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Small and medium-sized enterprises - 508 entries found

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CIS 03-1573 Packebusch L., Herzog B., Laumen S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Success through occupational safety and health
Erfolg durch Arbeitsschutz [in German]
This report addresses the issue of the effects of industrial safety and health measures on business success. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive effect of industrial health and safety on business success. To test this hypothesis, the applications for the Prize for the Promotion of Health in the Craft Trades in 1994, 1996 and 1998 were analysed and a sample of the businesses were questioned. In addition, the survival in business of the applicants was verified and compared with statistics from the craft trades in general. The investigation enabled the aspects influenced by industrial safety measures to be identified. Factors such as the use of consultants, initiatives and grounds for industrial safety measures and their influence were also investigated. It was found that during the period 1994 to 2001, businesses that applied for the Health Promotion Prize remained in business longer than craft businesses in general in Germany.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 136p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.

CIS 03-1967 Villar Fernández M.F., García Molina C., Armendáriz Pérez de Ciriza P., Cuenca Álvarez R., Sanz Merinero J.A., Villanueva del Rio M., Sebastián García O., Tortosa Latonda L., Ferreras Remesal A., Castelló Mercé P., Piedrabuena Cuesta A.
Manual on the assessment and prevention ergonomic and psychosocial hazards in SMEs
Manual para la evaluación y prevención de riesgos ergonómicos y psicosociales en PYME [in Spanish]
This manual is aimed at persons responsible for occupational safety and health in SMEs. It presents simple procedures for identifying ergonomic and psychosocial hazards. It consists of three main parts: a list to help establish the inventory of ergonomic and psychosocial hazards that are inherent to the enterprise; a compilation of simple tools and methodologies for assessing these hazards; a series of examples showing the approach used for identifying and assessing the hazards as well as proposals for closing the highlighted gaps. Appendices include 10 sheets for assessing various types of hazard (list for establishing the initial inventory hazards, thermal conditions, noise, lighting, workstation design, work at screens, manual handling, work posture and repetitive work, mental workload, psychosocial factors).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 96p. Illus. 29 ref. (manual) + 28p (annex) in binder. Price: EUR 31.25. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1574 Vickers I., Baldock R., Smallbone D., James P., Ekanem I.
Health and Safety Executive
Cultural influences on health and safety attitudes and behaviour in small businesses
This report details the findings of a study whose objective was to identify the role of cultural influences on health and safety attitudes and behaviour in small and micro-enterprises, together with related issues concerning channels of communication and the role of the Health and Safety Executive. The main cultural influence on health and safety attitudes and behaviour in small businesses was found to be the organizational culture that typifies many such enterprises, reflecting less formal approaches to management, the preference of owner/managers for autonomy and the closeness of employer/employee relations in small businesses.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xviii, 147p. Illus. 79 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1569 Shaw N., Turner R.
Health and Safety Executive
The Worker Safety Advisors (WSA) pilot
Workplaces with safety representatives and safety committees have significantly better accident records than those with no consultation mechanism, recording up to 50% fewer injuries. However, the majority of the workforce are not members of a trade union or employed in workplaces where unions are recognized. In this context, it is important to consider the most appropriate way in which effective representation can be developed in small firms and those workplaces with no union recognition agreements. One possible option to achieve this is through the work of independent, roving health and safety advisors, or Workers Safety Advisers (WSA). The purpose of this WSA pilot was to evaluate the effectiveness of a voluntary workers' safety advisors scheme by setting up and running pilots in a variety of employment sectors, including automotive engineering, construction, hospitality, voluntary work and retail.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xx, 200p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1607 Evaluation of occupational hazards - Guide for SMEs
Evaluation des risques professionnels - Guide pour les PME-PMI [in French]
The evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards are among the responsibilities of all enterprise managers. This guide provides a simple way of helping responsible persons to organize the approach to occupational safety and health within the enterprise. The approach consists of three steps: identify hazardous situations; prioritize the hazards to be addressed; implement the prevention measures. Specific sheets are presented for the following hazards: falls on the level; falls from heights; manual handling; mechanical handling; in-plant traffic; collapse and fall of objects; machinery and tools; noise; dangerous substances, emissions and waste; fire and explosion; electricity; lighting; work at screens; indoor climate; lack of hygiene; work by external contractors; road hazards; other hazards.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., June 2003. 29p. Illus. Price: EUR 5.10.$FILE/ed840.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1592 Lancaster R., Ward R., Talbot P., Brazier A.
Health and Safety Executive
Costs of compliance with health and safety regulations in SME's
This report presents the findings of a study carried out to assess whether the costs of compliance with health and safety regulations are disproportionately high for small enterprises, as well as the nature of safety and health-related expenditure and how effective it is in improving safety and health performance. The study involved postal questionnaires, followed by vists of 30 enterprises. It was indeed found that that the costs of compliance were disproportionately high for small enterprises, although the threshold at which these costs became disproportionate varied across the different items of legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 238p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1184 Alcouffe J., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y.
Medical and occupational consequences of low back disorders lasting more than 30 days during the preceding 12 months: Complementary analysis of the ACMS "low back pain" survey carried out between 1996 and 2000
Conséquences médico-professionnelles des lombalgies de plus de 30 jours au cours des 12 derniers mois: analyse complémentaire des enquêtes ACMS "lombalgies" réalisées entre 1996 et 2000 [in French]
This study uses the results of three earlier surveys on low back disorders in SMEs of the Ile-de-France region, and analyses cases of low back disorders having lasted more than 30 days during the preceding 12 months, described as "persistent low back pain". According to the three surveys, persistent low back pain accounted for approximately 30% of the overall low back disorders which concerned 55-68% of the workers. Persistent low back pain is associated with age, the number of children and the years of work on the job, and to a lesser degree, with not practicing a sport, being overweight, lifting of loads of more than 10kg and working in strenuous postures. Consequences include reduced levels of occupational and non-occupational activities, increased use of health services and short or long periods of absenteeism. In certain cases, workers developed coping strategies for continuing their level of activity despite the persistent low back pain.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.4, p.423-434. 18 ref.

