Alcohol and drug abuse - 495 entries found
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Elci O.C., Akpinar-Elci M., Blair A., Dosemeci M.
Occupational dust exposure and the risk of laryngeal cancer in Turkey
Among 7631 cancer cases from the Okmeydani Hospital, Istanbul, between 1979 and 1984, 958 larynx cancer cases were identified among men. After exclusions, 940 laryngeal cancer cases and 1519 referents were available. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain basic information on the patients. A job-exposure matrix was developed for occupational dusts, including silica, asbestos, wood, cotton, and grain, and age-, smoking-, and alcohol-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate risks of laryngeal cancer. An excess of laryngeal cancer occurred for workers potentially exposed to silica and cotton dust, particularly for supraglottic cancer (OR 1.8, for silica and OR 1.6, for cotton dust), and there was a significant dose-response relationship with silica exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.28, No.4, p.278-284. 46 ref.
Psychosocial and other related factors contributing to road accidents in ports
The objectives of this study were to investigate the psychosocial factors contributing to road accidents in ports, to establish the importance of other factors and to suggest remedial actions. 727 vehicle drivers and 119 managers participated in the study. Participants responded to questionnaires and were administered a series of psychological tests. Accident reports from the port administration records were also analysed. It was found that there were three main factors contributing to accidents: poor vehicle conditions, environmental factors such as weather and behavioural factors including stress, driving at excessive speeds because of incentive payments and driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics. A number of recommendations are proposed for reducing the level of road accidents in ports.
INDOSHNEWS, Jan.-Mar. 2002, Vol.7, No.1, p.7-11. 8 ref.
Gerber J.K., Yacoubian G.S.
An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry
Drug testing in the workplace has become widespread during the past two decades, particularly in the construction industry. High rates of alcohol and other drug use, coupled with the high-risk, safety-sensitive nature of the industry, have prompted the development of a variety of drug surveillance and prevention strategies. Despite these efforts, little research has been published on the impact of drug-related policies in the construction industry. This paper reviews the effectiveness of workplace drug-testing programmes in reducing injury rates within the construction industry. Analyses indicate that companies with drug-testing programmes experienced a 51% reduction in accident rates within two years of implementation. Policy implications are discussed in light of the current findings.
Journal of Drug Education, 2002, Vol.32, No.1, p.53-68. Illus. 14 ref.
Government Decree No.668 of 18 June 2002 approving the list of psychiatric counterindications for the performance of several types of professional activities, and of jobs which pose related dangers (Text No.201) [Kazakhstan]
Perečen' medicinskih psihiatričeskih protivopokazanij dlja osuščestvlenija otdel'nyh vidov professional'noj dejatel'nosti, a takže rabot, svjazannyh s istočnikom povyšennoj opasnosti [in Russian]
This Decree lists psychiatric conditions (including drug addiction) together with occupations for which these conditions are counterindications. Entry into force: 18 June 2002.
Aktiler Žinagy - Sobranie Aktov, 25 July 2002, No.18, p.77-103.
Goplerud E., Cimons M.
Research Report - Workplace solutions: Treating alcohol problems through employment-based health insurance
A study was conducted to investigate the extent to which employment-based health insurance plans in the US can be used to offer rehabilitation programmes to workers suffering from alcoholism. In general, health insurance plans are willing to pay for less thorough treatment of alcoholism than they are willing to pay for other illnesses (including mental illness). Only seven states require parity (the same level of benefits for treating substance abuse as for other illnesses): Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, Vermont and Virginia. The effectiveness of treatment of alcoholism in these states, and among workers whose employers voluntarily offer parity, is much higher than among workers with unequal coverage.
George Washington University, Center for Health Services Research and Policy, 2021 K St. NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20006, USA, Dec. 2002. 28p. Illus. 36 ref.
http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/hhs_alcohol_workplace.pdf [in English]
Head J., Martikainen P., Kumari M., Kuper H., Marmot M.
Health and Safety Executive
Work environment, alcohol consumption and ill-health - The Whitehall II study
The influences of the psychosocial work environment, change in work and alcohol consumption and dependence on health were studied in a cohort of 10,308 British civil servants. High job demands, low decision latitude and effort reward imbalance were related to increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Effort reward imbalance was related to increased incidence of diabetes in men. Adverse changes in work characteristics, particularly social support at work, predicted worsening of mental health for men and women. The effects of change in work characteristics on physical health and coronary heart disease were modest. Alcohol consumption was related to risk of accident absenteeism with an increased risk already evident at moderate levels of alcohol consumption.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 64p. Illus. 194 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02422.htm [in English]
Gershon R.R.M., Lin S., Li X.
