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Small and medium-sized enterprises - 508 entries found

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CIS 10-0124
Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Health and safety in motor vehicle repair and associated industries
This guide covers specific health and safety issues faced by employers and the self-employed in vehicle maintenance and repair (including tyre, exhaust and windscreen replacement); body repair, refinishing and the roadside recovery and repair of vehicles. It also covers topics that are common across the industry, such as working under vehicles; fire and explosion; noise and vibration; electrical safety; and organizing health and safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2009. iv, 80p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 12.95. Downloadable version free of charge.
HSG261 [in English]

CIS 09-1408 Park S.G., Min K.B., Chang S.J., Kim H.C., Min J.Y.
Job stress and depressive symptoms among Korean employees: The effects of culture on work
This study was conducted to investigate the association between depressive symptoms and job stress among Korean employees in small and medium-sized enterprises, and examined which components of stress are involved in the risk for depression. Data were collected from a work-stress survey of 3013 full-time employees in a Korean metropolitan area. An increased risk of depressive symptoms was found for job insecurity, occupational climate, job demands, inadequate social support, lack of rewards and organizational injustice.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.397-405. 43 ref.

CIS 09-1222 Wang F.W., Chiu Y.W., Tu M.S., Chou M.Y., Wang C.L., Chuang H.Y.
Chronic fatigue of the small enterprise workers participating in an occupational health checkup center in Southern Taiwan
This study examined the association between psychosocial job characteristics and chronic fatigue among workers of small enterprises in Taiwan. A questionnaire was administered to workers receiving regular health examinations, including demographic information and data on working conditions, state of health, lifestyle, psychosocial job characteristics, fatigue and psychological distress. Probable chronic fatigue was found in 34.6% of the sample of 647 workers. Chronic fatigue was found by multiple logistic regressions to be associated with the lack of exercise, working in shifts, depression score and lack of social support at the workplace. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.819-825. 35 ref.

CIS 09-1398 Kim H.C., Park S.G., Min K.B., Yoon K.J.
Depressive symptoms and self-reported occupational injury in small and medium-sized companies
To determine whether depressive symptoms had an effect on the risk of occupational accidents, a survey of 1350 workers at 44 small and medium enterprises in Korea was carried out by means of questionnaires. A first survey requested information regarding personal characteristics, work characteristics, and depressive symptoms; the second questionnaire queried participants about occupational injuries (including minor scratches or cuts) experienced in the previous four months. Risk ratios (RRs) of injuries were calculated through Poisson regression analysis. After adjustment for demographic factors, the RRs were 1.75 and 2.68 in men and women, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2009, Vol.82, No.6, p.715-721. 37 ref.

CIS 09-1147 Singh L.P., Bhardwaj A., Deepak K.K., Bedi R.
Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India
This study was carried out in five small-scale hand tool forging units in Northern India. Noise levels in the workshops were measured, and were found to be above 90dB(A) in several areas. Additionally, a cross-sectional sample of workers responded to a questionnaire, results of which revealed that 68% of the workers were not wearing ear protective equipment. Among these workers, 50% were not provided with protective equipment by their employers. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference, although high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.423-430. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-808 Naidoo S., Kromhout H., London L., Naidoo R.N., Burdorf A.
Musculoskeletal pain in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal pain in 911 women working in small-scale agriculture in the Province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. In total, 67% of women reported chronic musculoskeletal pain. The 12-month prevalence of pain ranged from 63.9% to 73.3% and the prevalence of specific chronic pain lasting more than three months ranged from 42.8% to 48.3%. Older age, carrying heavy loads, working with hands above shoulder height, and frequently squatting and kneeling were associated with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Ergonomic interventions including improved and adapted work techniques and tools should be considered to reduce the prevalence of pain among these workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.52, No.3, p.202-209. 35 ref.

CIS 09-345 Piniella F., Fernández-Engo M.A.
Towards system for the management of safety on board artisanal fishing vessels: Proposal for check-lists and their application
The safety management systems applied at the international level in merchant vessels do not have their equivalent in the vessels dedicated to fishing, and much less to the most numerous sub-sector, artisanal fishing. This article outlines the findings of a research project conducted to assess the degree of safety existing in the artisanal fishing fleet of Andalusia, Spain. It offers a set of proposals aimed at improving safety, including the use of check-lists.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.265-276. Illus. 38 ref.