CIS 03-1283 Iparraguirre J.F., Mallet G., Rio S., Bonthoux F., Vincent R.
Simplified evaluation of chemical hazards in the workplace
Evaluation simplifiée des risques chimiques au travail [in French]
This article presents a simplified method for the evaluation of chemical hazards suited to small and medium enterprises. The first two steps consist of compiling an inventory of the chemicals that are present in the workplace and of ranking the potential hazards from the viewpoint of safety and health, fires and explosions, and the environment. The third step which consists of in-depth evaluations of the hazards and the measures to be implemented for managing the hazards is covered in an other article.
Face au risque, Nov. 2003, No.397, p.24-28. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 03-1121 Portillo García-Pintos J.
Efficiency analysis of the management of the prevention of occupational risks within the framework of the general management of small and medium size enterprises in Spain: Recommendations for its improvement
Análisis de eficiencia de la gestión de la prevención de riesgos laborales en el contexto de la gestión general de las PYMES en España: Directrices para su mejora [in Spanish]
Practical and detailed recommendations for the integration of OSH management within the overall management of small and medium sized enterprises in Spain having modern management capacity. A total of 33 enterprises from 7 industrial sectors in the Spanish region of Galicia were analysed for the efficiency of their OSH management practices. Overall, the best results were obtained in enterprises that had instituted an OSH programme in a step-by-step fashion after having performed a thorough risk evaluation programme of the whole enterprise. The integration of OSH management within the general management of the enterprise was also a positive factor.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.24, p.27-38. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 03-1498 Helping small businesses prevent substance abuse
This manual on substance abuse in small enterprises is based on the findings of an ILO project aimed at developing models of prevention programmes suited to small enterprises. Contents: main aspects of substance abuse (substances, physiological effects, socio-demographic factors); emphasis on prevention (promoting good health, role of management, links with the community and the family); substance abuse at the workplace; substance abuse prevention in small businesses; establishing a substance abuse prevention programme (legislative and cultural norms, project leadership, project structure, implementation).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. viii, 111p. Illus. Price: CHF 15.00; USD 9.95; GBP 6.96; EUR 12.00.

CIS 03-1234 Mirabelli M.C., Loomis D., Richardson D.B.
Fatal occupational injuries among self-employed workers in North Carolina
Earlier research suggests that rates of occupational injury and death may be higher among self-employed workers than in the salaried population. This analysis was conducted to describe the demographic and occupational characteristics, as well as the injuries, activities and occupations of self-employed workers who are fatally injured on the job. Characteristics of workers by type of employment were compared using official statistics from the State of North Carolina for the period 1978-1994. Fatality rated by age, activity and industry in 395 self-employed workers were contrasted to 1,654 employed workers. The highest fatal injury rates among the self-employed occurred in agriculture, retail trade and transportation. Homicide deaths occurred more frequently among self-employed workers, while deaths resulting from unintentional injuries occurred more frequently among non-self-employed workers. These findings provide justification for addressing work-related conditions of self-employed workers in North Carolina.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2003, Vol.44, No.2, p.182-190. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1392 Kines P., Mikkelsen K.L.
Effect of firm size on risks and reporting of elevation fall injury in construction trades
While many occupational safety programmes target large firms, the construction industry is dominated by smaller firms. This study examines the differential effect of firm size on the risk and the reporting of over 3000 non-fatal elevation fall injuries in the Danish construction industry from 1993 to 1999. Small firms (<20 employees) accounted for 93% of all firms and 55% of full-time equivalent workers. There was an inverse relationship between firm size and serious injury rates and a direct relationship between firm size and minor injury rates. An inverse relationship between firm size and injury severity odds ratios (serious versus minor) was found for all trades, but was particularly pronounced for carpentry and electrical work. Health and safety policies, legislation and enforcement in the construction industry should take the smaller size of firms in the industry into consideration.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.45, No.10, p.1074-1078. 24 ref.

