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Small and medium-sized enterprises - 508 entries found

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CIS 07-128 A guide to establish and implement safety management system for small and medium sized contractors
Aimed at small enterprises in the construction sector, this practical guide describes an approach for establishing and implementing a safety management system. The first part defines the various steps of the approach, and proposes a checklist of required actions for each step. The second part proposes models of various safety documents, forms and checklists needed for implementation, control, safety inspections and accident analyses.
Singapore Contractors Association Limited, Construction House, 1 Bukit Merah Lane 2, Singapore 159760, Republic of Singapore, 2005. 64p. Illus.

CIS 06-1393 Safety calculator for hospitality small business
This CD-ROM includes a "Safety Calculator" showing the full range of costs of a workplace incident and a video entitled "Small Business Talking Safety" (see also CIS 06-1335). It is aimed specifically at the hospitality sector and includes a number of occupational safety and health publications of particular interest to this field of activity. Topics addressed include back injuries, burns, cuts, slips and falls, and violence.
Worksafe BC (Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia), Canada (, 2005. CD-ROM.

CIS 06-1335 Safety calculator for small business
This CD-ROM includes a "Safety calculator" showing the full range of costs of a workplace incident, including training for new or replacement workers, purchasing new equipment and loss of productivity. Small businesses, defined as having fewer than 20 workers, represent 93% of the 170,000 companies in British Columbia and are responsible for 33% of the short-term disability claims. Aside from the human costs, the average cost per claim for small business is about CAD 8400. The CD-ROM also includes a video entitled "Small Business Talking Safety", in which small business employers discuss how including safety and health as a core business value is important, as it saves money and improves staff morale and productivity. It also includes a number of occupational safety and health publications aimed at small businesses in sectors such as retail, hospitality, trucking, sawmills and construction.
Worksafe BC (Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia), Canada (, 2005. CD-ROM.

CIS 06-1334 Evaluation of occupational hazards - Guide for the identification of hazards in SMEs
Evaluation des risques professionnels - Aide au repérage des risques dans les PME-PMI [in French]
Occupational risk assessment and prevention form part of the responsibilities of all enterprise managers. This guide aims to help managers organize the occupational safety and health approach of their company in a simple manner. Three steps are proposed: identify the hazardous situations, choose the risks to be dealt with as a priority, and apply the prevention measures. It contains 17 sheets addressing the most common hazards, together with the corresponding prevention measures. Replaces CIS 03-1607.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 3rd ed., Oct. 2005. 28p. Illus. Price: EUR 4.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed840.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1398 Bhagia L.J., Sadhu H.G., Saiyed H.N.
Prevention and control of silicosis - Experience in agate industry
The Indian agate industry is principally a cottage industry situated in the state of Gujarat, employing around 15,000 workers. Airborne silica dust is generated during the grinding process, pervading the work environment and adjacent areas, often situated within living premises. Silicosis is prevalent within this industry, affecting 38% of the workers. Among workers showing radiological evidence of silicosis, 60% had worked for less than 10 years. This article discusses some of the key steps for the prevention and control of silicosis in this industry, including local exhaust and encouraging workers to adopt improved working methods.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2005, Vol.12, No.3, p.71-74. Illus. 10 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1288 Krungkraiwong S.
Participatory work improvement in Thailand
This article examines trends in occupational injuries in Thailand between 1992 and 2003 and investigates the implementation of workers' participation programmes in small enterprises, such as the Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) approach of the ILO (see CIS 03-1545). It describes the implementation of WISE programmes in hot work environments and workplaces with high musculoskeletal load. The participatory approach was found to be effective in improving both working conditions and productivity.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2005, Vol.12, No.3, p.68-70. Illus. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1367 Ghosh P.C., Iqbal R., Bairwa B.L., Roy I.K., Chandra S.
Occupational health profile of beedi workers and ergonomic intervention
Beedis consist of cut tobacco leaves filled with tobacco powder and rolled into small cigarettes. Beedi manufacturing is a household occupation or a small-scale industry in the informal sector. This article describes the findings of a series of surveys on the occupational health profile of beedi workers. It describes the various steps involved in beedi manufacture as well as the main health hazards, which include nicotine inhalation or skin absorption and musculoskeletal diseases due to awkward postures. Several recommendations for improving working conditions and occupational hygiene are proposed.
INDOSHNEWS, Apr.-June 2005, Vol.10, No.2, p.1-7. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1144 3 steps to effective worker education and training
The objective of this guide is to help employers and supervisors keep new and young workers safe on the job and prevent painful and costly work-related injuries. It is aimed in particular at small enterprises. The approach involves three steps: providing new and young workers with safety orientation and basic training before they start working; training new and young workers for the tasks specific to their jobs; providing supervision and ongoing training for workers to ensure that they continue to work safely.
Worksafe BC (Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia), Canada (, 2005. Internet document (pdf format). 24p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 06-1032 Hiba J.C., Ciciliani A., Cóppola A.
How to improve working conditions and productivity in farming and in the farm-derived products industry - Practical guide
Comment améliorer les conditions travail et la productivité dans les entreprises agricoles et agroindustrielles - Guide pratique [in French]
Cómo mejorar las condiciones de trabajo y la productividad en empresas agrícolas y agroindustriales - Guía par la acción [in Spanish]
This guide for small enterprises in farming and the farm-derived products industry in Argentina explains how to improve working conditions and productivity. It is divided into two sections. The first includes practical advice on the layout of premises and workplaces, work organization, materials handling and transportation, workplace design, safety of tools and machinery, environmental control and welfare facilities. The second part proposes tools for improving productivity (in particular the WISE system), a brief introduction to the most common dangerous chemicals and the efficient use of agrochemicals, together with checklists for implementing the improvements mentioned.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 2005. 196p. Illus.

