Alcohol and drug abuse - 495 entries found
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Schenker M.B., et al.
Self-reported stress and reproductive health of female lawyers
In a questionnaire survey of 584 female lawyers aged 25 to 63, job hours per week was a strong predictor of job stress. Women who worked more than 45 hours per week during their first trimester of pregnancy were more likely to report high stress at work during pregnancy. Weekly job hours during the first trimester of pregnancy showed a strong independent association with spontaneous abortion risk, as did 7 or more alcohol drinks per week. Self-reported stress during pregnancy was positively, but not significantly, associated with spontaneous abortion.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.556-568. 40 ref.
Parkes K.R., Razavi T.D.B.
Health and Safety Executive
Psychosocial aspects of work and health in the North Sea oil and gas industry
Part I of this report comprises a review of the literature relating to work and health among offshore personnel. Topics covered include: patterns of illness and injury offshore; psychosomatic complaints and minor health problems; health problems associated with offshore shift rotation; mental health and stress offshore; health behaviours and lifestyle. Part II reports on a five-year follow-up study (1990-1995) which evaluated changes in mental health and job satisfaction in offshore and onshore personnel. Results showed a significant increase in perceived workload and anxiety over the follow-up period.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. x, 58p. 68 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Incidence of drug use in the world of work, 1996
La incidencia de las drogas en el mundo laboral, 1996 [in Spanish]
This report presents the findings of cross-sectional epidemiological study based on a survey of a sample of 2300 employed persons and 300 unemployed persons or persons seeking their first job. Its objectives were to shed light on the prevalence the drug consumption (including alcohol and tobacco) in Spain, and to compare the findings with those of a similar survey conducted ten years earlier. A first section provides data on the consumption by substances according to various factors (employment status, age, sex, region of residence, social class and religious beliefs). The second section discusses the motivations, attitudes and consequences of drug consumption. Finally, several preventive measures aimed at employers are proposed.
Fundación de Ayuda contra la Drogadicción, Avda. de Burgos 1 y 3, 28036 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 258p. Illus. 86 ref.
Fuchs R., Resch M.
Alcohol and occupational safety
Alkohol und Arbeitssicherheit [in German]
Topics: alcohol consumption and accidents; alcoholic beverages; check lists; commuting accidents; compensation of occupational accidents; drinks at work; drivers; Germany; information of personnel; legal aspects; occupational accidents; reaction time; relaxed vigilance; risk awareness; safety and health training; visual function disorders.
Hogrefe-Verlag für Psychologie, Rohnsweg 25, 37085 Göttingen, Germany, 1996. vii, 175p. Illus. approx. 300 ref.
Testing times for the mining industry: A Western Australian perspective on alcohol and drugs workplace problems
Topics: alcoholism; Australia; drug dependence; drug testing; economic aspects; implementation of control measures; legislation; mining industry; risk factors; smoking; survey.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.711-724. 20 ref.
Maintaining OHS standards in an international environment: A contractor viewpoint
Maintaining safety and health standards in overseas mining operations. Topics: alcoholism; Australia; drug dependence; mining industry; multinational enterprises; plant safety and health organization; safety training in industry; workmen's compensation.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.701-710.
Górski P., Uliński S.
Effect of occupational exposure to opiates on the respiratory system
The possible mechanisms of the effects of opiates on the respiratory system are reviewed. The known pathophysiology of opiate effects is described, and results of studies on lung function in opiate-exposed workers are summarized. While some cases of bronchial asthma observed in these workers can be explained by the stimulation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, the possibility of immunological reactions is also possible. Procedures for the diagnosis of opiate-induced asthma are described.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1996, Vol.9, No.3, p.245-253. Illus. 48 ref.
Morales Suárez-Varela M.M., et al.
Tobacco and alcohol consumption as health risk factors in seafarers
Hábito tabáquico y alcohólico como factores de riesgo del estado de salud de los trabajadores del mar [in Spanish]
An epidemiologic study based on information obtained from 707 clinical histories of seafarers from Valencia, Spain, was conducted in order to investigate tobacco and alcohol consumption and its relationship to health conditions in this population of workers. It was found that tobacco and alcohol consumption was higher than in the population of both the Community of Valencia and Spain and this habit plays an important role in the development of pathologies. Tables included. (Summary in English).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.43, No.168, p.27-36. 29 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Don't mix it! A guide for employers on alcohol at work
This booklet provides guidance on dealing with alcohol-related problems at work. Contents: effects of alcohol on the individual; legal aspects; identifying alcohol problems at work; deciding on and implementing appropriate action; a model alcohol policy; alcohol screening. Includes case studies of alcohol policies in specific companies and a list of organizations offering advice.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Nov. 1996. 22p. 4 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg240.pdf [in English]
Burns C.J., Boswell J.M., Olsen G.W.
