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Economic aspects - 615 entries found

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  • Economic aspects

2005

CIS 06-776 Abbott D.
Proof positive
This article reviews some of the concepts behind cost-benefit analysis in occupational safety and health. It presents methods and tools to help practitioners demonstrate to management that good working conditions can make a significant contribution to profitability.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 2005, Vol.23, No.10, p.42-44. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 06-772 Linhard J. B.
Understanding the return on health, safety and environmental investments
This article describes how traditional financial analysis methods can be applied to health, safety and environmental (HSE) investment decisions. A procedure called "Return on Health, Safety and Environmental Investments" (ROHSEI) was developed to provide a tool for analysing HSE projects and assessing their potential financial impacts. Examples of the use of the procedure are listed.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 257-260.

CIS 06-771 Lahiri S., Gold J., Levenstein C.
Net-cost model for workplace interventions
Few methods exist for comprehensively examining the costs and benefits of ergonomic interventions applicable to a variety of economic sectors and settings. This article presents an instrument for data collection and data analysis at the company level. In this net-cost model, intervention costs are defined by equipment and labour costs for the interventions as well as the avoided costs of lost work time, medical care, and productivity improvements. Net-cost estimates for three case studies clearly show that ergonomic interventions appropriately applied can result in substantial cost savings.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 241-255. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 06-770 Bergström M.
The potential-method - An economic evaluation tool
This article describes an economic analysis tool, the Potential method, which allows the evaluation of the economic benefits of any health and safety improvement. The method is based on a model that shows how changed working conditions influence productions costs and productivity. The method was found to be a good indicator of the effects of safety and health. A sample calculation is provided.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 237-240. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 06-769 Koningsveld E. A. P.
Participation for understanding: An interactive method
This article describes a participative model for evaluating the effectiveness of safety and health measures that involves interviews with workers, maintenance departments, purchasing departments and safety and health experts. Questions asked concern costs, implementation efforts, benefits and effects of prevention efforts. The end result is a cost-effectiveness calculation that is understood by all involved. Examples are provided of the use of cost-benefit analysis for a team of glaziers and, at the sector level, among paving workers.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 231-236. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 06-843 Amador-Rodezno R.
An overview to CERSSO's self evaluation of the cost-benefit on the investment in occupational safety and health in the textile factories: "A step by step methodology"
This article describes the development of a tool kit aimed at helping managers and line workers in garment factories to diagnose occupational hazards and to estimate the costs and benefits of investing in occupational safety and health (OSH) as a way to improve productivity and competitiveness. The procedures for using the tool kit and for calculating the prevention costs are described. Since July 2002, about 2400 workers, managers and officials from industry, government and training institutions in Central America and the Dominican Republic have used this instrument. They consistently found that investments in OSH were financially beneficial.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 215-229. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 06-768 Oxenburgh M., Marlow P.
The Productivity Assessment Tool: Computer-based cost benefit analysis model for the economic assessment of occupational health and safety interventions in the workplace
This article describes the concepts behind cost benefit analysis in occupational safety and health and introduces the Productivity Assessment Tool which allows an analysis to be performed relatively easily in a service or manufacturing workplace. Such analyses highlight the important financial role of safe and efficient workplaces. By using analytical tools, the effectiveness of an intervention (workplace change) may be estimated prior to its introduction. This places occupational safety and health on the same financial footing as other proposed workplace changes and thus in a strong position to attract scarce resources.
Journal of Safety Research, 2005, Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 209-214. 5 ref.

CIS 06-280 Rzepecki J.
Social costs of accidents at work in Poland
Społeczne koszty wypadków przy pracy w Polsce [in Polish]
This article describes procedures for calculating the social costs of accidents at work according to the method developed in the Central Institute for Labour Protection, National Research Institute. The social costs of occupational accidents in Poland in 2002 were estimated on the basis of costs incurred at company level and by injured persons and their families and the costs of medical treatment.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, 2005, No.7-8, p.34-37. 7 ref.
http://www.ciop.pl/15589 [in Polish]

