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Alcohol and drug abuse - 495 entries found

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2006

CIS 07-204 Craig B.N., Congleton J.J., Kerk C.J., Amendola A.A., Gaines W.G.
Personal and non-occupational risk factors and occupational injury/illness
In this study of workers involved in materials handling, 48 personal and non-occupational risk factors were measured and evaluated for relationships with occupational injury in 442 volunteers who worked for three different employers at nine locations in the United States. Data on occupational injury within this population were collected for one year after measuring muscular strength and various anthropometric factors. Higher occurrences of occupational injury were significantly associated with aerobic power, smoking status, perceived fitness level, fishing/hunting as a hobby, speed limit compliance, percent body fat, witnessing or being involved in a violent fight and a measure of flexibility. Effective injury reduction programmes should go beyond traditional methods of job-related ergonomic risk factors and include personal factors such as smoking, weight control, and alcohol abuse.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.49, No.4, p.249-260. 86 ref.

CIS 06-1294 Shannon G.
A different light
This article comments on the provisions of The Republic of Ireland's Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 2005. The main aspects of these new provisions concern integrated safety management systems and are particularly relevant for addressing bullying, harassment and stress at the workplace. Employees are required to submit to testing for intoxicants. Other aspects discussed include offences, enforcement and criminal liability of directors in the event of fatalities or major breaches in occupational health and safety legislation.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Feb. 2006, Vol.24, No.2, p.41-44. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 06-1400 Maroni M., Fanetti A.C.
Liver function assessment in workers exposed to vinyl chloride
A medical examination including liver function tests (LFTs) and liver ultrasonography was carried out in a group of 757 workers with long-standing service in the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in four production plants in Italy. Cumulative and maximum VCM exposures were calculated. Possible histories of viral hepatitis and alcohol intake habits of subjects were carefully investigated. Regression analysis explored the association between abnormal LFTs and a group of possible determinants. Results indicate that liver function assessment only (including LFTs) is not able to detect VCM-induced liver damage, but reveals alterations due to non-occupational factors, such as dietary and/or metabolic dysfunctions. The LFTs are however of importance in detecting conditions that indicate the need to avoid VCM exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.79, No.1, p.57-65. 17 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/j110530u28817775/fulltext.pdf [in English]

2005

CIS 08-14 Stop smoking - Collection of booklets for helping smokers or ex-smokers to quit or to stay off cigarettes
Stop tabac - Série de brochures pour motiver et aider les fumeurs ou anciens fumeurs à arrêter de fumer ou à rester ex-fumeur [in French]
Collection of eight booklets, of which seven are aimed specifically at the following categories of persons: persons who are not seriously considering to quit cigarette smoking; persons who are seriously considering to quit cigarette smoking, but are not yet ready to make an attempt; cigarette smokers who are ready to make an attempt to quit; persons who quit cigarette smoking less than six months earlier; persons who quit cigarette smoking more than six months earlier; persons who have taken up cigarette smoking again after having made an attempt to quit; women who smoke. Finally, a booklet explains the additives found in cigarette tobacco.
Programme Stop-tabac.ch, IMSP-CMU, rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Genève 4, Switzerland, [ca. 2005]. Series of 8 booklets.
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac1fr.pdf [in French]
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac2fr.pdf [in French]
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac3fr.pdf [in French]
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac4fr.pdf [in French]
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac6fr.pdf [in French]
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac7fr.pdf [in French]
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac8fr.pdf [in French]
http://www.stop-tabac.ch/fr/hon/pdf/stop-tabac5fr.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-414 Viala A., Botta A.
Toxicology
This publication describes the basic principles of toxicology by explaining the mechanisms and symptoms resulting from the presence of toxic substances in the human body. It covers more than 25 chemicals or classes of chemicals. Each chapter includes the aetiology, mechanisms of toxic action, symptoms, medical treatment, prevention and analytical toxicology. It also covers waste, air, water and soil pollution, major hazards, substance abuse, smoking, pesticides, sports doping, and chemical and bacteriological weapons. A chapter on industrial toxicology covers the main classes of chemical toxins found in industry, their toxic effects and the prevention of toxic hazards.
Editions Tec & Doc, 14 rue de Provigny, 94236 Cachan, France, 2nd ed., 2005. 1094p. Illus. 92 ref. Index. Price: EUR 250.00.