Liver enzyme activity and body mass index
The activity of three liver enzymes was used as a measure of liver injury among male employees of a large chemical company. Body mass index and alcohol consumption were strongly associated with increased activity in liver enzymes; body mass index remained associated with enzyme activity after controlling for alcohol consumption, race and age. These findings are important in relation to allegations that exposure to certain chlorinated solvents can cause liver disease. Results suggest that body mass index, as well as alcohol and race, are significant risk factors for abnormal liver enzyme test results.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1248-1252. 12 ref.
Bell N.S., Mangione T.W., Howland J., Levine S., Amick B.
Worksite barriers to the effective management of alcohol problems
A survey of 7,255 supervisors in 114 worksites across seven major U.S. corporations revealed three classes of barriers to workplace interventions in cases of alcohol abuse: organizational, interpersonal and individual barriers. Most managers reported encountering some barriers to interventions; the extent of perceived barriers was related to characteristics of the worksite, the job, and/or the environment. Barriers were greatest for female managers, managers in larger worksites, and first-line supervisors, and were related to the form of intervention (formal or informal). Corporate intervention strategies should take into account differences between company worksites and job levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1213-1219. 24 ref.
Howland J., Mangione T.W., Lee M., Bell N., Levine S.
Employee attitudes toward work-site alcohol testing
A questionnaire survey of 6370 employees at 16 corporate work sites examined their support for work-site alcohol testing under three conditions: 65% supported pre-employment testing, 81% supported testing after an accident, and 49% supported random testing. Support was relatively consistent across the hierarchy (managers, supervisors and workers) but varied according to age, education, occupation, type of workforce, and perceived exposure to occupational hazards. Support for testing was highest among blue-collar workers whose jobs involved manufacturing or exposure to work-site hazards.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.38, No.10, p.1041-1046. 9 ref.
Warshaw L.J., Messite J.
Workplace violence: Preventive and interventive strategies
The prevalence of different types of violent or aggressive behaviour in the workplace was examined and contributing factors were identified. Workers most at risk include health care and social services personnel, people working alone, and government workers and those dealing with the public. Preventive measures include risk assessment, controlling alcohol and substance abuse, workplace modifications to reduce crime, security systems, staff training and employee assistance programmes. Interventive measures immediately after an incident should include care of the victim, staff counselling, reporting and investigation of the incident, assistance with victim compensation claims, and victim support.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.38, No.10, p.993-1006. 53 ref.
Regulations on the control of inhalable substances [Costa Rica]
Reglamento sobre el control de productos inhalantes [Costa Rica] [in Spanish]
This Decree (effective on publication) introduces the regulation controlling inhalable dangerous substances. It prohibits the sale or supply of such substances to minors or the mentally incompetent. All such substances have to be appropriately labelled. All those who sell, import, manufacture, store or distribute substances that can be inhaled by addicts must register with the appropriate authority (part of the Ministry of Health), and may not employ minors, mentally incompetent persons and drug addicts. Manufacturing of such products is permitted only when no substitutes exist. The use of these products is prohibited if their characteristics cause unsafe working conditions. When they are used, workplaces must satisfy certain minimum safety criteria.
La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Costa Rica), 27 May 1996, 118th Year, No.100, p.2-3.
Cabrero E., Osuna E., Luna J.D., Jimenez M.C., Marin J., Luna A.
Alcoholism, absenteeism and industrial accident rate in a Spanish public transport company
Alcoolisme, absentéisme et accidents du travail dans une entreprise de transport espagnole [in French]
Between 1988 and 1992 a careful examination was accomplished by a transport company in Spain in order to determine absenteeism and industrial accident rate on 43 possible excessive alcohol drinkers. Their age was 46 (average) and they had 23 years of service. A comparative study of the results obtained from check-ups on the 478 employees that belonged to the staff was carried out. The possible excessive alcohol consumers were tested by means of anamnesis, a drink questionnaire, physical exploration and blood test results. By analyzing the results of the study, a higher level of absenteeism and industrial accidents in possible heavy drinkers is perceived.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.353-355. 28 ref.
Pickett W., Chipman M.L., Brison R.J., Holness D.L.
