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Economic aspects - 615 entries found

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2007

CIS 08-1096
Health and Safety Executive
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 - Baseline study
This report presents the findings of a survey of the costs incurred by enterprises and attitudes held by duty holders when complying with Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (CDM, see CIS 95-13) that took effect in April 2007. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and interviews. Costs were analysed by type of duty holder (designers, owners, general contractors and subcontractors), type and size of project, and time spent on site. A key finding was that the cost of CDM compliance did not exceed 2% of the project value for any duty holder. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. xx, 206p. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr555.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-1061 Ichihashi T., Muto T., Shibuya K.
Cost-benefit analysis of a worksite oral-health promotion program
This study was conducted to examine whether dental health promotion programmes provided as an occupational health service for employees were cost-beneficial for employers. The subjects were composed of 357 male workers who participated in oral-health promotion programmes conducted at their workplaces between 1992 and 1997. Three programmes (light: one visit; medium: two to four visits; intensive: five to six visits) were compared through cost-benefit analysis. The programmes consisted of oral-health checkups by dentists and oral-health education by dental hygienists. The costs of the programme included direct costs for the payment of oral-health-care staff and for teaching materials, and indirect costs for the time for employee participation in the programme (20 min/employee per visit). The accumulated dental expenses for the duration of the programme were used to calculate benefits. The benefit/cost ratios of the three programmes were -2.45, 1.46, and 0.73, respectively, suggesting that a medium-frequency programme is cost-beneficial for employers.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2007, Vol.45, No.1, p.32-36. 24 ref.

CIS 08-1024 Bertin J., Chevallet R., Rouilleault H., Jaouen M., Sarazin B., Baradat D., Martinet N., Bossard P., Dewanckel E., Bugand L., Lepetit M., Levy E., de Looze M.
Organization at the core of investment projects
L'organisation au cœur des projets d'investissement [in French]
Collection of articles on the organization of investment projects. Topics addressed: workers' participation; opinions of an enterprise manager, a trade association and an ergonomics research scientist; approaches adopted by a centre for handicapped persons, an automotive component manufacturer, a food products manufacturer and an insurance firm; system for assisting SMEs in a region of France; computer-based tool allowing collaborative approaches for the improvement of production systems; main points to consider with respect to the management of investment projects; further reading.
Travail & changement, Mar.-Apr. 2007, No.313, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC313.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-814 Gawron J., Paszek A.
Bibliography of economic and social aspects of labour: Polish literature published in 2005. Parts I and II
Bibliografia ekonomicznych i społecznych zagadnień pracy: Piśmiennictwo polskie za 2005 r. Część I, II [in Polish]
This bibliography of the economic and social aspects of labour consists of two parts: Polish literature published in 2005 and publications from previous years. It consists of 4662 literature items, including books, periodicals and individual articles. It includes 14 main sections, arranged by subject, together with lists of periodical titles and their abbreviations, names of publishing institutions and an alphabetical index.
Główna Biblioteka Pracy i Zabezpieczenie Społecznego, ul. Limanowskiego 23, 02-943 Warsaw, Poland, 2007. xl, 825p. Index. + CD-ROM.

CIS 08-840 Ivanov I., Kortum E., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Mugagga Kiwekete H., Khamis Msangi Y., Abromeit M., Burton J., Shaw M., Gibson-MacDonald N., Punnett L., Kirsten W., Bakirov A.B., Robinson E., Harris-Roberts J., Sheehan O., Litchfield I., Loughman R., Golubic R.
Promoting and protecting health at the workplace
Contents of this whole issue on the promotion and protection of health at the workplace: protecting and promoting health at the WHO headquarters; development and use of on the occupational risk management toolkit; South-African perspective on protecting and promoting health at the workplace; code of conduct for protecting and promoting workers' health in the cut-flower industry in Tanzania; resources for workplace health in Canada; presentation of the centre for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplaces (CPH-NEW); how to make the business case for health promotion at the workplace; workers' health in the petrochemical and oil-extraction sector in a Russian region; occupational health technicians; hidden costs of poor ergonomics in office environments in Ireland; national register of radiofrequency workers in the United Kingdom; building capacities for primary prevention of occupational hazards, diseases and injuries in New Zealand; report on an occupational health congress held in Dubrovnik, Croatia.
GOHNET Newsletter, Winter 2007-2008, No.14, p.1-44 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref
http://www.who.int/occupational_health/publications/newsletter/gohnet_14e.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-799 Reduce risks - Cut costs! - Economy and occupational safety and health
Snižajte riski - Sokraščajte zatraty! [in Russian]
This booklet explains that the true costs of accidents can be very high. They are often underestimated for a number of reasons (lack of proper records, under-reporting, not taking indirect costs into account). The booklet suggests simple ways of calculating accident-related costs and shows how occupational safety is not only a legal requirement, but also a means of saving time and money.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 14p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.ru/OSH/docs/all/ReduceRisksCutCosts4.pdf [in Russian]

