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Economic aspects - 615 entries found

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CIS 10-0062 Evanoff B., Kymes S.
Modeling the cost-benefit of nerve conduction studies in pre-employment screening for carpal tunnel syndrome
The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with pre-employment nerve conduction testing as a screening tool for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the workplace. A Markov decision analysis model was used to compare the costs associated with a strategy of screening all prospective employees for CTS and not hiring those with abnormal nerve conduction, versus a strategy of not screening for CTS. The variables in the model included employee turnover rate, the incidence of CTS, the prevalence of median nerve conduction abnormalities, the relative risk of developing CTS conferred by abnormal nerve conduction screening, the costs of pre-employment screening and the worker's compensation costs to the employer for each case of CTS. It was found that the overall cost to employers was higher when screening was used, USD 503 for the screening strategy versus USD 200 for a no-screening strategy. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.4, p.299-304. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 10-0011 Elsler D., Treutlein D., Rydlewska I., Frusteri L., Krüger H., Veerman T., Eeckelaert L., Roskams N., Van Den Broek K., Taylor T.N.
A review of case studies evaluating economic incentives to promote occupational safety and health
In many European countries, external economic incentives are discussed as a policy instrument to promote occupational safety and health (OSH) in enterprises. This article reviews the main characteristics such as effectiveness, efficiency and feasibility of such schemes available in several European countries. Of the 14 schemes evaluated, six were insurance premium-based and eight were subsidy-based. Overall, economic incentive schemes were found to be feasible and reasonably effective. However, analysis regarding the efficiency of such schemes is scarce and the cost-benefit analysis had to rely on few cases that, nevertheless, delivered positive results for large samples. In order to enable policy-makers to make well-informed decisions about public investments in OSH, better standards for reporting and evaluating incentive schemes are needed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.4, p.289-298. 20 ref.

CIS 10-0010 Uegaki K., de Bruijne M.C., Lambeek L., Anema J.R., van der Beek A.J., van Mechelen W.
Economic evaluations of occupational health interventions from a corporate perspective - A systematic review of methodological quality
The objective of this literature survey was to appraise the methodological quality of economic evaluations of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions conducted from a corporate perspective published in various OSH databases. A total of 37 articles were selected based on seven criteria addressing study population, type of intervention, comparative intervention, outcome, costs, language, and perspective. Only 44% of the studies met more than 50% of the quality criteria. Of the 19 quality criteria, eight were met by 50% or more of the studies. The overall methodological quality of the economic evaluations of OSH interventions from a corporate perspective was poor. As such, there is a risk of biased results. The quality of future evaluations needs to be improved to increase the validity of their conclusions and recommendations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2010, Vol.36, No.4, p.273-288. 60 ref.


CIS 12-0067 Gervais R.L., Pawlowska Z., Bojanowski R., Kouvonen A., Karanika-Murray M., Van den Broek K., De Greef K.
Occupational safety and health and economic performance in small and medium-sized enterprises: A review
This review examines the link between occupational safety and health (OSH) and economic performance, especially as it relates to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It is essential to stress from the outset that while there is no clear definition of economic performance, there are indicators that can examine the concept and its importance to businesses. OSH is not usually viewed as a contributory factor to the economic viability of an organization. Compliance with government guidelines, regulations and laws is generally the primary focus of OSH policies. Perceptions of the connection between effective OSH and the resulting financial benefits could, and should be improved. The strong economic advantages of good occupational health practice need to be highlighted continuously to organizations because the failure to acknowledge the importance of this link will limit the effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing disease and injury. Additionally, while the cost of ensuring safety is important, the lack of safety is also costly. For example, a reduction of accidents, damage and improvements to poor health can lead to a reduction in costs and a greater availability of people and plant. This, in turn, can improve efficiency and thereby heighten the effectiveness of businesses.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 42p. Illus. Approx. 120 ref.
OSH_and_economic_performance_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0044
Corporate Strategy and Evaluation Services (CSES), Health and Safety Executive
Assessing the cumulative economic impacts of health and safety regulations
The aim of this literature survey was to identify and analyze evidence on the cumulative economic impacts of safety and health regulations. The study examined two types of cumulative economic effects: the impact of regulations on business performance and the wider effects on other groups in society and society overall. The research included several case studies examining the impact of regulations on two sectors (construction and chemicals). Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 82p. Illus. 99 ref.
Assessing_the_cumulative_economic_impacts_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0626 Kliksberg B.
Enterprise social responsibility - The key to the 21st century
La responsabilidad social empresarial. Clave del siglo XXI [in Spanish]
Full text of a conference held on 10 July 2008 in Santa Fe, Argentina on the topic of enterprise social responsibility, and more specifically on its importance in developing countries, particularly in Latin America.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la Provincia de Santa Fe, Rivadavia 3049/51 Ciudad de Santa Fe, S3000FWI, Argentina, 2009. 47p.