Work stress in aging police officers
To study the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, work stress, coping strategies and stress-related health outcomes were assessed and characterized in a sample of 105 police officers aged 50 years and older. The most important risk factors associated with perceived work stress were maladaptive coping behaviours such as excessive drinking or problem gambling (odds ratio (OR), 4.95) exposure to critical incidents such as shootings (OR 3.84), anxiety (OR 6.84), depression (OR 9.27), somatization (OR 5.74), posttraumatic stress symptoms (OR 2.89), symptoms of "burnout" (OR 5.93), chronic back pain (OR 3.55), alcohol abuse (OR 3.24) and inappropriately aggressive behaviour (OR 4.00). These data suggest that older workers in high-stress jobs may be at increased risk for work stress-related health problems, especially if they rely on risky health behaviours to cope with stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.160-167. 54 ref.
1,1,1,2-Tetracloro-2,2-difluoroetano [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: TWA 4170mg/m3 or 500ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: narcotic effect; drowsiness; breathing difficulties; irritation of the skin and eyes in the case of contact.
Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 2002, Vol.64, No.1, 4p. Insert.
The 6th International Symposium on Maritime Health
Proceedings of the International Conference on Maritime Health held in Manila, Philippines, 5-8 November 2001. Leading international maritime health experts have gathered to discuss scientific issues in maritime occupational health and safety. Participants included ship managers, maritime experts, health practitioners, occupational health physicians and maritime authorities.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Drug and alcohol abuse prevention programmes in the maritime industry (a manual for planners) (revised)
The objective of this manual is to contribute to the reduction of health and safety problems related to the use of drugs and alcohol in the maritime industry through the promotion of awareness and education. It provides the background and practical information necessary to develop, implement and evaluate comprehensive prevention programmes. Contents: drugs and alcohol in the workplace and in the maritime industry; responsibilities; components of a comprehensive substance abuse prevention programme. Appendices include sample workplace drug and alcohol policies and ILO and WHO guidelines on drug and alcohol testing and screening examinations for seafarers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. vi, 61p. Illus.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/drugalco/drugalco.pdf [in English]
Ferreras de la Fuente A., Pérez Urdániz A., Molina Ramos R., Solana Sorribas J.A., Rubio García I.
Guide to the evaluation of work incapacity as a consequence of psychiatric diseases
Manuel de valoración de la incapacidad laboral en las enfermedades psiquiátricas [in Spanish]
Aimed at occupational physicians, this manual offers guidance to the evaluation of work incapacity as a consequence of psychiatric diseases. Contents: incapacity due to psychic disorders; definition and classification of mental diseases; anamnesis and psychiatric evaluation of the patient; organic psychiatric disorders and mentally-retarded patients; psychiatric disorders related to the consumption of alcohol or drugs; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety, somatotrophic and dissociative disorders; personality disorders; other psychiatric disorders; new occupational pathologies (burnout, bullying). Appendices include: scales for evaluating the degree of incapacitation according Royal Decree 1971/1999; DSM-IV scales for evaluating total activity and social and professional activity; DSM-IV classification with ICD-10 and ICD-9-CM codes; ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders.
Instituto Nacional de Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo, Madrid, Spain, 2001. 251p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Elci O.C., Dosemeci M., Blair A.
Occupation and the risk of laryngeal cancer in Turkey
Among 7631 cancer cases seen at an oncology treatment centre between 1979 and 1984, 958 laryngeal cancer cases were identified among men. Occupational history, tobacco and alcohol use, as well as demographic data were obtained from patients with a standardized questionnaire. Excess odds ratios (ORs) of laryngeal cancer occurred among guards (OR 1.5), production supervisors (OR 1.8), textile workers (OR 1.9), drivers (OR 1.7), construction workers (OR 1.7), workers in grain mills (OR 3.1), trade unions (OR 3.6) and local government services (OR 4.7). Supraglottic laryngeal cancer was excessive among the textile workers, construction workers, and local government labourers, all with potential dust exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2001, Vol.27, No.4, p.233-239. Illus. 43 ref.
Verma Y., Rana S.V.S.
Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners
Exposure to benzene was monitored in service station employees and dry cleaners in Meerut City (India) by measuring the phenol content in urine samples taken from them. The influence of three factors was determined, namely alcohol consumption, smoking and food habits (vegetarians and non-vegetarians). While smoking and food habits had little effect on phenol excretion, it was found that alcohol-consuming subjects excreted more phenol. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of humans to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.330-333. 29 ref.
