Alcohol and drug abuse - 495 entries found
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Kobayashi F., Watanabe T.
Study of the health and living conditions of day labourers - analysis of 5 years of health examination records
Hiyatoi rōdōsha no seikatsu to kenkō ni tsuite - 5-nenkan no kenshin kiroku no bunseki [in Japanese]
Every winter, especially before and after the New Year, more than 100 day-labourers are compelled to sleep outdoors around Nagoya station owing to the scarcity of jobs. Their age distribution peaks in their forties, and the percentage of men above sixty is very low. As job opportunities decrease, their living conditions become worse. Almost none of them have joined a health insurance programme. The following are considered to be their most important health problems: (1) trauma and other musculoskeletal diseases caused by heavy muscular work; (2) diseases such as tuberculosis, exaggerated by malnutrition or bad living conditions; (3) alcoholic liver disease or other alcohol-related diseases. These results suggest the necessity of more comprehensive and more effective policies.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.33, No.12, p.761-768. 10 ref.
Problem drinking - TUC guidelines for a workplace policy
A Trade Union booklet discussing the safety and health hazards arising out of alcoholism among workers, and appropriate remedial action by management and trade unions.
Trades Union Congress, Congress House, Great Russell Street, London WC1B 3LS, United Kingdom, 1986. 25p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: £0.80.
Occupational medicine and drug monitoring
Médecine du travail et pharmacovigilance [in French]
Medical thesis. Survey of the problem of increasing consumption of prescription drugs, followed by a discussion of the dangers that this consumption causes in the workplace: lack of attention; low blood pressure; hypoglycaemia; effects on vision, hearing and touch; acute cardiovascular problems; interactions between drugs and alcohol and between different drugs; role of the occupational physician.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1986. 147p. 82 ref.
Alcohol and safety in industry
The problem of alcohol consumption as an accident factor is reviewed in the light of recent studies, some of which dealt in depth with the accident time factor, the alcohol uptake of the injured and the personality of the victims of alcohol-induced accidents. The present practice for employers is to send intoxicated workers home without being able to judge the degree of intoxication, and the Law in the United Kingdom has as yet nothing specific to say about alcohol in employment. The article gives data on the strength of various alcoholic drinks and on blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) after drinking, explains the role of the liver in oxidising the absorbed alcohol, shows how to calculate a person's theoretical BAC and describes the effect of alcohol on behaviour and safety. In conclusion, it is suggested a firmer attitude towards alcoholism be adopted: the companies should decide on effective policies with a view to reducing excessive consumption of alcoholic drinks.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1986, Vol.36, No.1, p.18-23. 22 ref.
Solvents and organic mental illnesses
Solvants et troubles mentaux organiques [in French]
Definition of organic mental illness. Description of such illnesses reported in the literature: methodology, retrospective studies, occupational groups concerned (painters, in particular), studies of certain solvents (carbon disulfide, kerosene, toluene and xylenes, white spirit, trichloroethylene, other solvents). Difficulties in transferring epidemiological results to clinical studies. Methods of research (psychometric tests, electrophysiological methods, scanners, measurement of blood flow in the brain).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Apr. 1986, No.25, p.11-16. 51 ref.
Contents of this data sheet on ethanol (ethyl alcohol, or - simply - alcohol): properties; 8-h TWA recommended in the United Kingdom for vapours: 1000ppm, 10-min short-term TWA: 3000ppm); industrial uses; fire hazards and extinguishants to be used; hazardous reactions; toxicity and biological hazards; carcinogenicity (no evidence if used carefully); handling and storage; safety precautions; leakage and spillage; first aid. The dangers of illicit consumption of industrial alcohol are stressed.
Safety Practitioner, Feb. 1986, Vol.4, No.2, p.36-37. 9 ref.
Alcohol in the workplace
L'alcool sur les lieux de travail [in French]
Regulatory aspects of alcohol consumption in the workplace in Belgium, and discussion of alcoholism in industry. Aspects considered include penalties, occupational diseases, occupational accidents due to alcohol consumption, damage caused to third parties and compensation.
Promosafe, Jan.-Feb. 1986, Vol.13, No.1, p.34-37; Mar.-Apr. 1986, Vol.13, No.2, p.122-125. 3 ref.
