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Alcohol and drug abuse - 495 entries found

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CIS 95-786 Dawson D.A.
Heavy drinking and the risk of occupational injury
Data from the 1988 US National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for a sample of 29,192 adults who were employed at some time during the previous year. After adjusting for the effects of age, sex, education, occupation and strenuous job activity, the odds ratio of occupational injury increased with frequency of heavy drinking. Odds ratios were slightly decreased by the inclusion of smoking as a control variable. Odds ratios were also slightly lower when the analysis was restricted to current drinkers, suggesting that the risk of work injury was increased by light or moderate as well as heavy drinking.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Oct. 1994, Vol.26, No.5, p.655-665. 28 ref.

CIS 95-773 Summala H., Mikkola T.
Fatal accidents among car and truck drivers: Effects of fatigue, age, and alcohol consumption
A study was made of fatal road accidents in Finland. When excluding alcohol-related cases, trailer-truck drivers who either fell asleep or were tired to a degree that contributed to the accident were younger than those involved in the other fatal accidents. For car drivers, the proportion of fatigue-related cases was approximately constant in each age group, but increases were seen for young drivers (18-20 years old) between midnight and 6:00am and in older drivers (56 and older) during the late afternoon hours. Fatigue and alcohol appeared to be less of a problem for truck drivers than for car drivers.
Human Factors, June 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.315-326. 51 ref.

CIS 95-173 Zenz C., Dickerson O.B., Horvath E.P.
Occupational medicine
This manual is arranged in 8 parts: clinical factors (role of the physician, epidemiology, trauma and emergencies, fitness to work, toxicology, dermatoses, biological monitoring, diagnosis); occupational pulmonary diseases (silicosis, pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, asthma); the physical occupational environment (materials handling, noise, vibration, heat stress, work at low temperature, diving and compressed-air work, radiation, ergonomics); the chemical occupational environment (chemicals and their health effects); selected work categories of concern (women, reproductive hazards, occupational health in hospitals, agriculture, aviation, welding and hazardous waste plants); behavioural considerations (mental stress, shift work, absenteeism); occupational health activities (workplace safety, industrial hygiene, industrial nurses, health promotion, alcohol and drug abuse programmes, hazard evaluation).
Mosby-Yearbook Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63136, USA, 3rd ed., 1994. xx, 1316p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 155.00 (USD 171.00 overseas).

CIS 95-110
Ministère du Travail (France)
Study of work conditions in 1993 and general orientations for 1994 - Activity of the Higher Council for the Prevention of Occupational Risks
Bilan des conditions de travail 1993 et orientations générales 1994. Activité du Conseil supérieur de la prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
This document reproduces excerpts from the chapter "Examination of work conditions 1993" of the Annual Report of the French Higher Council for the Prevention of Occupational Risks devoted to the Council's activities in occupational medicine. Work carried out by various committees in 1993 is presented, followed by an overview of the general policies and of the action programme for 1994.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.57, p.33-48. Illus.

CIS 95-160 Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France - Meeting of 22-23 October 1992
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séance des 22 et 23 octobre 1992 [in French]
Main subjects treated at the meetings of 22 and 23 Oct. 1992 of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: economic outlook for road transport in France - repercussions on working conditions; selection criteria for tramway drivers; study of simple auditive and visual reaction time in bus drivers in Abidjan (Ivory Coast); adequate techniques for the monitoring of chrome plating workers: air sampling or determination in urine; assessment of exposure to noise during random events - two methods, two sets of results; early osteonecrosis and determination of the aptitude to work - study of one case; vaccination against hepatitis in the workplace; multidisciplinary approach to the design of workplaces; ergonomic approach applied to two teams of operators using the same machinery for post-driving and lifting; a pragmatic approach to workplace acoustics; drinking and driving: an experiment; sleep apnoeas: repercussions in the transport sector; cardiac rhythm disorders in a truck driver - medico-legal comments on one case.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.53-70.