CIS 05-316 Pickvance S., Karnon J., Peters J., El-Arifi K.
The impact of REACH on occupational health with a focus on skin and respiratory diseases
Final report of a study commissioned in 2004 by the then European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety (TUTB) and carried out at the University of Sheffield. The study examined the impact of the 2003 European Union REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) proposal on the health of the EU-25 workforce. It focused on two broad groups of occupational diseases: non-malignant diseases of the skin (dermatitis) and of the respiratory system (asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The research involved an estimation of the actual number of cases of occupational skin and respiratory diseases in EU member states, development of scenarios for the number of cases reduced under REACH and a calculation of the economic benefits.
European Trade Union Institute for Research, Education and Health and Safety (ETUI-REHS), Health and Safety Department, Boulevard du Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2005. 88p. Illus. 133 refs. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://hesa.etui-rehs.org/uk/newsevents/files/reach-sheffield-complet.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-505 Pęciłło M.
Improvement in the OSH management procedures in an enterprise
Usprawnianie procesów zarządzania bezpieczeństwem i higieną pracy w przedsiębiorstwie [in Polish]
This article discusses different approaches to the improvement of organizational processes and the benefits resulting from the improvement of OSH management procedures as well as their integration with quality and environmental management processes in an enterprise. An analysis of the effectiveness of OSH management systems in enterprises in the building, chemistry and furniture industry is presented. It is shown that by improving organizational processes, major cost savings in the OSH area can be achieved.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 2005, Vol.402, No.1, p.11-13. 12 ref.

CIS 04-597 Pransky G.S., Benjamin K.L., Savageau J.A., Currivan D., Fletcher K.
Outcomes in work-related injuries: A comparison of older and younger workers
There is little detailed research on age-related differences in work outcomes after an occupational injury. A self-report survey on occupational, health, financial and related factors was administered two to eight weeks post-injury to workers in the US state of New Hampshire aged under and above 55 who had faced lost time due to an occupational injury. Despite more severe injuries in older workers, most outcomes were similar in both age groups. In multivariate models, age was unrelated or inversely related to poor outcomes. Older workers appear to fare better than younger workers after a work injury. The relative advantage of older workers may be due to longer workplace experience and the healthy worker effect.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2005, Vol.47, No.2, p.104-112. 41 ref.

2004

CIS 10-0308 Statistical analysis of socio-economic costs of accidents at work in the European Union
This study was carried out as part of the strategy of the European Commission to improve the body of knowledge on the economic and social cost of occupational accidents and illnesses. An initial literature survey performed in this prospect revealed a lack of comprehensive studies in this domain. This project produced a preliminary model to estimate these costs at the EU level as a function of a number of variables. The model was based on cost data from a questionnaire survey and administrative statistical data on numbers and characteristics of accidents at work and on labour costs. Despite the preliminary nature of the model and the derived estimates, the results provided a useful cost perspective to the issue of safety at work.
EUROSTAT, Joseph Bech building, 5 rue Alphonse Weicker, 2721 Luxembourg, 2004. 114p. 32 ref.
Statistical_analysis.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-25 Dicke W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
More health can mean higher profits - The economic efficiency of health and safety at work
This booklet is devoted to the economic component of occupational safety and health as a means of securing long-term enterprise efficiency and competitiveness, special attention being paid to small and medium enterprises. It highlights the positive connection between profitability and employee-oriented measures taken to improve the safety and health of the workforce. Finally, simple methods applicable to small and medium enterprises are proposed for estimating the costs and benefits of occupational safety and health.
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Postfach 17 02 02, 44061 Dortmund, Germany, 2004. 49p. Illus. 24 ref.
http://www.oit.org/public/english/protection/safework/li_suppliers/download/occupational/more_health_higher_profits.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-778 Effectiveness of economic incentives to improve occupational safety and health
Efficacité des incitations économiques visant à améliorer la sécurité et la santé au travail [in French]
Eficacia de los incentivos económicos para la mejora de la seguridad y salud en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Economic incentives aim to stimulate enterprises to invest in management of occupational safety and health (OSH) by making it more financially attractive. They are potentially strong instruments in driving companies towards safety and health excellence because they reinforce the link with profitability. This issue summarises the discussions at a workshop organized by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, held in Amsterdam, Netherlands, 15-17 September 2004. Contents: types of economic incentive (state subsidies, grants, financing; incentives based on tax systems or tax structures; insurance premium variation); research; objectives of the workshop; examples of incentives used in some EU countries; overall conclusions and perspectives.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2004. 8p. Illus. 7 ref.
http://osha.europa.eu/publications/forum/14/forum14_en.pdf [in English]
http://osha.europa.eu/publications/forum/14/forum14_fr.pdf [in French]
http://osha.europa.eu/publications/forum/14/forum14_es.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 07-813 Cost and financing of occupational diseases in Europe
Coût et financement des maladies professionnelles en Europe [in French]
The European Forum of Insurances against Accidents at Work and Occupational Diseases was established in 1992. Its objective is to promote the concept of a specific insurance against occupational hazards and to monitor the process of convergence between the systems in place within the various European countries. In 2004, seventeen countries were represented. This document is one of many reports on the progress of these activities. Contents: cost of compensation; type of expenditure; relative importance of occupational diseases within the overall occupational hazards; the most costly occupational diseases; means of financing; financial balance of the occupational diseases division; assessment of the system for the financing of occupational disease insurance.
EUROGIP, 55 rue de la Fédération, 75015 Paris, France, 2004. 16p.
http://www.eurogip.fr/docs/EUROGIP_08F_Co_ts_et_financement_des_maladies_professionnelles_en_Europe_Ao_t_2004.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-330 Blandin M.C., Kieffer C.
Cost and financing of occupational diseases in Europe
Coût et financement des maladies professionnelles en Europe [in French]
It is suggested that it is often difficult to convince employers of the cost effectiveness of actions aimed at improving occupational hygiene within the enterprise. However, occupational diseases have a cost, firstly in human and social terms for the victims and their families, but also a financial cost for the enterprise and for society at large. It is possible to compute the amount that enterprises have to pay for occupational diseases in Europe by analysing the expenditure of the appropriate national insurance institutions. These aspects are covered in this report, which also addresses the issue of financing the insurance coverage of occupational diseases.
EUROGIP, 55 rue de la Fédération, 75015 Paris, France, Aug. 2004. 16p. Internet document.
http://www.eurogip.fr/docs/EUROGIP_08F_Co_ts_et_financement_des_maladies_professionnelles_en_Europe_Ao_t_2004.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1318 Oxenburgh M, Marlow P., Oxenburgh A.
Increasing productivity and profit through health and safety
This book aims to show that productivity and profit for the enterprise are not incompatible with good working conditions for its employees. It provides an introduction to the ideas of economics, explains how to collect the necessary information for making a cost-benefit analysis or workplace assessment and describes one assessment model, the Productivity Assessment Tool (enclosed with the book as a CD). Case studies from the service and manufacturing industries illustrate the interaction between ergonomics and economics. Further chapters cover new supervisory systems and ethics.
CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group LLC, PO Box 409267, Atlanta, GA 30384-9267, USA, 2nd ed., 2004. xi, 192p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index. + CD-ROM. Price: USD 80.00.