CIS 03-601 Winkler C., Irwin J.N.
Health and Safety Executive
Contractorisation - Aspects of health and safety in the supply chain
This report investigates the reality behind the perceptions within the Health and Safety Executive that subcontracting is increasing health and safety risks, particularly in small enterprises. An investigation was undertaken with selected companies from the events, food processing and health service sectors. Two supply chains were selected in each of these sectors, consisting of a combination of customer and/or second tier suppliers. Questionnaires were used in face-to-face meetings with two or three individuals in each company, complemented by discussion to elicit wider views and opinions. The report provides information and recommendations that may be used as the basis for developing future guidance and action.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. x, 36p. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 03-600 Wright M., Marsden S., Collier D., Hopkins C.
Health and Safety Executive
Identification of industry sectors in which employers perceive their business operates
This study undertakes a fundamental review of the guidance offered by the HSE, particularly with regard to the needs of small firms. It involved a review of past research, exploratory discussions with employers and a large postal survey. Employers preferences for the structure of HSE publications, communication and publicity methods were identified. An analysis of HSE's current suite of publications was combined with an evaluation of the HSE's website and e-commerce activities, allowing the highlighting of gaps in specific guidance in a number of sectors and activities.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xii, 111p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-675 Abecassis P., Andéol B., Auburtin G., Beaumont N., Bediot G., Brault A., Carlier H, Daubigney L., Ducrot-Henry L., Fernandez N., Ferry P., Gendre J.C., Incorvaïa A.M., Jacquet F., Juhel A., Lafon D., Lecinq C., Lecompte D., Le Trionnaire C., Malonga E.A., Metin P., Nicolas A., Raymond F., Renin O., Saulnier M., Smolik H.J., Tortellier L., Verger C.
Evaluation and prevention of hazards in small offset printing shops
Evaluation et prévention des risques dans les petites imprimeries offset [in French]
Contents of this feature article on the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards in small offset printing shops: description of the activity in terms of premises, persons employed and production processes; hazards, modes of exposure and risks (mechanical hazards, hazards from inks, additives, cleaning agents and solvents); tests of exposures to solvents, ozone and noise; guidance on the prevention of hazards due to chemicals, mechanical equipment, work postures and noise; guidance on various topics (lighting, electrical equipment, work organization). Appendices include a check list for hazards encountered during the various production steps, as well as an evaluation questionnaire on the guidance presented in this article aimed at occupational safety and health professionals.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.94, p.109-150. Illus. 48 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-81
Health and Safety Executive
Aching arms (or RSI) in small businesses - Is ill health due to upper limb disorders a problem in your workplace?
This booklet is designed to help employers and managers in small enterprises to understand upper limb disorders (ULDs), often called "RSI" (repetitive strain injury). Contents: definition; symptoms; difference between ULD and RSI; managing ULDs; risk assessment in the workplace; measures for reducing the risks; dealing with ULDs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2003. 12p. Illus 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-79
Health and Safety Executive
An introduction to health and safety: Health and safety in small businesses
This booklet on occupational safety and health is aimed mainly at persons who manage small firms, but also at employees and their representatives. It covers the key areas of risk at work: managing health and safety; slips, trips and falls; asbestos; hazardous substances; falls from heights; musculoskeletal disorders; display screens; noise; vibration; electricity; equipment and machinery; maintenance and building work; workplace transport; pressure systems; fire and explosion; radiation; stress; first aid; accident reporting. It includes a section on making a risk assessment and preparing a health and safety policy document. Replaces CIS 98-132.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2003. 33p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-133 Phoon W.O., Kawakami T., Ton T.K., Nguyen T.H.T., Lehtinen S., Chavalitnitikul C., De Alwis R., Muto T., Ng L.P.
Informal sector
This issue is primarily devoted to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the informal sector. Contents: practical application of ILO-OSH 2001 Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System in Vietnam; OSH in SMEs and in the informal sector in Vietnam; OSH information, training and education; home workers in Thailand; approach to providing occupational heath services to the informal sector in Sri Lanka; new OSH measures for SMEs in Japan. Other topics: practical approaches to occupational hygiene in Singapore; review article on a WHO meeting of occupational health collaborating centres held in Brazil; review article on an ICOH meeting held in Brazil.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Mar. 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 08-45 Chaikittiporn C.
A country report for the ILO/ADB RETA Project 5887 - Strengthening the role of labour standards in selected developing member countries
This report describes the organization of occupational safety and health (OSH) at the national level in Thailand based on a survey of 23 small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) involved in manufacturing activities. It outlines a development plan for OSH and the environment and makes recommendations for strengthening OSH in small and medium size enterprises. Work involved a literature survey and interviews with selected enterprises in three representative sectors for SMEs in Thailand, namely garments, plastic products and metalworking. Good practices observed in some SMEs are reported. Recommendations for improving OSH in Thailand are formulated based on the findings of this project.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. vii, 146p. (English version); 109p. (Thai version). Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 07-1335 Pilkington A., Graham M.K., Cowie H.A., Mulholland R.E., Dempsey S., Melrose A.S., Hutchinson P.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Survey of use of occupational health support
The objectives of the study described in this report were to estimate the proportion of employers who use occupational health support services in the United Kingdom and to provide a breakdown of results by company size, sector, region and the type of occupational health support provided. It involved phone interviews with a random sample of 4950 enterprises, followed by face-to-face interviews with selected enterprises. Findings are discussed. An estimated two million workers suffer from occupational diseases. Many are employed in small and medium sized enterprises, where there is often no workplace access to occupational health support. Despite several campaigns, many employers in these enterprises remain unaware of long-term risks to health in the workplace and the need to take a practical proactive approach to prevention.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. x, 130p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 06-534 Using work equipment safely
This booklet is aimed at owners and managers of small businesses and provides simple, practical advice on the safe use of work equipment. Guidance is given on the identification of potential hazards, and the reduction of risk by using the right equipment for the job, making sure that machinery and hand tools are safe, guarding dangerous parts of machines, selecting the right controls, maintenance of machinery and equipment and instruction and training of employees. It also describes common causes of accidents in small businesses when using ladders, drilling machines and fork-lift trucks. Replaces previous edition (CIS 00-661).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. 16p. Illus. 15 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-749
Health and Safety Executive
Work-related violence - Case studies - Managing the risk in smaller businesses
Work-related violence has serious consequences for employees and the businesses they work for. Victims may suffer not only physical injury, but also psychological effects, such as anxiety and stress. For their employers this can represent a real financial cost. This guide presents 10 case studies showing how owners and managers of small businesses can successfully manage the risk of violence. The case studies are grouped according to four business sectors: retail, health and welfare, security and enforcement, leisure and service providers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. iv, 36p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 03-1237 Goyal P.K.
Overview of HSE issues confronting small industries and a common pool approach strategy
This article presents some of the efforts undertaken to ensure the effective compliance of small and medium sized enterprizes (SMEs) in India with legal enactments concerning occupational safety and health. These efforts require the involvement of the government, international organizations, NGOs and professional and industrial associations. A cooperative programme in a region where many small-scale dyes and pigments industries are based is presented. An association was formed to build and maintain a waste water treatment plant and to take care of occupational safety and health issues, with the support of a local charitable institution.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.60-65.