CIS 95-210 Huang M.Y., Jin C., Liu Y.T., Li B.H., Qu Q.S., Uchida Y., Inoue O., Nakatsuka H., Watanabe T., Ikeda M.
Exposure of workers to a mixture of toluene and xylenes - I. Metabolism
The urinary excretion of hippuric acid and methylhippuric acid was studied in 233 subjects in China (122 men and 111 women) exposed to toluene and xylenes in combination and in 281 non-exposed controls (141 men and 140 women) recruited from the same factories or factories of the same region. Smoking and drinking habits of the subjects were obtained by medical interviews. A urine sample was collected from each worker at the end of a shift and was analyzed for hippuric and methylhippuric acids by high performance liquid chromatography. Air samples for the estimation of toluene and xylenes were collected with diffusive personal samplers. There was a linear correlation between the time-weighted average exposure either to toluene or xylene isomers and the concentrations of hippuric acid or methylhippuric acid isomers in urine. The metabolism of toluene and xylenes was significantly reduced among smokers or drinkers compared with non-smokers and non-drinkers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.42-46. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 94-1889
Health and Safety Executive
Manual handling in drinks delivery
This booklet provides guidance on the responsibilities of employers and others under the Health and Safety at Work ... Act (CIS 74-2099) and the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (CIS 93-36). Contents: advice to employers on risk assessment, reducing the risk, training and protective clothing; advice to those in control of premises concerning the design and maintenance of the premises where goods are delivered; general advice to employees. Appendices include checklists and a table of weights and measures of full and empty containers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. v, 25p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 94-1094 Bonner A.
Is your workplace addictive?
The problems of addictive behaviour and their manifestation and management in the workplace are reviewed. While addictions to alcohol, drugs, smoking and gambling are frequently encountered, other addictions, such as "workaholism", are less well known. Alcohol misuse results in considerable costs to industry in terms of working days lost, while smoking has a wide range of direct and indirect consequences for the health of employees. The development of addictive behaviour is discussed along with the management of addictions and profiling of potential addicts.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 1994, Vol.12, No.1, p.14-17. 19 ref.

CIS 94-622 Manno M., Rezzadore M.
Critical role of ethanol abuse in carbon tetrachloride poisoning
A brief report on two cases of occupational poisoning after acute unprotected inhalation of carbon tetrachloride in which regular ethanol abuse by the patients appears to have been critical for toxicity. In each incident, one worker (in each case a heavy drinker) developed adverse liver and kidney effects while co-workers (who drank moderately) showed no significant effects. Thus, conditions of solvent exposure that are harmless to normal subjects may produce dramatic effects in heavy drinkers.
Lancet, 22 Jan. 1994, Vol.343, No.8891, p.232. 3 ref.


CIS 03-498 Drugs and alcohol in the maritime industry
Report of the ILO Interregional Meeting of Experts held in Geneva, Switzerland, 29 September - 20 October 1992. It contains a synthesis of the discussions of the meeting, reports of three working groups and full texts of three discussion papers on the following subjects submitted by the ILO: drug and alcohol problems in the maritime industry; drug and alcohol screening issues in the maritime industry; proposed action plan to address these problems in the maritime industry. Il also contains notes submitted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on its activities relevant to drug use and alcohol abuse, an International Shipping Federation paper on drugs and alcohol in the shipping sector, an International Transport Workers Federation policy paper on drugs and alcohol, and texts of country papers prepared by government participants from Brazil, Egypt, India, Norway, the Philippines, Poland and the United States.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. 165p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-340 Zwerling C.
Current practice and experience in drug and alcohol testing in the workplace
This review focuses primarily on the US experience in drug and alcohol testing in the workplace. The association between drugs and alcohol on one hand and occupational injuries and other adverse employment outcomes on the other is discussed in detail. Cost-benefit issues are discussed. Caution should be exercised in transposing results from one setting to another. Relatively little is known on whether drug testing in the workforce is effective in reducing drug usage.
Bulletin on Narcotics, 1993, Vol.45, No.2, p.155-196. Illus. 67 ref. [in English]

CIS 97-339 Kapur B.M.
Drug-testing methods and clinical interpretations of test results
Technical aspects of drug testing methods in the workplace and interpretation of test results are described with procedure instructions. The most sophisticated drug-testing approach is gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS); it is used in confirmatory testing. Typically it is preceded by a rapid immunoassay method, to eliminate the majority of the "negative" samples. A "positive" drug finding can have a serious impact on the livelihood of an individual, therefore persons conducting such tests should adhere to the strictest laboratory performance standards. The most common types of testing are described by means of assay of blood, urine and hair specimens. Breath analysis is also employed for alcohol testing.
Bulletin on Narcotics, 1993, Vol.45, No.2, p.115-154. 47 ref. [in English]

CIS 97-338 Mørland J.
Types of drug-testing programmes in the workplace
Different types of testing are examined in this review. Pre-employment testing is a popular type of screening, but a number of other programmes exist: probable cause, post-accident, reasonable suspicion, post-treatment, random and voluntary testing programmes. Implications and consequences of testing are discussed together with ways in which testing can be integrated into broad programmes. Concerning infrastructure, the suitability of testing premises within the workplace and the medical skills of the operators are emphasized as well as the costs. Testing programmes can also be divided into health and control testing. In a health programme the physician should act as the company's medical advisor. In a control programme the employer initiates the testing and obtains the interpreted results.
Bulletin on Narcotics, 1993, Vol.45, No.2, p.83-113. 47 ref. [in English]