CIS 06-1070 Martínez D.
The world of work in the context of economic integration and free trade - Viewpoint of Latin American countries
El mundo del trabajo en la integración económica y la liberalización comercial - Una mirada desde los países americanos [in Spanish]
This publication analyses the effects of various economic integration and free trade processes on the world of work in Latin America (legislation, employment, protection, productivity, competitiveness, etc.) as well as on the manner in which trends in the world of work influence these processes. A chapter is devoted to labour standards cited in free trade treaties and their effects on integration processes in Latin America.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. 204p. Illus. 79 ref.
http://www.oit.org.pe/portal/documentos/el_mundo_del_trabajo_en_la_integracion_economica_y_la_liberalizacion_comercial_daniel_martinez.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 05-495 Béjean S., Sultan-Taïeb
Modeling the economic burden of diseases imputable to stress at work
This study evaluated the costs of work-related stress in France. Three illnesses that may result from exposure to stress were identified (cardiovascular diseases, depression, musculoskeletal diseases/back pain) and the proportions of cases attributable to this risk factor were calculated from epidemiological studies. For the year 2000 the model shows that in a working population of 23.53 million in France some 310,000-393,400 persons (1.3 - 1.7%) were affected by illnesses attributable to work-related stress, and that 2,300 - 3,600 persons died as a result of their illness. Work-related stress costs society between EUR 1,167 million and EUR 1,975 million in France, or 14.4 - 24.2% of the total spending of the social security occupational illnesses and work injuries branch.
European Journal of Health Economics, Mar. 2005, Vol.6, No.1, p.16-23. 37 ref.