CIS 03-1236 Mahadevan H.
Impact of globalisation on HSE in small and medium enterprises - Trade union's perspective
SMEs producing goods for export mostly operate in the informal sector or in special export zones where in many cases workers are not organized, the Factories Act does not apply and occupational safety and health (OSH) provisions are minimal. This article presents a trade union perspective and reflects on some of the negative aspects of trade liberalization in India from the standpoint of OSH, working conditions and child labour based on the case of the cotton knitwear industry centred in the Tirupur region in South India.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.55-59.

CIS 03-1235 Kimura Y.
Occupational health, safety and environmental challenges for small end medium enterprises (SMEs) - A perspective from Japan's experience
Although considerable improvements in safety have been achieved over the years in the Japanese construction sector, the rates of accidents are still high among SMEs. Factors contributing to these accidents include low occupational safety and health (OSH) consciousness among employers, poor access to administrative guidance and the lack of appropriate information. This article describes various efforts that have been undertaken in view of improving the safety performance of SMEs in the construction sector. These efforts include programmes to help improve employers' OSH consciousness, OSH support programmes for groups of SMEs, the provision of OSH information through the use of information technology; encouraging the implementation of OSH management systems and ensuring the collaboration of the business side of the enterprise.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.43-45.

CIS 03-812 Tijssen S.C.H.A., Links I.H.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Ways for SMEs to assess and control risks from hazardous substances - Report of an international workshop held on 26 & 27 November 2001
Many companies pay little attention to assessing exposure to chemicals and to the control of risks. This is specially true of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). In November 2001, a workshop entitled "Finding ways to help small and medium sized firms assess and manage the risks from hazardous substances" was organized in The Hague (The Netherlands) to share information on tools for assessment and control. There was a broad consensus among participants of several European institutes involved in this field regarding tools suited to SMEs: they need simple tools with explanations in plain language; tools should have a sound scientific basis; computer-based tools are worth developing since more and more workplaces have Internet access; since many tools use the data of safety data sheets as a starting point, they should be as accurate as possible. Several actions were agreed on in order to take these ideas forward.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 16p. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 03-714 Estrella-Gust D.P.
The children in footwear making in Biñan, Laguna (booklet); Hope for the children of Biñan: A community wakes up to protect the younger generation (video recording)
The purpose of this study was to determine the health status of child workers in Biñan, located in a region of the Philippines having many small footwear manufacturing enterprises, as well as to document and record their working conditions and the hazards to which they are exposed. It is a contribution to the implementation of ILO Convention 182 on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor. Teams from the Occupational Safety and Health Center visited 14 pre-selected workplaces in the area, and a medical team interviewed and examined 93 working children. A variety of health hazards were observed. On physical examination, 30% of children examined were found to have enlarged lymph nodes, usually indicating ongoing bacterial or viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. The research team recommended that the owners and managers of these enterprises be given instruction on basic occupational safety and health. Training modules were developed, based on the research findings.
Occupational Safety And Health Center, North Ave. cor. Agham Road Diliman, 1104 Quezon City, Philippines, [c2002]. 13p. + video recording (VHS format).

