Economic aspects - 615 entries found
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National occupational accident statistics (1969-1970-1971)
Statistiques nationales d'accidents du travail (années 1969-1970-1971). [in French]
Financial and technological statistics compiled on the basis of data supplied by the French regional sickness insurance funds. Frequency rates of lost-time accidents (1963 to 1971), severity rates of temporary disability (1963 to 1971), severity index of permanent disability (1963 to 1971) and rate of hazard (1967 to 1971), for each national joint technical committee. Results, by principal occupational sectors and by regions, for the period 1969-1970-1971 and for 1971 alone. Tables and curves showing financial statistics. Breakdown, by principal occupational sectors and by regions, of lost-time accidents, severe accidents, number of days lost through temporary disability and general totals of permanent disability based on the usual criteria. Study of risks by groups of activities (15 in all). Statistics of occupational diseases notified in 1971. Results concerning commuting accidents (breakdown by regions), for the same period. Comments on the technological statistics for 1971 are contained in a separate brochure of 22p.
Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés, 55 avenue Bosquet, 75007 Paris, France, 1973. 280p. Illus.
Review of medical statistics, 1972.
A compilation of disability statistics received by Exxon Corporation from its affiliates. Numerous charts and diagrams indicate trends from geographical areas throughout the world: accident and sickness frequency, severity and disability rates; total time lost by employees. This is followed by comments of area representatives of Exxon Corporation's Medical Department (Europe, Latin America, N. America, Esso Eastern Region, Africa and Near East).
Medical Bulletin, Summer 1973, Vol.33, No.2, p.162-204. Illus.
Dryden S.L., Judd S.H.
Must your new plant be too noisy?
It is estimated that noise control measures adopted at the design stage are 2 or 3 times less expensive than measures taken in existing plants. Methods of achieving acceptable noise levels in a crude oil unit are reviewed, typical design features are tabulated and means of checking and enforcing contractors' compliance with equipment specifications are proposed. The second part of the article deals with the protection of the community against plant noise.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1973, Vol.34, No.6, p.241-251. Illus.
New York State Department of Labor, Division of Research and Statistics, New York.
Characteristics and costs of work injuries in New York State, 1966-1970.
This report gives occupational injury and occupational accident statistics in tabular form, according to material cause, type of accident, nature of injury, part of body affected, industrial sector, number of cases and percentage of total, and compensation awarded (amount, percentage of total, average), according to the classification scheme of the New York Workmen's Compensation Board. The report covers the 100 industries which had the largest number of compensated work injuries in the period covered; these industries accounted for 80% of all such injuries.
Office of Public Information, New York State Department of Labor, Building No.12, State Office Building Campus, Albany, N.Y. 12201, USA, Dec. 1972. 10 Vols. 4,400p. Price: US-$10.00.
A cost-effectiveness approach to industrial safety.
This research paper prepared for the Committee on Safety and Health at Work (Robens Committee) draws attention to the shortcomings of accident rates as an indication of effectiveness of safety measures and increased concern over accident costs. Safety measures should be treated in a systematic goal-orientated manner so that accident prevention methods are related to their efficiency and prospective risks are scaled against potential benefits and related to existing levels of social costs at policy-making levels. The following aspects are covered: a proposed methodological approach; review of industrial accident statistics; estimates of accident costs; classification of costs; and accident prevention expenditure. The application of these principles to particular industries (agriculture, steel handling firms, pharmaceuticals) and the results obtained are discussed. The prominence of human failure suggests that education and training should be evaluated where mechanical and operational safeguards are on or approaching the rising section of the prevention cost curve.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1972. 59p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: £0.40.
Calculating accident costs
Die Ermittlung von Unfallkosten [in German]
Based on studies in 40 Austrian industrial plants employing 77,000 workers, the direct and indirect costs of 16,858 reported industrial accidents (resulting in 1,668,000 lost working hours) are 47,400,000 and 133,000,000 Austrian schillings respectively, i.e. a total of 180,000,000 schillings. The direct cost per lost working hour is around 28 schillings and the direct cost per accident, 2764 schillings. The components and the calculation of costs are described.
Sichere Arbeit, Jan. 1972, Vol.24, No.4, p.5-9. Illus.
The cost of occupational safety - Practical considerations
Kostenaspekte der Arbeitssicherheit - praktisch betrachtet [in German]
The author emphasises that accident cost provides an effective safety motivation for profit-orientated management. Using the example of a cost calculation for an in-plant transport accident resulting in temporary disability, the author explains the problems involved in general cost calculation, all-in cost calculations and approximation cost calculations. A simplified approximation calculation method is described which covers only those cost elements which can be modified by safety measures and which have a direct relationship with the accident. It is not advisable to calculate other cost elements which are difficult if not impossible to quantify. Experience shows that safety measures cost less than accidents.
Sicher ist Sicher, July 1972, Vol.23, No.7, p.314-319. Illus. 5 ref.
Accident costs with particular reference to the Salary-payment Continuation Act
Unfallkosten unter besonderer Berücksichtingung des Lohnfortzahlungsgesetzes [in German]
Whereas until recently the indirect costs of accidents (mainly insurance premiums) where heavier than the direct costs, the Federal German Act of 1969 which grants a worker the right to continue receiving his salary for a maximum period of 6 months in the event of illness (the Federal German Salary-payment Continuation Act) has significantly altered the situation. The insurance companies are now relieved of the obligation to pay sickness benefit during the first 6 weeks and have thus been able to reduce their premiums. On the other hand, as a result of the Act, the financial burden placed on the firms has been considerably increased. The result is that the ratio of direct to indirect costs has been modified from 1:3 to 1:1. The economic aspects of in-plant safety and health policy thus become more important.