CIS 97-337 Raskin C.
Drug and alcohol testing in the workplace: Moral, ethical and legal issues
This article discusses the arguments advanced by the proponents and opponents of drug and alcohol testing in the workplace, considering moral, ethical and legal issues. It is emphasized that perhaps the most important issue is that testing might lead to discrimination against disabled persons, persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), minorities and pregnant women. The overview of national perspectives demonstrates that, while the issues are the same, no single country has a universally applicable approach to drug and alcohol testing. Testing methodologies, specific safeguards concerning privacy and workplace medical examination have developed along unique national lines. The specific legal situation in five countries (Canada, France, Netherlands, U.K. and USA) is discussed in detail.
Bulletin on Narcotics, 1993, Vol.45, No.2, p.45-81. 84 ref. [in English]

CIS 97-336 Hanson M.
Overview on drug and alcohol testing in the workplace
This literature review examines the nature and extent of alcohol and drug use in the US workplace, as well as related problems, strategies for managing alcohol- and drug-related difficulties, and arguments for and against drug and alcohol testing. To date, the supportive evidence for the usefulness of drug and alcohol testing is inconclusive, although testing programmes are useful in identifying drug users. Their deterrent value is uncertain, however, and they are not efficient tools for linking drug users to assistance programmes. Enterprises considering the introduction of drug and alcohol testing programmes should ask themselves the following questions: (1) Is substance abuse a problem for them? (2) Will testing respond to the problem? (3) Will testing be cost-effective? (4) Are there any ethical and legal issues involved?
Bulletin on Narcotics, 1993, Vol.45, No.2, p.3-44. 163 ref. [in English]

CIS 96-550
Institut suisse de prévention de l'alcoolisme et autres toxicomanies
Integrate rather than exclude. Alcohol and other addictive substances in the workplace
Intégrer plutôt qu'exclure. Alcool et autres substances engendrant la dépendance au poste de travail [in French]
Eingrenzen statt ausgrenzen. Alkohol und andere Suchtmittel am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Integrare invece di emarginare, Alcol e altre sostanze che generano dipendenza sul posto di lavoro [in Italian]
Main contents of this training brochure on the management and prevention of addictive behaviour in the workplace: basic information: why do people turn their backs when addictive substances are being discussed; substances concerned and their effects; accidents and absences; legislative aspects in Switzerland; how much is too much, potential remedial measures: what to do to deal with the situation; prevention programmes in enterprises; useful addresses.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 1993. 20p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 96-549
Institut suisse de prévention de l'alcoolisme et autres toxicomanies
On one hand. On the other hand. Everything you need to know on alcohol and other addictive substances in the workplace
D'une part. D'autre part: Tout ce qu'il faut savoir sur l'alcool et les autres substances engendrant la dépendance au poste de travail [in French]
Einerseits. Andererseits. Klartext über Alkohol und andere Suchtmittel am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Da una parte. D'altra parte. Tutto quello che si deve sapere sull'alcol e sulle sostanze che generano dipendenza nel posto di lavoro [in Italian]
Training brochure designed to increase awareness of addictive behaviour in the workplace. Main contents: addictive substances and their effects; occupational risks associated with addiction; too much is too much; no gossiping, let's talk openly about it; help rather than rejection. Appendices: 12 illustrative posters in A4, A3 and B4 format: "12 good reasons to stop drinking as of today".
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Oct. 1993. 4p. Illus.

CIS 95-924 Newkirk W.L.
Occupational health services - Practical strategies for improving quality and controlling costs
This guide reviews specific factors that characterize effective occupational health programmes. Contents: current status of occupational health programmes; quality improvement; development of the core occupational health programme; health improvement at the worksite; programmes that can save employers money; satisfaction of legal requirements for employee screening; measurement and improvement of financial performance; significant trends in occupational health programme development.
American Hospital Publishing Inc., 737 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 700, Chicago, IL 60611-2615, USA, 1993. xix, 307p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 56.95 (USD 44.95 AHA members) plus USD 8.95 (USD 7.95) shipping and handling.

CIS 95-549 Fatal workplace injuries in 1991 - A collection of data and analysis
This report presents data from the 1991 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) along with analyses of some aspects of the data and background information on the CFOI programme. Topics covered: analysis of fatal work injuries in 31 States; alcohol and drug use; surveillance of fatal occupational injuries and response of next-of-kin; work-related vehicle fatalities; identifying work-related fatalities in agriculture; death certificates as a source of data; length of time in position and fatal occupational injury; workplace homicides.
US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212, USA, Apr. 1993. v, 72p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-125 Workers' privacy. Part I: Protection of personal data; Part II: Monitoring and surveillance in the workplace; Part III: Testing in the workplace
Part I introduces the issues surrounding workers' privacy in the context of new data-processing techniques; Part II contains international instruments, or relevant provisions thereof, on the protection of personal data (monitoring of telephone calls, video surveillance, badge systems and locational devices). Part III provides a country-by-country analysis of the implications for employers and workers of the legislation that has been adopted in 19 countries to protect the privacy of the citizen in data-processing systems (alcohol and drug testing, AIDS, genetic or psychological testing).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Part I- 1991, Vol.10, No.2, 277p.; Part II- 1993, Vol.12, No.1, 374p.; Part III- 1993, Vol.12, No.2, 361p. Price: CHF 45.00 each issue.