CIS 05-459 Commuting accidents - A challenge for workers' compensation systems
In two thirds of the compensation systems surveyed, commuting accidents are included in the scope of workers' compensation insurance. This publication on the compensation of commuting accidents compares the systems of several countries. It discusses the differences between national and private coverage schemes and examines alternative means of financing the cost of commuting accidents, including by statutory health and pension insurance, motor liability insurance or private personal accident insurance.
Münchener Rückversicherungs-Gesellschaft, Königinstrasse 107, 80802 München, Germany, 2004. 41p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 05-330 Horwitz I.B., McCall B.P.
Disabling and fatal occupational claim rates, risks, and costs in the Oregon construction industry 1990-1997
This study estimated injury and illness rates, risk factors and costs in the construction sector in Oregon from 1990-1997 using compensation claims by the 20,680 construction employees in the State together with current population survey data of the Oregon workforce. Average annual rate of lost-time claims was 3.5 per 100 workers. More than 50% of claims were by workers under 35 years and with less than one year of tenure. 96.1% of the claimants were male. There were 52 fatalities, representing an average annual rate of 8.5 per 100,000 construction workers. Average claim cost was USD 10,084 and mean indemnity time was 57.3 days. Structural metalworkers had the highest average days of indemnity of all workers (72.1), highest average costs per claim (USD 16,472), and highest odds ratio of injury of all occupations examined. Sprains were the most frequently reported injury type, constituting 46.4% of all claims. The greatest accident risk occurred during the third hour of work.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2004, Vol.1, No.10, p.688-698. Illus. 58 ref.

CIS 04-533 Gosselin M.
Analysis of the advantages and costs of occupational health and safety in companies - Development of the analytical tool
Analyse des avantages et des coûts de la santé et de la sécurité au travail en entreprise - Développement de l'outil d'analyse [in French]
Although occupational injuries are economic issues for companies, workers and society in general, occupational safety and health professionals still find it difficult to measure the benefits and costs of programs aimed at improving the occupational safety and health performance of enterprises. The first part of this report consists of a literature survey that summarizes current knowledge on the analysis of health and safety benefits and costs. The second part includes a benefit and cost analysis model that demonstrates the profitability of investing in occupational safety and health.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. vii, 58p. Illus. 53 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-375.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-510 Morger W.
Costs of insurance benefits
Kosten der Versicherungsleistungen [in German]
Coûts des prestations d'assurance - Evolution, analyse, mesures [in French]
The costs of accident insurance in Switzerland have increased sharply in recent years, both for occupational and non-occupational accidents. Contents of this article on the cost of accident insurance in Switzerland: trends in the cost of insurance; factors influencing these trends (trends in the economy, demographic factors, social factors, increases in psychic disorders, trends in the cost of medical treatment and medical billing); measures aimed at controlling costs.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2004, p.5-18. Illus.
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/Med-Mitteilungen-75-d.pdf [in German]
http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/Med-Mitteilungen75-f.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-561 Mrizek N.
Musculoskeletal diseases and work: Evaluation, disability and rehabilitation at work
Troubles musculo-squelettiques et travail: évaluation, invalidité et réinsertion professionnelle [in French]
Musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) constitute not only a health problem, but also an economic burden for workers, employers and insurance institutions. This article addresses aspects of evaluation, disability and rehabilitation of workers suffering from MSDs. Contents: definition of MSDs; magnitude of the problem; evaluation of the degree of disability; occupational rehabilitation; disability of persons suffering from MSDs; recognition of the occupational nature of MSDs and compensation (Tunisian regulatory framework, examples of Switzerland and the Netherlands).
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2004, No.28, p.20-26. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA12-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-654 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Gravel R., Hébert F., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Plastics converting industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la transformation des matières plastiques [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of plastics converting industry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 52p. Illus. 52 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA11-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-653 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Textile finishing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de finition textile [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of textile finishing industry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-654 and CIS 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 24p. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA10-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-509 Stelina J.
Problems of social insurance
Problemy ubezpieczeń społecznych [in Polish]
This article contains short summaries of the major lectures given at the 13th Conference of the Polish Social Insurance Society. Topics covered: history of the Social Insurance Institution and performance of its basic responsibilities. The conference was held on 30 Sep.-2 Oct. 2004 in Wroclaw, Poland.
Praca i Zabezpieczenie Społeczne, 2004, No.12, p.9-12.