Fontaine B., Legrand P.M., Pamart B., Eloy E., Frimat P., Vignau J., Lhermitte M.
Evaluation of 7 commercially-available quick tests for psychoactive drug screening in occupational medicine settings
Evaluation de 7 tests rapides pour le dépistage des substances psychoactives dans le cadre de la médecine du travail [in French]
There are currently several commercially-available quick-testing packages for detecting the presence of psychoactive substances or their metabolites in urine. The objective of this study was to evaluate these packages in order to help occupational physicians faced with having to implement drug screening programs in selecting the product best suited to their conditions. Urines of 13 patients of a drug dependency treatment and of 15 employees seen during routine medical examinations by their occupational physician were analysed using seven commercially-available testing packages. Results were compared to those obtained with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The advantages and drawbacks of each package are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.321-324. 11 ref.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
How to reduce workplace accidents
Each year, approximately 5,500 people die in occupational accidents in the European Union. There are also more than 4.5 million accidents that result in more than three days' absence from work, amounting to a loss of 146 million working days. With the objective of strengthening the knowledge base on accident prevention, this report presents 22 successful accident-prevention approaches from the 15 European Union member states. In particular, the following hazards, industries and sectors are covered: falling overboard ships; prevention in the security industry; farm accidents; safety in the food and drink industry; falls from heights in the construction industry; preventing road accidents among highway patrol police forces; safety in the construction industry; alcohol awareness for truck drivers; hazards from dust fires and explosions; prevention in the textile and clothing industries, including avoiding needle pricks; prevention in navigable waterway transport; safety management in the steel industry.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 189p. Illus.
Legal aspects relative to the use of dependency-causing substances in the workplace
Les substances engendrant la dépendance au poste de travail d'un point de vue juridique [in French]
Suchtmittel am Arbeitsplatz aus rechtlicher Sicht [in German]
Sostanze generanti dipendenza sul luogo di lavoro: aspetti giuridici [in Italian]
Aimed at employers, this booklet highlights the legal aspects relative to the consumption of dependency-causing substances in the workplace. Main topics covered: responsibilities of employers and employees; prohibition of alcohol consumption; breath analysers, blood and urine analyses; reduced insurance coverage in the event of an accident; consumption of illegal substances; conditions of employment of persons participating in heroin or methadone treatment programmes.
Suva, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 2001. 7p. Illus.
Howland J., Rohsenow D.J., Cote J., Gomez B., Mangione T.W., Laramie A.K.
Effects of low-dose alcohol exposure on simulated merchant ship piloting by maritime cadets
The US Department of Transportation regulates blood alcohol concentration (BAC) for operators of aircraft, trains and commercial vessels. This study examines the effects of alcohol on simulated merchant ship handling on 38 volunteer deck officer cadets at least 21 years of age, with previous experience on a bridge simulator. Following a baseline trial on the first day, participants were given alcohol (0.6g/kg for males and 0.5g/kg for females) on the second day, and tested after allowing time for absorption. Testing required the execution of simulator tasks representing the passage of a fully loaded container vessel through a channel with commercial traffic. Performance was significantly impaired by these doses of alcohol. These findings support current federal regulations that limit alcohol exposure for the operators of commercial transport vehicles. Further research is required to determine effects at lower BACs.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Mar. 2001, Vol.33, No.2, p.257-265. Illus. 38 ref.
Di Martino V., Gold D., Schaap A.
SOLVE - Stress, Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs, HIV/AIDS, Violence: Managing emerging health-related problems at work
Folder with five leaflets on common psychosocial issues that may affect safety and health in the workplace.
International Labour Office, InFocus Safework, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 5 brochures. Illus.
Pomper DeHart J.
On-site occupational health and rehabilitation - A model for the manufacturing and service industries
The idea of the on-site model of occupational health clinics, rehabilitation, fitness or wellness facilities in industry has evolved through the use of methods that enable injured workers to get back to work faster while saving money for the employer and cutting workers' compensation costs. This book draws extensively on the author's personal experiences in setting up such services in the manufacturing and service industries.
Marcel Dekker Inc., 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA, 2001. xii, 276p. Illus. 41 ref. Index.
International Labour Organization
Manual on prevention of substance abuse in small enterprises
This booklet was published as part of an ILO project entitled "Mobilising small businesses to prevent substance abuse". It offers an Indian perspective based on a series of activities carried out in three Indian cities with the collaboration of the local chambers of commerce, non-governmental organizations and rehabilitation centres. Activities included conferences, training programmes, group discussion and street plays, Contents: introduction; substance abuse in the workplace; strategy for preventive action; mobilisation of small enterprises; awareness, education and training; assistance to workers with problems.