CIS 03-545
Health and Safety Executive
Working together - Guidance on health and safety for contractors and suppliers
Large firms often contract tasks such as installation, maintenance, waste disposal or cleaning of tanks to smaller firms. These jobs can be particularly risky because they are done on site and under conditions which are unfamiliar to the workers carrying them out. This booklet is aimed at small enterprises or independent workers involved in contract work and outlines the safety and health aspects to be taken into consideration when performing contract work for larger enterprises. Contents: general information on safety and health; legislation; what needs to be done in order to comply with legislation (health and safety policy statement; hazard evaluation; information and training; reporting of occupational accidents; insurance coverage; supervision; monitoring safety and health performance); self-appraisal check list. Replaces CIS 98-1235.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., Jan. 2002. 19p. Illus. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-589 Malchaire J.
Identification of risks in occupational settings through the participation of workers - DEPARIS approach
DEpistage PArticipatif des RISques dans une situation de travail - Méthode DEPARIS [in French]
This article describes an approach for the identification of hazards suited for small enterprises, involving the participation of workers. The working conditions are systematically reviewed and all aspects influencing the ease, efficiency and satisfaction at work are discussed with the aim of identifying practical prevention measures. Points needing further investigation with the assistance of specialists or experts are highlighted. The procedure is followed during a meeting of key operators and technical managers. The approach is shown to be simple, quick to implement and low in cost. It could play a significant role in the development of a dynamic risk management programme and a participatory culture in the enterprise.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2002, Vol.XXXIX, No.4, p.149-167. 22 ref.

CIS 03-658 Simard M., Carpentier-Roy M.C., Marchand A., Ouellet F.
Exploratory study of the preventive occupational health dynamics in small enterprises
Etude exploratoire des dynamiques préventives en santé au travail dans les petits établissements [in French]
This study concerns the implementation of occupational health services in small enterprises in Quebec. Its objective is to provide occupational health practitioners with a set of criteria enabling them to better adapt their interventions to the specific conditions of these occupational settings. The study was conducted in the form of a survey of eight small Quebec enterprises. Data was collected through field observations, by questionnaire and during interviews with business owners, managers, workers and occupational health professionals. The study enables the highlighting of the various forms of preventive dynamics in small enterprises.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 3C2, Canada, Dec. 2002. iii, 36p. Illus. 50 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-775 Dykeman R., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith T., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Piacitelli G.M., Hu H., Hernandez-Avila M.
Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers
Lead exposure was investigated among 73 Mexican radiator repair workers employed in 31 repair shops, 12 members of their families (four children and eight wives) and 36 unexposed working controls. Exposure was assessed directly through the use of personal air sampling and hand wipe analyses. In addition, industrial hygiene inspections were performed, detailed questionnaires were administered and blood lead levels were measured. The mean values for blood lead of the radiator repair workers was 35.5µg/dL, compared to 13.6µg/dL for controls. Air lead levels ranged from 0 to 99µg/m3 with a mean value of 19µg/m3. The strongest predictors of elevated blood lead levels were smoking, the number of radiators repaired per day and the use of a uniform while at work, which were associated with blood lead elevations of 11.4µg/dL, 1.95µg/dL/radiator/day, and 16.4µg/dL, respectively. Uniforms were not laundered regularly and consequently served as reservoirs of contamination on which workers frequently wiped their hands.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.41, No.3, p.179-187. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 03-638 Morfeld M., Schnabel P.E.
What is the value of self-diagnosis? Postvalidation of a screening form that allows the evaluation of occupational allergies in craft industries
"Was ist Selbstdiagnose wert?" Postvalidierung eines Screeningbogens zur Erfassung berufsbedingter Allergien im Handwerk [in German]
In the context of a multicentric study aimed at preventing occupational allergies among craftsmen, 1000 workers in the wood and plastic converting industries were asked to evaluate the possible allergies from which they suffered, their safety at work and their job satisfaction by means of a questionnaire. A total of 278 responses was collected. For validating the self-diagnosis responses and evaluating the effective prevalence of allergies, 100 workers were subjected to further allergy and lung function tests and had to respond to the questionnaire a second time. Examinations enabled to identify 96 cases of allergy. 32 subjects showed a significant allergy from the clinical point of view, among whom 72% had diagnosed it in the questionnaire. 22 subjects exhibited non-specific toxic symptoms and eight had noticeable lung-function problems. The comparison of questionnaire data and medical diagnoses showed a relationship between safety shortcomings within the enterprise and allergies.
Ergo-Med, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.26, No.5, p.142-150. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 03-212 Durand E., Lafon D.
Occupational health services and hazard evaluation in small enterprises
Les services de santé au travail et l'évaluation des risques dans les petites entreprises [in French]
The publication of the Decree of 5 November 2001 concerning the creation of a document on the evaluation of hazards for the safety and health of workers (see CIS 01-1278) provided an opportunity for renewed discussions on the topic. This article consists of a review of presentations made during a symposium held on 6 June 2002 in Lyon, France organized by INRS together with the French occupational health insurance institution for the Rhône-Alpes region. Its purpose was to exchange views on the specific details concerning the involvement of occupational health services in evaluating hazards in small enterprises. Evaluations made by occupational health physicians in support of actions undertaken by employers were reviewed with reference to the regulatory framework. Occupational health services presented actions already undertaken or under way in small enterprises, and the occupational safety and health branch of the French social security administration presented the possible forms of collaboration with it's services.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.91, p.283-295. Illus.