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Annual Report 1985
Centre international de recherche sur le cancer - Rapport annuel 1985 [in French]
Occupational hazards considered in the report were: inhalable particles; registry of people exposed to dioxin-contaminated substances; epidemiology on the effects of pesticides in Colombia; passive smoking; case-control studies network; studies in Trieste and Singapore; N-nitroso compounds; opium, betel nut and other alkaloids; analgesic-related renal diseases; ochratoxin A; the IARC monographs; an occupational cancer review.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1985. 240p. Illus. Bibl.
Tyrer F.H., Lee K.
A synopsis of occupational medicine
A textbook aimed at those following specialised training in occupational health (medical doctors, occupational health nurses, safety officers, management and trade union personnel). Coverage: the practice of occupational medicine (ethics, treatment at work, pre-employment and pre-placement examinations, fitness assessment); development of British legislation on OSH; organisation of occupational health services in the United Kingdom, with short comparisons with the situation in Western Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia and Israel; role of management, trade unions, the industrial doctor and the occupational health nurse; industrial accidents (definitions, statistics, prevention, first aid); rehabilitation; ergonomics (posture, lifting and carrying, thermal environment, automation, hours of work); epidemiology and statistics; industrial psychology; alcoholism; women at work; occupational health within specific occupations (health workers, sewer men, fire fighters, policemen, teachers, care providers); toxicology (including a list of occupational exposure limits effective in the United Kingdom, and details on the most frequently encountered hazardous substances; industrial diseases; biological and physical hazards.
John Wright and Sons Ltd., Techno House, Redcliffe Way, Bristol BS1 6NX, United Kingdom, Second ed., 1985. 227p. Illus. Bibl. Index. Price: £12.50.
Alleyne B.C., Jamieson G., Kalnas J., Oxford R.R.
Alcohol and drug prevalence in occupational fatalities in Alberta 1979-1983
This report investigates the relationship between alcohol, drug abuse and industrial accidents, and describes a monitoring system based on the study of 339 fatalities in Alberta.
Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, July 1985. 19p. 13 ref.
Chapman Walsh D., Hingson R.W.
Where to refer employees for treatment of drinking problems
Although employee assistance programmes appear to be spreading rapidly, much remains to be discovered about how they should proceed. A critical review of the literature on these programmes reveals wide gaps in knowledge about the relative efficacy of a variety of alternative strategies. In particular, empirical data on where to refer employees for treatment are urgently needed. As medical scientists with ties to industry, occupational health professionals can play a decisive role in designing an efficient and effective system of care for alcohol problems.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1985, Vol.27, No.10, p.745-752. 71 ref.
Employment and conditions of work in health and medical services
Emploi et conditions de travail dans les services médicaux et de santé [in French]
This worldwide survey of working conditions in the health services includes a chapter on the major occupational hazards affecting health care personnel. The following aspects are covered: statistical data for some countries; communicable diseases; tuberculosis; hepatitis; rubella; AIDS; cytomegalovirus infection; chemical hazards (anaesthetic and sterilising agents - particularly ethylene oxide, hexachlorophene and formaldehyde); cytotoxic agents; pharmaceutical drugs and preparations; mercury; allergic disorders (dermatitis and asthma); physical hazards (ionising radiation, noise, high temperatures and exposure to asbestos); ergonomics and manual handling; psychosocial hazards (stress, solitary work, drug abuse and shift work); accidents and injuries; problems of special groups (women, domiciliary health care); problems encountered in practice in the implementation of safety and health measures.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1985. 142p. Bibl. Price: SF.20.00.
Watanabe T., Fujita H., Koizumi A., Chiba K., Miyasaka M., Ikeda M.
Baseline level of blood lead concentration among Japanese farmers
Lead concentrations were determined for 2583 blood samples collected from farmers in various parts of Japan to establish reliable baselines for blood lead levels. The data were distributed log-normally with a geometric mean of 48.6±1.5µg/L for males and 32.1±1.50µg/L for females. These levels are among the lowest observed in the industrialised countries of the world. The sex difference was significant while the seasonal variation was not. Both drinking and smoking habits were associated with a dose dependent increase in blood lead levels, especially in males.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1985, Vol.40, No.3, p.170-176. Illus. 39 ref.