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Federation House, Tansen Marg, New Delhi 110001, India, 2000. 65p. 35 ref.
Harwood H.J., Reichman M.B.
The cost to employers of employee alcohol abuse: Review of the literature in the United States of America
Le coût de l'abus d'alcool par les travailleurs pour les employeurs: étude des travaux publiés aux Etats-Unis d'Amérique [in French]
It is widely recognized that alcohol and drug abuse by workers can adversely affect their performance and the productivity of the workplace. The specific ways in which substance abuse can be harmful are well understood. Major elements of the costs incurred (for example, in lost productivity and earnings of workers and in deaths at the workplace) are captured in the most recent cost studies, as well as in the international guidelines for estimating the economic costs of substance abuse. However, no studies have rigorously measured the full economic burden on the workplace alone. Both employers and workers recognize the nature of the problem and have worked together through bodies such as the International Labour Organization to find common solutions and formulate multilateral policies. Data for the United States show that policies are frequently established at the workplace to reduce alcohol and drug abuse by workers.
Bulletin des stupéfiants, 2000, Vol.LII, No.1-2, p.45-59. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/bulletin/bulletin_2000-01-01_1_page005.html [in English]
Understanding your health better
Mieux connaître votre santé [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met je gezondheid [in Dutch]
Booklet on health and well-being. Topics covered: healthy diet; physical exercise; smoking; alcohol consumption; narcotics and medicinal drugs; stress.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2000. 21p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: EUR 3.00.
Stewart M.J., Moar J.J., Mwesigwa J., Kokot M.
Forensic toxicology in urban South Africa
This article analyses the pattern of deaths due to poisoning in South Africa over the period 1991-1996, using data from the Forensic Science Service Laboratory. 5485 records were studied. In 2272 (40%) of the cases, a positive finding other than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine was made. It was found that agricultural chemicals were a major cause of mortality. Among drugs of abuse, combinations of methaqualone and diphenhydramine, or cyclizine and dipipanone contributed a high percentage of cases. Metal poisoning was common, as were cases of poisoning attributed to remedies prescribed by traditional healers.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, June 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.415-419. 33 ref.
Browne K., Gee B.L.
Asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer
Studies of workers exposed to asbestos that included data on laryngeal disease are reviewed, together with studies of laryngeal cancers with epidemiological or experimental evidence of associated exposures. Confounding factors of smoking and alcohol intake create major difficulties for the identification of any asbestos or other occupational effects. Smoking and alcohol are independently and synergistically associated with large increases in the relative risk of laryngeal cancer. However, few studies provide details of either habit. Among 24 prospective studies for which a standardized mortality ratio was available, there was a clear excess risk only in one case. In 17 retrospective studies, only two showed a significantly increased risk. Evidence from animal experiments, studies of associations with pleural plaques, and autopsy findings also appear negative or inconclusive. The evidence does not indicate that asbestos exposure increases the risk of laryngeal cancer.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 2000, Vol.44, No.4, p.239-250. 101 ref.
Triclorofluorometano [in Spanish]
Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 5600mg/m3 or 1000ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: narcotic; arrhythmia; irritation of the sin and eyes; dermatitis.
Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 2000, Vol.62, No.10, 3p. Insert.
Gournay M., Mathis M.T.
Alcoholism at work
Alcoolisation en milieu de travail [in French]
A first part of this article on alcoholism at work consists of summaries of studies and cases from literature on alcohol and occupational accidents and on the prevalence of alcoholism at work and among the general population. The article then presents the findings of a questionnaire survey of industrial physicians in Lower Normandy on alcoholism at work, highlighting an important risk among short-term employees and in companies specialised in the hiring workers for the purposes of their reintegration.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2000, No.81, p.43-48. Illus. 18 ref.
Heirich M., Sieck C.J.
Worksite cardiovascular wellness programs as a route to substance abuse prevention
This study addresses the question whether the inclusion of alcohol abuse prevention in worksite cardiovascular wellness programmes is an effective route to the prevention of alcohol abuse. The study population included 2,000 employees, recruited through cardiovascular disease health screening, who were randomly assigned to individual outreach or class interventions. After 3 years of intervention, rescreening results showed significant reductions in cardiovascular health risks and reduced alcohol consumption. As spill-over effects from counselling produced plant-wide improvements, it was not possible to determine if counselling had a better impact than classes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2000, Vol.42, No.1, p.47-56. 26 ref.
Balge M.Z., Krieger G.R.