CIS 11-0614 Ford N.J., Murphy R.G., Shearn P.A.
Kirklees Better Health at Work project: Final report
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a safety and health project aimed at small enterprises in a region of England. A series of process and outcome tools were developed to measure how the project was delivered, the extent to which it had reached those intended to benefit from its services and which elements were more successful. The report documents the outcomes of the four main components of the project: marketing and promotional activities; telephone help and website providing support and guidance; occupational health advice, delivered to individual workers and/or their employers; occupational safety and health support and advice, delivered on site to SMEs and their employees. The report concludes with a discussion of the implications of the research, giving particular attention to general lessons about the delivery of occupational safety and health support.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. x, 155p. Illus. 41 ref.
RR_670.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-357 da Conceição da Costa D., Menegon N.L.
Three case studies on health and safety actions in small and medium size enterprises
Condução de ações em Saúde e Segurança do Trabalho em pequenas e médias empresas: análise de três casos [in Portuguese]
Building actions related to health and safety in small and medium size enterprises (SME) is not an easy task, since these companies need to face lack of information, short availability of resources and methodologies developed for the characteristics of a big company. The present study investigates the way health and safety interventions - including ergonomics - are carried on in three industrial sector SMEs in Brazil, but also the reasons for their being conducted that way and the difficulties encountered.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2008, Vol.33, No.117, p.60-71. 41 ref. [in Portuguese]

CIS 09-276 Takala J.
Healthy workplaces - Good for you. Good for business
Collection of articles on workplace risk assessment contributed by EU Member States to the campaign of the European Agency for safety and health at work. Main topics covered: risk assessment in SMEs and micro-businesses; risk assessment methods developed by countries (Netherlands, Austria, Slovenia, Finland, Switzerland); risk assessment of manual handling of hospital patients; risk assessment method for handling below-the-threshold quantities of hazardous substances; assessing the risks of work-related stress; financial benefits of effective risk assessment.
Magazine - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work / Agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail, 2008, No.11, p.1-48 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 09-105 Torp S.
How a health and safety management training program may improve the working environment in small- and medium-sized companies
The objective of this controlled intervention study was to investigate the effects of a two-year training programme in occupational safety and health (OSH) management for managers of small- and medium-sized companies. A total of 113 managers of motor vehicle repair garages participated in the training and another 113 garage managers served as a comparison group. The intervention involved participation by managers in four one-day OSH training seminars over a period of two years. The effects were measured using questionnaires sent before and after the intervention to the managers and blue-collar workers at the garages. The intervention group managers reported significantly greater improvement of their OSH management system than the managers in the comparison group.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.50, No.3, p.263-271. 38 ref.

CIS 09-103 Kongtip P., Yoosook W., Chantanakul S.
Occupational health and safety management in small and medium-sized enterprises: An overview of the situation in Thailand
This study aimed to present an overview of the situation of occupational safety and health management in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand, and to gain information related to employment, welfare and health facilities, health education, accident statistics, occupational safety and health management, and safety activities. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. The scope included small (20-99 employees) and medium sized (100-299 employees) export-oriented manufacturing enterprises. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Nov. 2008, Vol.46, No.9, p.1356-1368. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 08-1334 Dougin Y.
Earthworking contractors go green
Quand les TP se mettent au vert [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on occupational safety and health in small earthworking contractors involved in landscaping: key statistics on growth of this sector; weeding techniques that do not require herbicides; work rhythms and working conditions; mechanization of work sites; safety and health training; earthmoving and landscaping equipment.
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2008, No.106, p.36-47. Illus.

CIS 08-796 Pesonen P., van der Have R., Saarinen J., Rilla N.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Dating or mating? On the relationship of SMEs with an RTO in Finland
This study focused on the collaboration between SMEs and a large research and technology organization in Finland, namely the Technical Research Centre (VTT). The analysis is based on a comparison of regular and occasional collaboration strategies. It was found that regular collaborators are often larger enterprises, working on larger projects, have moderate growth, are active in patenting, are relatively older and are more experienced in research and development. Occasional collaborators are generally smaller enterprises experiencing high growth. VTT's role in the Finnish innovation system is significant, as its services are used by a relatively large proportion of SMEs of various sized and sectors.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2008. 36p. Illus. 58 ref. [in English]


CIS 09-1025 Gunnarsson K., Vingård E., Josephson M.
Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden
This study investigated the associations between self-rated health and working conditions among owners of small enterprises in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female business owners in different sectors (response rate 66%). For comparative purposes, data from a study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. The frequency of health problems among male business owners was higher than among employees while among women, it was comparable to that of employees. Musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) were the most frequent health problems. Among business owners, poor job satisfaction was reported by 17% of the women and 20% of men. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Dec. 2007, Vol.45, No.6, p.775-780. 23 ref.