Medications as risk factors for farm injury
In a questionnaire survey of 136 people with a farm injury and 581 controls without injury, significant increases in risk of injury were associated with regular use of stomach remedies or laxatives by males, and regular use of heart or circulatory medications by men over the age of 45. The identified associations remained after adjustment for age, co-morbidity, farm acreage, education, income, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Possible explanations for the associations are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1996, Vol.28, No.4, p.453-462. 37 ref.
Management of alcohol- and drug-related issues in the workplace
Prise en charge des questions d'alcoolisme et de toxicomanie sur le lieu de travail [in French]
Tratamiento de cuestiones relacionadas con el alcohol y las drogas en el lugar de trabajo [in Spanish]
Contents of this ILO code of practice: duties and rights of employers and employees; development of an alcohol and drug policy; restrictions on alcohol and drugs in the workplace; prevention through information and training programmes; identification and testing of workers with problems; treatment and rehabilitation programmes; intervention and disciplinary procedures. In appendices: physical effects of alcohol and drugs, and indicators of potential problems; ILO guiding principles on drug and alcohol testing.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. x, 45p. 89 ref. Price: CHF 15.00.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/english/download/e970709.pdf [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/french/download/f970709.pdf [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/spanish/download/s970709.pdf [in Spanish]
Postal service tries to reverse violent image through employee assistance and team approach
The problem of violence among U.S. postal workers is discussed and the development of an employee assistance programme is described. The programme includes the establishment of incident response and assessment teams in each postal district and an alcohol recovery programme. Work climates are assessed for potentially dangerous situations and counselling is offered to employees. Preventive measures include establishing a policy for dealing with harassment, threats and violence, and providing nonpunitive access to medical and mental health resources.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 12 June 1996, Vol.275, No.22, p.1710-1711.
Nathan P.A., Keniston R.C., Lockwood R.S., Meadows K.D.
Tobacco, caffeine, alcohol and carpal tunnel syndrome in American industry - A cross-sectional study of 1464 workers
The effects of legal drug use on the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were studied in 656 nonclaimant workers and 808 working patients with upper extremity symptoms. Greater use of tobacco combined with greater consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol abuse was associated with more median nerve slowing, more specific hand/wrist symptoms, and more definite CTS as confirmed by nerve conduction studies. Greater use of alcohol was associated with a reduced prevalence of symptoms. While legal drugs affect the health of the median nerve and the prevalence of CTS, their effects explain only a small portion of the total risk.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1996, Vol.38, No.3, p.290-298. 23 ref.
Kerr J., Griffiths A., Cox T.
Workplace health - Employee fitness and exercise
This manual examines the role of workplace fitness and exercise programmes in the promotion of employee health and well-being. Contents: organizational and individual perspectives of employee exercise programmes; financial aspects; assessing the relationship between exercise and employee mental health; role of activity and fitness in mental health; psychological benefits of physical exercise for women; exercise programmes and the promotion of health; exercise as a method of stress management; exercise, shiftwork and sleep; alcohol abuse, physical fitness and the prevention of relapse; employee fitness programmes and reduced absenteeism.
Taylor & Francis, Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 1996. xiv, 193p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 17.95.
Zwerling C., Sprince N.L., Wallace R.B., Davis C.S., Whitten P.S., Heeringa S.G.
Alcohol and occupational injuries among older workers
In this study the relationship between alcohol use and occupational injuries was examined in a nationally representative sample of older American workers (i.e. a cohort of 6,857 subjects 51-61 years old). The association between responses to four questions of the CAGE alcoholism screening test, a self-report of average daily alcohol consumption (0-5+ drinks per day) and the occurrence of an occupational injury within the last year was assessed. It was found that moderate drinkers (1-2 drinks per day) had lower injury rates than either heavy drinkers or teetotallers. For the CAGE questions, the proportion of injuries increased in most cases with the number of positive responses. Data from other investigations are also compared.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1996, Vol.28, No.3, p.371-376. 14 ref.
von Eckardstein D., Lueger G., Niedl K., Schuster B.
Emotional disorders and health in the enterprise
Psychische Befindensbeeinträchtigungen und Gesundheit im Betrieb [in German]
Topics: alcoholism; anxiety; cost of accidents; depressive neurosis; drug dependence; Germany; human behaviour; human relations; mental disorders; neurosis; psychology of absenteeism; psychology of work organization; psychosomatic disorders; round-up; social climate; stress factors.