Occupational health and safety
Detailed manual aimed at occupational health and safety (OHS) specialists in the United States. Contents: the OHS professions; OHS programmes (programme design, occupational medicine, occupational health nursing, safety, industrial hygiene, environmental regulations, radiation safety, workers' compensation management, travel health, remote work, ergonomics, employee safety and security, emergency response, community involvement, programme assessment and evaluation); human resource issues (pre-placement testing, stress management, substance abuse, scheduling shiftwork, employee education, gender issues in the workplace, workers with disabilities, outsourcing of OHS services); future issues (infectious diseases, occupational health in developing countries, sources of help).
National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca IL 60143-3201, USA, 3rd ed., 2000. ix, 595p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 79.95 (members), USD 99.95 (non-members).
Rescalvo Santiago F.
Occupational medicine II
Medicina del trabajo II [in Spanish]
Manual of occupational medicine in 2 volumes aimed at company health services. The first volume covers management issues (see CIS 01-706) while the second is devoted to pathologies. Contents include: occupational carcinogenesis; lung cancer; diseases of the upper respiratory tract; respiratory diseases; acute respiratory infections; tuberculosis; viral hepatitis; HIV infections and AIDS; risks to women's health in various occupational settings; teratogenic effects; modifications to male fertility; cataract; heart diseases; musculoskeletal diseases; sick building syndrome; diseases caused by the use of visual display terminals; toxic and neurotoxic substances; occupational psychopathy; neurosis and alcoholism.
IBERMUTUAMUR, Ramírez de Arellano 27, 28403 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 524p. Illus. Ref.bibl.
Health and Safety Executive
Don't mix it! A guide for employers on alcohol at work
90% of personnel directors in the United Kingdom surveyed in 1994 organizations stated that alcohol consumption was a problem in their organization, and 17% described alcohol as a major problem. Alcohol is considered responsible for 3-5% of all absences from work. Alcohol consumption may also result in reduced work performance, damaged customer relations, tensions among employees and safety hazards. This booklet is designed to help owners and managers of small to medium-sized enterprises deal with alcohol-related problems at work. Contents: effects of alcohol on individuals; the 4 steps of effective management of alcohol at work (finding out if there is a problem; deciding on what action to take; taking action; checking what has been done); case descriptions of alcohol policies of several organizations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 22p. Illus. 4 ref.
Gaudry M., Lassarre S.
Structural road accident models: The international DRAG family
International study of road accidents through the application of a family of multi-factor accident modelling systems known as DRAG (Demand for Road use, Accidents and their Gravity), based on regression analysis. Among the positive correlations for accident incidence are: total mileage driven; average speed; early pregnancy; high vehicle occupancy; high levels of alcohol and medicine consumption; certain safety measures and laws (which may instill a false sense of security). Among negative correlations are: increased traffic congestion; imposition of speed limits; mandatory seat belts (impact on injuries and fatalities); higher fuel prices; possibly also: moderate alcohol consumption. Data and their analysis were included from the following countries: Canada (Quebec), Germany, Norway, France, Sweden, United States (California).
Pergamon, Elsevier Science, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands and P.O. Box 945, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10160-0757, USA, 2000. xxii, 347p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: NLG 185.00 and USD 97.00.
Stansfeld S., Head J., Marmot M.
Health and Safety Executive
Work-related factors and ill health - The Whitehall II study
This report examines the influence of occupational factors on three health problems, alcoholism, psychic morbidity and health functioning. A cohort of 10,308 male and female civil servants aged between 35 and 55 was followed from 1985 and submitted to self-report questionnaires as well as to assessments made by personnel officers. Alcoholism was associated with effort-reward imbalance in men and with low decision latitude in women. High job demands and effort-reward imbalances were associated with increased risks of psychiatric disorders. Low decision latitude, lack of work social support, high job demands and effort-reward imbalance were associated with poor general mental health in both men and women.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. vi, 61p. 114 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 3/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations, which could be experienced by social workers, bailiffs, pharmacists and pharmacy employees, dentists and nurses, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).
Chappell D., Di Martino V.
Violence at work
La violence au travail [in French]
This publication provides the basis for understanding the nature of violence in the workplace, provides information on current legislation and presents preventive strategies and measures. The importance of preventive, systematic and targeted response to violence at work is stressed. This second edition updates information presented in an earlier edition (see CIS 98-1047).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2000. xiii, 171p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.
Changes in workers' compensation during 1999
This article highlights the main changes in workers' compensation in the United States having come into effect during the year 1999, and describes these changes for each of 32 states. Several states extended the coverage to volunteer workers. Seven states increased the maximum allowances for burial payments. Compensation of workers whose accidents were caused by alcohol or drug consumption was also revised.