CIS 06-974 Nakata A., Ikeda T., Takahashi M., Haratani T., Fujioka Y., Fukui S., Swanson N.G., Hojou M., Araki S.
Sleep-related risk of occupational injuries in Japanese small and medium-scale enterprises
This cross-sectional study evaluated the contribution of daily sleep habits to occupational injuries. 2,903 workers aged from 16 to 83 years employed in small and medium size enterprises in Japan responded to a self-administered questionnaire on sleep, symptoms of depression, occupational injury, demographics, presence of diseases and lifestyle factors. Both sleep and injury were assessed over the previous one-year period. One-third of workers answered that they had experienced injury. Workers with sleep disturbances had a significantly higher prevalence for injury after adjusting for multiple confounders.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.89-97 50 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-570 Bréchon F., Czernichow P., Leroy M., Blum-Boisgard C.
Chronic diseases in self-employed French workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate occupations associated with a high risk of specific chronic diseases in self-employed workers. Using data from the French national health insurance system for the year 2001, the observed and expected numbers of cases for each disease were compared for each occupational category and gender using the age-specific population rates as a reference. Significant differences were observed depending on occupational categories, specifically for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, mental health disorders, chronic respiratory insufficiency, severe liver disorders, and connective tissue diseases. Based on this large dataset, several known associations between occupations and specific diseases were confirmed and potential new associations were observed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.47, No.9, p.909-915. 30 ref.

CIS 06-635 Vincent R., Bonthoux F., Mallet G., Iparraguirre J.F., Rio S.
Simplified methodology for chemical risk assessment: A decision-making tool
Méthodologie d'évaluation simplifiée du risque chimique: un outil d'aide ŕ la décision [in French]
Worker's protection is above all based on assessing the risks and introducing an appropriate prevention policy. Concerning chemical risks, this assessment is often difficult on account of the wide diversity of products and formulations used. To help enterprises faced with this problem, INRS, in collaboration with the French National Prevention and Protection Centre (CNPP), has developed a simplified method to assess the health, safety and environmental risks of chemicals that can be used by managers of small enterprises. The risk prevention departments of a number of enterprises in various sectors have applied this method, and the results obtained concur with the views of experts.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, Sep. 2005, No.200, p.39-62. Illus. 26 ref.$File/ND2233.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-467 Kazmierczak K., Mathiassen S.E., Forsman M., Winkel J.
An integrated analysis of ergonomics and time consumption in Swedish "craft-type" car disassembly
Because of increased legislative requirements for automobile recycling in Sweden, the automobile dismantling activity is evolving from manual work in small-scale workshops to larger highly-automated units. This study assessed the potential impact of the mechanisation of this sector on workers' workload, speed of work and mechanical exposures. A total of ten healthy male workers employed in five disassembly plants were observed during typical working days by means of video recordings. Subjects were also equipped with inclinometers and goniometers for postural angle measurements. It was found that disassembly work involved pronounced circulatory and walking loads, together with peak lumbar loads. Organizational-type rationalisations can be expected to increase postural exposures for most workers, while a concurrent increase in mechanisation might reduce circulatory exposures, the amount of walking and peak lumbar loads.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2005, Vol.36, No.3, p.263-273. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 06-473 Scott P.A., Yisa M.G., McNeill M., Rongo L.M.B., Mutetwa B.
Collection of articles on ergonomics of relevance to African countries. Contents: field and laboratory ergonomic investigations in South Africa; ergonomics in small-scale grain mills in Nigeria; ergonomics in post-harvest agro-processing in Ghana; state of awareness of ergonomic principles among workers in small-scale industries in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; ergonomic hazards in the cotton spinning industry in Zimbabwe.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2005, Vol.15, No.1, p.4-19. Illus. 40 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-712 Thornley S.
Health and Safety Executive
Workplace transport problems data collecting and mining
This report provides an assessment of the use made of a transport safety advisory service programme implemented jointly by the Health and Safety Executive and the UK Freight Transport Association. The service includes access to a dedicated toll-free number to provide guidance and advice to vehicle operators, drivers and all persons responsible for safety relating to workplace transport. The assessment of the use of the service includes the number of calls made by postcode, size of enterprise (expressed by number of vehicles and employees), nature of business, nature of the problems and responses.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. iv, 7p. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-342 Nuwayhid I.A., Usta J., Makarem M., Khudr A., El-Zein A.
Health of children working in small urban industrial shops
This study explored associations between work status and multidimensional health indices in a sample of urban Lebanese children. A cross-sectional survey was used to compare 78 male children (aged 10-17 years) working full time in small industrial shops with a group of 60 non-working male schoolchildren. All children lived and worked or studied in the poor neighbourhoods of three Lebanese cities. Working children reported frequent abuses. They smoked and dated more than the comparison group. They also reported a higher number of injuries and skin, eye, and ear complaints. Physical examination revealed more changes in their skin and nails, but no differences in height or weight compared to non-working group. A higher blood lead concentration was detected among working children, but no differences in haemoglobin and ferritin. Significant differences were found between working and non-working children with respect to physical and social health parameters, but differences were less with regard to mental health. Future research should focus on more sensitive and early predictors of health effects as well as on long term health effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2005, Vol.62, No.2, p.86-94. 43 ref.