CIS 08-1498 Lansdown T.C., Deighan C, Brotherton C.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in the small to medium-sized enterprise: Psychosocial opportunities for intervention
The aim of this project was to identify psychosocial factors which are effective in the maintenance and improvement of safety and health in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It involved a literature review, a questionnaire survey and phone interviews with stakeholders. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Overall, SMEs showed a low level of safety and health activity. Important psychosocial factors were found to be the level of available resources, relationships with suppliers and decision-making latitude by junior and middle-level staff. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 67p. Illus. 61 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1137 O'Regan S., Tyers C., Hill D., Gordon-Dseagu V., Rick J.
Health and Safety Executive
Taking risks with asbestos: What influences the behaviour of maintenance workers?
Workers most at risk of contracting an asbestos-related disease are those in construction-related trades who conduct maintenance work on buildings constructed in the 50's, 60's and 70's. This report presents the results of 60 interviews with maintenance workers (including electricians, carpenters, plumbers, heating engineers and painters), who discuss their knowledge and attitudes with respect to asbestos. It was found that there are a range of issues affecting safe working methods in the presence of asbestos, including: the complexity of the messages about asbestos risks, attitudes towards risk and personal hygiene, prevailing worksite culture, economic pressures and whether individuals feel able to exert control over their work environment.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 84p. [in English]

CIS 08-1041 Gaskell L., Hickling N., Stephens P.
Health and Safety Executive
The suitability of HSE's risk assessment process and management standards for use in SMEs
This study evaluated the applicability in SMEs of HSE's Five-Step Risk Assessment Process and supporting information, developed for tackling high levels of work-related stress in large organizations. Ten SMEs applied the guidance in a longitudinal study over at least seven months, after which a respondent from each SME answered an interview-administered questionnaire. Overall ratings of usefulness and acceptability of the process were favourable. It is concluded that SMEs can successfully apply the method unaided to conduct a structured risk assessment process and identify improvements that reduce stress and benefit their business.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. x, 131p. Illus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-773 Acuña Esquivel C.R., Forastieri V.
Work improvement in neighbourhood development - Training programme on occupational safety, health and working conditions on small farms
Mejores trabajos para el desarrollo comunitario - Programa de formación en seguridad, salud y condiciones de trabajo en la pequeña producción agrícola [in Spanish]
Aimed at small farms in Central America, this manual proposes solutions for improving working conditions. It was edited within the framework of the WIND (Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development) programme. Six main themes are reviewed: materials handling and storage; design of tools and workplaces; safety when using machinery; work environment and control of dangerous substances; worker welfare facilities; work organization. The 52 aspects analysed are addressed according to a common format: advantages for workers; possible improvements; promoting cooperation; additional suggestions; points to keep in mind. A checklist allows workers to verify the current situation with respect to each question and to propose improvements. A CD-ROM containing the manual in PDF format is included.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. 130p. Illus. + CD-ROM. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-552 Portillo García-Pintos J.
Analysis of the effectiveness and design of participatory and integrated models of occupational safety and health management: Study focussing on Spanish SMEs
Análisis de eficiencia y diseño de modelos participativos e integrados de gestión de la prevención de riesgos laborales: una focalización para la PYME española [in Spanish]
This report describes a study on the effectiveness of occupational safety and health programmes carried out in 36 SMEs within seven industrial sectors in the Galicia region of Spain. The sociological profile and the level of training of managers and supervisors served as a basis for designing an integrated occupational safety and health management system entitled GESPREVEN for Spanish SMEs, presented in this report.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2007. 252p. Illus. 117 ref. Price: EUR 22.43.