Monthly Labor Review, Jan. 2000, Vol.123, No.1, p.20-26.
de la Iglesia Huerta A.
Cardiovascular risk factors in the Spanish working population
Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la población laboral española [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors within the Spanish working population and to establish the cardiovascular risk profile. The study included 1573 employed persons (65.5% male) in seven provinces. Among the risk factors considered: excess body mass or obesity; smoking habits; alcohol consumption; arterial hypertension; blood lipids (total cholesterol, tri-glycerids, HDL cholesterol), glycaemia and uric acid; ECG alterations. Geographical differences were observed, linked to different habits with respect to smoking and alcohol consumption. The results show that 47.6% of the Spanish working population present cardiovascular risks, of whom 25.6% are at a significantly high level.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2000, No.5, p.11-23. Illus. 26 ref.
Alcoholism in the workplace: From addiction to rehabilitation through dialogue
L'alcoolisme en milieu professionnel: de la dépendance à la réinsertion à travers le dialogue [in French]
Summary of this booklet on alcoholism in the workplace: nature and extent of the problem (external and warning signs, overview, statistics); the phenomenon of alcohol dependence; physical and psychological signs of alcoholism; consequences of alcoholism (reduced work capability, increased risk of accidents, impact on fellow workers and the enterprise, physiological deterioration, cost for the employer), risk factors at work; prevention in the workplace (role of the employer, stages in the prevention process and in the actions of the employer); legal aspects in Switzerland; information, outside help and support in Switzerland.
Office cantonal de l'inspection et des relations du travail, case postale 3974, 1211 Genève 3, Switzerland, 2th ed., 2000. 33p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.geneve.ch/ocirt/doc/alcool.pdf [in French]
Drug and alcohol abuse prevention programmes in the maritime industry - A manual for planners
The objective of this manual is to contribute to the reduction of health and safety problems related to the use of drugs and alcohol in the maritime industry through the promotion of awareness and information. It provides the background and practical information necessary to develop, implement and evaluate comprehensive prevention programmes. Contents: drugs and alcohol in the workplace; drugs and alcohol in the maritime industry; responsibilities; comprehensive substance abuse prevention programme. Appendices include sample workplace drug and alcohol policies together with ILO and WHO guidelines on drug and alcohol testing and screening examinations for seafarers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. 65p. Illus.
Andersen A., Barlow L., Engeland A., Kjaerheim K., Lynge E., Pukkala E.
Work-related cancer in the Nordic countries
This report presents cancer incidence data by occupational group for Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, collected over a 20-year period. The study covers 10 million people aged 25-64. The results are presented as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). The occupations with the highest SIR values included seamen and workers producing beverages and tobacco. Among women, the SIR values varied from 83 for gardening to 129 for tobacco workers. Almost all pleural cancers were associated with asbestos exposure. Woodworkers had the highest risk of nasal cancer. Lung cancer was the most frequent cancer among men, and tobacco smoking was considered to be the major risk factor for this disease. Exposure to the known hepatocarcinogens, hepatitis B virus and aflatoxins, is rare in the Nordic countries and a large proportion of primary liver cancer can therefore be attributed to alcohol consumption. The risk of colon cancer was related to sedentary work, while the major risk factor for malignant melanoma was exposure to sunlight.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.2, p.1-116 (whole issue). Illus. 155 ref.
Ferreira dos Santos T.L.
Ministério do Trabalho
Garbage collectors - The ambiguities of working in the streets
Coletores de lixo - A ambigüidade do trabalho na rua [in Portuguese]
This analysis of the work of garbage collectors is based on their own accounts and impressions of their work. A characteristic of this occupation is that it takes place in the street, a public space where one is seen and recognized, which can either enhance or depreciate the workers' self-image. It consists of teamwork that needs to be carried out at a certain pace. There are many occupational health problems, including skin diseases, hearing loss, diseases of the urinary tract, leptospirosis, tetanus, AIDS, respiratory and lung diseases, and gastro-intestinal diseases. This occupation is also subject to risks of injury (dog bites, falls and trips) and can give rise to emotional or nervous stress, notably anxiety. This category of workers is also subject to acute alcoholism. The book is a thesis for a Master's Degree in Social Psychology at the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1999. 222p. 57 ref.
Working together in Europe 1999
Report of the Fourth International Private Sector Conference on Drugs in the Workplace and the Community held in Sundsvall, Sweden, 9-12 May 1999. Prevention of drug addiction at the workplace and the need for such programmes were discussed. The program of the conference placed great emphasis on practical action plans and the establishment of firm time-frames for their implementation.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. 84p.