CIS 10-0472 Tompa E., Dolinschi R., de Oliveira C., Irvin E.
A systematic review of occupational health and safety interventions with economic analyses
Occupational safety and health intervention literature was reviewed for evidence on financial merits of such interventions. The literature search included journal databases, existing systematic reviews, and studies identified by content experts. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for quality. Evidence was synthesized within industry-intervention type clusters. Strong evidence was found that ergonomic and other musculoskeletal injury prevention interventions in manufacturing and warehousing are worth undertaking in terms of their financial merits. The review also provided insights into how the methodological quality of economic evaluations could be improved.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2009, Vol.51, No.9, p.1004-1023. 46 ref.

CIS 10-0172 Annual report 2009
Report on the activities of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 2008. Contents: Director General's review; impact of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health on occupational health and well-being at work; international activities; basic functions and key figures; awards; human resources; finances; administration.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2009. 66p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 10-0261 Knutti R.
Fire protection in steel constructions
Brandschutz im Stahlbau [in German]
La protection incendie par intumescence dans la construction métallique [in French]
This article presents the advantages of intumescent fire protection systems compared to other systems in steel structures, as well as the disadvantages and limits of this method.
IZA - Sicherheit und Gesundheit, 2009, No.3, p.44-45. Illus.

CIS 09-1420 OSH in figures: Stress at work - Facts and figures
According to the fourth European Survey of Working Conditions, carried out in 2005 in all Member States of the European Union, stress was experienced by an average 22% of working Europeans. In 2002, the annual economic cost of work-related stress in 15 EU countries was estimated at EUR 20 billion. Contents of this report on stress at work in Europe: introduction; prevalence of stress at work; stress by age; stress by gender; stress by sector and occupation; stress by employment status; expert survey on emerging psychosocial risks; cost of stress-related health problems; legislation.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2009. 132p. Illus. 76 ref.

CIS 09-1207 Köper B., Möller K., Zwetsloot G.
The occupational safety and health scorecard - A business case example for strategic management
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a method for evaluating the contribution of occupational safety and health to enterprise value. Financial data and data on workers' health were collected from a German automobile manufacturer in order to test which health-related indicators had an impact on financial performance. Based on multivariate regression analyses, health-related interventions were found to contribute significantly to performance factors such as quality, productivity, absenteeism and cost reduction. The Balanced Scorecard approach was found to be an adequate means to control OSH issues within the context of overall enterprise strategic management.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.35, No.6, p.413-420. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 09-1206 Verbeek J., Pulliainen M., Kankaanpää E.
A systematic review of occupational safety and health business cases
This study systematically reviewed 26 reported cases on the costs and benefits of occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions to assess whether health and productivity arguments made a good business case. Findings are discussed. Overall, they were not conclusive.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.35, No.6, p.403-412. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 09-1268 Hübscher G.
Economic crisis and health
Gesund durch die Wirtschaftkrise [in German]
Superare la crisi economica senza rimetterci in salute [in Italian]
Crise économique et santé [in French]
This article addresses the issue of the physical and mental health of workers of struggling enterprises as well as of unemployed workers. Economic crisis generates stress and fear for the future among employees and increases the risk of accidents among unemployed.
Benefit, Dec. 2009, No.4, p.4-8. Illus. [in French] [in German] [in Italian]

CIS 09-1044 Greene B.L., Miller J.D., Brown T.M., Harshman R.S., Richerson G.T., Doyle J.J.
Economic impact of the BP downshift program on blood pressure control among commercial driver license employees
The objective of this study was to assess the economic impact of a hypertension educational and awareness programme commercial drivers employed by a power generation and distribution company in the United States. An economic simulation model was developed to evaluate the costs and benefits of implementing the programme. Results showed a 16.3% (more than USD 540,000) reduction in costs for a sample of 499 drivers over two years. On a per-employee basis, annual cost savings were estimated to be USD 542.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.51, No.5, p.542-553. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 09-776 Fernández-Muńiz B., Montes-Peón J.M., Vázquez-Ordás C.J.
Relation between occupational safety management and firm performance
The objective of this study was to identify good practices in safety management, and analyse the effect of these practices on a set of indicators of organizational performance. It firstly involved an extensive literature survey, followed by the definition of a series of hypotheses. The resulting model was then tested on a sample of 455 Spanish firms. Findings show that safety management has a positive influence on safety performance, competitiveness and financial performance. It provides evidence of the compatibility between worker protection and corporate competitiveness.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.980-991. Illus. 101 ref.