CIS 08-227 Poy M., Aslanides M., Blanklejder A., Bocchicchio F.
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Activities concerning national SMEs in industry and services - A collection of ergonomic recommendations: Simple inexpensive measures
Acciones sobre empresas PyME nacionales de industria y servicios - Repertorio de recomandaciones ergonómicas: medidas sencillas y de bajo costo [in Spanish]
This document presents the finings of an ergonomic evaluation of several SMEs in the manufacturing and services sectors in Argentina. It involved three industrial SMEs, namely a battery manufacturer, a manufacturer of components for trucks and a producer of customized cosmetic products, together with two service sector enterprises, namely a call centre and a fast food restaurant. Findings are discussed and various recommendations are made aimed at minimizing hazards and improving working conditions.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007. 113p. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 08-204 Brosseau L.M., Parker D., Samant Y., Pan W.
Mapping safety interventions in metalworking shops
This article discusses the selection of intervention activities designed to lower machine-related hazards and amputations in small metal fabrication businesses. Methods included an advisory board, employee discussions and pilot tests. A stepwise intervention mapping process was used to identify performance objectives, behavioural determinants and change objectives for two target populations (business owners and employees). Intervention activities for owners were designed to increase knowledge about machine safety, encourage adoption of safety procedures, and motivate improvements in machine guarding. Intervention activities aimed at employees focused on building knowledge and skills of health and safety committee members. The intervention mapping approach led to important insights about programme goals and intervention activities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.49, No.3, p.338-345. 42 ref.

CIS 07-1257 An introduction to the WISE programme - 1) Materials handling and storage; 2) Workstation design; 3) Machine safety; 4) Control of hazardous substances; 5) Lighting; 6) Work-related welfare facilities; 7) Work premises; 8) Work organization
Introduction au programme WISE - 1) Manutention et stockage; 2) Aménagement des postes de travail; 3) Sécurité des machines; 4) Contrôle des matières dangereuses; 5) Eclairage; 6) Installations de bien-être au travail; 7) Aménagement des lieux de travail; 8) Organisation du travail [in French]
Presentación del programa WISE - 1) Almacenamiento y la manipulación de materiales; 2) Diseño de los puestos de trabajo; 3) Uso más eficiente de sus máquinas; 4) Mejor control de las sustancias peligrosas; 5) Mejor iluminación; 6) Servicios de bienestar; 7) Establecimientos industriales; 8)Organización del trabajo [in Spanish]
The WISE method (Work Improvements in Small Enterprises) is a programme developed by the ILO to assist small and medium-sized enterprises in improving working conditions and productivity using simple, effective and affordable techniques that provide direct benefits to employers and workers. This collection of documents includes a booklet presenting the method, the training programmes and examples of implementation of the method in Haiti, the Philippines and Mongolia. A series of eight leaflets (training modules) explains the application of the method in various fields of occupational safety and health or working conditions improvement.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, [c2007]. 16p. Illus. + eight 6p. leaflets. (8 pdf modules) [in English]


CIS 08-1145 Small entity compliance guide for the hexavalent chromium standards
This guide describes the steps that employers of small enterprises are required to take to protect employees from hazards associated with exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)). It provides detailed information on permissible exposure limits (PEL), exposure determination, regulated areas, methods of compliance, respiratory protection, protective work clothing and equipment, hygiene areas and practices, housekeeping, medical surveillance, communication of Cr(VI) hazards to employees and recordkeeping. An appendix lists industry operations or processes associated with occupational exposure to Cr(VI).
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2006. 59p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-804 Antonelli A., Baker M., McMahon A., Wright M.
Health and Safety Executive
Six SME case studies that demonstrate the business benefit of effective management of occupational health and safety
This report describes the research undertaken to provide information on the business benefits of safety and health initiatives within six SMEs in the United Kingdom. A further part of the work was to develop case study material which can be used to persuade SMEs of the wider potential benefits of improving occupational safety and health. The key finding of the research is that whatever the original motivation, the enterprises accepted that improving occupational safety and health was integral to business risk management. They were motivated to improve aspects of safety and health because of the potential risk to the business if this was not addressed. These benefits included a mix of both tangible and intangible benefits, such as maintenance of reputation, client requirements, controlling insurance premium costs, reduction in absence rates as well as general improvements in health and safety.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 45p. [in English]