Ueno S., Hisanaga N., Jonai H., Shibata E., Kamijima M.
Association between musculoskeletal pain in Japanese construction workers and job, age, alcohol consumption and smoking
A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in construction workers and identify associations between MSP and job, age, alcohol consumption and smoking. Risk factors for total pain and for relatively severe pain in the hand/arm (RS-HAP), shoulder, and low-back (RS-LBP) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. The results showed that musculoskeletal pain was significantly associated with age, and that the odds ratios (ORs) for relatively severe musculoskeletal pain increased almost linearly with age. Regarding the occupation, compared with architects whose work is presumed to be sedentary, almost all ORs for non-sedentary construction jobs were significantly high. Current smokers of 20 cigarettes a day or more had significantly higher ORs for RS-HAP and RS-LBP than for persons who never smoked.
Industrial Health, Oct. 1999, Vol.37, No.4, p.449-456. Illus. 37 ref.
Band P.R., Spinelli J.J., Threlfall W.J., Fang R., Le N.D., Gallagher R.P.
Identification of occupational cancer risks in British Columbia
To identify occupational cancer risk factors, lifetime occupational, smoking, and alcohol-consumption histories were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire from 15,463 male cancer patients. The study methodology, descriptive results, and cancer risks from cigarette smoking are reported. Assessment of questionnaire validation and reliability showed very high correlations between all variables analysed. Non-response bias, assessed among 221 non-responders and 432 matched controls, revealed no statistically significant differences for smoking status, education or occupational groups. Except for pancreatic cancer, a significant relationship was found for all cancer sites known to be strongly associated with cigarette smoking. Of the 15,643 incident cancer cases, 1519 had a diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.224-247. Illus. 75 ref.
Safety first! - Protection against hazards of all nature which threaten human existence
La sécurité d'abord! - La protection contre les risques de toute nature qui menacent l'existence humaine [in French]
Thorough survey of safety and health issues in and out of the workplace, from the viewpoint of an experienced insurance professional in France. Vol.1 has two parts. Part I: role, scope and methods of safety and health (techniques and legal aspects; economic aspects; the moral and social dimensions; effectiveness of preventive efforts; issues of responsibility, fraud and criminality; administrative matters). Part II: safety and health in France: fire safety; theft; water damage; accidents (occupational, traffic and domestic accidents; accidents involving public transport; special hazards - mountaineering, natural disasters, transport of hazardous substances, earthquakes, nuclear hazards; accident prevention and rehabilitation of victims); protection of the environment; diseases and death; role and activities of the insurance industry and of the French health-care system. Vol.2 examines the safety and health systems in the various countries of the world. It also provides a comparative analysis of particular OSH issues around the world: fire prevention; role of the ILO, labour unions and the European Union; highway safety; health care and particular health issues (alcoholism, drug addiction, venereal diseases and AIDS, ageing, hormones and animal feed, role of the WHO); international activities in OSH; statistics on OSH.
J. Goll-Perrier, BP 216, 92604 Asnières Cedex, France, Mar. 1999. 2 vols. 407p. + 343p. Illus. Prix: FRF 240.00 (for the 2 volumes).
Lyman S., McGwin G., Enochs R., Roseman J.M.
History of agricultural injury among farmers in Alabama and Mississippi: Prevalence, characteristics and associated factors
There have been no studies of the prevalence, characteristics and factors associated with the history of prior farm injury among active farmers, nor with adequate numbers of black farmers to evaluate farm owner/farm worker and black/white differences. The sample in this survey is based upon surveys administered to active male farmers in rural counties in Alabama and Mississippi. Prior injury was more frequent among white owner/operators than among black workers and black owner/operators. In multiple logistic regression analyses, post-high school education and tiredness when farming were independently associated with prior injury in black owner/operators. In white owner/operators, age ≥ 60 years, post-high school education, full-time farming, tractor use, more pieces of machinery, hurry when farming and alcohol consumption were associated with prior injury. In black workers, only being very careful was associated with prior injury. The results suggest that prevention efforts focussing on alcohol consumption, fatigue and hurry when farming might reduce injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1999, Vol.35, No.5, p.499-510. 36 ref.
Shaffer H.J., Vander Bilt J., Hall M.N.