CIS 94-1948 Zwerling C., Sprince N.L., Ryan J., Jones M.P.
Occupational injuries - Comparing the rates of male and female postal workers
To compare the injury rates of male and female postal workers, data on a cohort of 2,337 new postal employees hired between 1986 and 1989 were reanalyzed. The analysis controlled for potential confounding by age, race, smoking status, and drug use. Compared with men, women had an increased relative risk for occupational injuries in each of the three largest job classifications: letter carrier, letter-sorting machine clerk, and mail handler. The relative risks were not constant over time. For letter carriers and letter-sorting machine clerks, the increased risks for women were noted only during the first year of employment (relative risk (RR)=1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.67 and RR=2.60, 95% CI 1.31-5.15, respectively). For mail handlers, the increased risks for women were noted only after the first year of employment (RR=2.13, 95% CI 1.09-4.15).
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 July 1993, Vol.138, No.1, p.46-55. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 94-1984 Maheswaran R., Gill J.S., Beevers D.G.
Blood pressure and industrial lead exposure
The association between lead exposure and raised blood pressure was examined in a 1981 cross-sectional study of 809 male factory workers. The geometric mean blood lead level was 31.6µg/dL. Unadjusted systolic blood pressure rose with increasing blood lead levels from 127mmHg in men with blood lead levels less than 21µg/dL to 133mmHg in men with levels exceeding 50µg/dL. Following adjustment for the confounding effects of age, body mass index, and alcohol consumption, however, the effect of blood lead on systolic pressure was diminished to 129mmHg and 132mmHg in the respective categories. There was no association between diastolic blood pressure and blood lead. Zinc protoporphyrin levels and years of industrial lead exposure did not raise adjusted systolic or diastolic pressure. The findings are consistent with a weak effect of industrial lead exposure on systolic blood pressure, within the range of exposures observed in this study.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Mar. 1993, Vol.137, No.6, p.645-653. 27 ref.

CIS 94-1924 Hirota Y., Hirohata T., Fukuda K., Mori M., Yanagawa H., Ohno Y., Sugioka Y.I.
Association of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, and occupational status with the risk of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head
The association of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, occupation, and other factors with the development of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head was studied in Japan during the period 1988-1990, comparing 118 cases with no history of systemic corticosteroid use with 236 controls. The risks of developing femoral head necrosis associated with potential risk factors were estimated by adjusted relative odds. The elevated relative odds were observed for occasional and regular drinkers, with a significant dose-response relation (p<0.001). An increased risk was found for current smokers, but a linear increasing trend in the cumulative effect of smoking was not evident at 20 pack-years or over. A weak but significant dose-response relation was observed for daily occupational energy consumption (p<0.05). The present study confirmed the strong association of alcohol intake and positive association of cigarette smoking and suggested the role of heavy physical work.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Mar. 1993, Vol.137, No.5, p.530-538. 35 ref.

CIS 94-1799 Health promotion in the workplace: Alcohol and drug abuse
Promotion de la santé sur les lieux de travail: abus de l'alcool et des drogues [in French]
Report of a WHO Expert Committee which met in Geneva, Switzerland, 4-8 November 1991. Contents: basic definitions and concepts concerning alcohol- and drug-related problems in the workplace; requirements and strategies of national and international programmes; the nature and extent of alcohol- and drug-related problems and contributing factors; review of relevant health promotion initiatives (historical and cross-cultural review, nature of such initiatives, development and implementation, the regulatory context, drug screening and testing); health programme evaluation; multicultural situations; problems of developing countries. The report concludes with a number of recommendations.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. v, 35p. 54 ref. Price: CHF 7.00 (CHF 4.90 in developing countries).

CIS 94-1445 Vanhoorne M.
Mental disorders of physicians
The literature on mental disorders of physicians is reviewed. There are indications of higher suicide rates, more addiction and higher prevalence of non-psychotic mental disease among physicians than in the general population. These differences have been attributed to work-related factors, frustrations during medical education and greater vulnerability of individuals choosing the medical profession. Proposed remedies include health education and the development of coping strategies during medical education and adequate occupational health surveillance of doctors.
Archives of Public Health, 1993, Vol.51, Nos.9-10, p.373-386. 47 ref.