CIS 08-906 White J., Coldwell M., Davies T., Helps J., Piney M., Rimmer D., Saunders J., Wake D.
Health and Safety Executive
Isocyanate exposure, emission and control in small motor vehicle repair premises using spray rooms: Phase 1
A mock up spray room was constructed within the Health and Safety Laboratory with dimensions, ventilation conditions and extraction rates set to represent typical car body spray room conditions. A robotic sprayer was used to simulate paint spraying of car parts under a range of conditions; including spray orientation relative to the extraction duct, spray gun type, ventilation set up and extraction rates. Real-time monitors were used in conjunction with standard methods for airborne isocyanate (NCO) concentration monitoring. The main findings were: high NCO levels are present in spray rooms during spraying; airborne NCO levels were homogeneous throughout the spray room; factors affecting the amount of airborne NCO include gun type, gun condition, spray pattern and NCO formulation; airborne NCO took a significant time to clear the spray room. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. x, 111p. Illus. 29 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-590 Akgun M., Mirici A., Ucar E.Y., Kantarci M., Araz O., Gorguner M.
Silicosis in Turkish denim sandblasters
Between August 2004 and March 2006, 16 young men with a history of working in small workplaces producing sandblasted denim were admitted to the respiratory diseases department of a Turkish hospital. Of these, 14 presented with respiratory symptoms. In the first two cases, open-lung biopsy was required to confirm the diagnosis of silicosis. Later cases were diagnosed through a combination of their work history and the clinical and radiological findings. The mean age at presentation was 23 years with mean duration of employment as a sandblaster being three years. The first two cases died and the remainder, except two, are still receiving treatment. The production of sandblasted denim fabric in small uncontrolled workplaces may entail significant exposure to silica dust and the development of rapidly fatal silicosis. Urgent action is required to prevent further cases.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.554-558. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 08-637 Employers' organizations and enterprise development in the informal economy: Moving from informality to formality
Over the past few years, the Bureau for Employers' Activities (ACT/EMP) has been carrying out a programme to assist employers' organizations analyse and take action on the informal economy with the overall aim of stimulating enterprise development within the formal economy. This programme was designed to give effect to the conclusions of the 2002 International Labour Conference. This CD-COM contains documents in HTML and PDF formats explaining the role of employers' organizations in the informal economy, and presenting country and regional experiences in a number of developing countries, together with a number of reference documents. The section concerning Latin America includes both English and Spanish versions.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. CD-ROM.

CIS 07-1125 Samoto H., Fukui Y., Ukai H., Okamoto S., Takada S., Ohashi F., Moriguchi J., Ezaki T., Ikeda M.
Field survey on types of organic solvents used in enterprises of various sizes
The objective of this study was to examine common types of solvent work and prevalent types of solvents used as a function of the size of the enterprise. Between April 2004 and March 2005, air samples were collected in 156 enterprises of various sizes in Kyoto, Japan, and analyzed for 47 solvents by flame-ionization detector-equipped gas-liquid chromatography. Degreasing (including cleaning and wiping) was the most common type of solvent work, followed by painting and printing, and toluene was the most frequently-detected solvent. Toluene was most common in printing, painting and adhesive bonding, whereas isopropyl alcohol was the leading solvent in cases of surface coating and degreasing. Use of methyl alcohol was also high. In contrast, use of hexane in adhesives was limited. Solvent concentrations were five times higher in enterprises with ≤50 employees as compared with enterprises with ≥501 employees. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.79, No.7, p.558-567. Illus. 63 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1241 Nakata A., Ikeda T., Takahashi M., Haratani T., Hojou M., Fujioka Y., Swanson N.G., Araki S.
Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises
This study examined the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Subjects included 1049 men and 721 women from 244 SMEs. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last one-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio (OR) 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women) and low job satisfaction (OR 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.658-669. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 07-1187 Alcouffe J., Chaudron B., Montéléon P.Y., Roux F., Wargon C.
Evaluation of road accident risk among employees required to drive cars or commercial vehicles on public roads in the course of their work
Evaluation du risque routier chez les salariés qui conduisent sur la voie publique un véhicule (VL ou PL) pour leur activité professionnelle [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the occupational risk of having a road accident and its relationship with organizational factors in small and medium enterprises in the Ile-de-France (Paris) region of France. It was carried out by means of a questionnaire survey, including an evaluation based on the Epworth sleepiness scale. Among approximately 12,000 workers questioned, 12% drove vehicles as part of their job (other than construction site equipment and exluding home-workplace commuting). Most were men (84%), of average age 38.5 years, among whom only 12% suffered from disturbed vigilance, which however was not associated with the 126 accidents which had occurred in the preceding 12 months. Other findings are discussed.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 2006, Vol.46, No.3, p.319-333. 5 ref.