CIS 06-1355 Kaerlev L., Hansen J., Hansen H.L., Nielsen P.S.
Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers: A population based cohort study
A cohort consisting of all Danish seafarers employed during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) was linked with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated using the corresponding national rates. The SIR of all cancers was 1.26 for men and 1.07 for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon and bone, as well as skin melanomas among men, and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in lung cancer incidence between job categories among men ranged from 1.2 (engine room officers) to 2.3 (engine room crew), and 4.1 among maintenance crew. Non-officers had a 1.5 times higher lung cancer risk than officers. It is concluded that Danish seafarers, especially men, face an increased overall cancer risk. However, the data were not adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, which could represent significant confounding factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2005, Vol.62, No.11, p.761-765. 24 ref.

CIS 06-1493 Bobak M., Pikhart H., Kubinova R., Malyutina S., Pajak A., Sebakova H., Topor-Madry R., Nikitin Y., Caan W., Marmot M.
The association between psychosocial characteristics at work and problem drinking: A cross-sectional study of men in three East European urban populations
To examine the association between occupational psychology and alcoholism, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and Karvina (Czech Republic). The 694 male participants in full employment completed a questionnaire that included effort-reward at work, job control, various socio-demographic factors and alcohol intake. It was found that all indices of alcohol consumption and problem drinking were associated with the effort-reward ratio. Adjustment for material deprivation did not change the results but adjustment for depressive symptoms reduced the estimated effects. Job control was not associated with any of the alcohol related outcomes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.62, No.8, p.546-550. 47 ref.

CIS 06-1497 Update: The SOLVE approach to addressing psychosocial problems at work
SOLVE is an interactive educational programme designed to assist in the development of policies and actions to address psychosocial issues at the workplace. Stress, alcohol and drugs, violence (both physical and psychological), HIV/AIDS and tobacco, all lead to health-related problems for the worker and lower productivity for the enterprise or organization. Taken together, they represent a major cause of accidents, fatal injuries, diseases and absenteeism at work in both industrialized and developing countries. SOLVE focuses on prevention in translating concepts into policies and policies into action at the national and enterprise levels. This document summarizes the SOLVE concept, its methodology and its implementation at the place of work. Includes a list of SOLVE training courses for managers, workers and counsellors.
Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Feb. 2005. 9p. Illus.

CIS 06-1373 Jégaden D., Dewitte J.D.
Health of deep-sea fishermen: Past and present, and future prospects
La santé des marins pêcheurs: passé, présent et perspectives d'avenir [in French]
This article discusses the health hazards faced by deep-sea fishermen, in particular smoking, alcoholism and poor diets. Other risk factors include noise (it is estimated that the average on-board exposure during the time spent at sea is higher than 85dB(A)), as well as postures and movements that can give rise to musculoskeletal diseases. Finally, there are stress, fatigue and other psychological risk factors that have effects on health and on the frequency of accidents.
Société française de Médecine Maritime, Faculté de médecine de Brest, CS 93837, 29238 Brest cedex 3, France, Nov. 2005. 8p. 30 ref.

CIS 06-1107 Roberts S.E.
Work related mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases and alcohol among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping from 1939 to 2002
This study investigated work-related mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases and from alcohol among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping from 1939 to 2002. Among a population of 7.29 million seafarer-years at risk, there were 864 deaths from gastro-intestinal diseases and 72 from alcoholism. Overall mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases fell from 18.4 per 100,000 in 1939-49 to 9.3 in 1970-79 and 0.3 in 1990-2002. Mortality from alcoholism and from alcohol-related diseases such as liver cirrhosis and diseases of the pancreas increased up to the 1960s or 1970s, but fell thereafter. Sharp reductions in mortality from gastro-intestinal diseases and from alcoholism since the 1970s contrasts with increases among the general British population, and are largely because of the reductions in the British deep sea ship fleet in favour of flags of convenience, with consequent reductions in long voyages, as well as reductions in alcohol consumption among seafarers at work. Largely because of the healthy worker effect, seafarers were usually only at increased risks from particularly acute diseases.
International Maritime Health, 2005, Vol.56, No.1/4, p.29-47. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 06-820 Vainio H., Lehtinen S.
International conference on occupational health services 2005
Selection of articles presented at an international conference on occupational health services held in Helsinki, Finland, 25-27 January 2005. Among the topics addressed: structure, content and objectives of occupational health services; occupational health services as an element of national occupational safety and health systems; challenges to occupational safety and health due to globalization; aspects of occupational health services in Denmark, France, Finland and Singapore; screening for alcoholism in Finland; special issues related to young workers; human resource management in occupational health services; CD-ROM-based training in hazard control.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2005, Suppl.1, p.1-78 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-991 Gómez-Talegón M.T., Álvarez González F.J.
Alcohol and the prevention of alcohol-related problems at the place of work
Alcohol y prevención de los problemas relacionados con el consumo de alcohol en el ámbito laboral [in Spanish]
This article examines the main workplace problems resulting from alcohol consumption, including absenteeism, higher rates of accidents, lower productivity, increased errors, increased conflict situations and more disciplinary actions and dismissals, resulting in an increase in unemployment. Economic and legal aspects are reviewed and intervention programmes are described: primary prevention (information of workers), secondary prevention (medical treatment) and tertiary prevention (rehabilitation).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2005, Vol.LI, No.198, p.65-72. 27 ref.

