSH performance and competitiveness is highlighted. Policies to be implemented include promoting awareness of OSH as a positive factor for productivity, undertaking measures to integrate OSH in the business plans of all organizations, communicating information on safety standards, dangerous substances and safe working methods, and undertaking special reviews of environmental risks to health in regions where informal-sector operations are clustered.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, Mar. 2002. xviii, 100p. Illus.

CIS 02-943 Chodick G., Lerman Y., Wood F., Aloni H., Peled T., Ashkenazi S.
Cost-utility analysis of hepatitis A prevention among health-care workers in Israel
This study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different strategies of preventing hepatitis A (HA) among physicians, nurses and paramedical staff. The strategies compared were passive immunization during a hepatitis A outbreak, systematic mass vaccination of all workers, and screening for antibodies to HA virus followed by vaccination of non-immune employees. An epidemiological model was used to predict the prevented number of HA cases. The lowest cost per prevented HA case (USD 6240) was achieved by screening prior to vaccination among 18- to 39-year-old physicians and paramedical workers, and the highest (USD 61,858) by mass vaccination of nurses over 39 years of age. Taking USD 60,000 as a limit cost per saved quality-adjusted life year, selective vaccination for physicians and for paramedical workers is proposed. Mass vaccination of all health care workers, aside from nurses over 40 years of age, becomes cost-effective once the active HA vaccine price is reduced to USD 23.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.109-115. 30 ref.

CIS 02-638 Langhoff T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Results-based occupational safety and hygiene - Current understanding and future prospects for return-on-investment-based occupational safety and health measures
Ergebnisorientierter Arbeitsschutz - Bilanzierung und Perspektiven eines innovativen Ansatzes zur betrieblichen Arbeitsschutzökonomie [in German]
This study evaluates following four approaches that enable the quantification of the impact of occupational safety and health investments on the financial performance of enterprises in Germany: analysis of the cause-and-effect chain of events of occupational safety and health measures as contributors to the financial performance of the enterprise; differential analysis of combined measures; integration of financial performance-based occupational safety and health measures within the framework of enterprise management, using the example of the "balanced score card"; integration of financial performance-based occupational safety and health measures in investment projects. Results of this analysis highlight the usefulness of occupational safety and health measures based on the financial performance of the enterprise.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 185p. Illus. 106 ref. Price: EUR 16.50.

CIS 02-634 Accidents at work and employability: Factors influencing successful reintegration of injured workers
Accidents du travail et employabilité: facteurs clés pour une bonne réintégration des travailleurs victimes d'un accident de travail [in French]
In 1998 in the European Union there were 4.7 million occupational accidents that resulted in more than three days of absence from work. Approximately six percent of these accidents resulted in three months or more of incapacity. Contents of this information sheet on factors influencing the reintegration of occupationally injured workers: persons at risk (by sector, sex, age, company size and employment status); employers' attitudes towards reintegration; key factors in the return to work.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2002. 4p. 4 ref. [in English] [in French]


CIS 07-80 Teronen A.
Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Department for Occupational Safety and Health Finland
The economics of health, safety and well-being - Barefoot economics: Assessing the economic value of developing a healthy work environment
This paper examines the benefits of good and healthy working conditions and explains how to evaluate the costs and benefits of improving the working environment. It provides examples of the economic impact of the working environment in relation to the costs of accidents, absenteeism, turnover and new recruitment, workers' wellbeing and company performance. It also addresses the economic effects of new risks in working life such as HIV/AIDS and stress.
Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, [ca 2001]. 26p. Illus. 13 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-297 Successful management to prevent accidents
Une gestion efficace pour la prévention des accidents [in French]
Exito en la gestión de la prevención de accidentes [in Spanish]
Every year, close to five million people in the European Union suffer workplace accidents resulting in more than three days absence, amounting to around 146 million working days lost. Some effects are permanent, affecting their ability to work and their life outside work. This fact sheet defines the key elements of accident prevention which are: strong management commitment, employee involvement and a well-structured safety and health management system. It also presents a check-list for the management system's audit. The fact sheet is also available in Danish, Greek, Estonian, Finnish, German, Italian, Lithuanian, Dutch, Polish, Portuguese, Slovenian, Slovak and Swedish (see
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2001. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French]