Rainer Hampp Verlag, Meringerzeller Str.16, 86415 Mering, Germany, 1995. 401p. Illus. 362 ref. Price: DEM 49.80.
Lundberg I., Michélsen H., Nise G., Hogstedt C., Högberg M., Alfredsson L., Almkvist O., Gustavsson A., Hagman M., Herlofson J., Hindmarsh T., Wennberg A.
Neuropsychiatric function of housepainters with previous long-term exposure to organic solvents
Topics: alcoholism; cohort study; confounding factors; construction work; dose-response relationship; electroencephalography; exposure evaluation; long-term exposure; nervous function tests; neuropsychic effects; organic solvents; painting; psychological tests; Sweden; toxic encephalosis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1995, Vol. 21, Suppl.1, p.1-44. Illus. 105 ref.
Arnaudin, Bailloeuil, Choasson, Demeaux, Gouty, Perceval, Proy, Renault
Alcohol, enterprise and occupational medicine - Practical handbook
Alcool, entreprise et médecine du travail - Memento pratique [in French]
Guide on the prevention and treatment of alcoholism at the workplace. Contents: point of view of three French specialists on the subject: Gonnet F. (alcohol and management at the enterprise); Chapuis R. (alcohol and sociology); Barrier P. (getting to know the alcoholic); safety and health institutions; pedagogical support and means; training institutions; legal aspects; diagnosis techniques; bibliography and glossary.
Service Général de Médecine du Travail d'EDF et GDF, Division Santé Publique, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris Cedex 08, France, May 1995. 112p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Schweizerische Fachstelle für Alkohol- und andere Drogenprobleme (SFA)
One too many...: Alcohol at the workplace
Trop plein: l'alcool au poste de travail [in French]
Schön blau: Alkohol am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
A tutta birra: alcol e lavoro [in Italian]
Realistic videotape on the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and other drugs and the occurrence of occupational accidents. Supporting documentation is available from SUVA.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1996. Videotape (length: 16min). Price: CHF 60.00. ###
von Vietinghoff-Scheel K., Bijl D.
International Council on Alcohol and Addictions (ICAA)
Alcohol and drug prevention in the workplace - Experiences from Central European and Western countries: A publication of the ILO/ICAA seminars on workplace strategies
This monograph contains presentations made at a one-day symposium held in Prague (Czech Republic) in 1994, as well as some other papers. Topics of the papers: alcohol and drug prevention at the workplace - a WHO/ILO project in Poland (statistics on drug abuse, description of the programme at 7 core companies); prevention of alcohol abuse in heavy industry in Macedonia; alcohol prevention and treatment strategies in Latvia; an alcohol abuse prevention programme carried out by a private medical consultancy firm in Hungary; influence of alcohol on industrial accidents in the Czech Republic; role and initiatives of the ILO in developing alcohol and drug prevention programmes in business and industry; development of an alcohol policy within Heineken, a Dutch beer brewing firm; results of a comparative study of alcohol workplace policies in England; management intervention as a method for combatting alcohol and drug abuse in the US ("performance based constructive confrontation"); evaluating the effectiveness of alcohol and drug abuse treatment programmes in the United Kingdom.
ALCON Foundation, Birkstraat 108, 3768 HL Soest, Netherlands, 1995. 94p. Bibl.ref.
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys
Occupational health - Decennial supplement
This publication presents and comments on statistics on occupational health and mortality in the United Kingdom for various periods between 1970 and 1994. Contents: data sources; demographic and employment trends; occupational mortality of men and women and by cause of death; cancer incidence in England, 1981-1987; comparison of mortality for the 1971 and 1981 census cohorts; asbestos related diseases; monitoring occupational diseases; occupational injuries; smoking, drinking and occupation; occupation and sickness absence; occupation and fertility; outline of ad hoc occupational mortality studies; international comparisons.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1995. xxi, 374p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 29.00.
Currie D., Hashemi K., Fothergill J., Findlay A., Harris A., Hindmarch I.
The use of anti-depressants and benzodiazepines in the perpetrators and victims of accidents
Blood samples were taken from people involved in accidents presenting at two hospitals over a five-month period. The 229 samples collected were analyzed for the presence of sedative agents: alcohol, tricyclic anti-depressants (TCAs) and benzodiazepines (BZs). Sixty-three samples (27.5%) were positive for at least one alcohol, TCA or BZ. There was a significantly greater representation of TCAs and BZs in the blood taken from a group 'responsible' for an accident compared to a 'not responsible' group. Results support the view that these drugs may play an important role in the causation of accidents.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1995, Vol.45, No.6, p.323-325. 10 ref.