CIS 06-750 Alcohol and drug problems at work - The shift to prevention
Mašākil al-kuḥūl wa al-muẖadarāt fi al-(amal. Al-ṭarīq ila al-wiqāya. [in Arabic]
This manual is an Arabic translation of the document indexed under CIS 03-500. It provides guidance on the setting up and management of substance abuse prevention programmes in the enterprise. It describes the physiological effects of alcohol and drugs and the problems relating to intoxication, regular use and dependency as they affect the workplace. It presents a step-by-step guidance on designing, implementing and sustaining prevention programmes and provides examples of alcohol and drug policies from companies around the world. Also includes checklists, self-assessment tools and an extensive list of Internet, print and audiovisual resources. The document was prepared in collaboration with the United Nations Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODC).
Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, Arab Labour Organization, Damascus, Syria, 2005. xxiii, 142p.

CIS 06-563 Ji J., Hemminki K.
Occupation and upper aerodigestive tract cancers: A follow-up study in Sweden
This study examined the associations between occupation and upper aerodigestive tract cancers. The Swedish Cancer Database was used to calculate standardized incidence ratios for various occupational groups, adjusted for age, period and socio-economic status. Male dentists showed an increased risk for tongue cancer; hairdressers had an increased risk for tongue and larynx cancers among men and pharynx cancer among women; launderers and dry cleaners showed an increased risk for pharynx cancer among men and lip cancer among women; outdoor occupations such as fishermen, seamen, transport, and construction workers showed increased risks for lip cancer. Although smoking and alcohol drinking can explain some of these results, increased risks found for dentists, hairdressers, and launderers and dry cleaners may partly be explained by their work-related exposures. Increased risks of lip cancer in outdoor occupations can be explained by sunlight exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2005, Vol.47, No.8, p.785-795. 44 ref.

CIS 06-498 Smith D.
Psychosocial occupational health issues in contemporary police work: A review of research evidence
Police officers are regularly exposed to a wide variety of occupational hazards including physical assault, work-related trauma, occupational stress, reduced physical health, alcohol abuse, musculoskeletal disorders and biohazards. This article provides an analysis of psychosocial occupational health issues in contemporary police work, with a particular focus on the situation in Australia. The study indicates that law enforcement is a high stress occupation when compared with other jobs, and the work tasks and job description of police work have become increasingly difficult over time.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2005, Vol.21, No.3, p.217-228. 100 ref.

CIS 06-250 Social delegates: A trade union self-help network
Les délégués sociaux et les déléguées sociales: Un réseau d'entraide syndical [in French]
This leaflet outlines the services offered by trade union social delegates to workers with personal problems. These include problems related to drug abuse, family life, mental health, debt, etc. Training activities available for social delegates are also outlined.
Quebec Workers' Federation, 565, boulevard Crémazie Est, bureau 12100, Montréal (Québec), H2M 2W3, Canada, (c2005). Leaflet.

CIS 05-668 de Haro L.
Anti-poison centres: mission and mode of operation
Centres antipoison: vocation et modalités de fonctionnement [in French]
This article covers the history, regulations, mission and organization of the ten French anti-poison centres. Their main mission is to provide emergency toxicological information over the phone for both the general public and health care professionals. This task is fulfilled by specially-qualified physicians, 24h a day, and enables considerable savings in health care costs by preventing inappropriate visits to hospital emergency services. Other related missions include educating the general population on matters relating to hygiene, the prevention of accidents, providing expert evidence in toxicological matters, toxicological vigilance, education and research in clinical toxicology, and collaboration with regional pharmacological vigilance centres and drug dependence evaluation and information centres.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.147, 8p. 30 ref.