CIS 04-651 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Funeral service industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie des services funéraires [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of funeral service workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-650 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 42p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA9-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-650 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Pathology laboratories
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Laboratoires de pathologie [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in pathology laboratories in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-649, CIS 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 38p. 40 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA8-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-649 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Lobo Gutierrez C.L., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Foundries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Fonderies [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of foundry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-648, CIS 04-650 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 56p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA7-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-648 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resin manufacturing industries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industries de fabrication de formaldéhyde et de résines à base de formaldéhyde [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resin manufacturing industries in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-647, CIS 04-649 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 54p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA6-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-647 Goyer N., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Wooden furniture manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de meubles en bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wooden furniture manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-646, CIS 04-648 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 50p. 35 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA5-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-646 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Gravel R., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Other wood industries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Autres industries du bois [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the wood product industries other than furniture and particle-board manufacture in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-645, CIS 04-647 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 49p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA4-386.pdf. [in French]

CIS 04-645 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Buissonnet S., Carrier G., Duguay P., Gely O., Gérin M., Hébert F., Lavoué J., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Pellerin E., Perrault G., Roberge B.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Particle-board manufacturing industry
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Industrie de la fabrication de panneaux agglomérés [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in the particle-board manufacturing industry in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-644, CIS 04-646 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA3-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-644 Perrault G., Baril M., Lefebvre P.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Costs of a respiratory protection programme
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Coûts d'un programme de protection respiratoire [in French]
The objective of this study was to calculate the cost to enterprises of a lowering of threshold limit values for formaldehyde to levels that would require the implementation of a prevention plan, the adoption of technical preventive measures and the use of personal protective equipment. Based on hypotheses concerning occupational safety and heath organization, the size of enterprises and the number of exposed workers, the study concludes that the cost per worker would be CAD 656 for the first year and CAD 101 in subsequent years. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see also CIS 04-642, CIS 04-643, CIS 04-645 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 18p. 5 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/RA2-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-642 Goyer N., Perrault G., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde [in French]
The objective of this research programme was to evaluate the socio-economic and health impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure level for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. The gains for workers' health and the costs and economic advantages for enterprises were evaluated. An approach combining expertise with a classic industrial hygiene approach was adopted in order to develop a matrix linking activity sectors and formaldehyde exposure concentrations. The addition of data on workstations and emission sources made it possible to consolidate the results obtained by sector, manpower and distribution of exposed workers. This project has also resulted in the acquisition of knowledge on a large number of economic activity sectors in Quebec as well as expertise on the evaluation of occupational health and safety impacts. Results for various sectors of activity are published in a series of reports (see also CIS 04-643 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. vi, 99p. Illus. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-386.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-527 Proceedings - 28th General assembly
Protokoll - 28. Generalversammlung [in German]
Compte rendu - 28e assemblée générale [in French]
Actas - 28a Asamblea general [in Spanish]
Contents of these proceedings of the 28th general assembly of the International Social Security Association held in Beijing, China, 12-18 September 2004: Beijing Declaration and excerpts of speeches on various principles of the declaration (link between economic and social development, extending coverage, sound governance and public understanding, population ageing); reports of the various technical commissions, including on medical care and sickness absence, insurance against occupational accidents and diseases, and occupational safety and health; declaration on the banning of asbestos; special session on social security in China.
International Social Security Association, P. O. Box 1, CH-1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. 293p. Price: CHF 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge
http://www.issa.int/pdf/publ/Proceedings-ga04.pdf [in English]
http://www.issa.int/pdf/publ/Proceedings-ga04.pdf [in German]
http://www.issa.int/pdf/publ/Proceedings-ga04.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.issa.int/pdf/publ/Proceedings-ga04.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-544
Canadian manufacturers and exporters - Ontario Division
Business results through health and safety
Aimed at business executives and managers, this CD-ROM-based guide is the result of a partnership between the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters (CME) - Ontario Division, and the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board of Ontario, with participation from member CME companies, health and safety associations and other leaders in health and safety. The material draws on extensive experience of Ontario companies already benefitting from a stronger commitment to workplace health and safety. It contains several documents in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) and Microsoft Powerpoint (PPT) formats, including workshop reports, tools, forms and check lists.
Workplace Safety and Insurance Board, 200 Front Street West, Toronto ON M5V 3J1, Canada, [c2004]. CD-ROM containing documents in PDF and PPT formats; also on a web site (128p).
http://www.wsib.on.ca/wsib/wsibsite.nsf/LookupFiles/DownloadableFileBusinessResultsThroughHealth&Safety/$File/Biz.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-526 Marsden S., Beardwell C., Shaw J., Wright M., Green N., McGurry B.
Health and Safety Executive
The development of case studies that demonstrate the business benefit of effective management of occupational health and safety