CIS 08-866 Dong X., Ringen K., Men Y., Fujimoto A.
Medical costs and sources of payment for work-related injuries among Hispanic construction workers
To assess medical costs of occupational injuries and sources of payment among Hispanic and non-Hispanic construction workers, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 1996 to 2002 covering more than 7000 construction workers, including 1833 Hispanics, were examined and subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses Annually, work-related injuries in construction cost USD 1.36 billion, with 46% paid by workers' compensation. Compared with non-Hispanic workers, Hispanic workers were 53% more likely to have medical conditions resulting from work-related injuries, but 48% less likely to receive payment for medical costs from workers' compensation. This study suggests an urgent need to reform the current workers' compensation system, including easier access for Hispanic and other immigrant workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2007, Vol.49, No.12, p.1367-1375. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 08-297 Castells Manent J.
Effectiveness of occupational safety and health efforts in reducing costs
Eficacia de la prevención en la reducción de costes [in Spanish]
This article on the effectiveness efforts undertaken within enterprises with respect to occupational safety and health argues that such programmes can be not only effective but also profitable, when one takes fully into account all the costs generated by accidents and absenteeism. It discusses the role of mutual occupational accident and disease insurance institutions in Spain and uses their data to estimate the cost savings achieved through occupational safety and health efforts.
Prevención, July-Sep. 2007, No.181, p.28-41. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-311 Reduce risks - Cut costs!
Snižajte riski - Sokraščajte zatraty! [in Russian]
This booklet describes the methods for estimating accident-related costs, which are often largely underestimated by employers. It shows how expensive occupational accidents can truly be for the enterprise, explains how costs can be reduced and proves that good occupational safety and health performance is not only a legal requirement but also a means to save time and money.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 14p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/public/russian/region/eurpro/moscow/areas/safety/docs/ilo_risk.pdf [in Russian]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/eurpro/moscow/info/publ/risks.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-92 Loeppke R., Taitel M., Richling D., Parry T., Kessler R.C., Hymel P., Konicki D.
Health and productivity as a business strategy
The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of health-related lost productivity relative to medical and pharmacy costs for four employers and assess the business implications of a "full-cost" approach to managing health. A database was developed by integrating medical and pharmacy claims data with employee self-report productivity and health information collected through the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ). The information collected on employer business measures was combined with this database to model health-related lost productivity. Health-related productivity costs were found to be more than four times greater than medical and pharmacy costs. The full cost of poor health is driven by different health conditions than those driving medical and pharmacy costs alone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.49, No.7, p.712-721. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 08-242 Zaloshnja E., Miller T.R., Hendrie D., Galvin D.
Employer costs of alcohol-involved injuries
This study estimates the annual cost of alcohol-related injuries to employers in the United States. Incidence was estimated with occupational injury data, motor vehicle crash data and health care data for 1998-2000. Employer costs were estimated from Federal estimates of injury costs by source of compensation payment using data on the percentage paid by employers. Thus the annual employer costs of alcohol-related injuries to employees and their dependents were found to exceed USD 28.6 billion. Out of this, USD 13.2 billion comes from job-related, alcohol-involved injuries. The annual employer cost of motor vehicle crashes in which at least one driver was alcohol-impaired is over USD 9.2 billion. Out of this, only USD 3.4 billion comes from job-related alcohol involvement.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.50, No.2, p.136-142. 44 ref.

CIS 08-28 Chikova H.
Socio-economic burden of occupational accidents - National Social Security Authority perspective
This article presents the viewpoint of the Zimbabwean social security authority with respect to the economic burden of occupational accidents on employers, social protection systems and society at large. It estimates the economic costs of occupational injuries in Zimbabwe for the year 2004 to be around USD 164,000,000.
On Guard, Mar. 2007, Vol.14, No.1, p.3-8. Illus.