A filter model to describe bias in official statistics on alcohol-related injuries
The described filter model consists of four levels: the total incidence of alcohol-related injuries; the incidence of reported alcohol-related injuries; the incidence of reported alcohol-related injuries where the contribution of alcohol has been correctly identified; and official statistics on alcohol-related injuries. A filtering mechanism between each of the levels allows some of the data to pass through to the next level. The data at each level and the filtering mechanisms which result in progressive loss of data are described. Suggestions are put forward for improving the quality of official statistics on alcohol-related injuries.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Oct. 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.687-697. 77 ref.
The influence of alcohol on industrial accidents in the Czech Republic
Data on fatal industrial accidents caused by alcohol in the Czech Republic are analyzed for the years 1983 to 1993. Over this period the frequency of these accidents decreased by 60% from the maximum (20) in 1983. The relative frequency per 100,000 workers decreased by almost 53% and the share of these accidents in the overall number of fatal industrial accidents decreased by almost 35%. More than 97% of accidents occurred in 10 economic sectors; 71% in the processing industries, agriculture and forestry, and construction. The main causes of accidents were falls, trapping, hitting, crashes and explosions.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1995, Vol.1, No.3, p.304-307.
Girre C., Hispard E.
Legislation regarding alcoholism and its prevention
Législation se rapportant à l'alcoolisme et à sa prévention [in French]
French legislation regarding alcohol is often not well known by doctors. It includes legislative texts developed at various times and whose objectives range from the care of the sick to the protection of public order. Legislation of a particularly medical nature is addressed in this article along with provisions concerning driving and the prevention of alcohol consumption at work. Two texts in particular are examined: the law of 6 March 1917 (in Jan. 1980, recourse to an alcohol test in the absence of an industrial physician was limited to workers whose execution of tasks or operation of certain machines could seriously compromise the health and safety of the enterprise) and the decree of 5 Oct. 1960 which requires employers to make fresh drinking water available to workers and which specifies the role of the medical service and the social partners of the enterprise in the prevention of risks associated with the consumption of alcohol.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie, Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.108. 4p. 5 ref.
Girre C., Hispard E., Tuszynski T.
Toxicity of ethanol
Toxicité de l'éthanol [in French]
Ethanol toxicity is seen at both the somatic and the psychological level. Contents: absorption, distribution and elimination of ethanol in the body; ethanol-xenobiotic interactions; effects of ethanol on the liver (pathology, physiopathology of hepatic changes due to alcohol, clinical aspects), digestive tract, central and peripheral nervous systems, cardiovascular system, endocrine glands, the foetus, the haematopoietic system, the metabolism, bones and muscles; ethanol and antioxidants.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie, Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.108. 8p. 42 ref.
Herington T.N., Morse L.H.
Occupational injuries - Evaluation, management and prevention
Contents of this manual includes: epidemiology of work injury; occupational health care and workers' compensation; operation of an occupational health clinic; administrative aspects; legal and ethical issues in occupational medicine; management of disorders of the hand, shoulder, elbow, neck, spine, knee, foot, brain, eyes and skin; management of burns, respiratory injuries, and chest and abdominal pain; patient management; pain management; injuries related to repetitive motion, chemical exposures, temperature, noise, vibration, radiation, electricity and lightning; building-related and infectious disorders; injuries to divers and compressed air workers; psychiatric issues; resources for the physician treating injured workers; personal protective equipment; ergonomics; vocational rehabilitation; drug testing.
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1995. xxi, 579p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 61.00.
Driving and fatigue: Driver impairment, driver fatigue and driving simulation
Proceedings of a conference held in Fremantle, Australia, 16-17 September 1993. Papers are presented under the following headings: fatigue in the transport industry (managing driver fatigue in long-distance road transport, driver fatigue and alertness, role of fatigue research in setting driving hours regulations); the epidemiology of fatigue-related crashes (Australian accident statistics, drugs, driving and enforcement, interaction between driver impairment and road design in the causation of accidents); preventive measures (vehicle deceleration indicators, alcohol and drugs education programme, profile line-marking and noise, detecting fatigued drivers with vehicle simulators); empirical analysis of the impact of fatigue; theoretical considerations in research into driving.
Taylor & Francis Ltd, Rankine Road, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG24 8PR, United Kingdom, 1995. xi, 278p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 34.95.
Pearson J., Hayford J., Royer W.