CIS 05-385 Cowie H.A., Hughson G.W., Creely K.S., Graham M.K., Hutchison P.A., Aitken R.J.
Health and Safety Executive
An occupational hygiene assessment of the use and control of isocyanates in the UK
Approximately 6200 motor vehicle repair (MVR) workshops in the United Kingdom use isocyanates, with around 15000 employees directly exposed. In the non-MVR sector, a further 1600 enterprises were estimated to use isocyanates, with around 7000 employees directly exposed. Enterprises carrying out work with the greatest potential for exposure were generally aware of the health hazards and had taken appropriate action to control workers' exposure. Workplace surveys confirmed that exposure levels were generally low and that it was possible to control air concentrations to below the existing exposure limits with basic exposure control measures. These results suggest that isocyanate related asthma cases could be due to momentary lapses in exposure controls rather than prolonged, high level exposure that might be attributed to ignorance of the health risks and the recommended control measures. Alternatively, it is possible that the existing exposure limits do not ensure the adequate protection of exposed workers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 238p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 09-25 Dicke W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
More health can mean higher profits - The economic efficiency of health and safety at work
This booklet is devoted to the economic component of occupational safety and health as a means of securing long-term enterprise efficiency and competitiveness, special attention being paid to small and medium enterprises. It highlights the positive connection between profitability and employee-oriented measures taken to improve the safety and health of the workforce. Finally, simple methods applicable to small and medium enterprises are proposed for estimating the costs and benefits of occupational safety and health.
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Postfach 17 02 02, 44061 Dortmund, Germany, 2004. 49p. Illus. 24 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1018 Rouilleault H., Berthet M., Mary-Cheray I., Merciéca P., Alour C., Douillet P., Debuc T., Sarazin B., Paquin M., Schweitzer J.M., Canepa B., Poete B., Bernon J.
Building sustainable safety and health
Construire la prévention durable [in French]
Collection of articles on the organization of safety and health within the enterprise. Topics addressed: sustainable occupational safety and health strategies; roles of occupational physicians and medical inspections; role of enterprise management; approaches adopted in SMEs in sectors including boilermaking and the manufacture of cheese, electrical equipment, windows and floor tiles; main points to consider with respect to occupational safety and health; further reading.
Travail & changement, June-July 2004, No.296, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in French]

CIS 06-1029
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Occupational hygiene. Small and medium-size enterprises - Management of risks and dangers
Revista do trabalhador: Higiene ocupacional. Pequenas e medias empresas - Gestăo dos riscos e perigos [in Portuguese]
The first of these two videotapes provides a general overview of various workplace hazards and measures for the protection of workers. The second focuses on the specific safety and health problems of small and medium-size enterprises.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, Săo Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca. 2004]. Two videotapes (VHS format), 11min each.