CIS 07-909
Department for Communities and Local Government
A short guide to making your premises safe from fire
This booklet provides simple and practical advice to persons responsible for fire safety in small and medium businesses. In particular, it provides guidance on how to ensure compliance with the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. It includes a proposed five-step approach for fire safety risk assessment and examples of how to modify the layout of premises to reduce the hazards.
DCLG Publications, PO Box 236, Wetherby, West Yorkshire, LS23 7NB, United Kingdom, 2006. 9p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-766 Kawakami T., Ujita Y.
National occupational safety and health programmes that can support safety and health culture at the workplace
The ILO Global Strategy on Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) adopted in 2003 (see CIS 05-54) highlights the building and maintenance of a national preventive safety and health culture as a major objective. A number of programmes were promoted in response, aimed at strengthening national OSH legislation, enforcement and information dissemination. This article describes several such programmes in Asia, involving small enterprises in Mongolia, small coal mines in China, construction sites in Cambodia and work improvement through neighbourhood development (WIND) in the agricultural sector in Vietnam (see CIS 07-818).
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Mar. 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.4-7. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-559 Kawakami T.
Good practices in safety, health and working conditions
This booklet comprises a collection of photographs showing best practices in safety, health and working conditions implemented by home workers, farmers and construction workers and managers in Cambodia, Mongolia, and Thailand. Workers attended participatory training workshops and implemented improvements using locally available low-cost materials.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. 20p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-635 Vitali M., Ensabella F., Stella D., Guidotti M.
Exposure to organic solvents among handicraft car painters: A pilot study in Italy
This study evaluated exposure to solvents in eight Italian car painting workshops using environmental sampling and personal sampling with charcoal samplers, and urinary determination of unmetabolized solvents. A simple regression analysis was performed to evaluate relationships between the three series of data. The solvents analysed were toluene, ethylbenzene, 1,2-dichloropropane, n-butylacetate, n-amylacetate, xylene isomers, ethylacetate and benzene. Benzene was found in all shops, at levels around or higher than the 8h time-weighted average limit (8h TWA). Other solvents were found at various levels, from 10-2 to 10-1 times the 8h TWA. Air concentrations of toluene, n-butylacetate, xylenes, and benzene were positively correlated with their urinary levels, while a negative correlation was found for ethylbenzene. The health implications of these exposure levels are discussed.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.310-317. 49 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-632 Sakai K., Hisanaga N., Shibata E., Ono Y., Takeuchi Y.
Asbestos exposures during reprocessing of automobile brakes and clutches
This study investigated asbestos exposures of workers in three small factories reprocessing automobile brakes and clutches in Japan. Airborne asbestos was collected on a membrane filter using an air sampler. Asbestos counting was performed on 295 samples using phase contrast microscopy. Only chrysotile asbestos was detected. Workers who reprocessed automobile brakes and clutches were exposed to asbestos concentrations of between 0.025 and 76.4 fibres/cm3. Geometric mean asbestos concentrations during attaching linings to brake shoes and attaching facings to clutch disks were 0.859 and 0.780 fibres/cm3, respectively. Concentrations during stripping worn brake linings and clutch facings were 0.484 and 0.382 fibres/cm3, respectively. Machine grinding and levelling of new brake lining surfaces represent potential sources of heavy asbestos exposures, unless enclosures and local ventilation are efficient.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2006, Vol.12, No.2, p.95-105. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 07-301 Promoting health and safety in European small and medim-sized enterprises (SMEs) - SME funding scheme 2003-2004
Förderung des Gesundheitsschutzes und der Sicherheit in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) in Europa - KMU - Förderprogramm 2003-2004 [in German]
Promuovere la salute e la sicurezza nelle piccole e medie imprese europee (PMI) - Piano di finanziamento PMI 2003-2004 [in Italian]
Promotion de la sécurité et de la santé dans les petites et moyennes entreprises (PME) européennes - Programme de financement des PME 2003-2004 [in French]
La promoción de la seguridad y la salud en las pequeñas y medianas empresas europeas (PYME) - Plan de financiación para las PYME 2003-2004 [in Spanish]
The European SME funding scheme was launched in 2001 with the objective of identifying and supporting activities and projects related to the management of occupational safety and health in SMEs. This CD presents summaries of 40 projects (14 transnational and 26 national) supported under the third and final round of the scheme. Funding was provided for initiatives that encouraged SMEs to adopt good occupational safety and health practice. Grants for projects were aimed at SMEs' specific needs in one of three categories: training related to the prevention of accidents and the avoidance of health risks; information and communications that promote health and safety; and identifying effective good practices that reduce dangers to health and safety. CDs for 2000-2001 and 2002-2003 are also available.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2006. 94p. Illus. CD-ROM readable on Macintosh or PC. Price: EUR 15.00.