This report presents the results of a project undertaken to develop information on costs and benefits of occupational safety and health initiatives. Work involved analysing responses to a postal questionnaire addressed to a large number of enterprises and organizations, followed by detailed interviews with a selected respondents across a variety of sectors. The report presents 19 case studies highlighting the economic advantages of health and safety initiatives undertaken in these organizations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. iv, 103p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr249.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-275 Morales Suárez-Valela M., Carrasco Sanmartín H.
Trends in financial costs of occupational accidents in Spain during the period 1998-2001
La evolución de los costes económicos de los accidentes de trabajo en España durante el periodo 1998-2001 [in Spanish]
This study discusses trends in the financial costs of occupational accidents in Spain between 1998 and 2001 in three major sectors: industry, construction and services. Findings show that annual losses due to occupational accidents increase year by year in all three sectors. However, the average costs of incapacitation show a decrease, which indicates a decrease in accident severity rates.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Sep. 2004, Vol.L, No.196, p.31-36. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 04-274 Fernández García R.
Introduction to the concept of enterprise social responsibility
Introducción al concepto de responsabilidad social de la empresa [in Spanish]
The concept of enterprise social responsibility (ESR) is drawing increasing interest. It consists of the manner in which enterprises integrate business performance with social and environmental considerations. It involves voluntary measures on the part of the enterprise, aimed at contributing towards sustainable development. This article includes a definition of ESR and the tools on which it is based (ethics, codes of conduct, management system standards, social responsibility relationships, socially-responsible investments), and discusses the responsibilities facing enterprises. It describes the objectives of the European Union in this area together with the efforts already under way.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2004, No.170, p.6-24. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 04-393 Niven K.J.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Real time evaluation of health and safety management in the National Health Service
A high priority for the National Health Service (NHS) is ensuring patient safety by minimizing staff absence due to incidents and work-related illness. The aim of this project was to evaluate whether it was possible to reliably measure changes in safety and health performance after a safety and health intervention. The work involved three phases: designing a safety and health performance measurement methodology; evaluating the use of a safety and health management system workbook; designing and implementing a field study to measure changes in safety and health performance. Work involved literature reviews, questionnaire surveys and an analysis of safety and health management system records. It was concluded that the methodology could highlight changes in safety and health performance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. xviii, 224p. Illus. 147 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr280.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-313 Gerth W.C., Sarma S., Hu X.H., Silberstein S.D.
Productivity cost benefit to employers of treating migraine with rizatriptan: A specific worksite analysis and model
Employers in the United States are probably not aware of the productivity costs of migraine or the extent to which those costs can be reduced by optimal medical treatment. An economic model was developed to enable employers to estimate the productivity costs of migraine to their company and the savings that would result if employees suffering from migraine were treated with rizatriptan. Analyses were run for a major financial services company 87,821 employees as well as for a "typical" U.S. enterprise with 10,000 employees. The financial services company was projected to lose 538 person years annually at an estimated cost of USD 23.8 million, while the typical enterprise was projected to lose 46 person years annually at an estimated cost of USD 1.94 million. If migraine were treated with rizatriptan, savings of USD 10.3 million and close to USD one million could be achieved for the financial services corporation and the typical enterprise respectively
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.46, No.1, p.48-54. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 04-311 Weaver M.B., Mackowiak J.I., Solari P.G.
Triptan therapy impacts health and productivity
New users of an anti-migraine drug (sumatriptan) in a California health plan were surveyed on the impact of migraine using Headache Impact Test-6. In particular, their productivity and satisfaction with migraine therapy were assessed. After sumatriptan was initiated, participants reported significantly fewer workdays missed, fewer days worked with headache, and greater productivity while headache symptoms were present. In addition, almost 50% less members used narcotic painkillers, while the frequency, duration, and severity of migraines decreased. The benefits of sumatriptan therapy also extend to employers, who see productivity increases, fewer emergency room visits, and less narcotics use in employees with migraine.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.812-817. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 04-371 Rechenthin D.
Project safety as a sustainable competitive advantage
To be consistently profitable, construction enterprises must complete projects in scope, on schedule, and on budget. At the same time, the nature of the often high-risk work performed by construction companies can result in high accident rates. Clients routinely demand copies of safety plans and evidence of past results at the pre-qualification or request-for-proposal stages of the procurement process. Companies that deliver on scope, schedule, and budget have a competitive advantage. This article discusses whether it is possible for companies with low accident rates to use these results to obtain an additional competitive advantage. It concludes that even in the case of a high-risk sector such as the construction industry, an organization with a successful safety programme can effectively promote safety performance as a sustainable competitive advantage.
Journal of Safety Research, 2004, Vol.35, No.3, p.297-308. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 04-39 Fabiano B., Currò F., Pastorino R.
A study of the relationship between occupational injuries and firm size and type in the Italian industry
This article offers a perspective on the relationship between accident frequency and number of employees in the Italian industries between 1995 and 2000. The number of firms examined is 2,983,753 with a total number of non-fatal and fatal injuries corresponding to 3,321,960. A statistically significant inverse relationship between firm size and the number of days lost due to injuries was found in all industrial sectors. Non-severe accidents constitute 95.85% of the total injuries. The frequency rates for both accidents involving permanent disability and fatal accidents decrease as the firm size increases. The results are consistent with decreased availability of occupational safety services in small companies and suggest the need of auditing, safety training activities, education and information, as well as of support to safety investments targeted to small-sized industries.
Safety Science, Aug. 2004, Vol.42, No.7, p.587-600. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 04-53
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Arbeit
Occupational safety and health 2002 - Report on the prevention of occupational accidents
Sicherheit und Gesundheit bei der Arbeit 2002 - Unfallverhütungsbericht Arbeit [in German]
This report presents the current situation with respect to occupational and commuting accidents, occupational diseases and fatalities, together with the cost burden they implied for the compulsory accident insurance for the year 2002. Graphs show the trends between 1960 and 2002. Data are presented by area of activity, sex, age, occupation and type of health impairment. An appendix includes a directory of Federal ordinances on occupational safety and health.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 215p. Illus.
http://de.osha.eu.int/de/gfx/statistics/UVB_2002.php [in German]
http://de.osha.eu.int/docs/uvb2002/Textteil_UVB_2002.pdf (0-2) [in German]
http://de.osha.eu.int/docs/uvb2002/UVB_2002_Anlage2.pdf (Anlage 2) [in German]
http://de.osha.eu.int/docs/uvb2002/UVB_2002_Anlage1.pdf (Anlage 1) [in German]