CIS 09-775 Shalini R.S.
Economic cost of occupational accidents: Evidence from a small island economy
The objective of this study was to measure the cost associated with occupational accidents in Mauritius, using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Findings show that occupational accidents cost nearly MUR 168 million, of which a major part is accounted for by loss in productivity. The highest rate of accidents took place within small enterprises and involved younger workers, taking higher risks mainly due to lack of experience and risk awareness. The findings also reveal that only 4% employers believe that investment in safety and health is important for maintaining good business partly because most of the costs are borne by the state. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.973-979. 19 ref.

CIS 09-869 Awad I.
The global economic crisis and migrant workers: Impact and response
This report prepared by the ILO International Migration Programme assesses the impact of the global crisis on migrant workers and reviews policy responses. It addresses the impact on the employment of migrant workers in their countries of destination, on the volume of their financial contributions to the livelihood of their families and to the economies of their countries of origin and on their living and working conditions, which may deteriorate due to an increase in hostility and xenophobia. The report also addresses the policies put in place by countries of destination and origin to face up to the crisis as it relates to migrant workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2009. xi, 64p. Illus. 107 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-774 Carlos-Rivera F., Aguilar-Madrid G., Gómez-Montenegro P.A., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Sánchez-Román F.R., Durcudoy Montandon J.E.A., Borja-Aburto V.H.
Estimation of health-care costs for work-related injuries in the Mexican Institute of Social Security
The objective of this study was to assess the direct heath care costs of work-related accidents in the Mexican Institute of Social Security, a health insurance institution covering over 12 million workers and their families. The costs of treatment for 295,594 reported occupational injuries in 2005 were analysed. The occupational injury rate was 2.9 per 100 workers. Average cost per case was USD 2059. The total cost of the health care of officially-recognized injured workers was USD 753 million (corrected to USD 791 million for underreporting). If the same costs are applied for informal workers who represent approximately half of the working population of Mexico, the cost of healthcare for occupational injuries reaches about 1% of the gross domestic product.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.195-201. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 09-819 Martin B.C., Church T.S., Bonnell R., Ben-Joseph R., Borgstadt T.
The impact of overweight and obesity on the direct medical costs of truck drivers
The objective of this study was to quantify health care costs of truck drivers across categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese weight. Health care claims data from a transportation logistics company were obtained from 2004 to 2005 concerning 2849 truckers and were merged with their body mass index measures. A regression model was used to adjust for demographic and occupational variables. Unadjusted trimmed total cost for overweight subjects (USD 1613) and obese subjects (USD 1792) were significantly higher than for normal weight subjects (USD 1012). After multivariate adjustment, obese and overweight subjects had on average, USD 591 and USD 383 higher health care costs respectively than normal weight subjects. Both overweight and obese individuals had higher prevalences of hyperlipidemia, diabetes and hypertension than their normal weight counterparts.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.51, No.2, p.180-184. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 09-766 Thompson G.
Regeneration game
In early 2006, the board of a British company put the company in voluntary liquidation to avoid prosecution after an accident in which one employee was killed and three other people seriously injured. Two years after the decision to commit corporate suicide, the company was hit with a fine of GBP 2 and ordered to pay costs of GBP 1. This article considers the pro and the cons of companies who choose this route and implications for directors who may be temped to put their company into voluntary liquidation to avoid prosecution in a similar case and then create a new company with a similar name. It also examines the HSE's stance on enforcement in such situations.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 2009, Vol.27, No.5, p.52-54. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 09-771 Hämäläinen P.
The effect of globalization on occupational accidents
This article discusses the results of studies carried out from 2001 to 2004 at the Institute of Occupational Safety Engineering at Tampere University of Technology in Finland, in collaboration with the International Labour Organization (ILO). The objective was to estimate the number of occupational accidents that caused death or at least three days' absence from work. The estimates were based on the figures gathered from ILO member states. This article discusses also how globalization has affected trends in the number of occupational accidents in developing and developed regions.
Safety Science, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.733-742. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-852 Féron L.
Prefabricated elements: Getting straight to the point
Préfabriqués: l'assemblage sans ambages [in French]
The use of prefabricated construction elements is witnessing renewed interest. It has many cost advantages. Standardized methods allow for the safer erection of prefabricated elements compared to traditional methods. Topics addressed in this collection of articles on prefabricated elements: how offsite prefabrication enables construction site optimization; advantages of assembly on the ground; decision criteria for using prefabrication; construction of an office building in the greater Paris region using prefabricated concrete elements.
Prévention BTP, May 2009, No.118, p.38-47. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 09-337 Miller P., Haslam C.
Why employers spend money on employee health: Interviews with occupational health and safety professionals from British industry
Interviews with 18 occupational health and safety professionals at major organizations in the United Kingdom were conducted to explore their motivations, behaviours and information needs about employee health investment. Legal compliance and ethics were found to be important drivers for employee health spending. This spending was generally calculated using data on cost of illness (mostly expressed via sickness absence), direct health expenditure per employee and insurance premiums. Generally, costs were more quantifiable than benefits. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.163-169. 31 ref.