CIS 07-1353 The impact of global food chains on employment in the food and drink sector
L'impact des filières alimentaires mondiales sur l'emploi dans le secteur des produits alimentaires et des boissons [in French]
La incidencia de las cadenas mundiales de alimentación en el empleo en el sector de alimentación y bebidas [in Spanish]
This report was prepared as a basis for discussion at a tripartite meeting on the impact of global food chains on employment in the food and drink sector held in Geneva, Switzerland, 24-27 September 2007. The research that has led to the preparation of this report, apart from providing indications on employment trends around the world in the food and drink industry, has brought to the fore certain social and labour issues arising from the globalization of food chains, such as the rise of retailers as they gain more control over global supply chains as well as consumer information. It raises other questions such as further company concentration which in turn has repercussions at the level of processors, manufacturers and seed suppliers, who cluster even further to supply mass-produced, uniform products at margins acceptable to such firms. Farms, in turn, will need to grow larger to meet the demand for raw materials in mass quantities at lower prices, disempowering smaller, independent farmers. More and more consumers are adopting a posture of resistance to the dictates of food conglomerates and their control over consumer choices. All these developments together require analysis and pro-active measures to safeguard employment and decent work in the sector.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. iii, 28p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmfce07/tmfce-r.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmfce07/tmfce-r.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/dialogue/sector/techmeet/tmfce07/tmfce-r.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 07-1282 Labour and social trends in ASEAN 2007 - Integration, challenges and opportunities
This ILO report discusses the challenges and opportunities in the ASEAN economies as they move towards integration and work to remain competitive. It is the first comprehensive compilation of employment and social data for the ASEAN members including labour productivity, youth employment, the informal economy and the working poor.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. vii, 107p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/library/download/pub07-04.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1075 Tournigand S.
Occupational accidents: Cost of the risk
Accidents du travail: le coût du risque [in French]
Main topics addressed in this collection of articles on the cost of occupational accidents and occupational diseases (OA-OD) in the construction industry in France: operating deficits in the OA-OD insurance business and need for reforming the system; incentives for encouraging investment in preventive measures; comparison of the funding systems in various European countries; view of the manager of a firm specializing in auditing OA-OD insurance; using the single document (see CIS 01-1278) for calculating the benefits of investment in preventive measures.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2007, No.92, p.37-46. Illus. 1 ref.

2006

CIS 09-784 Promoting decent work in the Americas - Hemispheric agenda 2006-2015
This booklet consists of a summary of a report by the ILO Director General on decent work in the Western hemisphere (CIS 06-792). Its purpose is to ensure that the aims of the programme get disseminated among stakeholders in the region's countries. Contents: principal challenges in generating decent work in the region; the hemispheric agenda for the generation of decent work; general policies for promoting development with decent work; national plans for generating decent work and decent work country programmes.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. 67p. Illus.

CIS 09-523 Pennig S., Kremeskötter N., Nolle T., Koch A., Maziul M., Vogt J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
The economic evaluation of human resources (HR) and HR-interventions
Ökonomische Evaluation von Personalressourcen und Personalarbeit [in German]
This report describes instruments for the assessment of human resource (HR) interventions with respect to theory and methodology. Applications in organisational practice were investigated and included as case illustrations. Feasibility, strengths and weaknesses of the instruments are outlined. The Human Resources Performance Model (HPM) was developed as an integrative approach combining the strengths of different approaches for evaluating, steering, and controlling HR interventions.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 137p. Illus. 105 ref. Index. Price: EUR 15.00.

CIS 08-1023 Yahiaoui F., Rouilleault H., Jaouën M., Conjard P., Lenain M.C., Laur P., Bertin J., Thomas D., Bruggeman F., Dumalin F.
Anticipating and monitoring changes in enterprises and locations
Anticiper et accompagner les mutations des entreprises et des territoires [in French]
Collection of articles on enterprise restructuring. Topics addressed: position of workers in the face of business changes; opinions of managers of regional administrations and of a university professor on the social aspects of restructurings; approaches adopted by an airline and by textile, heating systems and micromechanics enterprises; main findings of a survey carried out in a French region; preliminary findings of the MIRE (Monitoring Innovative Restructuring in Europe) European project; main points to consider during enterprise restructuring; review of a publication on restructuring; further reading.
Travail & changement, Nov.-Dec. 2006, No.311, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC311.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-1013 Rochefort T., Rouilleault H., Pelletier J., Sarasin B., Nicot A.M., Xirau D., Dumalin F., Bugand L.
Leading successful organizational change
Conduire et réussir le changement d'organisation [in French]
Collection of articles on organizational changes within the enterprise. Topics addressed: redefining priorities within the enterprise; opinions of enterprise managers and research scientists on organizational changes within the enterprise; approaches adopted by a textile product retailer, a restaurant voucher settlement office, a heavy vehicle manufacturer and an automobile manufacturer; main points to consider with respect to organizational changes within the enterprise; review of a publication on the sociology of organizational changes within the enterprise; further reading.
Travail & changement, May-June 2006, No.308, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.actal.aract.fr/RessourcesSite/TC/TC308.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-1035 Sheikh S., Gardiner B., Brettell S.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety management and business economic performance. An econometric study
This study explores the relationship between the scale of occupational safety and health (OSH) activity undertaken by businesses and their economic performance. The objective was to measure whether increased OSH activity encourages investment in human and physical capital, thereby leading to an increase in productivity at both firm and industry levels. A multi-industry approach was adopted, in which growth in each industry's gross output was decomposed into the contributions from changes in capital services, labour and other inputs, with the residual defined as total factor productivity. The study then examines whether OSH investments explain some of the residual productivity.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 65p. Illus. Approx. 130 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr510.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-794 Yearbook of labour statistics 2006
Rocznik statystyczny pracy 2006 [in Polish]
This yearbook compiles the key information relating to the labour market in Poland for the years 2003-2004. Tables include data on employment activity among the population, employee turnover, job vacancies, working conditions, remuneration, labour costs and labour markets in selected European countries.
Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych, Al. Niepodległości 208, 00- 925 Warsaw, Poland, 2006. 433p.