Moderne Unfallverhütung, 1972, No.16, p.9-12. 10 ref.
Economic effects of the industrial medical officer's work - Research sponsored by the Federal German Economic Rationalisation Commission
Wirtschaftliche Auswirkungen werksärztlicher Tätigkeiten - ein Forschungsauftrag des RKW [in German]
The work of the industrial medical officer is considered here as a part of the job placement process, and the degree to which this process is integrated into the operation of the firm will also have effects on the firm's profitability. The benefit the firm derives from the industrial medical officer's work, defined as a saving in time lost due to absence, is compared with the expenses entailed by an industrial medical officer; the results of this comparison in mining, steel-industry and chemical-industry firms are reviewed and it is found that the benefit derived tends to be greater than the expenses involved.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, Aug. 1972, Vol.7, No.8, p.238-232. 2 ref.
A study of the medical causes of absence from duty aboard South African merchant ships
A 4.5 year study of medical absence from duty on a number of merchant vessels (17 at beginning and 28 at end of study) showed 556 instances of absence for 4 or more dasys. Illness accounted for 297 cases and accidents for 259 cases. The average absence for illness and accident was 28 and 34 days respectively. Slightly more working days were lost due to accidents. Hospitalisation was required in 90% of illnesses and 36% of accidents. Appendicitis (of questionable veracity), peptic ulceration, and psychiatric disturbances were amongst the most common causes of incapacity. 40% of accidents occurred on deck and in the cargo holds. Fractures occurred more commonly in the upper limbs, especially the hand. 11% of accidents occurred ashore. Further study is required to elucidate whether the emotional problems encountered are brought to sea by the personnel or are a result of life on board ship. The high incidence of accidents highlights the hazardous nature of the work.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1972, Vol.29, No.2, p.196-200. 11 ref.
Human costs of nuclear power
After having pointed out that public health efforts are often stimulated more by emotional attitudes among the public than by objective considerations, and that our knowledge of the biological effects of ionising radiations exceeds our knowledge of the effects of any other physical or chemical agent, the author assesses the human costs (accidental injuries to nuclear industry employees, and potential health hazards incurred by all persons exposed to radiation from the nuclear power industry) of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity; these costs are said to be approximately 0.25 x 10-4 dollar per kWh. In terms of risk per person exposed, the mining and milling of uranium represents by far the costliest portion of the entire fuel cycle.
Science, 11 Aug. 1972, Vol.177, No.4048, p.487-493. 46 ref.
Accidents in electrical installation firms, in cable-laying and in overhead-line erection
Über das Unfallgeschehen bei den Elektroinstallationsgeschäften und den Betrieben des Frei- und Kabelleitungsbaus [in German]
Les processus des accidents dans les entreprises d'installations électriques et les entreprises pour le montage de lignes aériennes et la pose de conduites électriques souterraines [in French]
During a review of insurance premiums for the electrical-installation industry, a detailed study was made of accident experience in this sector. Details are given of the number and cost of accidents and advice is provided on the elimination of hazards. The hazard rating of each branch is indicated. Appendices give: detailed information on accident number and costs by branch, and on the work being done by the victim at the time of the accident; a breakdown of accidents by the injured person's job and the type of origin of the accident.
Schweizerische Unfallverhütungsanstalt, Lucerne, Switzerland, Aug. 1972. 11p.
Fires and fire losses classified, 1971
A summary account of the number of fires of various origin which occurred in the USA in 1971 (including fires in industry), and of the corresponding losses. The number of industrial fires declined from 56,200 in 1970 to 41,300 in 1971, but the resulting losses decreased only from 407.5 to 390.7 million dollars. Data relating to deaths from fires and the actiity of fire departments are also given.
Fire Journal, Sep. 1972, Vol.66, No.5, p.65-69.
World coal industry. Volume I: Economic issues. Volume II: Social issues
L'industrie charbonnière dans le monde. Volume I: Questions économiques. Volume II: Questions sociales [in French]
This report was compiled to serve as a framework for discussions during the Tripartite Technical Meeting for the coal industry held in Geneva in May 1938. Volume I is devoted to economic issues (production, consumption, capacity, trade, competition, prices), while volume II is devoted to social issues (labour force, salary and wages, employment and unemployment, social insurance, working hours, vacations); the chapter on social insurance includes sections on the compensation of occupational accidents and diseases.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1938. viii, 299p. Illus. Index. Price: CHF 8.00 (Vol. I); 1938. viii, 400p. Index. Price: CHF 8.00 (Vol. II).
World textile industry - Economic and social issues (Volumes I and II)
L'industrie textile dans le monde - Problèmes économiques et sociaux (volumes I et II) [in French]
This report was compiled to serve as a framework for discussions during the Tripartite Technical Meeting for the textile industry held in Washington in April 1937. Volume I is devoted to economic and social issues (production, consumption, capacity, trade, competition, prices, labour force, salary and wages, working hours, vacations, employment and unemployment), while volume II includes economic and social statistics for the textile industries of major countries.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1937. viii, 400p. Price: CHF 8.00 (Vol. I); vi, 294p. Price: CHF 8.00 (Vol. II).
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