Occupational safety and health in road transport
La sécurité et l'hygiène du travail dans les transports routiers [in French]
Background report (No. III) for the 11th session of the Inland Transport Committee convened by the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland, Aug. 1985. Contents: size and character of the industry; road accidents and their causes; nature of road transport work and occupational risks (fatigue, alcohol, drugs, exhaust gases, noise, vibration, climate, ergonomic considerations, manual handling, transport of hazardous materials, maintenance and repair activities, asbestos and lead exposure); prevention measures; training; role of government, employers and workers; accident statistics.
Report III, Inland Transport Committee of the International Labour Organisation, Eleventh Session, Geneva 1985, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1985. 71p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.12.50.
Management guide to loss control
Le guide du contrôle des pertes à l'intention de la direction [in French]
Management training guide to loss control. Contents: history and philosophy; causes and effects of downgrading incidents (incidents that decrease the efficiency of a business); incident investigation; planned inspections; proper job analysis and procedures; planned job observation; group communications; personal communications; job pride development (sickness, physical or mental handicap, fatigue, drug taking, alcoholism); environmental health in industry (air pollutants or contaminants, skin irritants, noise, extreme temperatures, illumination, radiation, ventilation); fire loss control; incident recall techniques; family protection.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, Ontario, 2 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1984. 243p. + course instruction and examination kit. Illus. 48 ref. Also available in French.
Haguenoer, Barbier M., Debacker, Marieu B., Robinet P., Zimniewski J., Herman M.
Alcoholism in the industrial environment
L'alcoolisme en milieu industriel [in French]
Series of articles devoted to alcoholism and the working environment in France. Analysis of data and of the consequences: the experience of an industrial physician in dealing with alcoholism within the enterprise; control of alcoholism among miners; communications within the enterprise: conditions of success for any preventive action.
Sécurité - sciences et techniques, Dec. 1984, No.29, p.62-72.
Proceedings of the international symposium on work-related diseases, Espoo, Finland, 4-8 June 1984
The proceedings of this symposium arranged by the Institute of Occupational Health (Finland), the Nordic institute of advanced occupational environmental studies and the WHO Office of occupational health describe the results of current research on all aspects of occupational diseases.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1984, Vol.10, No.6, special issue, p.341-519. Illus. Bibl.
Occupational hazards on the bottling lines of breweries
Risques professionnels dans les ateliers d'embouteillage des brasseries [in French]
This medical thesis presents an overview of breweries and gives statistics on occupational accidents and diseases from the French National Health Insurance Fund. The process of brewing is described step by step, with a review of working conditions and particular hazards at each work station. Each station on the bottling line is studied in terms of: humidity, broken glass, noise, postural, sensory and mental stress, speed of work, shift and seasonal work, alcoholism. Noise is the greatest problem. A theoretical discussion is followed by the results of noise measurements and audiometric tests of different workplaces. The tasks involving the greatest risk of hearing damage are given in a summary; the workers performing them should be provided with collective and personal protective equipment, and should be given frequent medical examinations. The use of a material other than glass for containers for beer would solve a number of complex problems.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de Broussais Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1984. 163p. Illus. 54 ref.
Goethe W.H.G., Watson E.N., Jones D.T.
Handbook of nautical medicine
This handbook is aimed at doctors on board ships and at other crew members responsible for health. It covers a wide range of topics, including: the history of nautical medicine; the ship's medical centre and medical chest; medical care on ships without a doctor (including radio medical advice); work and recreation at sea; effects of ship design on the physical and mental health of seamen; effects of macroclimate and microclimate; lighting; noise and vibration; water supply; waste and wastewater disposal; food; psychological problems; occurrence, frequency and aetiology of diseases and trauma on ships; accidents; classes of diseases (gastrointestinal, respiratory, musculoskeletal, venereal, skin, cardiovascular, urologic, mental, other); dental problems; treatment of sick seamen ashore; preventive medicine aboard (education, personal and food hygiene, alcohol and drug abuse, smoking, immunisation, disinfection and disinfestation, international health regulations); special topics (fitness for duty, dangerous cargoes, fishing fleets, women and children on board, the sea pilot, extreme conditions, search and rescue at sea, lifesaving appliances, offshore medicine, underwater medicine and diving).
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, Postfach D-1000 Berlin 33, 1984. 490p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DM.198.00.
Reina Gómez F.