CIS 08-804 Antonelli A., Baker M., McMahon A., Wright M.
Health and Safety Executive
Six SME case studies that demonstrate the business benefit of effective management of occupational health and safety
This report describes the research undertaken to provide information on the business benefits of safety and health initiatives within six SMEs in the United Kingdom. A further part of the work was to develop case study material which can be used to persuade SMEs of the wider potential benefits of improving occupational safety and health. The key finding of the research is that whatever the original motivation, the enterprises accepted that improving occupational safety and health was integral to business risk management. They were motivated to improve aspects of safety and health because of the potential risk to the business if this was not addressed. These benefits included a mix of both tangible and intangible benefits, such as maintenance of reputation, client requirements, controlling insurance premium costs, reduction in absence rates as well as general improvements in health and safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 45p.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr504.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-854 Hanson M.A., Burton, K., Kendall N.A.S., Lancaster R.J., Pilkington A.
Health and Safety Executive
The costs and benefits of active case management and rehabilitation for musculoskeletal disorders
This study on the cost of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) to employers sought to identify the evidence on cost-effective case management and rehabilitation principles that could be applied by employers and healthcare providers to help workers with MSDs to stay at work or return to work. It was carried out in the form of a literature survey, followed by interviews and focus groups involving healthcare professionals and organizations. A wide range of programmes were found to be implemented or in the process of implementation. Overall, case management methods were found to cost-effective, with best practice rehabilitation approaches having potential to significantly reduce long term sickness absence. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xiv, 180p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr493.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-976 Nicholson A., Smith C., Mitchell A., Wright R.
Health and Safety Executive
Cost benefit studies that support tackling musculoskeletal disorders
Twenty nine case studies are presented demonstrating ergonomics interventions carried out in a wide range of organizations to reduce the risks of musculoskeletal disorders. In 21 cases, the costs of the intervention and the benefits that have been gained were quantified. The ergonomic interventions took a variety of forms, from addressing the design of the task, the equipment, workstation and environment, to the organizational context in which the work is done. The interventions vary in complexity and magnitude from simple and inexpensive fixes to major projects involving quite significant capital outlay. Benefits were clear to see when a company was already incurring costs due to sub-optimal task design or workplace organization.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 148p. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr491.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-876 Bödeker W., Friedel H., Friedrichs M., Röttger C.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Costs of early retirement
Kosten der Frühberentung [in German]
This case-control study was carried out to estimate the impact of occupational factors on early retirement and their associated costs. It examined the occupational histories of 28,000 persons who were granted a disability pension in 1999, together with those of some 1,000,000 employed persons as controls. Suitable methods were developed to quantify the exposure based on occupational histories, enabling the associations between the grant of a disability pension and the cumulated exposures or the occupation to be determined. In Germany the work-related costs of early retirement were estimated to be at least EUR 10.3 billion annually, including EUR 1.2 billion in direct costs. The work-related share of disability pensions amounts to EUR 2.8 billion. The most important exposures are strenuous work (lifting) and low job control. It is estimated that a moderate increase in job control could save up to EUR 2 billion annually. The strongest correlation with a high incidence of disability pensions was observed in nursing and mining.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 275p. Illus. Bibl.ref. CD-Rom. Price: EUR 21.50.