CIS 04-70 Bestratén Belloví M., Gil Fisa A., Piqué Ardanuy T.
The integral management of occupational accidents (III): Cost of accidents
La gestión integral de los accidentes de trabajo (III): costes de los accidentes [in Spanish]
This information note is the third of a series on the integrated management of occupational accidents (see also CIS 04-68 and CIS 04-69). It is aimed at persons responsible for occupational safety and health within the enterprise. It includes a general overview of the issue and provides guidance on carrying out estimates of the tangible and intangible cost of occupational accidents, together with cost-benefit analyses of the occupational accident prevention system.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 8p. 12 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1566 Cabetas Hernández I.
Cost-benefit analysis: Economic incentives for the prevention of occupational hazards
Análisis coste-beneficio: medidas económicas en la prevención de riesgos laborales [in Spanish]
The European Union is currently attempting to promote cost-benefit analyses as economic incentive instruments for the implementation of occupational safety and health programmes. This article comments on the present situation of research carried out on this topic in Europe and in the United States, together with the results obtained.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 2001, Vol.XLVIII, No.191, p.9-14. 14 ref.

CIS 03-1211 Conne-Perréard E., Glardon M.J., Parrat J., Usel M.
Conférence romande et tessinoise des offices cantonaux de protection des travailleurs (CRTi)
Effects of unfavourable working conditions on workers' health and their economic consequences
Effet des conditions de travail défavorables sur la santé des travailleurs et leurs conséquences économiques [in French]
This booklet is the summary of a detailed report on the effects of unfavourable working conditions on workers' health and their economic consequences. Contents: definition of occupational disease and main worldwide and European occupational disease mortality statistics; musculoskeletal diseases; cardiovascular diseases; mental health; occupational cancer; estimation of the economic consequences of occupational diseases in Switzerland.
Office cantonal de l'inspection et des relations du travail, 23, rue Ferdinand-Hodler, Case postale 3974, 1211 Genčve 3, Switzerland, Dec. 2001. 19p. Illus.

CIS 03-259
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Enterprise-level success factors using the example of the retail sector
Betriebliche Erfolgsfaktoren am Beispiel des Handels [in German]
Proceedings of a conference on enterprise-level success factors with respect to occupational safety and health in the retail sector, held in Düsseldorf, Germany, 14-17 May 2001. Topics: future trends; optimizing the interfaces in distribution logistics, innovative approaches for improved enterprise-level value chain performance; occupational safety and health as an integral part of human resource policy; designing and implementing occupational safety and health in the retail sector, including through the involvement of trade unions; cooperative prevention concepts in the retail sector; innovative questions concerning occupational safety and environmental protection in the logistics chain.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 160p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 28.50.

CIS 02-1598 Quinn M., Levenstein C., DeLaurier G.F.
Good practice guidelines for occupational health research funded by the private sector
The role of the private sector in funding academic research is increasing and good practice guidelines for privately-funded occupational health research in the United States are necessary. Industry sponsors and academic researchers belong to differing systems with differing goals and means to achieve and evaluate them. As a result, problems are inherent in the relationship. Guidelines would benefit industry by providing criteria against which industry-funded research could be judged and evaluated and would help university researchers assure that their work has academic rigour and merit. This article explores the questions that were raised during a recent workshop on the topic.
New Solutions, 2001, Vol.11, No.4, p.295-306.

CIS 02-1228 Burton W.N., Connerty C.M., Schultz A.B., Chen C.Y., Edington D.W.
Bank One's worksite-based asthma disease management program
Although the value of patient education in the management of asthma is well demonstrated, management programmes generally have not been offered at the workplace. Employees with asthma were identified in a US bank and 76 participated in a worksite asthma disease programme. As outcome, significantly more employees reported using controller medications (to prevent an attack) than reliever medications (to respond to an attack). Similar programmes for asthma should reduce medical care costs, absenteeism and improve worker productivity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.75-82. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1276 Hamelin P.
Professional drivers' working time as a factor of flexibility and competitiveness in road haulage
Summary of a report on professional road-transport drivers, analysing working time and conditions, accident risks and occupational illnesses, and taking into account competitive conditions and European legislation on weekly working hours.
Newsletter of the European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety - Bulletin d'information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé et la sécurité, Feb. 2001, No. 15-16, p.39-47. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-623 Krause N., Frank J.W., Dasinger L.K., Sullivan T.J., Sinclair S.J.
Determinants of duration of disability and return-to-work after work-related injury and illness: Challenges for future research
The purpose of this literature review was to identify critical data and research needs in addressing the questions of the primary factors that affect the time lost from work, return-to-work (RTW), subsequent unemployment, and changes in occupation after disabling illness or injury. Approximately 100 different determinants of RTW outcomes were identified. It is proposed that priority be given to studies meeting the following criteria: amenability to change; relevance to users of research; general applicability across health conditions, disability phases, and settings; "degree of promise" as derived from qualitative exploratory studies; and capacity to improve measurement instruments. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.464-484. Illus. 173 ref.

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