CIS 11-0771
Health and Safety Executive
Local authorities and HSE in partnership: An evaluation
This evaluation of the partnership between the Health and Safety Executive and Local Authorities was carried out during the summer of 2008. The purpose of the evaluation was to enable HSE to take an informed view of the contribution that the partnership can and should make to a new strategy. This report is the output of that evaluation and addressed three main issues: the extent to which the partnership has fulfilled its objectives; whether the benefits of the partnership outweigh the costs; what needs to be done to ensure its long-term health of the partnership. Findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. 48p. Illus.
RR_680.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0162 Ridge M., Bell M., Kossykh Y., Woolley N.
Health and Safety Executive
An empirical analysis of the effect of health on aggregate income and individual labour market outcomes in the UK
This report investigates whether health in general, and ill-health caused by work in particular, has an impact on various measures of economic performance. It uses two approaches: a macroeconomic approach based on growth equations and United Kingdom regional data, and a microeconomic approach based on individual-level data from the British Household Panel Survey. It establishes a statistical link between health stocks and economic growth at a macroeconomic level, and an individual's health stock and their wage and probability of being in employment, at a microeconomic level. Those who are in excellent health earn between 4-7% more per hour than those whose health is average, controlling for other characteristics; while those whose health is poor earn 7-15% less than those whose health is average. Finally, some initial estimates linking ill-health to ill-health caused by work are presented.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. viii, 55p. Illus. 20 ref.
RR639.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1070 Lu C., Schultz A.B., Sill S., Petersen R., Young J.M., Edington D.W.
Effects of an incentive-based online physical activity intervention on health care costs
The objective of this study was to test whether participation in an incentive-based online physical activity programme was associated with a moderation in employee health care costs. Health care claims trends from 2003 to 2005 were analyzed among a matched sample of participants and non-participants. The average annual health care costs for participants increased by USD 291 per year compared with an increase of USD 360 for non-participants. Participants had a significantly smaller increase in inpatient hospital costs, heart disease costs and diabetic costs compared with non-participants.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.50, No.11, p.1209-1215. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 09-1067 Baker K.M., Goetzel R.Z., Pei X., Weiss A.J., Bowen J., Tabrizi M.J., Nelson C.F., Metz R.D., Pelletier K.R., Thompson E.
Using a return-on-investment estimation model to evaluate outcomes from an obesity management worksite health promotion program
Certain modifiable risk factors lead to high health care costs and reduced worker productivity. A predictive return-on-investment (ROI) estimation model was applied to an obesity management intervention to demonstrate the use of econometric modelling in establishing financial justification for worksite health promotion. Self-reported risk factors of 890 employees with a body mass index ≥30 were analyzed using statistical evaluation methods. Changes in risk factors, demographics and financial measures comprised the model inputs that determined medical and productivity savings. Over one year, seven out of ten health risks decreased. Of total projected savings, 59% were attributed to reduced health care expenditures and 41% resulted from productivity improvements, a USD 1.17 return per dollar of investment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.981-990. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 09-516 McDonell D.
Going lean
This article reviews the impact of lean manufacturing techniques on occupational safety and health. It argues that the two are not mutually exclusive, based on the work practices and experience of a major Canadian manufacturer of transformers.
Accident Prevention, Nov.-Dec. 2008, Vol.55, No.4, p.28-33. Illus.

CIS 09-515 Bernhut S.
Taking the offensive - How to protect your OHS programming during an economic downturn
This article describes ways of preserving the commitment and funding for occupational safety and health during economic downturns, essentially consisting of communicating with and convincing company management.
Accident Prevention, Nov.-Dec. 2008, Vol.55, No.4, p.22-27. Illus.

CIS 09-513 Ricke W.
Accident insurance premiums in Europe: Are they comparable?
Beitragssätze der Unfallversicherung in Europa: Vergleichbar? [in German]
This article presents an analysis of the economic burden of accident insurance in various European countries, namely Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Portugal, together with the benefits rendered to those covered. Compared to other countries, the premiums in Germany are below the average premiums of other countries, while benefits are relatively high.
Die BG, Dec. 2008, No.12, p.444-451. 58 ref.