CIS 05-337 Roberts S.E., Marlow P.B.
Traumatic work-related mortality among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping, 1976-2002
This longitudinal study of occupational mortality was carried out to establish the causes and circumstances of all traumatic work-related deaths among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping from 1976 to 2002. Data were based on official mortality files and a population of 1,136,427 seafarer-years at risk. Of 835 traumatic work related deaths, 564 were caused by accidents, 55 by suicide, 17 by homicide and 14 by drug or alcohol poisoning. 178 seafarers disappeared at sea or were found drowned. The mortality rate for accidents that occurred at the workplace from 1976 to 2002, 46.6 per 100,000 seafarer-years, was 27.8 times higher than in the general workforce in the United Kingdom during the same time period. The fatal accident rate declined sharply after the 1970s, but the relative risk of a fatal accident remained high (16.0 times higher in the 1996-2002 period).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.62, No.3, p.172-180. Illus. 39 ref.

2004

CIS 09-996 Gärdegård N.
Workplaces against drugs - The Sundsvall experience
Kan dom så kan vi [in Swedish]
This report presents a community experience in a region of Sweden involving small land large enterprises, schools, the municipality, public services and a port authority, showing how cooperation can be used to extend a drug and alcohol prevention initiative. The project resulted in the development of a policy, an information campaign and awareness programmes in schools.
Norra Förlaget, Kyrkogatan 14, 852 31 Sundsvall, Sweden, 2004. 211p. Illus. (Swedish edition: 184p. Illus.).

CIS 07-991 Voss M., Floderus B., Diderichsen F.
How do job characteristics, family situation, domestic work, and lifestyle factors relate to sickness absence? A study based on Sweden Post
This study examined the relationship between characteristics of working life and private life and sickness absence. Questionnaire data for 1557 female and 1913 male employees of the Swedish postal service were linked to registered sickness absence by multivariate regression analyses. Apart from health problems, clear associations with sickness absence were observed for complaints attributed to heavy, arduous work, and sickness presenteeism. The use of tranquilizers, the occurrence of bullying, and the existence of a high total workload from paid and unpaid work were associated with sickness absence in women. The use of alcohol as a sedative, anxiety of reorganization, not holding a supervisor position, adverse life events and divorce were related to sickness absence in men.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.11, p.1134-1143. 42 ref.

CIS 07-73 Gust G.A.
Occupational safety and health: Essential for decent work
Proceedings of the 9th National Occupational Safety and Health Congress held in Quezon City, Philippines, 21-11 October 2004. The theme of the Congress was occupational safety and health - essential for decent work. Main issues covered include: human and workers' rights; enforcement of standards; psychosocial factors at work; corporate social responsibility; OSH in the service industries (hotels and call centres); lifestyle diseases (alcohol and drug abuse).
Department of Labor and Employment, Occupational Safety and Health Center, North Avenue corner Agham Road, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, 2004. 68p.

CIS 06-1055 Di Martino V., Gold D., Schaap A.
Managing emerging health-related problems at work - SOLVE: Stress, Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs, HIV/AIDS, Violence
Cómo abordar los problemas emergentes relacionados con la salud en el trabajo - SOLVE: estrés, tabaco, alcohol y drogas, VIH/SIDA, violencia [in Spanish]
Spanish translation of a training package abstracted under CIS 03-1118. SOLVE is an interactive educational programme designed to assist in the development of policy and action to address psychosocial issues at the workplace. Stress, alcohol and drugs, violence (both physical and psychological), HIV/AIDS and tobacco all lead to health-related problems for the worker and lower productivity for the enterprise or organization. Taken together, they represent a major cause of accidents, fatal injuries, disease and absenteeism at work in both industrialized and developing countries. SOLVE focuses on prevention in translating concepts into policies and policies into action at the national and enterprise levels. This training package (folder and CD-ROM) provides the foundation for a five-day interactive training course with a goal to give participants the knowledge and skills to formulate a comprehensive policy and strategies to address these issues in the workplace. (See also CIS 01-746).
Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Subdirección General de Información, Administrativa, y Publicaciones, Agustín de Bethencourt, 11, 28003 Madrid, Spain, 2004. Loose-leaf folder. Approx 211p. Illus. Bibl. ref. + CD-ROM.