Alcoholism - a psychological, social and occupational problem
Alcoholismo: problema psico-socio-laboral [in Spanish]
A survey of the problem of alcoholism in Spain. Statistics presented show that an estimated 8000 deaths in 1971 were directly attributable to alcohol consumption, of which 300 were occupational accidents. In the same year, 150,000 occupational accidents were attributed to alcohol consumption, with hospital expenses alone amounting to 300 million pesetas. In a 6-year study of approx. 13,000 workers in a construction company, strong statistical correlation was found between drinking habits and accident proneness. In another study of approx. 54,000 workers, it was found that during a specified period 33% of the non-drinkers and 43.4% of the drinkers had occupational accidents - with the highest rate among those drinking 2L or more of wine a day (61%). Preventive measures and diagnostic features of alcoholism are detailed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1984, Vol.31, No.122, p.3-24. 11 ref.
Rodmen's safety manual
This manual is intended as a guideline for the installation of reinforcing steel rods on concrete structures. Aspects covered: personal protective clothing and equipment; handling of rods; welding and cutting; first aid; safety responsibilities; alcohol and drug abuse at the workplace.
Construction Safety Association of Ontario, 74 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario M5C 2A5, Canada, 1984. 38p. Illus.
Physicians at risk. Some epidemiologic considerations of alcoholism, drug abuse, and suicide
The epidemiologic evidence for a high occupational risk of alcoholism, drug abuse and suicide for physicians is discussed. A modern treatment facility dealing with the problem is described, and suggestions are made regarding the underlying issues and policies that face the administrators of training programmes and treatment centres. Self-help behaviour modification techniques are proposed to reduce these problems.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1984, Vol.26, No.7, p.503-508. 69 ref.
Occupational stress in the police workplace: a review
This report identifies the causes of occupational stress in police work and reviews the literature on the subject. The effects of stress on policemen and preventive measures are discussed.
Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1983. 102p. Bibl.
McCarthy T.B., Jones R.D.
Industrial gassing poisonings due to trichlorethylene, perchlorethylene, and 1-1-1 trichloroethane, 1961-80
An analysis of 330 gassing incidents in the United Kingdom, involving 384 people. There were 17 fatalities and 168 cases of unconsciousness. Toxic effects were mostly on the central nervous system, with gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms also quite common. Only 4 cases of slight hepatic dysfunction were noted, with no conclusive evidence of hepatotoxicity. In 9 case reports deliberate solvent abuse was a causative factor, 7 of the victims being from the 15-19 years age group. It is suggested that supervisory staff be made constantly aware of the possibility of drug abuse among young workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1983, Vol.40, No.4, p.450-455. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Docks and maritime health and safety 1977-82
This report on 6 years of dock and marine work in the United Kingdom covers safety improvements, safety problems and accident analysis for: conventional cargo handling; container operations; roll-on roll-off operations; bulk hazardous cargoes; health hazards; marine activities. Detailed analysis of some of the 80 fatal accidents is given, with the role of alcohol consumption emphasised.
H.M. Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1983. 31p. Illus. Price: £3.60.
Haguenoer J.M., Furon D.
Industrial toxicology and health - Behaviour in the work environment as a problem of health education
Toxicologie et hygiène industrielles - Le comportement en milieu de travail, problème d'éducation pour la santé [in French]
This work is addressed to industrial physicians and other professionals responsible for the health of employees; important information is provided to help workers understand their health problems and fight against unhealthy lifestyles. 5 lifestyle factors are analysed: 1. nutrition and work (dietary errors, particular work conditions, hours of work, nutritional pathology and group catering); 2. addiction to organic solvents (trichloroethylene, chloroform, glues, aliphatic nitrites); 3. smoking (pathology of exposure to tobacco smoke by smokers and non-smokers); 4. alcoholism (consequences at work, interactions with the working environment); 5. influence of prescription drugs on behaviour in the workplace.
Technique et documentation, Lavoisier, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris Cedex 08, France, 1983. 560p. Illus. Bibl. Price: FF.360.00.
Causes of death of active railway workers - Can these deaths be prevented?
De quoi meurent les cheminots en activité? Peut-on prévenir les décès? [in French]
The medical causes of death of railway workers aged less than 55 years are analysed with a view to their prevention. Aspects studied are: cancer, cardiovascular diseases, suicide, accidents. The two main causes of death were cancer and cardiovascular conditions. Priorities for effective medical prevention suggested are early detection of hypertension and obesity, and of alcohol and tobacco abuse.