CIS 06-337 Cowley S., Else D., LaMontagne A.
Increasing the adoption of OSH risk controls in small business: Can social marketing help to achieve change?
Studies suggest that health and safety problems are not widely recognized within small businesses and that risk controls tend to be adopted slowly. This article suggests that behaviour change and other intervention theories previously applied successfully in public health be adapted for use in OHS. Two models, social marketing and a transtheoretical model of health behaviour change, are discussed. The application of these two models respectively as intervention and evaluative tools is illustrated as a strategy to increase the adoption of controls for isocyanate paint exposure in motor vehicle body repair shops.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2004, Vol.20, No.1, p.69-77. Illus. 62 ref.

CIS 06-336 Pearse W.
Club zero, better intervention studies and a proposal for an Australian institute of occupational and environmental health
"Club Zero" was the name given to a two-year study of the effectiveness of management systems and networking as ways of preventing occupational accidents and diseases in a group of metal manufacturing companies in Australia. Findings of the study are outlined and some wider conclusions about the importance of intervention studies are discussed. It is proposed that the same model could be used to assist small to medium-sized enterprises to implement OHS management systems. More intervention research to evaluate the effectiveness of OHS solutions is needed, and the article argues for a substantially increased level of government funding for occupational safety and health research. Increased commitment should focus on establishing a new Australian institute of occupational and environmental health.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2004, Vol.20, No.1, p.59-67. 17 ref.

CIS 06-275 Walker D., Tait R.
Health and safety management in small enterprises: An effective low cost approach
The effectiveness of an approach developed in the United Kingdom to help small enterprises set up and operate a simple safety and health management system was assessed by visits to 24 enterprises. The assessment consisted of an interview, inspection of premises, document examination and assessment of training and maintenance standards. It was found that the approach was effective in helping enterprise managers to produce policy statements and risk assessments and to introduce a health and safety management system. However, many of the necessary arrangements had been in place prior to the intervention. It is suggested that the intervention may have been effective in bringing these diverse arrangements together in order to produce a coherent management system.
Safety Science, Jan. 2004, Vol.42, No.1, p.69-83. 22 ref.

CIS 05-347 Heeg F.J., Sperga M., Morgenroth U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Safety supervision in small and micro enterprises
Sicherheitstechnische Betreuung in Klein- und Kleinstbetrieben [in German]
Within the framework of the harmonization of European legislation on occupational safety and health and under the aegis of the German Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, various models for the monitoring of occupational safety in small enterprises were developed and tested over a period of several years. This study reports on the current situation, evaluates the models tested and highlights the qualifications and experience required for undertaking these activities.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 180p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: EUR 16.00.

CIS 05-352 Hazard identification and planning of preventive measures in small enterprises
Détermination des dangers et planification des mesures dans les petites entreprises [in French]
Gefahrenermittlung und Massnahmenplanung in Kleinbetrieben [in German]
Individuazione dei pericoli e pianificazione delle misure nelle picole aziende [in Italian]
Aimed at small enterprises, this booklet explains how to identify hazards and plan the necessary preventive measures. Contents: legal requirements; four-step approach to the identification of hazards and the planning of preventive measures (segment activities; listing the inventory of substances and equipment used; identifying hazards and constraints; taking appropriate steps); basic and specialized knowledge required; monitoring the measures. Appendices include a practical example of an automobile servicing and repair shop.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2004. 15p. Illus. [in German] [in Italian] [in French]

CIS 05-290
Health and Safety Executive
Managing sickness absence and return to work in small businesses
This information sheet is aimed at employers of small companies and provides guidance on how to manage sickness absenteeism and return to work of their employees. It summarizes what needs to be done in cases of short-tem and longer-term absenteeism to fulfil one's social responsibility as an employer and to ensure compliance with legal requirements, in particular with the Health and Safety Act 1974 (CIS 74-2099) and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2004. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-354 McBride D., Nelsen K.
Wood dust exposure in small New Zealand woodworking companies
This study investigates wood dust exposure in small woodworking companies in New Zealand. 58 employees of 14 companies underwent personal respirable dust sampling and completed a self-administered exposure assessment questionnaire. 26 participants had exposure levels exceeding the New Zealand recommended workplace exposure standard of 5mg/m3. Although the survey size was small, dust exposure in small workplaces appears to be greater than that in large workplaces. Preventive measures include modern local exhaust ventilation, better cleaning procedures and the use of respiratory protective equipment during high-risk processes.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct.2004, Vol.20, No.5, p.465-472. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 05-148 Ballue C., Lavergne G., Vernois M.G.
Neighbourhood food shops - Guide to hazard evaluation
Les commerces alimentaires de proximité - Aide ŕ l'évaluation des risques [in French]
This guide is aimed at owners or operators of neighbourhood food shops that are affected by the national collective agreement of fruit and vegetable, grocery and dairy product retailers who run shops, market stalls or mobile retail units. It seeks to help owners or operators analyse and evaluate the hazards within their enterprise and implement preventive measures. Contents: responsibilities of owners or operators; economic aspects of occupational hazards (accidents and diseases); preventive measures; risk factors; dealings with other enterprises (such as deliverers); training; personal protective equipment; emergency services.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2004. 39p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: EUR 7.30. Downloadable version free.$FILE/ed925.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-243 Boyer C., Manillier P., Marchon-Jourdan M.F., Meyer A., Ouallet C., Trimbach M., Wargon C., Montéléon P.Y.
Evaluation of sleep and vigilance disturbances in a population of employees of SMEs in Ile-de-France
Evaluation des troubles du sommeil et de la vigilance dans une population de salariés de PME de l'Ile-de-France [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep and vigilance disturbances in a group of employed persons and to explore possible relationships between these disturbances and the conditions of work. An anonymous standardized questionnaire was submitted to randomly-selected workers. The insomnia criteria defined in DSM IV were used and vigilance was expressed according to the Epworth scale. The responses were subjected to statistical analysis. 1410 workers (32.2%) suffered from insomnia. Occupational factors responsible for this insomnia included having very physically-demanding work (relative risk RR=2.25), very stressful work (RR=2,20), monotonous work (RR=1.65) and a noisy environment (RR=1.22). 16.1% of workers showed an Epworth score greater than 10, which is indicative of reduced vigilance.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.2, p.157-179. 40 ref.