CIS 09-478 LaBrash L.F., Pahwa P., Pickett W., Hagel L.M., Snodgrass P.R., Dosman J.A.
Relationship between sleep loss and economic worry among farmers: A survey of 94 active Saskatchewan noncorporate farms
Farm work involves seasonal peak busy periods with long hours of work and potential sleep loss. Social, technological and economic changes, and depressed commodity prices, have resulted in financial stress. The objective of this study was to examine the association between hours of sleep and economic worry among a population of farmers and their family members. It involved 195 persons from 94 active farms in two rural areas of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, who were interviewed by questionnaire. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. During peak agricultural seasons, 31.6% of owner/operators reported less than six hours of sleep per night compared to 6.3% during the nonpeak season. A significant relationship (odds ratio 3.59) was observed between daily cash flow worry and impaired sleep during peak busy seasons.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.3, p.149-154. 24 ref.

CIS 09-366 Alexandre Fernandes A., Pereira Miguel J.
Health and migration in the EU
Saúde e migraçőes na UE [in Portuguese]
Proceedings of the European conference "Health and migration in the EU - better health for all in an inclusive society" held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 27-28 September 2007. The EU is the destination for many millions of migrants from around the world. This poses a variety of challenges that range from demographic to economic. Health is one of the most important issues. Migrants face increased risks to their health linked to the stresses of moving home and changing country. They can also experience difficulties in accessing health services due to language, cultural and other barriers. These problems can be particularly acute for children and other vulnerable groups. Main topics covered: overview of migrants' health determinants and needs; the challenge of migrant's health for health services and research; health promotion among migrants; disease prevention; access to healthcare; mental health; occupational health, working conditions and health hazards; women and child health; accessibility and quality of care.
Instituto Nacional de Saúde (INSA), Lisboa, Portugal, 2008. 242p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-360 Leal Ferreira L., Gonzaga M.C, Donatelli S., Bussacos M.A.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Comprehensive analysis of the work of sugarcane harvesters in the region of Araraquara, Săo Paulo
Análise coletiva do trabalho dos cortadores de cana da regiăo de Araraquara, Săo Paulo [in Portuguese]
Updating of an earlier study (CIS 01-800) on working conditions among sugarcane harvesters in the state of Săo Paulo (Brazil), estimated as numbering 400,000. The study involved personal interviews and answers provided by workers. Summary: layout of plantations; production processes and work distribution; activities of the workers; systems for calculating pay; health risks (pain in the arm, blisters and cuts to the hands, tiredness); risk evaluation; comments by workers.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, Săo Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2nd ed., 2008. 47p. 6 ref. Price: BRL: 5.00.

CIS 09-288 Living and working in Europe
The European Union is undergoing profound change. Demographic change, greater global competition, technological developments and the enlargement of the EU itself are all shaping the lives of ordinary men and women across the Member States. This overview booklet summarizes the findings of a series of surveys on what it means to live and work in Europe at the start of the 21st century. Topics addressed include personal life, family life, working life, balancing family and work, industrial relations, mobility and migration, patterns of employment and job creation.
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Wyattville Road, Loughingstown, Dublin 18, Ireland, 2008. 27p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 09-301 Taimela S., Justén S., Aronen P., Sintonen H., Läärä E., Malmivaara A., Tiekso J., Aro T.
An occupational health intervention programme for workers at high risk for sickness absence. Cost effectiveness analysis based on a randomised controlled trial
The objective of this study was to determine whether a specific occupational health intervention was cost effective in reducing sickness absence when compared with usual care in occupational health among workers with high risk of sickness absence. 418 workers with high risk of sickness absence from one corporation were randomised to intervention or to usual care groups. The subjects in the intervention group were invited to occupational health service for a consultation. Outcome measures were sickness absence days and direct healthcare costs up to 12 months after the start of the study. After one year, the mean of sickness absence was 30 days in the control group and 19 days in the intervention group. The intervention also turned out to be cost effective. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.65, No.4, p.242-248. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 09-495 Virtanen M., Koskinen S., Kivimäki M., Honkonen T., Vahtera J., Ahola K., Lönnqvist J.
Contribution of non-work and work-related risk factors to the association between income and mental disorders in a working population: The Health 2000 Study
The aim of this study was examine the contribution of non-work and work factors to the association between income and DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders in a working population. A representative sample of the Finnish working population aged 30-64 (1667 men, 1707 women) in 2000-2001 responded to a survey questionnaire on non-work factors (marital status, housing conditions, non-work social support, violence victimisation, smoking, physical symptoms), work factors (job demands, job control, social support at work, educational prospects, job insecurity) and household income. Somatic health was examined in a standard health examination. The 12-month prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The risk of having a depressive or anxiety disorder was 2.8 times higher in the low-income group than in the high-income group among men and 2.0 times higher among women. Work factors among men and non-work factors among women contribute to the income differences in mental health.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.171-178. 43 ref.