CIS 08-844 Boyd R., Cowie H., Hurley F., Ayres J.
Health and Safety Executive
The true cost of occupational asthma in Great Britain
In 2000 the Health and Safety Commission published a ten-year occupational health strategy for the United Kingdom. The strategy sets an ambitious target for occupational asthma (OA) of a reduction of 30% in newly incident cases by 2010. The strategy contains several components, including information, education and research. This study was undertaken to develop detailed estimates of the cost of OA, in order to raise awareness among employers, workers and policy-makers as to the potential gains from adopting measures to reduce the incidence of OA. The total number of newly reported cases of OA in the United Kingdom in 2003 was 631, of which 442 were male workers and 189 were female workers. The total costs to society of these new cases of OA are estimated to range from GBP 71.7-100.1 million, or about GBP 3.4 -4.8 million per year over the lifetime of the disease. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. xii, 122p. Illus. 104 réf.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr474.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-746 Bond F.W., Flaxman P.E., Loivette S.
Health and Safety Executive
A business case for the Management Standards for stress
This aim of this literature survey was to determine the extent to which the effective management of some or all of the six key factors of occupational stress is associated with beneficial business outcomes. These six stressors are demands, control, support, relationships, role and change. Findings lead to the conclusion that there is evidence of a business case for each stressor area, greatest for control and weakest for demands. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 37p. 77 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr431.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-1266 Leigh J.P., Waehrer G., Miller T.R., McCurdy S.A.
Cost differences across demographic groups and types of occupational injuries and illnesses
In this study based on nationwide United States data for 1993, an analysis was conducted of fatal and non fatal injury costs across age, race, gender and occupational groups as well as categories of injuries and illnesses. The youngest (age < 17) and oldest (age > 65) workers had exceptionally high fatality costs. Whereas men's costs for non-fatal incidents were nearly double those for women, their costs for fatal injuries were 10 times higher. The farming, forestry and fishing sector had the highest costs for fatal and non fatal injuries (USD 5,163), over 18 times the lowest ranking occupation, executives and managers (USD 279). The occupation of handlers, cleaners and labourers, ranked highest for non fatal costs. Compared to whites, African-Americans had a lower percentage of costs due to carpal tunnel syndrome, circulatory and digestive diseases. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.49, No.10, p.845-853. 32 ref.

CIS 07-1265 Zaloshnja E., Miller T.R., Waehrer G.
The impact of occupational injury reduction on the U.S. economy
Preventing occupational injuries reduces labour costs to employers. These savings filter through the economy, impacting its performance. This study was carried out to measure the impact of occupational injury reduction on national economic output, gross domestic product, national income and employment by using an input-output model of the United States economy. Occupational injury costs by industry for 1993 were used as the baseline for an input-output model, and the impact of the 38% injury rate reduction between 1993 and 2002 was measured. It is estimated that the declining occupational injury rate increased employment by an estimated 550,000 jobs. The increase in gross domestic product was USD 25.5 billion or 9% of the GDP increase from 1993 to 2002. However these estimates do not take account of the costs of the prevention efforts that made these improvements possible.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.49, No.9, p.719-727. 23 ref.

CIS 07-1304 Piedrahita H.
Cost of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in developing countries: Colombia case
In this study, the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in Colombia was estimated by using the age- and gender-specific double incidence rate of repetitive strain injuries diseases in Finland for 2002. This allowed estimating the number of MSDs recorded in Colombia during 2005 at 23,477 cases, or a rate of 11.6 cases per 10,000 workers. The estimated cost of these MSD cases in terms of productivity loss was USD 171.7 million, representing approximately 0.2% of Colombia's gross domestic product for 2005. The systematic appraisal of the incidence of MSDs and their associated cost on workers' productivity are necessary in developing countries, since they facilitate the implementation of preventive policies at the national level.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.379-386. 26 ref.

CIS 07-1017 Bonauto D., Silverstein B., Adams D., Foley M.
Prioritizing industries for occupational injury and illness prevention and research, Washington State workers' compensation claims, 1999-2003
The objective of this study was to identify high-risk industry groups for effective allocation of occupational safety and health prevention and research resources. All compensable Washington State workers' compensation claims were used to rank North American Industry Classification System industry groups by prevention index (PI). The PI is the average of the rank orders of each industry group's claim count and claim incidence rate. Of the 274 industry groups for which a ranking was obtained, the following industry groups ranked the highest: foundation, structure, and building exterior contractors; general freight trucking; residential building construction.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.840-851. 17 ref.