CIS 04-397 Stephens P., Hickling N., Gaskell L., Burton M., Holland D.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational health and SMEs: Focused intervention strategies
The study reviews the psychological models of behaviour change, organizational and social characteristics of SMEs and the potential for incentives to achieve change. The role of the manager was found to be particularly important. Additionally, direct influence on the workforce should be attempted to create an upward pressure for change. To increase the likelihood of the desired change succeeding, an effective approach should include a number of complementary interventions, where each intervention compensates for the shortcomings of others. This study includes the development of an approach aimed at helping assess a proposed intervention strategy and ensuring that effective use is made of complementary interventions.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 34p. Illus. 115 ref. + ii, 115p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-65 King S., Dyball M., Wright T.
Health and Safety Executive
HSC strategy to 2010 and beyond - Consultations with hard to reach groups
The purpose of this project was to obtain input on occupational safety and health from small companies employing less than 50 persons. Work involved interviews, workshops and telephone surveys. It was found that occupational safety and health was not the top priority, but was nonetheless considered important. The main incentive for implementing safety and health measures was a sense of responsibility towards employees, although there was also a fear of falling foul of HSE. The main barriers to employers taking action were the supposed lack of compliance by workers, cost and time. Communication between HSE, employers and employees was seen as central to SME strategy, and should take three forms: information, advice and enforcement. A single organization was preferred as the source of information and advice to ensure clarity, consistency and accuracy of information and advice.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. xii, 91p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-107 Choobineh A., Shahnavaz H., Lahmi M.
Major health risk factors in Iranian hand-woven carpet industry
This paper reviews occupational health problems and their causes in the Iranian hand-woven carpet industry, which is typical in many ways of the informal small-scale industries found in developing countries. Since the overwhelming majority of weavers' health problems originate from ergonomic risk factors, it was concluded that any improvement program in this industry should focus first on ergonomic aspects. To assess ergonomic conditions in weaving workshops, a checklist was developed and an ergonomics index indicating the ergonomic conditions of the workshop has been proposed. The checklist was tested and validated in visits of 50 weaving workshops, whose ergonomic conditions were assessed. Based on these observations, some modifications were made to the checklist, which was found to be an effective tool.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.65-78. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 04-226 Shvartsblat S., Kochie M., Harber P., Howard J.
Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employee
Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population. A 24-year-old male pet shop employee contracted the disease through a minor superficial finger wound during a contact with a contaminated rat cage. The disease progressed from a flu-like illness to endocarditis involving first the aortic valve and then the mitral valve and septum. Despite aggressive therapy including two surgical procedures, the patient died from sepsis and multi-organ system failure 59 days after initial injury. This is the first reported case of rat-bite fever in a pet shop work setting. Zoonotic infections may present a significant hazard to workers handling animals. Education on hazards of animal contact and other preventive measures are needed in small business such as pet shops.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.357-360. 5 ref.