CIS 09-19 Leigh J.P., Geraghty E.M.
High gasoline prices and mortality from motor vehicle crashes and air pollution
To estimate effects of increasing gasoline prices on mortality, a simulation-based partial equilibrium model was developed that estimated the effects of a 20% rise in prices. Estimates on price elasticity for gasoline, price elasticity of motor vehicle crashes, relations among gasoline use, air pollution and mortality were drawn from literature in economics, epidemiology and medicine. For sustained 20% increases in gasoline prices over one year and assuming other prices and factors to be constant, it was estimated that there would be 1994 fewer deaths each year from vehicle crashes and 600 fewer deaths from air pollution. Results suggest that high gasoline prices have positive public health implications.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.249-254. 51 ref.

CIS 09-58 Bender J.R., Johnson A.J., Schenk T.W
The economic value of automotive occupational health services: Business metrics for performance management
An important automobile manufacturer in the United States investigated the financial impact of the occupational health clinics located within their plants and carried out a comparison of these clinics between plants. This allowed the firm to make business decisions regarding services offered and responsibilities assigned to the clinics. Models were developed to value the services provided by clinics. The estimated utilization and dollar value of occupational health services provided by each clinic were compared and ranked to establish internal benchmarks. The results show a significant assumption of non-clinical but essential duties by health clinic staff, especially by physicians. This information will allow the firm to better manage the occupational health clinics to support business objectives.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.138-145. 18 ref.

CIS 09-219 Kessler R.C., Merikangas K.R., Wang P.S.
The prevalence and correlates of workplace depression in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
This study examines workplace prevalence and correlates of major depressive episodes based on the results of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. A total of 6.4% of respondents had 12-month major depressive disorder. An additional 1.1% had major depressive episodes due to bipolar disorder or mania-hypomania. Only about half of depressed workers received treatment. Fewer than half of treated workers received care consistent with published treatment guidelines. Depression disease management programs can have a positive return-on-investment from the employer perspective, but only when they are based on best practices.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.50, No.4, p.381-390. 103 ref.

CIS 09-16 Kankaanpää E., van Tulder M., Aaltonen M., De Greef M.
Economics for occupational safety and health
The aim of this article is to show how economics can help in decision making in occupational safety and health. Various methods and concepts used in economics are described. In addition, examples are given of how regulation and incentives can be used to promote occupational safety and health.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Suppl. 2008, No.5, p.9-13. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-1492 Hoffmann-Richter U., Hoffmann H., Pfister S., Siegenthaler F., Schade V., Znoj H.
Psychosocial factors as reversible components in social insurance systems
Psychosoziale Faktoren in den Sozialversicherungen als Kippfigur [in German]
Les facteurs psychosociaux, figures réversibles des assurances sociales [in French]
This article discusses mental disturbances caused by occupational accidents or diseases, which represent an obstacle to rehabilitation. It presents a Swiss project entitled EBEPS (German acronym for identification and treatment of mental disorders in the context of occupational accidents and diseases), whose aim is to simplify the processing of complex rehabilitation cases. The project involved insured workers whose cases were followed up using "New Case Management" approaches, and who answered a questionnaire on their accident or diseases, as well as on various psychosocial factors and their perception of responsibilities in 2007. The questionnaire was submitted again one year later. The information collected enabled the identification of predictors of rehabilitation. The project will allow the development of an instrument that improves the early identification of workers who could have rehabilitation problems.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2008, No.79, p.35-46. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 08-1091 Report IV - Promotion of rural employment for poverty reduction
Rapport IV - Promotion de l'emploi rural pour réduire la pauvreté [in French]
Informe IV - La promoción del empleo rural para reducir la pobreza [in Spanish]
More than 3,000 government, worker and employer leaders met in Geneva at the International Labour Conference in June 2008 to discuss various issues including rural poverty reduction. Approximately 3.4 billion people, slightly under half of the world's population, now live in rural areas. Climate change, soaring food prices, and the use of farm products for fuel are today key issues in the global debate on agricultural production. Rural markets and the world economy have been affected by globalization, whose costs and benefits have not been equitably distributed either between countries or within them, and by increased urbanization. Clearly, the employment challenges of today's burgeoning cities cannot be met without addressing the need for full and productive employment in rural areas. Agricultural growth is highly effective in reducing poverty, but the pattern and distribution of growth will determine the degree to which it translates into job creation and poverty reduction. This report was prepared as a discussion paper for the conference. A specific chapter deals with international labour standards and OSH issues.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2008. v, 135p. Illus. [in Spanish] [in English] [in French]