CIS 07-351 Job of traditional bakery worker
Le boulanger artisan traditionnel [in French]
Contents of this occupational information sheet on the job of traditional bakery worker: general characteristics of the job; technical and organizational characteristics; exposures and constraints; hazard evaluation techniques and methods; health effects and occupational diseases; prevention; medical supervision; regulations; criteria for evaluating work aptitude.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.2, 2p. Insert.

CIS 07-85 Evaluation of occupational hazards: Where do regional enterprises stand?
Evaluation des risques professionnels: où en sont les entreprises régionales? [in French]
This document presents the highlights of the findings of a survey carried out in the Limousin region of France on the compliance by enterprises with the current regulations concerning hazard evaluation. It involved a postal questionnaire addressed to a representative sample of enterprises, followed by interviews with five heads of establishments. Findings are discussed with respect to awareness of the legislation, the degree of compliance, specific problems encountered by small enterprises and the need for support.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Jan. 2006. 4p. [in French]

CIS 07-118 Itani T., Tachi N., Kogi K., Hisanaga N., Hirata M., Araki S.
Occupational health in small-scale enterprises and the informal sector
This special issue contains an edited selection of articles on occupational health in small enterprises and the informal sector that were originally presented at an international symposium held in November 2004 in Nagoya, Japan. Articles are grouped under the following headings: strategies for innovative approaches to occupational health action in small enterprises; advances in rapid risk assessment and control; health promotion and healthy work life; effective prevention measures in small workplaces; present situations and activities in occupational health at small workplaces.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.44, No.1, p.1-168. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 07-205 Samant Y., Parker D., Brosseau L., Pan W., Xi M., Haugan D.
Profile of machine safety in small metal fabrication businesses
This study evaluates the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce the risk of amputation among workers in small metalworking businesses in the state of Minnesota. Forty businesses participated. Checklists were developed to quantify machine-guarding practices. Up to 25 randomly-selected machines were evaluated in each facility. Overall, only 55% of items addressing machine guarding were present. No single machine complied with all critical safety requirements. Shops with safety committees tended to have better scores than did shops without safety committees. Thirty-five percent of all businesses had established machine guarding procedures and 17% provided training in machine guarding to their employees. These findings indicate that machine guarding and related safety programmes in small metal fabrication businesses are inadequate. They also suggest that safety committees are an important component in improving machine safety and related programmes in small businesses.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2006, Vol.49, No.5, p.352-359. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 06-1417 Barriers and enablers to control of hazardous chemicals in small and medium enterprises (SMEs)
This report presents the results and conclusions of a project to determine the barriers, enablers and motivators in SMEs to control for ten hazardous substances, selected from a candidate list of 45 submitted by stakeholders. Results are discussed in terms of measures implemented for the control of hazardous substances, what influences the implementation of controls and identification of priority industry sectors.
Australian Safety and Compensation Council,, 2006. 114p. 42 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1371 Lentz T.J., Wenzl T.B.
Small businesses with high fatality rates: Assessment of hazards and their prevention
Most of the U.S. workforce is employed in business establishments with fewer than 100 workers. Not only do a majority (56%) of employees work for small employers, but furthermore workplace fatality rates are frequently higher in those industries dominated by small workplaces. Similar patterns exist in the European Union, where the risk of fatal accidents in businesses with fewer than 50 workers is nearly double that for larger companies. Prevention of occupational illness and injury is often difficult in small business establishments because they typically have fewer safety and health resources, cannot hire staff specifically devoted to safety and health activities and lack the ability to identify occupational hazards and conduct surveillance. Based on previously published surveys and on a review of the literature, this investigation identified the characteristics of high-risk small business industries and assessed methods for creating and improving awareness of occupational hazards in the small business community.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2006, Vol.3, No.2, p.D8-D14. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 06-1500 And what if there were stress within your enterprise?
Et s'il y avait du stress dans votre entreprise? [in French]
This booklet is aimed at managers of small enterprises. It explains the causes and signs of occupational stress, the effects of stress on the health of employees and on the enterprise, warning signs that should alert employers to stress and ways to address the issue.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 2006. 19p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: EUR 4.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed973.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-1027 Essentials of health and safety at work
Revised edition of a training manual aimed primarily at small enterprises. Contents: managing health and safety (assessing and controlling risks, labour inspection); safe workplaces; preventing slips and trips; fire safety; work at height; building work; machinery safety; plant and equipment maintenance; gas- and oil-fired equipment; pressurized plant and equipment; workplace transport; lifting and handling; noise; vibrations; electricity; radiations; harmful substances; flammable and explosive substances; managing health (health surveillance, work-related stress, smoking); safe ways of working; selection and training; contractors; special groups of people (young people, disabled workers, new and expectant mothers, lone workers): personal protective equipment; accidents and emergencies. Replaces CIS 01-1000.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 4th ed., 2006. iv, 95p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: GBP 10.95.