CIS 04-202 Mitchell R.H., Garner K.F., Vaghela S.
Health and Safety Executive
Implications of the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive for SMEs
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the proposed vibration exposure action and limit levels specified within the Physical Agents (Vibration) Directive (see CIS 02-24) on small to medium enterprises (SME's). Work involved a literature survey, a telephone survey and site visits. 16% of the 121 companies that participated in the survey were aware of the Directive. 29% were estimated to expose their employees to vibration levels of 2.8m/s2 or greater, and 44% to vibration levels of 2.5m/s2 or greater. It is concluded that HSE guidance publications would be useful.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 127p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-58
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of the small firms allowance scheme
This report presents the findings of an evaluation of a pilot Small Firms Allowance Scheme (SFAS) that was launched by HSE in August 2002 and completed its activities in December 2003. The purpose of the pilot scheme was to test the feasibility and optimal design of a grant scheme directed to small businesses aimed at helping improve their management of occupational safety and health. 1100 micro firms had undertaken mentoring and training under the scheme. The evaluation concludes that further investigations are required to better define the target firms prior to launching the scheme at a national level.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. x, 89p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-39 Fabiano B., Currň F., Pastorino R.
A study of the relationship between occupational injuries and firm size and type in the Italian industry
This article offers a perspective on the relationship between accident frequency and number of employees in the Italian industries between 1995 and 2000. The number of firms examined is 2,983,753 with a total number of non-fatal and fatal injuries corresponding to 3,321,960. A statistically significant inverse relationship between firm size and the number of days lost due to injuries was found in all industrial sectors. Non-severe accidents constitute 95.85% of the total injuries. The frequency rates for both accidents involving permanent disability and fatal accidents decrease as the firm size increases. The results are consistent with decreased availability of occupational safety services in small companies and suggest the need of auditing, safety training activities, education and information, as well as of support to safety investments targeted to small-sized industries.
Safety Science, Aug. 2004, Vol.42, No.7, p.587-600. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 04-67
Health and Safety Executive
Investigating accidents and incidents - A workbook for employers, unions, safety representatives and safety professionals
This guidance on how to investigate accidents and incidents, including near misses, was prepared in consultation with industry, unions and health and safety professional bodies. It is intended as a first step in introducing organizations to the benefits of carrying out investigations and the methods by which accidents should be recorded, investigated and the findings acted upon. The guidance is aimed primarily at SMEs where it is often difficult to build up an expertise in investigating, although larger organizations may also find it helpful. The four steps featured in the guidance are: the gathering of information; the analysing of information; identifying risk control measures; the action plan and its implementation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. iv, 82p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 03-1545 WISE - Work improvement in small enterprises: Package for trainers
The WISE (work improvement in small enterprises) project was undertaken in the Philippines and completed in 1997. Since then, WISE training courses have been carried out in various Asian countries. This document is a manual aimed at trainers. It defines the eight training steps of the WISE programme and proposes training materials (check-lists, suggested transparency sheets, examples of low-cost improvements, potential questions and answers and an action plan form).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, Mar. 2004. 236p. Illus.

CIS 03-1711 Carro Martínez P., García Puente N.E.
Prevention of occupational hazards in small-scale coastal fishing
Prevención de riesgos laborales en la pesca de bajura: artes menores [in Spanish]
The incidence of accidents in the small-scale coastal fishing sector is relatively high due to the absence of sufficient resources for ensuring safety and to the lack of crew training. This information note describes the hazards related to this sector of activity as well as the preventive measures aimed at reducing the risks. Contents: various types of coastal fishing (using normal nets, hooks, traps and bow nets); general hazards from boats (mechanical, electrical, chemical, physical, biological, fire, hazards while on the deck); preventive measures; personal lifesaving equipment.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 6p. Illus. 9 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 10-0604 Markkannen P.
International Labour Office
Improving safety, health and the working environment in the informal footwear sector: PATRIS operator's manual (Participatory Action Training for Informal Sector Operators)
This training manual focuses on workplace hazards, preventive measures, and day-to-day management practices relevant to informal shoe workshops. The emphasis is on practical, low-cost and locally identified measures to improve working conditions and workplaces. Also published in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia).
ILO Country Office for Indonesia, Menara Thamrin, Level 22, Jalan M.H. Thamrin, Kav. 3, Jakarta 10250, Indonesia, 2003. iii, 36p. Illus. 6 ref.
PATRIS_operator's_manual.pdf [in English]
PATRIS_operator's_manual.pdf [in Indonesian]

CIS 06-1137
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in road haulage
This booklet provides guidance to employers of road haulage enterprises, and particularly those of small enterprises, to improve the occupational safety and health of their employees. Topics addressed: managing safety and health; responsibilities of employers; hazard evaluation; sources of information; short descriptions of typical accidents; legal aspects.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2003. 11p. Illus. 8 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-536 Parekh D.T.
Private - public partnership in HSE
In the field of safety, health and environmental protection (SHE), efforts are being made nationally and globally through public-private partnerships. These partnerships benefit from the support of various organizations including the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the World Bank. This article describes the implementation of an SHE partnership programme in a highly-industrialized region of India.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Jan.-March 2003, Vol.XXXIII, No.4, p.69-75.