Comprehensive wellness for firefighters - Fitness and health guide for fire and rescue workers
Contents of this guide: the need for high levels of fitness for fire and rescue work; risk factors for heart disease; fitness assessment; physiology of the musculoskeletal system and stretching exercises to increase flexibility; aerobic exercises and cardiovascular fitness; strength training; nutrition; body composition and weight control; abuse of alcohol, drugs and tobacco; managing stress; maintaining wellness through lifestyle management.
Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom, 1995. x, 358p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 29.95.
Cox R.A.F., Edwards F.C., McCallum R.I.
Fitness for work - The medical aspects
This manual provides guidance to the effects of medical conditions on employment and working capacity. Contents: assessment of fitness for work; legal aspects and services for the disabled; effects of medication; hearing, vestibular, visual and ocular disorders; dermatology; neurological disorders; epilepsy; spinal disorders; limb disorders; trauma; diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders; gastrointestinal and liver disorders; cardiovascular disorders; respiratory disorders; renal and urological disorders; haematological disorders; women at work; surgery; psychiatric disorders; stress, alcohol and drug abuse; acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Appendices cover: driving; civil aviation; seafarers; offshore workers and divers; working overseas; ethics for occupational physicians; European Community directives; ill-health retirement guidance.
Oxford University Press, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, United Kingdom, 2nd ed. 1995. xxi, 540p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 27.50.
Human factors in safety: Triggers for training
Manual for training in the handling of human factors in OSH, relying on the technique of triggers, i.e. the recounting of an accident or dangerous incident in which human factors played an important part, followed by an analysis of the problem illustrated, discussion pointers and trainer guidance. The 30 triggers are grouped into 8 categories: 1 - stress and performance (headache, repetitive strain, automated control, panicking, shift work, lone work, inattention by smokers prohibited from smoking, personal problems, alcoholism, addiction to sleeping pills, suicidal thoughts); 2 - attitude and action (safety flouting, amateurism, showing off, officiousness, temporary insanity, purposeful negligence, belief in one's invulnerability, risk taking); 3 - communication (garbled messages, intercultural misunderstandings); 4 - pressure on design (unsafe design in order to "save" money); 5 - risk climate (lack of safety during the holiday season); 6 - training and selection (lacking refresher training, careless staff selection); 7 - structure and hierarchy (unwillingness to challenge superiors); 8 - management connivance (blame shifting, reducing safety costs by threats to employment, ignoring "new" hazards, old hazards in a new setting). In appendix: role of stress in reducing mental performance; attitudes to safety; new trends in safety management.
Gower Publishing Ltd., Gower House, Croft Road, Aldershot, Hampshire GU11 3HR, United Kingdom; in the US: Gower, Old Post Road, Brookfield, VT 05036, 1995. 168p. (in a looseleaf binder). 20 ref. Price: GBP 45.00.
Time gentlemen please. Time to re-examine the relationship between drinking and work
A review is presented of the small number of studies concerning occupational fatalities associated with alcohol consumption at work. There is a detectable deterioration of skill once the blood alcohol level passes about 10mg/100mL, and at 80mg/100mL the risk of being involved in an accident roughly triples. The studies indicate that excluding deaths due to road traffic accidents during working hours, acute alcohol intoxication is responsible for a small proportion of workplace fatalities and serious injuries, but a much larger percentage of minor and 'damage only' accidents.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 1995, Vol.13, No.5, p.23-26. Illus. 15 ref.
Drug and alcohol testing in the workplace
The ILO interregional tripartite experts meeting on drug and alcohol testing in the workplace was held on Oslo, Norway, on 10-14 May 1993 with the objective of developing an international set of guiding principles on drug and alcohol testing at the workplace. This document consists of a record of the meeting, and contains: reports of the two working groups (on policy definition and on policy implementation); guiding principles on drug and alcohol testing at the workplace; working paper summaries; position papers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. v, 140p.
Fanelli C., et al.
The personal and work-related rehabilitation of former drug addicts
Il recupero personale e lavorativo dell'ex-tossicodipendente [in Italian]
Results are reported of a longitudinal survey of 55 former drug addicts undergoing rehabilitation in an Italian therapeutic community. Treatment involved psychological tests for evaluating damage resulting from exposure to neurotoxic substances, and tests for evaluating the functional structure of the personality. There was no evidence of a weakening of the advanced nervous functions; in some cases, performance levels were higher than those of unexposed subjects. Personality tests indicated that adults were demonstrating emotional attitudes typical of an adolescent age group.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.VI, No.2, p.45-55. 13 ref.