CIS 07-811 Musculoskeletal diseases in Europe - Definitions and statistical data
Les troubles musculosquelettiques en Europe - Définitions et données statistiques [in French]
Europe is faced with a continuous rise in the number of workers suffering from musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs). Currently, some 40 million workers are affected by these diseases, for which the economic burden is estimated at between 0.5 and 2% of the gross domestic product. This review document on MSDs in Europe covers the definition of MSDs, MSDs that figure on the list of occupational diseases compensated in various countries and trends in the number of persons affected by MSDs in the main European countries.
EUROGIP, 55 rue de la Fédération, 75015 Paris, France, 2006. 10p.
http://www.eurogip.fr/docs/TMS_07-Eurogip-25-F.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-537 Castejón Vilella E.
Occupational safety and health: An expense, a transfer of costs or simply stated, a tax?
Prevención de riesgos laborales: ¿gasto, inversión o simplemente un impuesto? [in Spanish]
The prevention of occupational hazards is a legal obligation for enterprises involving important costs but whose benefits are only apparent in the long term. This article raises the question as to whether the prevention of occupational hazards constitutes an expense, a transfer of costs or simply a tax, and advances the hypothesis that prevention activities constitute a tax given that they consist of mandatory payments made by individual organizations that benefit society at large.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2006, No.38, p.12-19. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.mtas.es/insht/revista/A_38_ST01.htm [in Spanish]

CIS 07-706 Charlot E., Nadeau S., Kenné J.P.
Impact of the safety locking of machines on the risk of accidents and production costs
Impact du contrôle du cadenassage sur les risques d'accidents et les coûts de la production [in French]
Contents of this article on the safety locking of machines: accident risks faced by maintenance workers in the absence of machine locking; disconnection methods; protection against the inadvertent start of machines; summary of the findings of a study on the cost implications of safety locking that takes into account both accident risks and productivity losses due to machine down time.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2006, Vol.22, No.3, p.48-52.Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 07-296
Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment (Ireland)
Report on economic impact of the safety, health and welfare at work legislation
The objective of this study was to undertake an economic assessment of the effect since 1989 of occupational safety, health and welfare law on the Irish economy, particularly on competitiveness. A wide range of research techniques was employed. Topics covered include: the estimated costs of accidents and illness in Ireland; costs and benefits of health and safety legislation; costs and benefits at company level; impact of health and safety legislation on firms in Ireland; trends in health and safety enforcement and activity; and an econometric analysis of the benefits of health and safety in Ireland. Conclusions are discussed in terms of the costs of work-related accidents and ill-health, the benefits of health and safety legislation and the impact on business costs and competitiveness.
Indecon, Indecon House, 4 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland, Aug. 2006. xviii, 98p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.entemp.ie/publications/corporate/2006/finalindeconreport.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-328 Hoyos E.
Cost of occupational health
Los costos de la salud ocupacional [in Spanish]
This article argues that the cost of occupational safety and health needs to be considered not as an expense but as an investment. It analyses the costs of accidents resulting from the non-adoption of preventive measures, not only for workers and enterprises, but also for insurance institutions, workers' families and the society at large.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug. 2006, Vol.52, No.308, p.28-30. Illus.

CIS 07-241 Burton J.
Work-life balance: A strategic business issue!
This information note explains how a good balance between work and home life benefits both workers and the efficient running of the company. Research shows that a supportive work-family policy results in improvements in a company's recruitment costs, absenteeism, benefits costs, productivity and, ultimately, its profitability. Ways in which employers can strategically address this issue are outlined.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association (IAPA), Centre for Health & Safety Innovation, 5110 Creekbank Road, Suite 300, Mississauga, Ontario L4W 0A1, Canada, 2006. 2p.
http://www.iapa.ca/pdf/2006_hwp_work_life_balance.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-75 Occupational safety and health: Synergies between security and productivity
Sécurité et santé au travail: synergies entre sécurité et productivité [in French]
Seguridad y salud en el trabajo: sinergia entre la seguridad y la productividad [in Spanish]
Report prepared for the 295th Session of the ILO Governing Body, Committee on Employment and Social Policy, March 2006. The paper discusses how improved occupational safety and health (OSH) contributes both to reducing human suffering and to increasing the quality and quantity of jobs, focusing on the links between OSH and productivity. The economic impact of occupational accidents and ill health at the national, enterprise and individual level is addressed and evidence for the economic benefits of OSH at the enterprise and national level is reviewed. Current action and proposed future action are outlined.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Mar. 2006. 13p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb295/pdf/esp-3.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/french/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb295/pdf/esp-3.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb295/pdf/esp-3.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1298 De la Peña Loroño M.N., Fernández Simabcas M.
Study of the cost of accidents
Estudio de costes de accidentes [in Spanish]
A study of the occupational accidents that occurred in the Basque Country in 2003 was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the resulting costs. A total of 435 serious, very serious or fatal accidents were recorded. An analysis was carried out of workers' length of service, age, sex and job, together with the sector of activity, the number of employees in the enterprise and the type of employment contract. The average cost of an accident was EUR 5960.18 (3636.50 for serious and very serious accidents, and 16,001.82 for fatal accidents), while the average cost of the measures taken by the enterprises to avoid these accidents from recurring in the future was EUR 865.07.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, Feb. 2006, No.37, p.12-23. Illus.