CIS 05-623 Tharr D.
Hazards associated with the manufacture and repair of neon lights
NIOSH received a request for a health hazard evaluation from the owner of a small business that manufactures and repairs neon tubes for commercial signs or artwork. The owner, who was also the sole worker, was concerned about possible health effects related to his exposures to mercury, lead and cadmium. A site visit was carried out by a NIOSH health hygienist. A review of the worker's medical records showed that concentrations of mercury and cadmium were below occupational criteria and lead was not detected. A certain number of technical control measures and changes in work practices were recommended, primarily in the areas of exhaust ventilation, together with continued medical surveillance.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 05-34 Masloboev V., Antonsson A.B., Bergström M., Melekh I., Husberg W., Pääkkönen T.
Occupational health and safety in small-scale enterprises
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in small-scale enterprises in the Nordic countries and Russia. Topics covered: Russian challenges with respect to the implementation of the ILO strategy on occupational safety and health in small enterprises; needs and methods of safe work environments in small companies; promoting health in small companies; gender aspects of occupational health; building an information network; review of an international symposium on youth and work held in Espoo, Finland, 20-22 November 2002.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2003, Vol.6, No.2, p.31-55 (whole issue). Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 05-109 Suruda A., Philips P., Lillquist D., Sesek R.
Fatal injuries to teenage construction workers in the US
Fatal injury reports for youth and adult workers construction in the industry were examined to determine risk factors for injury and the applicability of existing child labour regulations. OSHA investigation data for fatal work injuries from 1984 through 1998 were reviewed with respect to type of accident, employer characteristics, and apparent violations of existing child labour laws under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). The fatality rate for teenage construction workers age 19 and younger was 12.1 per 100,000 workers per year, slightly less than for adults. Fatal injuries in teenage construction workers differed from those in adults in that they were more likely to be at small, non-union firms of which a substantial proportion were exempt from federal enforcement of child labour laws and from routine OSHA inspections. Safety programmes for young construction workers should include small, non-union firms and those in special trades such as roofing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.44, No.5, p.510-514. 12 ref.

CIS 04-617 Improving occupational safety and health in SMEs: Examples of effective assistance - Summary of an Agency report
Forbedring af arbejdsmiljřet i SMVżerne: eksempler pĺ effektiv bistand [in Danish]
Beispiele für die wirksame Unterstützung von KMU zur Verbesserung von Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Arbeit [in German]
Beltíōsē tēs epaggelmatikḗs asfáleias kai ugeías stis mikromesaíes epiheirḗseis: paradeígmata apotelesmatikḗs upostḗrixēs [in Greek]
La mejora de la seguridad y la salud laborales en las PYME: ejemplos de asistencia eficaz - Resumen del informe de la Agencia [in Spanish]
Töötervishoiu- ja tööohutuse alase olukorra parandamine väikestes ja keskmise suurusega ettevőtetes: näited tőhusa abi kohta [in Estonian]
Förbättring av arbetsmiljön i smĺ och medelstora företag - exempel pĺ effektivt stöd [in Swedish]
L'amélioration de la sécurité et de la santé au travail dans les PME: exemples d'assistance efficace - Synthčse d'un rapport de l'Agence [in French]
Il miglioramento della sicurezza e della salute sul lavoro nelle PMI: esempi di assistenza efficace [in Italian]
Verbetering van de veiligheid en de gezondheid op het werk in het MKB: voorbeelden van effectieve steun [in Dutch]
Poprawa bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy w MŚP: przykłady skutecznej pomocy [in Polish]
Melhorar a segurança e a saúde no trabalho nas PME: exemplos de apoio eficaz [in Portuguese]
Zlepšovanie bezpečnosti a ochrany zdravia pri prác v malých a stredne vel'kých podnikoch: príklady účinnej pomoci [in Slovak]
Työturvallisuuden ja -terveyden parantaminen pk-yrityksissä: esimerkkejä tehokkaasta tuesta [in Finnish]
Small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) are important contributors to European competitiveness, with most new jobs in Europe being created by micro-enterprises with up to six employees. However, they also face particular difficulties including effective management of safety and health and Member States have set up measures to assist entrepreneurship. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has carried out several important projects to improve occupational safety and health in SMEs, including special funding schemes of good safety and health practice in SMEs initiated by the European Parliament and the European Commission. As part of these efforts the Agency has also made a study of practical examples of successful occupational safety and health assistance services to SMEs, a summary of which is presented in this fact sheet.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2003. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [in Estonian] [in Spanish] [in Italian] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Slovak] [in Finnish] [in Swedish] [in French] [in Danish] [in German] [in English] [in Greek]