Kleinsorge H., Zober M.A.
Drugs - Problems in assessing fitness for work
Drogen - Probleme bei Einschätzung der Arbeitsfähigkeit [in German]
Application of a questionnaire to 25 drug dependent employees in a German chemical company in the years 1992 and 1993 revealed that 40% of the cases had gone unnoticed for a long time. Absenteeism, together with a drop in performance, strange behaviour and strange looks revealed the remaining nine drug addicts. However, in these cases almost nine years passed between initial drug use until addiction became apparent. It is recommended that drug addicts not be allowed to return to the workplace until they have been successfully treated. This measure is considered necessary for safety reasons. Drugs take longer than alcohol to be eliminated from the human organism.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Nov. 1994, Vol.29, No.11, p.486-489. Illus.
McNamee R., Braganza J.M., Hogg J., Leck I., Rose P., Cherry N.M.
Occupational exposure to hydrocarbons and chronic pancreatitis - A case-referent study
The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that hydrocarbon exposure is a risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. 102 cases of chronic pancreatitis and 204 age- and sex-matched referents were interviewed about their occupational histories, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and diet. Results support the original hypothesis but further studies are necessary to identify responsible hydrocarbons.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.51, No.9, p.631-637. Illus. 17 ref.
High mortality in the Thule cohort: An unhealthy worker effect
The cohort consists of 4322 Danish men who were employed between 1963 and 1971 at the Thule air base in Greenland. One part of the cohort was employed during a period of radiation clean-up, the other part had been employed only outside the clean-up period. After 30 years of follow-up, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.38 for all causes (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-1.49), 1.25 for cancer (95% CI: 1.07-1.45), 1.17 for circulatory diseases (95% CI: 1.01-1.34), 1.58 for other natural causes (95% CI: 1.35-1.84), and 1.46 for violent deaths (95% CI: 1.22-1.74). Marked excess mortality measured by SMR was found from lung cancer 1.70, AIDS 3.55, alcoholism 4.04, cirrhosis of the liver 2.45, symptoms and ill-defined conditions 1.93, and suicide 1.63. The high mortality and the mortality pattern shows strong evidence for selection and suggests these workers constitute a group in poor health probably caused by their lifestyle.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1994, Vol.23, No.6, p.1174-1178. 22 ref.
About alcohol in the workplace
Training booklet on the dangers associated with alcohol abuse in the workplace: hazards brought about by alcohol consumption; performance reduction; how to find help; self-assessment and supervisor's checklist.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###
Masumoto T., Tanaka K., Kudo T., Hiramoto Y., Okawa H.
Relationship between drinking habits and accident or sickness absenteeism among male workers at a steel works
Bō seitetsujo ni okeru dansei jūgyōin no inshu shūkan to shōbyōkyūgyō to no kanren [in Japanese]
The 2,349 male workers who suffered accidents or diseases from Feb. through Nov. 1992 in a steel manufacturing plant with a total workforce of 12,000 were classified into three groups: non-drinkers, those consuming less than two servings of alcoholic beverages (less than 0.36L Japanese sake) and those consuming 0.36L or more on the basis of a questionnaire survey. They were also categorized by age and by the type of disorder according to the table of occupational injuries and diseases of the Japan Steel Federation. There was no quantitative correlation between alcohol intake and absenteeism: the highest proportion of absentees fell in the "less than 0.36L/day" category. Absenteeism did increase with age. The number of workdays lost was significantly higher for the non-drinkers with digestive disorders and for the "0.36L/day and up" group with circulatory disorders than for other consumption/disorder categories.
Journal of Labour Hygiene in the Iron and Steel Industry - Tekko Rōdō Eisei, 1 Mar. 1994, Vol.41, No.2, p.108-111. Illus. 6 ref.
Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA)
Human factors and safety
Contents of this manual: introduction to human factors and accident prevention; role of the organization and management style in promoting health and safety; job design and human reliability; personal factors (attitude, motivation, perception, personality, training and the potential for human error); theories of accident causation; workplace communication; health and safety training; ergonomic aspects (design of the working environment, manual handling operations, display screen equipment); causes and effects of stress at work; promoting a health and safety culture.
Pitman Publishing, 128 Long Acre, London WC2E 9AN, United Kingdom, 1994. iii, 200p. Illus. 62 ref. Index. Price: GBP 16.99.
LeClerc A., Zins M., Bugel I., Chastang J.F., David S., Morcet J.F., Goldberg M.