CIS 08-818 The business benefits of good occupational safety and health
Polzite za bisnesa ot dobrata bezopasnost i zdrave pri rabota [in Bulgarian]
Affärsmässiga fördelar med en god arbetsmiljö [in Swedish]
Et godt arbejdsmiljř betaler sig [in Danish]
Die Vorteile guter Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzmaßnahmen am Arbeitsplatz für die Unternehmen [in German]
Ta epiheirēmatiká ofélē tēs kalḗs epaggelmatikḗs asfáleias kai ugeías [in Greek]
Las ventajas de una buena salud y seguridad en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Tőhusa tööohutuse ja töötervishoiu majanduslik kasu [in Estonian]
Hyvän työsuojelun liiketoiminnalliset edut [in Finnish]
Les avantages pour l'entreprise d'une bonne sécurité et d'une bonne santé au travail [in French]
A jó munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem üzleti előnyei [in Hungarian]
I benefici aziendali di un buon sistema di sicurezza e salute sul lavoro [in Italian]
Geros darbuotojų saugos ir sveikatos teikiama nauda verslui [in Lithuanian]
Labas darba drošības un veselības aizsardzības devums uzņēmējdarbībai [in Latvian]
Il-benefiċċji kummerċjali ta' saħħa u sigurtŕ tajba fuq il-post tax-xogħol [in Maltese]
De voordelen van goede veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk voor bedrijven [in Dutch]
Korzyści przedsiębiorstw z odpowiedniego poziomu bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy [in Polish]
Vantagens para as empresas de uma boa segurança e saúde no trabalho [in Portuguese]
Avantajele unei bune securităţi şi sănătăţi în muncă pentru întreprinderi [in Romanian]
Prínosy pre podniky vyplývajúce z vysokej úrovne bezpečnosti a ochrany zdravia pri práci [in Slovak]
Poslovne koristi zagotavljanja varnosti in zdravja pri delu [in Slovenian]
Přínosy dobré úrovně bezpečnosti a ochrany zdraví při práci pro podniky [in Czech]
Occupational safety and health (OSH) is good for business as well as a legal and social obligation. Enterprises appreciate that OSH prevents people from being harmed or made ill through work, but it is also an essential part of a successful business. This fact sheet highlights the key points showing how investing in OSH can be profitable. Topics addressed: why OSH is an essential part of good business; key OSH principles; advantages of OSH for small enterprises; insurance aspects.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2008. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [in Bulgarian] [in Danish] [in German] [in Greek] [in English] [in Spanish] [in Estonian] [in Finnish] [in French] [in Hungarian] [in Italian] [in Lithuanian] [in Latvian] [in Maltese] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Romanian] [in Slovak] [in Slovenian] [in Swedish] [in Czech]

CIS 08-817 National economics and occupational safety and health
Nacionalnite ikonomiki i bezopasnostta i zdraveto pri rabota [in Bulgarian]
Nationalekonomin och arbetsmiljön [in Swedish]
Nationalřkonomi og arbejdsmiljř [in Danish]
Zusammenhänge zwischen Volkswirtschaft und Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
Ethnikḗ oikonomía kai epaggelmatikḗ asfáleia kai ugeía [in Greek]
La economía nacional y la salud y seguridad en el trabajo [in Spanish]
Riigi majandus ning tööohutus ja töötervishoid [in Estonian]
Kansantalous ja työsuojelu [in Finnish]
Economie nationale et sécurité et santé au travail [in French]
A nemzetgazdaság és a munkahelyi biztonság és egészségvédelem [in Hungarian]
Economia nazionale e sicurezza e salute sul lavoro [in Italian]
Valstybės ekonomika ir darbuotojų sauga ir sveikata [in Lithuanian]
Valstu ekonomikas un darba drošība un veselības aizsardzība [in Latvian]
L-ekonomiji nazzjonali u s-saħħa u s-sigurtŕ fuq il-post tax-xogħol [in Maltese]
Nationale economie en veiligheid en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Gospodarka krajowa a bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy [in Polish]
Economia nacional e segurança e saúde no trabalho [in Portuguese]
Economiile naţionale şi securitatea şi sănătatea în muncă [in Romanian]
Národné ekonomiky a bezpečnost'a ochrana zdravia pri práci [in Slovak]
Nacionalna gospodarstva ter varnost in zdravje pri delu [in Slovenian]
Národní ekonomika a bezpečnost a ochrana zdraví při práci [in Czech]
Governments, regulators and occupational safety and health (OSH) institutions aim to improve OSH to reduce the cost to society of injury and illness, while at the same time improving competitiveness and national efficiency. This fact sheet highlights some of the economic instruments available to governments and enterprises to improve OSH. Topics addressed: relationship between competitiveness and safety; national cost-benefit analysis; increasing awareness of the benefits of OSH; providing financial support for OSH.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2008. 2p. Illus. 3 ref. [in Bulgarian] [in Danish] [in German] [in Greek] [in English] [in Spanish] [in Estonian] [in Finnish] [in French] [in Hungarian] [in Italian] [in Lithuanian] [in Latvian] [in Maltese] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Romanian] [in Slovak] [in Slovenian] [in Swedish] [in Czech]