CIS 94-1403 Harrison J.E., Mandryk J.A., Frommer M.S.
Work-related road fatalities in Australia 1982-1984
The 1,544 work-related fatalities identified in Australia during 1982-1984 included 366 (24%) fatal work-related road injuries sustained while working on public roads and a further 234 (15%) sustained while commuting. Statistics are analyzed according to age, sex and survivability of cases, time and location of accident, type of vehicle, type of road user, blood alcohol concentration and occupational group. Results highlight possible priority areas for preventive action: truck drivers (especially articulated trucks), transport occupations, drivers in country areas, long-distance driving, driving at night and alcohol use.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Aug. 1993, Vol.25, No.4, p.443-451. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1349 Vapour degreasing - Changing from 1,1,1-trichloroethane to trichloroethylene
This data sheet explains the circumstances in which trichloroethylene may be used as a substitute for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and outlines the precautions needed to make the change. Contents: environmental legislation; reducing the need for cleaning; control of exposure under the COSHH Regulations (CIS 89-1092); modification of equipment for use with trichloroethylene.
Engineering National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, McLaren Building, 2 Masshouse Circus, Queensway, Birmingham B4 7NP, United Kingdom, Sep. 1993. 2p. 8 ref.

CIS 94-834 Prevention of the risk of high blood alcohol levels: A new teaching tool - SIMALC
Prévention du risque d'alcoolisation. Un outil pédagogique nouveau: le logiciel SIMALC [in French]
SIMALC (SIMulation of blood ALCohol levels) is a simulation system enabling users to estimate blood alcohol levels in function of their alcohol and food consumption. It is an interactive teaching tool consisting of a dedicated portable computer (220V) with the application programme already installed. It allows users to estimate the risks they face after alcohol consumption, and to change their behaviour in consequence. The machine may be used as part of information and training campaigns against alcohol conducted within enterprises.
MVE, 8 rue de l'Est, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France, 1993. Dedicated computer.

CIS 94-825 National Safety Council's VideoResource
Annotated catalogue of more than 1,800 videotapes available (many of them also in Spanish) for rental from the Council. The tapes cover all aspects of safety and health, including (in the occupational area): AIDS; alcohol; asbestos; back injuries; chemical hazards; confined spaces; cranes and rigging equipment; electrical safety; emergency preparedness; ergonomics; eye safety; falls; fires; first aid; flammable substances; forklifts; hazard communication; hearing; laboratories; ladders and scaffolds; leadership; lifting and carrying; lockouts; machine maintenance; machine guarding; motivation; personal protective equipment; respiratory protection; safety supervision; solid waste management; stress; substance abuse; tools; welding and cutting; various industries and occupations. Rental charge per week per title for all programmes is USD 90.00 (members), USD 115.00 (non-members).
National Safety Council, Western Region Office, 1111 Triton Drive, Suite 201, Foster City, CA 94404-1217, USA, 1993. 82p.

CIS 94-748 Holcom M.L., Lehman W.E.K., Simpson D.D.
Employee accidents: Influences of personal characteristics, job characteristics, and substance use in jobs differing in accident potential
Relationships between employee substance use and accidents at work were assessed in a sample of municipal employees in the USA. Employees were classified into low- and high-risk job samples and discriminant function analyses were carried out to classify employees into "no accident" and "some accident" classifications. Variables from personal, job and substance use domains were used as discriminators. Employees likely to have accidents tended to have dysfunctional personal backgrounds and reported that they were dissatisfied and tense at work. Drug and alcohol use were major discriminators of accident groups for the high-risk job sample but not for the low-risk job sample.
Journal of Safety Research, Winter 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.205-221. 43 ref.

CIS 94-261 XXIInd National Congress of Occupational Medicine - First European meeting - Topic 2: Health, work and aging
XXIIes Journées nationales de médecine du travail - Première rencontre européenne - Thème 2: Santé, travail et vieillissement [in French]
Main topics of papers and posters presented at the XXIInd National Congress of Occupational Medicine on health, work and aging (Nantes, France, 2-5 June 1992): sleep disorders as a function of age and working hours; tobacco, alcohol and relations with age and working conditions; influence of working conditions and age on the musculoskeletal system in the construction industry; evaluation of functional age and the aging process in secondary school teachers; age, effects of selection and difficulties in work; aging in the: detection and understanding of exclusion processes; aptitude for physical effort and aging; strenuous work and health after 45; joint pain and constraints of heavy work in relation to age and sex; differential aging according to occupation; lead exposure and life expectancy; development of indicators for aging. Posters.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.3, vi, p.183-289. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-201 Lindsay J.P., Stavraky K.M., Howe G.R.
The Canadian Labour Force Ten Percent Sample Study - Cancer mortality among men, 1965-1979
The mortality experience of 415,309 men in the Canadian Labour Force 10% Sample Study was updated to the end of 1979. Analysis of 9,739 deaths from cancer between 1965 and 1979 (274 occupations, 294 industries and 33 types of cancer) revealed 243 associations. On the criteria of strength of association, dose-response, and consistency, 23 associations were of particular interest. Of these associations, four seemed most likely to be caused by excess smoking and/or alcohol consumption. A further seven had support in terms of biological plausibility and/or other studies in the literature. The other associations may well have arisen by chance given the many comparisons made in this study.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.408-414. 23 ref.