2005

CIS 08-548 Haefeli K., Haslam C., Haslam R.
Health and Safety Executive
Perceptions of the cost implications of health and safety failures
This report presents findings of research undertaken within organizations of varying size and in various sectors to explore perceptions of costs incurred due to health and safety failures. Focus groups and preliminary interviews were conducted to gain insight into the issues of interest, followed by 283 interviews conducted with managers, health and safety personnel and workers' representatives within 129 organizations. The third phase of the study involved the collecting of real time records of occupational accident and illness cost data by participating organizations. Forty case studies illustrating the costs incurred by the organizations are presented. The findings are discussed in light of the implications for health and safety information provision and related research.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 193p. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr403.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-545 Schulte P.A.
Characterizing the burden of occupational injury and disease
The objective of this literature survey was to characterize the cost burden of occupational disease and injury in the USA. Literature from 1990 to the present was evaluated. Thirty-eight studies illustrative of the burden of occupational disease were reviewed for findings, methodology, strengths and limitations. Recent estimates of occupational mortality and morbidity include approximately 55,000 deaths (eighth leading cause) and 3.8 million disabling injuries per year, respectively. Estimates of costs related to these diseases and injuries range between USD 128 billion and 155 billion per year. Despite these significant indicators, the magnitude of occupational disease and injury burden is underestimated. There is a need for an integrated approach to address these underestimates.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.47, No.6, p.607-622. Illus. 131 ref.

CIS 07-592 Rautiainen R.H., et al.
Cost of compensated injuries and occupational diseases in agriculture in Finland
This study aimed to determine the costs of occupational injuries and diseases in Finnish agriculture based on compensation records. The incidence rates in 1996 were 7.4/100 for injuries and 0.61/100 for occupational diseases. Men had a higher risk of injury (relative risk RR=1.89), but a lower risk of an occupational disease (RR=0.68), compared to women. Costs per person were EUR 75 in 1983, increasing to EUR 215 in 1999. Total costs in 1996 were EUR 23.5 million consisting of medical care (16%), compensation within one year from the incident (37%), compensation after one year from the incident (23%), survivors' pension (3%), impairment allowance (7%), rehabilitation (6%), and other costs (9%). Costs were 0.7% of the national gross farm income and 2.2% of the net farm income. Mean costs of 1996 cases were EUR 1340 for injuries and EUR 6636 for occupational diseases. Injuries represented 92% of the claims and 71% of the total costs, while occupational diseases represented the rest.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.3, p.21-29. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 07-54 Workplace relations ministers' council - Comparative performance monitoring - Seventh report
Comparative performance monitoring (CPM) reports are published each year, providing an analysis of trends in occupational health and safety (OHS) and workers' compensation schemes in Australia and New Zealand. This report covers data for the year 2003-04. Contents: workplace injury and disease; enforcement of OHS legislation; performance indicators of the operations of workers' compensation schemes (costs and disbursements, return to work, industry comparisons).
Department of employment and workplace relations, Office of the Australian Safety and Compensation Council, GPO Box 9879, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 2005. 172p. Illus.
http://www.workplace.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/51A7E2D3-8B8A-4BE5-9EBD-70F839A18907/0/CPM2005PartA.pdf [in English]
http://www.workplace.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/09695BFB-5A4B-41BC-AE60-C15FE950EE10/0/CPM2005PartB.pdf [in English]
http://www.workplace.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/D0BA02F4-C829-455B-A8A6-CE12C6A86CA0/0/CPM2005PartD.pdf [in English]
http://www.workplace.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8F8B4B7-DA21-4E69-87E6-F3A6AABFE484/0/CPM2005PartE.pdf [in English]
http://www.workplace.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/DF414F5D-13CA-41C1-A9C2-91557CB0B59D/0/CPM2005PartC.pdf [in English]

CIS 07-122 Madureira dos Reis C., Soeiro A.
Economics of safety and accidents in the construction sector - Simulation and analysis
Economia da segurança e dos acidentes na construção - Simulação e análise [in Portuguese]
An economic analysis of the cost of safety in the construction sector in Portugal was carried out using occupational accident statistics. Parameters to be taken into consideration for computing the direct and indirect costs of accidents and preventive measures in this sector were examined. Next, the cost of preventive measures for three construction sites for which safety plans had been defined were calculated and compared to total costs. Finally, simulations for sixteen accidents on the basis of pessimistic or optimistic hypotheses highlighted the costs of preventive measures and the resulting advantages for the construction enterprise, the insurance company and the community at large.
Instituto para a Segurança, Higiene e Saúde no Trabalho (ISHST), Rua Barata Salgueiro, 37, 5° 1250-042 Lisboa, Portugal, Apr. 2005. 96p. Illus. 65 ref.