CIS 03-157 Walters D.
Working safety in small enterprises in Europe - Towards a sustainable system for worker participation and representation
It is widely acknowledged that work in small enterprises involves higher levels of injuries, fatalities and occupational diseases. This report presents evidence of the advantages of worker organization and trade union support promoting occupational safety and health in small enterprises. Contents: nature of the safety and health problem in small enterprises; supporting and sustaining improvements in safety and health in small enterprises; workers' participation in safety and health of small enterprises in Italy; dealing with the issue of poor safety and health performance of small enterprises in Spain through regional and sector structure initiatives; regional safety and health representatives in Sweden; developing systems of participation in small enterprises in the United Kingdom; future actions.
European Trade Union Confederation, 5 Bd. du Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2002. 172p. Illus. 100 ref.

CIS 03-246 Pearse W.
Club Zero: Implementing OHSMS in small to medium fabricated metal companies
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of occupational safety and health management systems (OSHMS) in small- to medium-size metal manufacturing companies. The study included the design and implementation of an OSHMS in 17 companies active in this sector. An innovative aspect of the project included the formation of a network of participating companies. The results indicated that for some companies, OSHMS are applicable and improvements can be gained in OHS management. The role and effectiveness of networking was not independently assessed; however, some participants found that it provided a useful form of access to scarce OHS resources. The study provides practical information about how an OSHMS may be improved in small- to medium-size companies.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2002, Vol.18, No.4, p.347-356. 21 ref.

CIS 02-1830 Rongo L.M.B., Besselink A., Douwes J., Barten F., Msamanga G.I., Dolmans W.M.V., Demers P.A., Heederik D.
Respiratory symptoms and dust exposure among male workers in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania
Few studies have assessed respiratory symptoms and dust exposure levels in small-scale wood industry workers in Africa. In this study, 546 Tanzanian workers exposed to wood dust and 565 unexposed controls were interviewed using a respiratory health questionnaire. Inhalable dust measurements were collected in the breathing air of 106 workers. The dust exposure was high, and job title-based geometric mean exposure levels ranged from 2.9 to 22.8mg/m3. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months was significantly higher in the exposed group compared with the controls. Allergy and sensitivity symptoms were reported regularly in the exposed group with odds ratios varying from 2.4 for low- and 2.7 for high-exposure groups compared with controls. It is concluded that working in the small-scale wood industry in Tanzania is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1153-1160. 25 ref.

CIS 02-1858
Health and Safety Executive
Control of exposure to silica dust in small potteries
This information sheet contains advice for small and medium-sized potteries on the risks from dust containing respirable crystalline silica and the precautions to minimize exposure. Contents: activities involving silica dust exposure and risks; silica dust control; control measures for reducing exposure; legal requirements; free silica percentages of various clay materials; poor working practices and precautions to reduce exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 6p. 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1197 McKinney P.
Health and Safety Executive
Expanding HSE's ability to communicate with small firms: A targeted approach
Communicating with small firms for the purpose of raising awareness in safety and health issues is difficult, and requires a high degree of focus on those activities that relate to the firms' core business needs. The aim of this study was to identify "key events" in the life of small firms that illustrate their need for advice or information and to propose appropriate channels for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to communicate this guidance. The approach used was based on identifying key events that take place in the operations of small firms and the type of safety and health information required to respond to these key events. Sector Key Events Approaches (SKEAs) were developed for the plastics, catering, motor vehicle repair, car-body repair and construction sectors. These describe the attitudes to safety and health, the key events and the best communication channels for reaching small firms within each sector (such as visits by HSE staff, online information, trade associations, trade press, focus groups, etc.).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 91p. 20 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 02-841 Materna B.L., Harrington D., Scholz P., Payne S.F., Stubbs H.A., Hipkins K., Merideth E., Kirsch L., Lomax G., Coyle P., Uratsu C.
Results of an intervention to improve lead safety among painting contractors and their employees
Painters are at risk of lead poisoning when preparing surface for painting in older buildings. An intervention strategy was evaluated for improving lead safety in small businesses. 21 painting contractors received 32 hours of training, technical assistance, and a safety manual; their employees attended an 8-hr training session. Impact evaluation involved interviewing participants at baseline, immediately post-intervention and one year later, and conducting contractor focus groups post-intervention. Employers met 15 of the 27 target objectives and workers met 3 of 12; however, even in areas where objectives were not met, both groups made improvements. Motivated contractors and their employees can make moderate improvements in lead-safe practices if provided with extensive training and technical assistance. Changes that are costly, unfamiliar, or perceived as a threat to work quality are more difficult to implement.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.119-130. 32 ref.