CIS 03-1554 Rikhardsson P.M., Impgaard M.
Corporate cost of occupational accidents: An activity-based analysis
The development and testing of a systematic accident cost analysis (SACA) method for use by occupational safety and health professionals are described. The method was tested on 27 selected occupational accidents in nine Danish enterprises located in three different sectors of industry. Calculations of the costs of these accidents using the SACA method showed that two thirds of these costs were visible in the corporate accounting systems, while one third were hidden from management view. The article includes an introduction on accident cost analysis, a presentation of the SACA method, a short overview of some of the results of the SACA project and conclusions.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2004, Vol.36, No.2, p.173-182. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 03-1643 Goetzel R.Z., Long S.R., Ozminkowski R.J., Hawkins K., Wang S., Lynch W.
Health, absence, disability and presenteeism cost estimates of certain physical and mental health conditions affecting U.S. employers
Evidence about the total cost of health, absenteeism, short-term disability and productivity losses were applied to ten health conditions. Cost estimates from a large sickness absenteeism database were combined with findings from several published productivity surveys. Condition prevalence and associated absenteeism and presenteeism losses were used to estimate condition-related costs. Based on average impairment and prevalence estimates, the overall economic burden of illness was highest for hypertension (USD 392 per eligible employee per year), heart disease (USD 368), depression and other mental illnesses (USD 348), and arthritis (USD 327). Presenteeism costs were higher than medical costs in most cases, and represented 18% to 60% of all costs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.398-412. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 03-1981 McCall B.P., Horwitz I.B.
Workplace violence in Oregon: An analysis using workers' compensation claims from 1990-1997
This study examined 2028 workers' compensation claims for workplace violence in the US state of Oregon between 1990 and 1997, and used Current Population Survey data for risk analysis. The rate of workplace violence was 1.86 per 10,000 employees annually, with females and workers under 35 years of age experiencing the most violence. The average claim resulted in approximately 40 days of indemnity and USD 6,200 in costs. Workers on evening and night shifts had significantly higher rates of being victims of violence, as did those working on weekends. Preventive interventions should be targeted at younger workers and those with less tenure. Special measures should be focused on ensuring the safety of workers during evenings, nights and weekends.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.357-366. Illus. 27 ref.

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