CIS 06-1393 Safety calculator for hospitality small business
This CD-ROM includes a "Safety Calculator" showing the full range of costs of a workplace incident and a video entitled "Small Business Talking Safety" (see also CIS 06-1335). It is aimed specifically at the hospitality sector and includes a number of occupational safety and health publications of particular interest to this field of activity. Topics addressed include back injuries, burns, cuts, slips and falls, and violence.
Worksafe BC (Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia), Canada (http://www.worksafebc.com), 2005. CD-ROM.

CIS 06-1335 Safety calculator for small business
This CD-ROM includes a "Safety calculator" showing the full range of costs of a workplace incident, including training for new or replacement workers, purchasing new equipment and loss of productivity. Small businesses, defined as having fewer than 20 workers, represent 93% of the 170,000 companies in British Columbia and are responsible for 33% of the short-term disability claims. Aside from the human costs, the average cost per claim for small business is about CAD 8400. The CD-ROM also includes a video entitled "Small Business Talking Safety", in which small business employers discuss how including safety and health as a core business value is important, as it saves money and improves staff morale and productivity. It also includes a number of occupational safety and health publications aimed at small businesses in sectors such as retail, hospitality, trucking, sawmills and construction.
Worksafe BC (Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia), Canada (http://www.worksafebc.com), 2005. CD-ROM.

CIS 06-1349 Leira H.L., Bratt U., Slåstad S.
Notified cases of occupational asthma in Norway: Exposure and consequences for health and income
Norwegian physicians are required to report cases of occupational diseases among their patients to the Labor Inspection Authority. The registry of these notifications was used to study the incidence of occupational asthma (OA) for the period 1995-1999. A postal questionnaire inquiring into the nature of their work, respiratory symptoms, smoking and socio-economic consequences of the disease was addressed to 1,239 workers with a physician's diagnosis of obstructive respiratory disease. The response rate was 81% (1,000 workers of whom 723 had occupational asthma). The highest incidence of notifications was found in the primary aluminium industry and in bakers, car painters, and welders. At the time of notification, more than half of the workers had left their original jobs. At the time of the study in 2001, approximately the same proportion of workers had experienced a reduction in income and had received financial compensation. A majority were still on anti-asthmatic medication. Most of the notified cases seemed to become chronic despite medical treatment.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2005, Vol.48, No.5, p.359-364. 25 ref.

CIS 06-1197 Swinnen C.
Hearing protection at Ford in Genk
Protection auditive sur mesure chez Ford Genk [in French]
A Belgian automobile plant has adopted a new type of custom-made hearing protector, after testing and evaluating its cost-effectiveness. While the initial purchase of the otoplastic hearing protectors is relatively costly compared to single-use hearing protectors, they are considered to be economical in the long run. They are designed to prevent allergic reaction and they also offer excellent noise protection. Results of surveys among users of these devices show that they are well tolerated.
Prevent Focus, Dec. 2005, No.10. p.14-17. Illus.

CIS 06-1160 Dériot G., Godefroy J.P.
The tragedy of asbestos in France: Understanding the issue, improving workers' compensation and drawing the lessons for the future
Le drame de l'amiante en France: comprendre, mieux réparer, en tirer des leçons pour l'avenir [in French]
Report on the current status and consequences of asbestos contamination in France, presented to the Senate in October 2005. It was compiled on the basis of the testimony of numerous experts. It consists of three main parts: whether the asbestos tragedy was avoidable; improved compensation and medical supervision; prevention of further contamination. A total of 28 proposals based on eight broad themes are presented.
2005. 333p. PDF document.
http://www.senat.fr/rap/r05-037-1/r05-037-11.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-780 Castells Manent J.
Optimizing occupational safety and health management by means of an analysis of enterprise costs
Optimización de la gestión de la seguridad y salud mediante el análisis de los costes empresariales [in Spanish]
This article describes a standardized system for calculating the costs of investments in occupational safety and health (prevention costs) and the financial consequences of occupational accidents and diseases for the enterprise. By analysing the relationship between these two elements, the point of maximum profitability may be determined. The approach was successfully applied in several Spanish enterprises in 2004. Compared to 2003, there was a 27% reduction in the costs resulting from accidents, showing that accident rates can be lowered both efficiently and profitably for the enterprise.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2005, No.174, p.6-16. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 06-776 Abbott D.
Proof positive
This article reviews some of the concepts behind cost-benefit analysis in occupational safety and health. It presents methods and tools to help practitioners demonstrate to management that good working conditions can make a significant contribution to profitability.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Oct. 2005, Vol.23, No.10, p.42-44. Illus. 8 ref.

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