SNCF - Informations médicales, 1983, No.136, p.4-10
Sánchez Munõz J.M.
Alcoholism in the workplace
Alcoholismo en la empresa [in Spanish]
Discussion of the various aspects of alcoholism at work in Spain. About 7 to 9% of the workforce is alcoholic, and alcohol may be responsible for at least 40% of work-related accidents.
Mapfre seguridad, Oct.-Dec. 1982, No.8, p.31-35. Illus. 9 ref.
Carrasco Prieto A.L., Tejedor Muñoz J.M., Vásquez Barbado C., Zancajo Castañares J.L.
Retrospective epidemiological study of 100 cases of silicosis
Estudio epidemiológico retrospectivo: A propósito de 100 casos de silicosis [in Spanish]
Aspects studied in this randomly selected group of patients: age, sex, length of exposure, degree of silicosis, type of work, contamination source, personal history, and the individual criteria in relation to degree of silicosis. The 3 grades of silicosis were most frequent at ages 46-50 years (although grade III was present before the age of 45) and after exposure of 15-20 years. Hammerpick miners constituted the majority of patients in all 3 grades. There was a high incidence of intercurrent pathology (chronic bronchitis in 90%, chronic alcoholism, tobacco use, rheumatism). Recommendations are made regarding health education of workers, early detection, development of a health programme, improvement of mining techniques
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1982, Vol.30, No.118, p.76-82.
Contribution to the study of the medical and ergonomic aspects of disc-jockey work
Contribution à l'étude des aspects médicaux et ergonomiques du travail de disc-jockey [in French]
This M.D. thesis defines the hazards inherent in a disc jockey's job, which is to control the visual and musical environment of a discotheque. A description of the workplace, tasks, and working conditions (physical environment, physical and mental stress, psychosocial aspects, working hours) is followed by measurements of the noise, lighting and temperature levels in the workplace and the heart rate and state of health of the personnel. Noise is the major source of stress, and it is hard to protect the disc jockey from it. Medical supervision should include a respiratory function test every year, and a determination of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase at unspecified intervals. Prevention includes informing disc jockeys of the hazards of noise, tobacco and alcohol.
Faculté mixte de médecine et de pharmacie de Rouen, France, 1982. 67p. Illus. 11 ref.
Suicide among seamen
Merimiesten itsemurkat [in Finnish]
A statistical analysis of 117 cases of suicide by Finnish seamen between 1965 and 1977. Age, married status, work on ship, alcohol consumption and method of suicide were among the variables analysed. For crew members, the rate of suicide was 2.5 times higher than among the general population. The highest frequency was among crew members who were 25-34 years old, were unmarried, working on tankers and who changed ships frequently.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisutoimisto, Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1982. 60p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: Fmk.25.00.
Managing health promotion in the workplace - Guidelines for implementation and evaluation
Health promotion is a combination of educational, organisational and environmental activities designed to support behaviour conducive to the health of employees and their families. Preliminary risk assessments are followed by the implementation of programmes designed to reduce such risks associated with behaviour. General guidelines, examples of major US company health programmes, and background articles on related subjects such as hypertension, smoking, weight, stress, alcohol and drug abuse control programmes are given.
Mayfield Pub. Co., 285 Hamilton Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94301, USA, 1st edition 1982. Illus. 314p. 336 ref. Price: US$24.95.
Haguenoer J.M., Bourrinet P., Frimat P.
Interrelations between alcoholism and exposure to industrial toxic substances
Les interrelations entre l'alcoolisme et l'exposition aux toxiques industriels [in French]
Critical review of the literature on the interactions between ethanol and various chemicals to which workers may be exposed. The article considers, in turn, pharmacodynamic interactions related to the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and nervous systems, the liver and blood. Part 2 covers metabolic interactions in ethanol breakdown: toxic substances causing oxidation to acetaldehyde via various routes (alcohol dehydrogenase, catalase, etc.), oxidation to acetic acid. Reference is also made to interactions with metals (manganese, lead, mercury, cobalt, chromium) and carbon monoxide, and to interferences in forensic medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.6, p.461-473. Illus. 107 ref.