CIS 04-605 Accident prevention in the construction sector
Forebyggelse af ulykker i bygge- og anlćgsbranchen [in Danish]
Unfallverhütung im Bausektor [in German]
Prólēpsē atuhēmátōn ston kládo tōn kataskeuṓn [in Greek]
Prevención de accidentes en el sector de la construcción [in Spanish]
Förebyggande av olyckor inom byggnadssektorn [in Swedish]
Prévention des accidents dans le secteur de la construction [in French]
Prevenzione infortuni nel settore dell'edilizia [in Italian]
Ongevallenpreventie in de bouwnijverheid [in Dutch]
Zapobieganie wypadkom w budownictwie [in Polish]
Prevençăo de acidentes no sector da construçăo [in Portuguese]
Tapaturmien torjunta rakennusalalla [in Finnish]
In the European Union, construction is the sector most at risk of accidents, with more than 1300 workers being killed in construction accidents every year. Worldwide, construction workers are three times more likely to be killed and twice as likely to be injured as workers in other occupations. The cost of these accidents is immense to the workers, to employers and to society in general. More than 99% of the construction firms in Europe are small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are therefore most affected by construction accidents. Contents of this fact sheet aimed at construction enterprises: labour inspection; responsibilities; hazard evaluation; practical prevention; moving loads; housekeeping and safe areas; training and information; personal protective equipment.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2003. 2p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English] [in Swedish] [in French] [in Danish] [in German] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Dutch] [in Polish] [in Portuguese] [in Finnish] [in Spanish]

CIS 04-42 Grosjean V.
How can company directors be encouraged to give more consideration to occupational safety and health? Theoretical and practical prospects
Comment favoriser chez les chefs d'entreprise une plus large prise en compte de la prévention ? Perspectives théoriques et pragmatiques [in French]
This article highlights the importance of occupational safety and health for small enterprises, where the disruptive effects of occupational accidents are considerably greater than for large enterprises. It goes on to discuss the means of increasing the awareness of directors. These means are derived from two sources: on one hand from the theoretical concepts from marketing and psycho-sociology, and on the other from the practical experience gathered by persons responsible for occupational safety and health during their activities as trainers. Finally, the possibilities of implementing an approach aimed at influencing the attitudes of directors are discussed, based on a methodology developed by INRS.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygične et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2003, No.190, p.51-65. Illus. 21 ref.$FILE/nd2188.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-36 Miller J., Tischer M., Vosseler C., Bark K., Weick V.
Chemical management guide
This guide was developed as part of a training programme for small to medium enterprises who wish to obtain cost savings through the improved management of chemicals. It describes a step-by-step approach to identify and reduce costs and risks related to the use of chemicals. A first step consists of identifying "hot spots" or critical issues with respect to inefficiency or hazards. A second step involves making an inventory of the chemicals used in the enterprise. The two steps provide the necessary information to calculate potential loses, assess risks, consider substitutes, determine improvements and controls, and monitor and evaluate the results obtained. Part III contains useful tools: basic concepts for risk assessment; description of control approaches; guide to the use of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs); list of R- and S-phrases; symbols used for labelling; glossary of terms.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5, 65780 Eschborn, Germany, 2003. 91p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 04-116 Kliemt G., Kupec P., Voullaire E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Hazardous substances management in the building trades: Roofing and sanitation, heating and air conditioning
Gefahrstoffmanagement im Handwerk: Dachdecker und Sanitär-Heizungs-Klimatechnik [in German]
This study discusses the management of dangerous substances in small enterprises involved in roofing, sanitary equipment installation, heating and air conditioning. For each trade, the dangerous substances to which workers' may be exposed during the various tasks they carry out were identified. Workers were also questioned on their awareness of the hazards to which they were exposed. The findings show that workers are insufficiently informed about the hazards they face. Several measures aimed at improving the management of dangerous substances in small enterprises are proposed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 76p. Illus. 58 ref. Price: EUR 10.00.

CIS 03-1573 Packebusch L., Herzog B., Laumen S.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Success through occupational safety and health
Erfolg durch Arbeitsschutz [in German]
This report addresses the issue of the effects of industrial safety and health measures on business success. It is hypothesized that there exists a positive effect of industrial health and safety on business success. To test this hypothesis, the applications for the Prize for the Promotion of Health in the Craft Trades in 1994, 1996 and 1998 were analysed and a sample of the businesses were questioned. In addition, the survival in business of the applicants was verified and compared with statistics from the craft trades in general. The investigation enabled the aspects influenced by industrial safety measures to be identified. Factors such as the use of consultants, initiatives and grounds for industrial safety measures and their influence were also investigated. It was found that during the period 1994 to 2001, businesses that applied for the Health Promotion Prize remained in business longer than craft businesses in general in Germany.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 136p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.

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