CIS 02-668 Minamoto K., Nagano M., Inaoka T., Kitano T., Ushijima K., Fukuda Y., Futatsuka M.
Skin problems among fiber-glass reinforced plastics factory workers in Japan
Skin problems of 148 manual workers from 11 fibre-glass reinforced plastics (FRP) factories were studied by means of a questionnaire and a dermatological examination. 87 workers (58.8%) reported having skin problems (mainly itching or dermatitis) since starting work in FRP manufacturing and 25 workers had consulted a physician for skin problems. One worker was forced to take sick leave for severe dermatitis. A history of allergic diseases and shorter durations of employment in a FRP factory were associated with greater probability of having a history of work-related skin symptoms. Workers in factories where dust-generating and lamination sites were located in different buildings were significantly less likely to have a history of skin problems than those in factories where the two sites were located in the same building. Of the 67 workers examined in summer and winter, close to double the prevalence of dermatitis was found in summer (23.3%) than winter (13.4%).
Industrial Health, Jan. 2002, Vol.40, No.1, p.42-50. 23 ref.

CIS 02-750 Park H., Ha E., Kim J., Jung H., Paek D.
Occupational health services for small-scale enterprises in Korea
The Korean government provides financial subsidies for occupational health services in Small Scale Enterprises (SSE). The subsidy programme involves support for health examinations for workers exposed to specific occupational hazards, workplace environmental measurements and biweekly health education sessions and counseling. 5,080 factories which had participated in the programme in 1997 were surveyed. The overall morbidity of the workers in these SSEs was higher than the national average for both general and occupational diseases. Based on the health examinations for occupational disease of those workers exposed to occupational hazards such as noise, dust or solvents, the industry-specific occupational disease patterns were identified, enabling the planning of targeted occupational health services to specific groups. This programme may also be a good model for rapidly-developing countries.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2002, Vol.40, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 07-513 Occupational safety and health - Training package for managers
This ILO training package consists of a practical guide to the principles and practice of occupational safety and health aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: basic training manual (planning the training workshops, course curriculum); training transparencies; examples of low-cost or no-cost measures for accident prevention, hazard mitigation and workplace improvement.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. Boxed set of three training manuals (151p. Illus.; 162p. Illus; 41p. Illus).

CIS 04-12
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Collection of guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association concerning occupational physicians [Germany]
Sammlung der bei der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften erlassenen UVV Betriebsärzte [in German]
In Germany, safety and health controls in SMEs need to be carried out by occupational physicians. In their guidance, the Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association define the responsibilities of employers with respect to occupational medicine as well as the scope of duties of occupational physicians active within the industrial sector. The present publication consists of a compilation of 35 rules that apply to the following industrial sectors: mining industry; quarries, ceramics and glass; gas, water and urban heating; foundries and rolling mills; metal construction and machinery; metals; precision mechanics and electrical equipment; chemicals; wood; paper; printing and paper processing; leather; textiles and clothing; food industry and catering; meat slaughtering; sugar; construction industry; wholesale distribution and warehousing; retail sales; administration; trams, suburban trains and railways; vehicle fleets; inland navigation; health and social services. Previous edition: VBG 123 (see CIS 93-12).
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 1989-2001. Binder containing 35 guidelines. 349p.

CIS 02-1965 Jensen P.L., Alstrup L., Thoft E.
Workplace assessment: A tool for occupational health and safety management in small firms?
This paper discusses the capability of small firms in Denmark to comply with legislative demands for risk assessment. A national survey highlighted that only a minor fraction of small firms actually comply with this requirement. However, it is shown through two case studies that small firms would be perfectly able to meet the demands. An analysis of these cases leads to hypotheses on the preconditions favouring compliance, namely that many firms would need the help of an external person to mediate legislative demands and to act as an intermediary with company owners, their assistants or safety representatives. The necessary qualifications for this mediation role are discussed. It is concluded that to stimulate workplace assessment activities in small firms, support from occupational health or labour inspection services are required.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.433-440. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1577 Bestratén Belloví M., Marrón Vidal M.A.
Occupational safety and health management in small and medium enterprises
Gestión de la prevención de riesgos laborales en la pequeña y mediana empresa [in Spanish]
Aimed at SMEs, this guide was published to provide employers and employees with the basic elements of the various aspects of management of occupational safety and health. For each aspect covered, a self-appraisal questionnaire and one or several progress monitoring forms as well as the applicable regulations are provided. Main topics covered: safety and health policy and organization; general measures aimed at eliminating or reducing risks (prevention at the source, collective and personal protection, information and training of workers); control of hazards (hygienic, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards, preventive maintenance); management of planned changes (modifications and acquisitions, personnel hiring, subcontractors, transfer to other work, coordination between enterprises); management of foreseeable events (emergencies, major and imminent hazards, first aid, investigation of the causes of accidents or incidents having had an effect on health); documentation of the occupational safety and health system.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 106p. 51 ref.