Role of the plant physician on the prevention of alcoholism in the workplace
Rôle du médecin du travail dans la prévention de l'alcoolisme au sein des entreprises [in French]
MD thesis. Contents: historical background on methods of combating alcoholism, attempts to classify types of alcoholism and risk factors, clinical and biological diagnosis, importance of alcoholism problems in the workplace, alcoholism prevention and role of the plant physician. In-plant study of anti-alcoholism campaigns, giving practical aspects of the problem.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpétrière, Paris, France, 1982. 113p. 87 ref.
Alcoholism at the workplace
L'alcoolisme au travail [in French]
Texts of the papers read at the international symposium held in Brussels (Belgium) on 11 Feb. 1982. Subjects covered include: definitions of alcoholism and intervention strategy; the history of alcohol consumption in relation to the work environment; socio-economic aspects in relation to the individual; involvement and research - action in the working environment; alcoholism at the workplace in the Federal Republic of Germany; measures that the undertaking can take in relation to the individual; role of social institutions in working-environment policies; alcohol and work - the role of the State; the occupational physician and alcoholism problems at the workplace.
Association nationale pour la prévention des accidents, 88 rue Gachard, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1982. 178p. 99 ref.
Pitts F.N., Allen R.E., Aniline O., Yago L.S.
Occupational intoxication and long-term persistence of phencyclidine (PCP) in law enforcement personnel
A glass capillary gas chromatographic nitrogen detector method specific for phencyclidine (PCP) and sensitive to levels >0.005-0.010ng/ml in blood and urine samples was used to confirm occupational intoxication of law enforcement personnel handling confiscated, illegal PCP preparations. Exposed personnel included police officers who had made raids and arrests involving PCP and laboratory staff handling confiscated material retained as evidence. PCP was also detected in blood and urine samples of a laboratory worker not occupationally exposed in the previous 6 months.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.9, p.1015-1020. 16 ref.
Kollmeier H., Wiegand M.
Potential secondary effects on occupational safety of treating stress symptoms with benzodiazepines or beta-blockers
Potentielle Nebeneffekte auf die Arbeitssicherheit durch Behandlung von Stressymptomen mit Benzodiazepinen oder Betablockern [in German]
Review of the various types of tranquillisers and beta-blocking agents, their therapeutic application and their effects - especially in combination with alcohol. These agents produce generalised sedation and, consequently, a drop of vigilance and reactivity which may result in an accident. It is this danger that lies behind the related recommendations or restrictions on the driving of vehicles or machinery. Results of statistical analyses on the relation between the use of these pharmaceutical agents and occupational accidents, and on the incidence of their use.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, May 1981, Vol.31, No.5, p.192-198. Illus. 39 ref.
Health effects of combined exposures in the work environment
Effets sur la santé de l'exposition professionnelle à des agressions multiples [in French]
Theoretical considerations on the effects of combined occupational exposure to multiple agents (physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial); current state of the art in this field: animal experiments, human observations (in particular the influence of factors such as medical treatment, smoking, alcohol intake, nutrition), epidemiological approach; practical implications for occupational health practice, standard-setting and research.
World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1981. 76p. 171 ref. Price: SF.4.00.
Occupational accident and disease prevention
La prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles [in French]
Proceedings of a symposium organised in Paris on 20 Nov. 1980 by the French Action Coordinating Committee for the Disabled. Papers deal with: the international scene and the work of the ILO; the position of the French public authorities, the employers, trade union confederations and the political parties with regards to occupational safety and health. Alcohol consumption at the workplace. The activities of the various French agencies involved in safety and health.
Comité national de coordination de l'action en faveur des personnes handicapées, 36 rue de Prony, 75017 Paris, France, 1981. 103p. Illus.
Erhardt H.P., Zinsser E., Bartsch R., Bretschneider M.
Hepatobioptic surveillance and medical consequences for workers exposed to pesticides
Leberbioptische Verlaufskontrolle und arbeitsmedizinische Konsequenzen bei Werktätigen in Pflanzenschutz und Schädlingsbekämpfung [in German]
The findings of a hepatic biopsy performed on 27 workers exposed to pesticides and repeated 2 years after the initial examination are reported. The statistical analysis shows that improvements were confined to people whose change of occupation was accompanied by a reduction of alcohol intake and body weight. Consequences for occupational medicine: consultation of a specialist; ban on alcohol consumption and reduction of overweight, screening of transaminase and cholinesterase levels, change of workplace in accordance with bioptic findings, registration and certification of occupational disease.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, 1981, Vol.36, No.6, p.265-269. Illus. 17 ref.