CIS 10-0237 Pawluczuk M.
Fully fit at work
Sprawni w pracy [in Polish]
This CD-Rom contains a film on the advantages of employing persons with disabilities, showing that disabled workers may sometimes be more productive and skilled in certain jobs than persons without disabilities. The film, in Polish with English subtitles, challenges the "cost" argument of hiring people with disabilities. It shows that the costs of adapting the workplace are low or even neutral, and that there is a perceptive positive change in attitudes amongst employees who work with disabled colleagues, with noticeable effects on productivity.
International Labour Organization (ILO), Subregional Office for Central and Eastern Europe, Mozsár u. 14, 1066 Budapest, Hungary. 2007. CD-ROM.

CIS 09-1277 Waehrer G.M., Dong X.S., Miller T., Men Y., Haile E.
Occupational injury costs and alternative employment in construction trades
To evaluate the costs of fatal and non-fatal injuries in construction occupations, data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on average annual incidence from 2000 to 2002 were combined with data from an existing cost model for occupational injuries. Construction laborers and carpenters were the two costliest occupations, with 40% of the industry's injury costs. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1218-1227. 35 ref.

CIS 09-831 Butz M.
Long-term costs of occupational diseases
Die langfristigen Kosten der Berufskrankheiten [in German]
This study examines the long-term costs of occupational diseases in Germany, together with how these costs are spread between rehabilitation measures, compensation, and invalidity or survivor pensions for 21 occupational diseases. Estimates of average benefits paid for each case are based on costs for the year 2004. These costs are compared with those of an earlier study carried out in 1991. Findings are discussed with reference to subsequent changes in occupational disease legislation, new forms of medical treatment and improvements in occupational health.
Die BG, Dec. 2007, No.12, p.478-480.

CIS 08-1266 Binch S., Bell J.
Health and Safety Executive
The cost of non-injury accidents: Scoping study
The aim of this study was examine how information on non-injury accidents and associated costs are collected by businesses, together with the feasibility of various options for gathering information on the cost of non-injury accidents to businesses. Commonly reported barriers to collecting the information were time and resources. Several interviewees reported that there was a general problem of underreporting of near misses by staff and, therefore, thought that gathering information on non-injury accidents would be difficult. A further problem was the lack of incentives that would justify the use of time and resources for collecting this type of information. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 65p. 22 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1324 Hayday S., Broughton A., Tyers C.
Health and Safety Executive
Managing sickness absence in the police service: A review of current practices
The Home Office (basically, the British Ministry of Interior) and the HSE are working together to reduce the number of working days lost to ill health and/or injury among police forces in the United Kingdom. This review of absenteeism policies and management in seven police forces was commissioned to inform the process. It will be used to develop measures to improve public sector efficiency. It presents an in-depth analysis of absence management in the police forces studied, and identifies the clear themes and issues which are vital for the effective management of absence.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 139p. Illus. 29 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1471 Peate W.F., Bates G., Lunda K., Francis S., Bellamy K.
Core strength: A new model for injury prediction and prevention
Many workers work in injury-prone awkward positions that require adequate flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer muscle groups. Performance on a functional movement screen (FMS) that assessed those factors was conducted and an intervention was designed. A battery of FMS tests were performed on 433 firefighters. The correlations between FMS performance and injuries were analyzed. Further, an intervention to improve flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer muscle groups through a training programme was evaluated. The intervention reduced lost time due to injuries by 62% and the number of injuries by 42% over a twelve month period as compared to earlier levels. These findings suggest that strength and functional movement enhancement programs to prevent injuries among workers whose work involves awkward positions is warranted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Apr. 2007, Vol.2, No.3, 9p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 08-1096
Health and Safety Executive
Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007 - Baseline study
This report presents the findings of a survey of the costs incurred by enterprises and attitudes held by duty holders when complying with Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (CDM, see CIS 95-13) that took effect in April 2007. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and interviews. Costs were analysed by type of duty holder (designers, owners, general contractors and subcontractors), type and size of project, and time spent on site. A key finding was that the cost of CDM compliance did not exceed 2% of the project value for any duty holder. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. xx, 206p. Illus. 3 ref. [in English]

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