CIS 93-1898 Work-related diseases: Prevention and health promotion - Proceedings
Arbeitsbedingte Erkrankungen: Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung - Schlußbericht [in German]
Maladies liées au travail: mesures préventives et promotion de la santé - Actes du symposium [in French]
Proceedings of the International symposium on work-related diseases - Prevention and health promotion held in Linz, Austria, 27-30 October 1992. Papers are presented under the following headings: keynote addresses (practical approaches for the control of work-related health risks; health promotion through the prevention of work related disease; the perspective of developing countries; the situation in Austria); national systems - an international comparison; work-related disorders and diseases; health promotion concepts; concrete actions at enterprise level. Papers are presented in English, French or German with summaries in the other two languages.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Kongressbüro, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1993. 235p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1242 Safety and related issues pertaining to work on offshore petroleum installations
La sécurité du travail dans les installations pétrolières en mer et questions connexes [in French]
This report was prepared by the International Labour Office as the basis for discussions at the Tripartite Meeting on Safety and Related Issues Pertaining to Work on Offshore Petroleum Installations which was held from 22 to 29 April 1993 in Geneva, Switzerland. Contents: extent and trends of offshore petroleum activities; the nature of offshore work; the accident record; national regulation of offshore safety; safety policies and techniques in enterprises; workforce involvement in safety matters; international standards and regulation; summary and suggested points for discussion; list of tables.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. iv, 91p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 17.50.

CIS 93-1176 Shannon H.S., Hope L., Griffith L., Stieb D.
Fatal occupational accidents in Ontario, 1986-1989
470 fatal occupational accidents occurring in Ontario (Canada) between 1986 and 1989 and meeting eligibility criteria were examined. Homicides and most accidents on public roads were excluded. Information was obtained from coroners' files and records of the provincial Ministry of Labour. Levels of alcohol likely to produce impairment were found in six subjects (2% of the two-thirds of fatalities tested). Cannabis was detected in 3.9% of cases (17% of those tested), but other illegal drugs were not found. Recommendations of coroner's juries showed that organisational factors were considered relevant on many occasions. The incidence rate rose steadily with age. Other data items were examined, although, because of missing information for many of them, the conclusions that can be drawn are limited. More fatal accidents occurred in the first half of the shift than in the second half.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.23, No.2, p.253-264. 13 ref.

CIS 93-1045 Hollo C.D., Leigh J., Nurminen M.
The role of alcohol in work-related fatal accidents in Australia 1982-1984
This paper describes the role of detectable blood alcohol in fatal work injuries. An attempt was made to identify all work-related fatalities that occurred throughout Australia in the period 1982-1984. 1737 fatal injury cases were classified as being work-related according to study definitions. The likelihood of inebriation was assessed without knowledge of the victim's blood alcohol concentration (BAC). In 1030 (59%) of the 1737 fatal work injury cases a BAC determinations was documented. Zero levels were detected in 867 fatalities (84%), and 163 cases (16%) had non-zero BAC. In the latter group the median BAC was 104mg%. Sixty-five per cent of measurable BAC cases had BAC greater than 50mg%. Fatality risk in the non-zero BAC group relative to that of the zero BAC group was elevated for the following factors: marital status - single (risk ratio (RR) = 1.7, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.8) or separated/divorced (RR = 2.4, CI 1.5-3.8); occupation as manager, executive or administrator (RR = 2.5, CI 1.5-5.8); and commuting (RR = 1.6, CI 1.2-2.0). In fatal vehicle accidents, BAC ≥ 50mg% was measured significantly more frequently and BAC < 50mg% less frequently than BAC = 0, while non-vehicular workplace accidents were less likely to have involved a high BAC.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.13-17. 17 ref.


CIS 96-1160 Fanelli C., Floccia G.M., Macciocu L.
Behaviour and difficulties of drug addicts in the context of workplace safety
Attegiamenti e difficoltà del tossicodipendente in materia di sicurezza sul lavoro [in Italian]
The results of 120 returns to a questionnaire survey are reported with the aim of gathering and evaluating data on the influence of drug abuse on occupational safety. The questionnaires compiled by health and social workers contained their opinions on drug abuse from a general point of view and on the suitability, reliability and safety of employing drug addicts in the workplace. The reported results seem to indicate a negative influence of drug abuse. The unreliability of drug addicts and their accident propensity are attributed to their inability and difficulty to concentrate on their work.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep.1992, Vol.4, No.3, p.129-147. 69 ref.