CIS 08-1088 Rouilleault H., Dumalin F., Alour C., Chevallet R., Sarazin B., Issartelle P., Jouvenot C., Coppi M., Rousset S., Tanniou R., Pelletier J.
Modernizing SMEs with the employees
Moderniser les PME avec les salariés [in French]
Collection of articles on workers' participation in small enterprises. Topics addressed: strategic aspects of SME management; points of view of a consultant, a university professor, a member of the Regional council and of the secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation; approaches adopted by a packaging producer, a group of SMEs in the textile industry and a road transport enterprise; study on the investments made by 95 SMEs in a French region; main points to consider when implementing a plan to modernize the enterprise; further reading.
Travail & changement, Mar.-Apr. 2005, No.301, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in French]

CIS 08-547
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational health and safety support systems for small and medium sized enterprises - A literature review
An international review of the occupational safety and health support systems for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was undertaken with the aim to identify and review support models and programmes similar in scope to the proposed HSE's model for occupational health, safety and return to work support (OHSR). A total of 40 projects and programmes from various countries were included in the study. This review has highlighted the issues relating to each component of the OHSR model. However, none of the systems reviewed has taken a holistic approach similar to that proposed by HSE.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. iv, 87p. Illus. 67 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1271 Fairman R., Yapp C.
Health and Safety Executive
Making an impact on SME compliance behaviour: An evaluation of the effect of interventions upon compliance with health and safety legislation in small and medium sized enterprises
The project described in this report evaluated how external interventions affect SME compliance behaviour. It examined the impact of intervention on standards of compliance, the processes by which compliance occurred and how external intervention impacted on these processes. The study was conducted in small hairdressing shops in six regions of the United Kingdom. Formal compliance with COSHH (see CIS 03-1023), electrical safety and risk assessment requirements were assessed by examining the case notes of the local authorities and by interviewing managers or owners of the hairdressing shops. All the hairdressing shops believed they complied fully even though formal compliance levels ranged from 19.5% to 61%. Furthermore, compliance was not found to be part of a rational decision-making process. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 104p. Illus. 124 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 07-1275 Joshi G.
The other India at work - Job quality in micro and small enterprise clusters
This book is based on the findings of an ILO study undertaken in 2000-2001 in small-scale manufacturing and artisan clusters in Northern India. These include engineering workshops, metalworking, hand block printing, handlooms, ceramic products, embroidery, carpet weaving, brassware, nuts and bolts, and bone and hoof products. The study involved site observation, interviews of workers and discussions of the findings during focus groups with workers' representatives. The findings confirm the need for further actively promoting decent working conditions in these sectors.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. vii, 131p. Illus.

CIS 07-112 Managing a healthier workplace
This booklet on occupational hygiene is aimed at small enterprises. It explains what occupational hygiene is, and how the work done by occupational hygienists can be beneficial to an organization's well-being. It also introduces the British Occupational Hygiene Society and demonstrates the range of services it offers.
British Occupational Hygiene Society, 5/6 Melbourne Business Court, Millennium Way, Pride Park, Derby, DE24 8LZ, United Kingdom, [ca 2005]. 12p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-128 A guide to establish and implement safety management system for small and medium sized contractors
Aimed at small enterprises in the construction sector, this practical guide describes an approach for establishing and implementing a safety management system. The first part defines the various steps of the approach, and proposes a checklist of required actions for each step. The second part proposes models of various safety documents, forms and checklists needed for implementation, control, safety inspections and accident analyses.
Singapore Contractors Association Limited, Construction House, 1 Bukit Merah Lane 2, Singapore 159760, Republic of Singapore, 2005. 64p. Illus.

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