Gambling, drinking, smoking and other health risk activities among casino employees
A sample of full-time casino employees was surveyed about gambling, drinking, smoking and other health risk behaviours. Respondents were also asked about their use of the employee assistance program (EAP) and perceived obstacles towards using the EAP. Casino employees were found to have a higher prevalence of past-year pathological gambling behaviour than the general adult population, a lower prevalence of past-year problem gambling and a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol abuse and depression. The majority of non-smoking respondents in this sample were exposed to second-hand smoke. Employees reported low participation in the company's EAP. The results of this study suggest that casino management should consider improving problem gambling screening for employees who visit EAPs, even if employees present other problems (e.g., alcohol problems) as their primary concerns, increasing employees' awareness of EAPs, increasing health promotion and education through channels other than company EAPs, and creating smoke-free working areas.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.36, No.3, p.365-378. 37 ref.
Engel C.C., Ursano R., Magruder C., Tartaglione R., Jing Z., Labbate L.A., Debakey S.
Psychological conditions diagnosed among veterans seeking Department of Defense care for Gulf War-related health concerns
The Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program is a US military programme that provides a voluntary, clinically oriented evaluation for Gulf War health concerns. Administrative data are presented on psychological conditions (as coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision) from the first year of the programme. The most commonly diagnosed psychological conditions were medically unexplained physical-symptom syndromes; depression and anxiety, including post-traumatic stress disorder; and alcohol abuse or dependence. Psychological conditions were significantly related to a higher number of workdays lost, and the 19% of veterans with a primary diagnosis of a psychological condition reported 28% of the lost workdays among veterans who participated. Stressful Gulf War experiences were weakly but significantly related to psychological conditions. It is concluded that among Gulf War veterans seeking evaluation for Gulf War-related health concerns, psychological conditions are common and are associated with important occupational morbidity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.384-392. Illus. 33 ref.
Steenland K., Palu S.
Cohort mortality study of 57 000 painters and other union members: A 15 year update
To study mortality patterns in the largest existing cohort of painters, 15 years of follow-up were added to a study of 42,170 painters and 14,316 non-painters based on union records. There were 23,458 deaths, compared with 5,313 in the earlier follow up. Comparisons with the United States population showed significantly increased rates in painters for lung cancer, bladder cancer, liver cancer and stomach cancer. However, in direct comparisons with non-painters only the excesses for lung cancer and bladder cancer were confirmed. Some confounding by smoking may affect these two outcomes, particularly with external referents. Cirrhosis of the liver was increased for both painters and non-painters, possibly indicating high alcohol consumption. Suicide and homicide were increased for painters but not for non-painters; neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with painters in earlier studies. The results suggest modest occupational risks for lung and bladder cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified painting as an occupation definitely associated with cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.56, No.5, p.315-321. 25 ref.
Engineering Employers' Federation (EEF)
Think about health - An employee's guide to occupational health
This guide aimed at employees is a reminder of the main health hazards they encounter at work. Topics covered: handling harmful substances; respiratory diseases; skin diseases; noise and vibration; radiations; movement, posture and repetitive work; health surveillance; personal protective equipment; stress; smoking, alcohol and substance abuse; improving lifestyle.
Safety & Environment Department of the EEF, Customer Services Department, EEF, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London SW1H 9NQ, United Kingdom, 4th ed., 1999. 31p. Illus. Price: EEF members GBP 1.20 per copy, min. order 10 copies; non-members: GBP 1.50 per copy.
Murata K., Yano E., Shinozaki T.
Impact of shift work on cardiovascular functions in a 10-year follow-up study
Electorcardiography and blood pressure of 158 shift workers and 75 day workers at a copper smelter were followed for ten years in order to determine if shift work affects cardiovascular function. In 1986 and 1996, the adjusted QT interval (QTc) was significantly longer in shift workers than in day workers. Of workers with a normal QTc in 1986, 15% had developed a prolonged QTc in 1996. Among the workers with a normal QTc in 1986, shift workers had a significantlylonger QTc than did day workers when the QTc was examined in 1996. In addition, day-shift work in the group with a normal QTc was significantly related to the QTc in 1996 after control for age, work duration, biochemical indicators, smoking and drinking habits. However, the blood pressures of the shift and day workers did not differ significantly, and in 1996 the values of both groups were significantly elevated. The data suggest that shift work is associated with QTc prolongation and may explain the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases due to shift work.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.272-277. 33 ref.
Catalogue of publications - Public health and safety at work
This 1999 update of the catalogue of publications on public health and safety at work of the Directorate General for Employment and Social Affairs of the European Commission (DG V) contains publications under the following headings: general; health promotion; health monitoring; injuries; AIDS and communicable diseases; cancer; drug dependence; tobacco and cancer; psychosocial factors; occupational diseases; chemical, physical and biological agents; European coal and steel community (ECSC) social research programmes.
European Commission, Directorate V/F - Public Health and Safety at Work, Bâtiment Euroforum, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1999. 32p.
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