CIS 95-2100 Une S.
An occupational health study relevant to the prevention of occupational accidents among middle-aged and older workers
Chūkō nenrei sha no rōdō saigai bōshi ni kansuru sangyō igaku teki kenkyū [in Japanese]
In a sample of 341 male workers from two steel companies (ages 18-60 years), 102 had experienced accidents and 239 had not. Regression analysis of the relationship of accidents to various factors showed that age itself was not a simple determinant of accident frequency: loss of concentration was the most important factor. The ability to jump at least 43cm vertically was important for accident avoidance; jump heights 5cm below this threshold gave a relative risk of accident of 1.46. A comparable threshold (25dB) was established for hearing, and a 10dB decrement gave a relative risk of 1.31. Consumption of more than 66.8g of alcohol per day was a contributing factor. There was no correlation of body sway with accident risk.
Medical Journal of Hiroshima University, 28 Feb. 1992, Vol.40, No.1, p.47-70. Illus. 86 ref.

CIS 95-1407 Soskolne C.L., Jhangri G.S., Siemiatycki J., Lakhani R., Dewar R., Burch J.D., Howe G.R., Miller A.B.
Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid in southern Ontario, Canada, in association with laryngeal cancer
A case-referent study designed to test the association between exposure to asbestos and nickel and the development of laryngeal cancer was conducted in southern Ontario (Canada) in 1977-1979. For the primary study, the cases were individually matched with neighbourhood controls for sex and age. Personal interviews had secured smoking, alcohol and detailed work histories. To 183 of the male pairs were added retrospective assessments of sulfuric acid exposure for each job, blind of disease status; this constituted the data base for an augmented secondary analysis. Logistic regression revealed statistically significant odds ratios when tobacco and alcohol were controlled. Exposure-response gradients were strongly positive with odds ratios of 1.97 for short duration-low level exposure through 6.91 for long duration-higher level exposure employing progressively more specific definitions of exposure. Asbestos as a confounder and the interaction terms examined were nonsignificant. These findings are corroborative of those of other studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1992, Vol.18, No.4, p.225-232. 25 ref.

CIS 95-940 Foppa I., Minder C.E.
Oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer as a cause of death among Swiss cooks
Excess mortality due to oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer was found among Swiss cooks. Although the dominant role of combined alcohol and tobacco consumption for these pathologies has been confirmed by many studies, other factors (volatile carcinogenic compounds formed during the cooking process) may contribute to this excess mortality.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1992, Vol.18, No.5, p.287-292. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 95-543 National campaign for increasing awareness of occupational safety and health issues, 1991-1992
Campanha nacional de sensibilização para a higiene e segurança no trabalho [in Portuguese]
Report on a national campaign to increase awareness of occupational safety and health issues in Portugal, with particular attention to modules on: alcoholism in the workplace; fire prevention and control; demonstration of fire fighting. The questionnaire on which the report is largely based is reproduced in annex.
Confederação Geral dos Trabalhadores Portugueses (CGTP), Lisboa, Portugal, 1992. 31+11p. Illus.

CIS 95-790 Swotinsky R.B.
The medical review officer's guide to drug testing
This guide describes the practical, legal and administrative aspects of workplace drug testing. Contents: prevalence of drug abuse in the workplace and industry responses; legislation; history of workplace drug testing; evaluating the need for a drug testing programme; basic elements of a drug testing policy and evaluation of drug testing programmes; drug testing collection procedures; forensic laboratory drug testing; the function of the Medical Review Officer; risk management; employees' assistance programmes; monitoring laboratory performance; case studies. Glossary.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1992. xxiii, 246p. Bibl.ref. Index. Available from: International Thomson Publishing Services Ltd., Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire SP10 5BE, United Kingdom. Price: GBP 39.50.

CIS 95-107 Essential information on the use and abuse of drugs in the working environment
Informação essencial sobre o uso/abuso de drogas em meio laboral [in Portuguese]
Information and training booklet on how to avoid problems related to drugs (including alcohol) in the workplace.
Fundação Portuguesa para o Estudo, Prevenção e Tratamento da Toxicodependência, Largo do Colégio, n°5-2750 Cascais, Portugal, 1992. 9p. Illus.

CIS 95-96 Practical guide to safety and health in the chemical industry
Guia prático de higiene e segurança para a indústria química [in Portuguese]
Training guide aimed at workers in the chemical industry. It covers: basic concepts of occupational health; occupational diseases and accidents, their consequences and prevention; risk factors (temperature, lighting, noise, vibration, radiation); toxic products and chemical contaminants; materials handling; personal protective equipment; electricity; fire hazards, fire safety and fire fighting; occupational hygiene measures (cleanliness, welfare facilities, eating areas); warning signs; machine guarding; alcohol and its dangers.
Edição da Federação dos Sindicatos da Química, Farmacêutica, Petróleo e Gás, Lisboa, Portugal, [1992]. 52p. Illus. Index.