Organisation for Safety in Building Construction and Civil Engineering (France) (Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics)
Worker hygiene and health conditions at the workplace - Legislation and regulations
Hygiène des travailleurs et salubrité des lieux de travail - Textes légaux et réglementaires [in French]
An updated list of French legislation on workplace health conditions (excluding workers' living quarters) grouped under the headings: French Labour Code; working conditions of women and children (Labour Code); conditions of hygiene at work (Labour Code; Decree of 8 Jan. 1965; Decree of 29 Nov. 1977 which makes special provisions for work done in premises by an external contractor; cloakrooms, showers; infirmary; lifting and carrying of heavy loads); alcoholism control; dangerous, unhealthy and obnoxious work; atmospheric pollution.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Sep.-Oct. 1981, No.5. 4p. (inserted).
Ministerio de Trabajo, Dirección General de Trabajo
IX National Congress of Occupational Medicine, Health and Safety: Record of Proceedings
IX Congreso Nacional de Medicina, Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo: Libro de Actas [in Spanish]
Record of proceedings of the Congress (Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 8-10 Oct. 1980) at which the ILO was represented. Vol.1: texts of papers presented on the broad themes of: problems and treatment of alcoholism at work; respiratory disorders of occupational origin due to organic dust; pathology of mercury and its derivatives; occupational dermatosis in the construction and iron and steel industries; first aid for eye injuries; toxicology of industrial solvents; evaluation and control of dusty atmospheres; noise and vibration control; welding; work in hot environments; radiation hazards; TLVs; local exhaust ventilation; electrical hazards in construction work; fire precautions in hotels; safe handling of explosives; safety training. Discussions and reports of panels of experts. Vol.2: free communications. Vol.3: study sessions, panels, round tables. Safety posters and prizewinning photos are reproduced. List of participants.
Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, Torrelaguna 73, Madrid 27, Spain, 1981, 3 Vol., 991p. + 911p. + 697p. Illus. Bibl.
Gnesina E.A., Antonjuženko V.A.
Pathogenesis of dyssomnia in some occupational neurotoxicoses as revealed by polygraphic recordings of night sleep
K patogenezu dissomničeskogo sindroma pri nekotoryh professional'nyh nejrotoksikozah (po dannym poligrafičeskoj registracii nočnogo sna) [in Russian]
Continuous chart recordings of night sleep in 22 patients with chronic occupational intoxication by narcotic substances (low-molecular unsaturated hydrocarbons and their chlorine derivatives - ethylene, propylene, vinyl chloride, trichloroethylene) and in 8 subjects with chronic methyl methacrylate poisoning showed disturbed sleep patterns. In the early stage of intoxication the disturbance was largely due to physical activation changes, and in the later stage to tonic ones.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.10-13.
Organizational and social aspects of occupational health.
This is volume 4 of the proceedings of the 19th International Congress on Occupational Health (Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, Sep. 1978). 59 selected papers are reproduced under the headings; occupational health in various countries; organisation and implementation; nursing; education; geographical aspects; miscellanea. All the papers are in English except two in French. For Vol.1, 2 and 3 see CIS 80-1626, 81-503 and 81-875.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, Vol.30, Supplement, 1980. 1823p. Illus. 225 réf.
Accident prevention by psychological methods
La prévention des accidents par les méthodes psychologiques. [in French]
The first part of this selection of articles is devoted to the evolution of psychomotor aptitudes with age, a review of certain factors which influence this evolution (laterality, school attendance, occupational training, alcoholism, etc.) and the effect of apprenticeship. Second part: prognostic value of psychological tests from the Bonnardel battery (prognostic value in general, and for the particular cases of falls from heights and accidents with machines). The results of a limited statistical study show that use of psychotechnical tests results in a reduction, at least temporary, in the accident frequency rate.
Editions scientifiques et psychologiques, 6bis rue André Chenier, 92130 Issy-Les-Moulineaux, France, 1980. 190p. Illus. 28 ref.
Sato A., Nakajima T., Koyama Y.
Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on hepatic metabolism of aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons in rats.