CIS 02-1432 Barth C., Hamacher W., Stoll R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Development of effective structures for improving occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized companies taking the examples of noise reduction and ergonomics
Präventive Arbeitsschutzstrukturen für Klein- und Mittelbetriebe am Beispiel Lärmbehinderung und Ergonomie [in German]
Through an analysis of practical cases in small firms in various industries, the objective of this study was to examine organizational factors responsible for levels of noise and physical strain detrimental to the health of employees, as well as the structural causes of the lax application of legal requirements with respect to noise levels and the ergonomic design of workplaces. Based on these elements, effective safety and health organizational structures are proposed. Safety and health considerations need to be integrated into the company's management and organization as well as in its operating procedures, and must equally be based on internal knowledge and on external expert advice. Five recommendations for the development of an integrated safety and health management system are proposed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 335p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: EUR 25.50.

CIS 02-1307 Gozlan-Savaro M., Hays G., Mzabi M., Cohen P., Alcouffe J.
What has become of employees in our start-up enterprises?
Que sont nos start-uppers devenus? [in French]
Occupational physicians in Paris had the opportunity to follow a new type of enterprise, the start-up. Their attention was drawn by the contrast between the personal effort of the employees and the material and working-hour conditions which they judged to be particularly constraining. They expressed the interest to study this special population over a longer period. While it was possible to establish the baseline conditions at the start of the study, the rapid rate of disappearance of start-up enterprises did not permit a longitudinal follow-up of the cohort of entrepreneurs. This article describes start-up enterprises, proposes the psychological profile of entrepreneurs and presents the trends in the working conditions of the few employees who remained within the field of observation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.4, p.449-454. 9 ref.

CIS 02-1368 Richez J.P.
Three woodworking shops adopt variable-flow exhaust ventilation
Trois menuiseries industrielles adoptent l'aspiration à débit variable [in French]
Wood dust being a known carcinogen, it is necessary to equip woodworking shops with dust collection systems. This article presents the experience of thee small woodworking shops having opted for a variable-flow exhaust ventilation system. This system constantly adjusts the flow of air required for collecting dust as a function of the number of machines being used. As a result, it is not only more efficient, but also allows energy savings. The schematic design of a variable-flow exhaust ventilation system is presented. The article also refers to relevant French and European regulations, in particular to Council Directive 1999/38/EC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work (see CIS 00-1516).
Travail et sécurité, June 2001, No.608, p.10-15. Illus.

CIS 02-1184 Okun A., Lentz T.J., Schulte P., Stayner L.
Identifying high-risk small business industries for occupational safety and health interventions
Incidence rates and numbers of occupational injuries and diseases were identified in 253 US small business industries. There were 1,568 work-related fatalities, caused for the most part by transportation accidents and violent acts. Many of the industries had morbidity and mortality rates exceeding the average rates for all private industry. The highest risks resulted from operations such as logging, cut stone and stone products, truck terminals, roofing and sheet metal work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.301-311. 19 ref.

CIS 02-625 Smith D., Hsu P.
Occupational health and safety in Taiwan
Taiwan's major OHS problems have been caused by a number of factors, including rapid industrial development and the propensity for small-scale enterprises. Despite such limitations, progress has been made in many areas of OHS during recent years. However, as the size of many businesses prevents adequate workplace inspections, governmental enforcement of Taiwan's OHS legislation remains less than complete. Therefore, if advancements are to be made in workplace safety, small business must be targeted as this area is the least knowledgeable in OHS matters and the least compliant with OHS laws and regulations.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2001, Vol.17, No.4, p.401-403. 7 ref.

CIS 02-979 Faulkner K.A., Landsittel D.P., Hendricks S.A.
Robbery characteristics and employee injuries in convenience stores
Convenience store employees are at risk of injuries related to robberies. A prospective cohort study of 460 convenience store robberies was conducted from 1 February 1995 to 30 September 1996 to highlight possible associations between injury, robbery circumstances and work environments. Data sources included police reports, employee interviews, store evaluations and relevant census data. Injury risk was found to be strongly associated with the following factors: employee resistance, robberies without firearms or money taken, daytime and merchandise robberies, stores with limited escape routes and no cash limit policy or drop safe, older clerks, surrounding areas with lower valued buildings, less expensive rent, more vacant structures, and younger residents. Numerous inter-correlations between these characteristics were identified. Employee training, store procedures and store layout designs are important factors to consider for reducing robbery-related injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.703-709. 19 ref.

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