CIS 94-1449 Joeman L.M.
Alcohol consumption and sickness absence - An analysis of 1984 General Household Survey Data
Drinking patterns and the relationship between alcohol consumption and sickness absence among different groups of employees were examined using data from the 1984 General Household Survey. The main finding was that while there is a slight association between heavy drinking and higher rates of absence among men, there is a stronger association between the combination of heavy drinking and smoking and higher rates of absence. The results are discussed in terms of age and sex of the workers, industrial sector (manufacturing, construction and services) and occupation (managers/professionals, intermediate/junior non-manual and manual).
Research Management Branch, Employment Department, Moorfoot, Sheffield S1 4PQ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1992. xii, 36p. 23 ref.

CIS 94-1191 Conforti J.V.
Motor vehicle safety pocket guide
Pocket guide to motor vehicle safety for drivers. Contents: overview of the Occupant Protection in Motor Vehicles Standard (safety belts, head protection, drive safety awareness); vehicle familiarization (major components, how they work and how they may break down); vehicle safety features; basic driving safety tips; drug and alcohol abuse; traffic laws; glossary.
Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1992. 63p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders.

CIS 94-875 Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France - Meeting of 24-25 October 1991
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'ouest - Séances des 24 et 25 octobre 1991 [in French]
Main subjects treated at the meetings of 24 and 25 Oct. 1991 of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Industrial and Hygiene and Ergonomics of western France: prevention of atheromatosis and occupational medicine; psychotropic drugs at work; keeping a handicapped worker in his job; carpal tunnel syndrome; radial tunnel syndrome or epicondyalgia due to movement; repetitive strain of the upper limbs; periarticular diseases: how to proceed; upper limb periarticular diseases; carpal tunnel syndrome and compression of the posterior branch of the radial nerve at the elbow-level; survey of carpal tunnel syndrome of occupational origin; periarticular pain of the upper limbs and working conditions in poultry slaughterhouses and canneries.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.6, p.453-476. Illus.

CIS 94-400 Drug abuse at work - A guide for employers
This booklet provides information to employers on the risks of drug abuse along with guidance on the establishment of policies to minimize drug abuse and encourage employees with drug problems to come forward for treatment. Contents: the effects of drugs; signs of drug abuse; the need for action; essentials of a policy on drug abuse at work; implementing the policy; screening for drugs. Appendices include a list of commonly used drugs and their harmful effects and an outline of the principal legislation controlling drug use.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Nov. 1992. 17p. 6 ref.

CIS 94-145 Stockpiling safety
This training manual deals with the safe operation of mobile equipment on and around surface stockpiles of material awaiting shipping and processing. It discusses the hazards associated with stockpiles and reviews the procedures that can be used to minimize the occurrence of accidents. Main topics discussed: accidents involving mobile equipment and stockpiles; job experience; drug and alcohol abuse; seat belts; stockpiling techniques; removal of material from the base of a stockpile ("loading out at the toe"); slope instability; problems specific to equipment type (haulage trucks, front-end loaders, dozers, scrapers, trucks); working on foot.
National Mine Health and Safety Academy, P.O. Box 1166, Beckley, WV 25802, USA, 1992. 58p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 94-391 Upfal M.J., Markell B.
Training and proficiency in the medical review of job applicant drug screens
A survey was conducted to examine the proficiency of urine drug screen medical review officers (MROs) and the effect of training upon their performance. 139 attendees of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine basic MRO training course, and 82 attendees of the advanced course completed both pre-course and post-course surveys. The questionnaires included 10 vignettes with positive analytical results, of which only half should be reported as positive to management. The mean number of correct responses among the 10 cases presented were: basic pre-test - 4.91; basic post-test - 7.45; advanced pre-test - 6.68; advanced post-test - 7.33. Differences between all four groups were significant (P<0.001 to P=0.003), except for the basic post-test versus the advanced post-test, for which there was no significant difference. It is concluded that: (1) inadequate knowledge and skill in the medical review of drug screens may contribute to errors in reports to management; (2) physicians' performance can be improved with training; (3) certification of MROs in both the private and public sectors should be considered.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1992, Vol.34, No.12, p.1189-1196. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-2095 Ryan J., Zwerling C., Jones M.
The effectiveness of preemployment drug screening in the prediction of employment outcome
Studies of adverse employment outcomes associated with positive pre-employment drug screens have tracked employees for only about one year. Changes in drug use after hire may invalidate the predictions of employment outcome in later years which are essential for cost-benefit analyses. This blinded, prospective cohort study tracks absence, occupational accidents and injuries, discipline, and turnover in 2,537 screened employees through an average of two years. Marijuana-positive urine predicted increased turnover, accidents, injuries, discipline, and absence, but these risks appeared lower in the second year than in the first. Cocaine-positive urine predicted increased turnover, accidents, injuries, discipline, and absence at levels not consistently different from the first year. Cost-benefit analyses of drug screening project employment risks throughout employees' careers. This study raises the possibility that elevated risks may decrease after the first year.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1992, Vol.34, No.11, p.1057-1063. 15 ref.

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