The activities of liver drug-metabolising enzymes for 16 aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons were measured in rats after daily intake of ethanol (30% of total energy intake) for 3 weeks. Ethanol only slightly increased the microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, but increased in vitro metabolism of most hydrocarbons 3-6 fold. A major part of this enhanced activity disappeared after withdrawal of ethanol, suggesting that recent intake of ethanol plays an important part in accelerating the metabolism of hydrocarbons. The enzyme activity enhanced by ethanol was related to changes occurring not in the soluble but in the microsomal fractions. A metabolism study with toluene showed its in vivo metabolism to be increased by chronic ethanol consumption in rats.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1980, Vol.37, No.4, p.382-386. 23 ref.
Alcoholism: Industry's $15 billion hangover.
Statistics: 60 per 1,000 U.S. workers have drinking problems or are confirmed alcoholics; overall total of 6.5 million alcoholics (white collar workers: 25%; manual workers: 30%; professional workers and managers: 45%). Cause and effect of alcohol addiction (psychological and physical dependance, chemical threshold, ethanol impregnation and organs affected). Alcoholism as an occupational disease (stress factors). Alcoholism ranks third after cancer and cardiac disease in total fatalities in USA. Impairment of ability on the job; accident incidence. Symptoms of alcoholism; supervision; possibilities of cure; rehabilitation; success of rehabilitation programmes sponsored jointly by management and trade unions. Effects of ethanol toxicity (both sedative and irritant) on liver (fibrosis, fatty degeneration, cirrhosis, portal hypertension).
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 1980, Vol.42, No.9, p.54-58. Illus.
Diet and driving
Diététique et conduite de véhicule. [in French]
MD thesis: general principles of diet; energy expenditure, supply of dietetic requirements, wrong dietary habits among drivers and effects on their driving; special problems related to alcohol, smoking, certain pharmaceutical products, and special diets (e.g. low carbohydrate intake for diabetics).
Université de Paris VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1980. 133p. 58 ref.
Medical qualifications for diving personnel in commercial and industrial diving operations.
This standard, which established minimum requirements for medical qualifications for diving personnel in commercial and industrial diving operations, is intended to provide reasonable safety requirements to divers and guidelines for regulatory agencies for the preparation of governmental regulations. Definitions; general requirements for pre-employment medical examinations; qualifications of physicians; frequency of examination and qualification levels; other examinations; absolute, relative and temporary disqualifications (alcoholism, lung function tests, history of decompression sickness, impaired hearing); chamber tests (pressure and oxygen toxicity tests); physical qualification levels (table). A specimen medical examination form is reproduced.
American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 4 Dec. 1978. 11p. Price: US$4.00.
Lopez Mena L., Pomar Moya-Prats M.J.
Qualitative analysis of tests for the prevention of occupational accidents
Análisis cualitativo de una batería parcial de seguridad en el trabajo [in Spanish]
This article stresses the importance of industrial psychology tests in accident prevention and examines in detail 3 tests from the R. Bonnardel factorial battery (B101, sinusoidal and omega). These tests enable in particular alcoholics and subjects with dangerous psychological attitudes to be screened.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Apr.-June 1980, Vol.28, No.110, p.103-110. Illus. 10 ref.
Alcoholism and occupational safety
Alkohol und Arbeitssicherheit [in German]
El alcohol y la seguridad del trabajo [in Spanish]
Alcool e sicurezza del lavoro [in Italian]
L'alcool et la sécurité du travail [in French]
Difficulties encountered in attempting to pinpoint the role of alcohol in accidents and determine the percentage of occupational accidents due to alcohol are considered. Different surveys give percentages varying between 7.5% and 35%. One fact is stressed: alcohol potentiates the effects of harmful substances and physical agents, and thus increases predisposition to accidents. Suggested measures which could reduce or suppress alcohol consumption in the workplace include mechanisation of heavy physical work, thermal insulation, ventilation, air-conditioning and above all the distribution of soft drinks. Review of physiological requirements as regards intake of fluids, and suitable non-alcoholic beverages. Other preventive measures include prohibition or restriction of alcohol consumption, and screening and selection of personnel. Many examples of accidents are given. Spanish translation published in "Notas y documentos sobre prevención de riesgos profesionales", 148, 4° trimestre 1984, p.65-73.
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1980, No.133. 30p. Illus. The Spanish version is in: I.N.M.S.T., No.902, p.65-73.
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