Alcohol consumption and occupational status in the French national electric and natural gas utility company
Consommation de boissons alcoolisées et situation professionnelle dans la Cohorte G.A.Z.E.L. (EDF-GDF) [in French]
Alcohol consumption was studied according to socio-demographic and occupational variables. Changes in consumption in one year were studied according to changes in working conditions within the same period. The predictive role of alcohol consumption on promotion possibilities in the firm in a period of three years was also studied. The study was based on a sample of 15,011 men and 5,614 women who volunteered to be included in a cohort and completed a self-administered questionnaire in 1989 (Cohort 'GAZEL', from the French company responsible for the production and supply of electricity and natural gas, EDF-GDF). Some of the findings were expected, such as the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the severity of health problems. With regard to men at the same socio-economic level, significant associations were found between 'being a heavy drinker' and several factors at work: working outdoors, frequent travelling, physical labour. Based on subjects having replied to the 1990 questionnaire, some changes observed in alcohol consumption over the period of one year were shown to be associated with the appearance or the disappearance of certain factors.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.7, p.509-517. 26 ref.
Laurent P., Cuisnet P., Lecerf J.M.
Study on lunchbox eating and its digestive consequences, carried out among building workers of the Lille area from 1989 to 1992
Enquête sur l'alimentation à la gamelle et ses conséquences digestives, réalisée chez des salariés du bâtiment et des travaux publics dans la région lilloise, entre 1989 et 1992 [in French]
The results of a cross-sectional study carried out on 1,005 building workers are presented, confirming the strong prevalence of digestive disorders (27%), and their lesser occurrence among those using a thermos than among traditional lunchbox users, even after adjustment for confounding factors. The results of two complementary studies carried out to explain this difference are also reported: a microbiological study on 72 randomized meals revealed that 52.3% of thermos lunches did not have a satisfactory microbiological quality, compared with 19.6% for traditional lunchbox meals; a 24-hour dietary survey based on 30 randomized workers revealed a lower added fat content (sauce) in the midday meal of thermos users (18.7g) than in the midday meal of traditional lunchbox users (18.3g) (p<0.05). A correlation (p<0.05) between the midday meal added fat content consumption and the midday meal alcohol consumption was also observed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.455-461. 4 ref.
Alcohol at the workplace - Confrontation or understanding?
Alkohol am Arbeitsplatz - Konfrontation oder "Verständnis"? [in German]
In Germany about 2.5 million people (3% of the population) have an alcohol-related problem. The cost of alcoholism to companies amounts to more than 30,000 million DEM per year. The performance of alcoholic workers is reduced by 25%, their absenteeism is increased by 16%. The morbidity and accident rates among alcoholic workers is 2.5 times and 3.5 times higher, respectively, than among non-alcoholic workers. A guideline for employers is presented on how to deal with alcoholism at work. In a private talk the employer confronts the alcoholic worker with the facts and offers help. If the worker turns down that help, he is made aware of the consequences of his behaviour and another chance to seek help is offered to him. A deadline is set; warnings follow. If all efforts fail, the alcoholic worker is dismissed. Graphic illustration of the procedure.
Behindertenrecht, Mar. 1994, Vol.33, No.2, p.32-37, 48-49. Illus. 10 ref.
Pilot-related factors in aircraft crashes: A review of epidemiologic studies
Epidemiologic studies of pilot-related factors in aircraft crashes are reviewed with regard to study design and methods, major findings and data and methodological issues. In numerous studies, much attention has been paid to pilots' medical condition, age, flight experience and alcohol use. Most studies were based on crash analysis using case reports and case series studies; planned case-control and cohort studies are extremely rare. More epidemiologic studies using state-of-the-art methodology are needed to identify pilot-related risk factors of aircraft crashes and to develop and assess safety policies and other intervention programmes.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.65, No.10, Section I, p.944-952. Illus. 76 ref.
Heavy drinking and the risk of occupational injury
Data from the 1988 US National Health Interview Survey were analyzed for a sample of 29,192 adults who were employed at some time during the previous year. After adjusting for the effects of age, sex, education, occupation and strenuous job activity, the odds ratio of occupational injury increased with frequency of heavy drinking. Odds ratios were slightly decreased by the inclusion of smoking as a control variable. Odds ratios were also slightly lower when the analysis was restricted to current drinkers, suggesting that the risk of work injury was increased by light or moderate as well as heavy drinking.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Oct. 1994, Vol.26, No.5, p.655-665. 28 ref.
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