CIS 06-1054 Drugs: Know the facts, cut your risks
Drogues: savoir plus, risquer moins [in French]
This book provides information on the nature, effects and potential health hazards of various psychoactive substances. Guidance is also given on the health and social risks of substance abuse and on sources of help for people with alcohol and other drug problems.
Comité permanent de lutte à la toxicomanie, 970 rue de Louvain Est, Montreal, Quebec H2M 2E8, Canada, 2004. 207p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-1000 Guidelines on preventing and responding to drug and alcohol problems in the workplace
General guide on an important psychosocial issue in the workplace .
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2004. iii, 30p.
http://dosh.mohr.gov.my/koperat/G-PANDUAN%20PDF/GUIDE-drug-undp04(I).pdf [in English]

CIS 06-747 Fontaine A., Crespin R., Hautefeuille M., Legleye S., Beck F., Lopez D.
Drugs and work: A new deal?
Drogues et travail: le new deal? [in French]
Collection of articles on problems related to alcohol and drug dependency in the workplace. Topics addressed: political, economic and occupational implications; workplace drug screening in the USA; drug dependency and occupational stress factors; statistics on the consumption of psychoactive substances among the French working population.
Revue Toxibase, 3rd quarter 2004, No.15 p.1-18. Bibl.ref.
http://www.toxibase.org/Pdf/Revue/thema_revue15.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-494 Head J., Stansfeld S.A., Siegrist J.
The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: A prospective study
The aim of this study was to examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence of participants in a cohort of London-based civil servants examined in 1985-88 was measured in 1991-93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by responses to questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. It was found that a stressful psychosocial work environment in terms of effort-reward imbalance was a risk factor for alcohol dependence in men. Among women, low decision latitude was related to alcohol dependence to some extent, but alcohol dependence among women was more prevalent in higher occupational grades.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.61, No.3, p.219-224. 30 ref.

CIS 04-742 Durand E., Gayet C., Bijaoui A.
Workplace monitoring of psychoactive substances
Le dépistage des substances psychoactives en milieu de travail [in French]
The objective of this article is to take stock of the legal situation in France with respect to the workplace monitoring of psychoactive substances. The first part of the article provides a number of definitions together with a non-exhaustive list of substances and their effects (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, hallucinatory substances, solvents, psychotropic medical drugs). Legal regulations that apply to workplace monitoring are addressed in the second part.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2004, No.99, p.301-314. 22 ref.

CIS 04-348 Smith A., Wadsworth E., Moss S., Simpson S.
Health and Safety Executive
The scale and impact of psychotropic medication use by workers
This project had three main aims: to establish the prevalence and characteristics of psychotropic medication use in a representative sample of the UK working population; to investigate the effects of psychotropic medication on performance efficiency and human error in a working sample; and to determine whether there was an association between the use of psychotropic medication and the prevalence of workplace accidents and cognitive failures. Data were collected by means of community-based questionnaires and by comparing a group of 26 volunteers using psychotropic medication with 161 controls not using such medication. Results showed that 9% of workers currently used or had used psychotropic medication during the previous year. Use increased with age and was higher among women. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were the most commonly-used medication. Finally, psychotropic drugs users were at greater risk of occupational or traffic accidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. x, 94p. Illus. 86 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr282.pdf [in English]

CIS 04-311 Weaver M.B., Mackowiak J.I., Solari P.G.
Triptan therapy impacts health and productivity
New users of an anti-migraine drug (sumatriptan) in a California health plan were surveyed on the impact of migraine using Headache Impact Test-6. In particular, their productivity and satisfaction with migraine therapy were assessed. After sumatriptan was initiated, participants reported significantly fewer workdays missed, fewer days worked with headache, and greater productivity while headache symptoms were present. In addition, almost 50% less members used narcotic painkillers, while the frequency, duration, and severity of migraines decreased. The benefits of sumatriptan therapy also extend to employers, who see productivity increases, fewer emergency room visits, and less narcotics use in employees with migraine.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.812-817. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 04-248 Smith A., Wadsworth E., Moss S., Simpson S.
Health and Safety Executive
The scale and impact of illegal drug use by workers
The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of illegal drug use in the working population, to investigate the effects of illegal drugs on work performance and to determine whether there was an association between illegal drug use and the prevalence of workplace accidents, injuries and human error. Data were collected by means of a community-based questionnaire and the study of a cohort of workers carrying out cognitive performance tasks. The findings show that drug use may reduce cognitive performance, work efficiency and safety at work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. ii, 148p. Illus. 63 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr193.pdf [in English]

2003

CIS 09-997 Shaping the future
Proceedings of a conference on business and mental energy at work, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 6-7 October 2003. The objective of the conference was to address key issues affecting the psychosocial work environment worldwide. A white paper was issued at the end of the conference, serving as a recommendation aimed at international agencies, governments, employers and employees to implement mental wellbeing health management policies and to develop sustainable programs in workplaces worldwide.
Club Geneva, 1001 Bridgeway Avenue #607, Sausalito, CA 94965, USA; 2003. Approx. 200p. Illus.

CIS 06-500 Caborn J., Gold D.
An overview of selected references related to SOLVE
This literature survey reviews selected studies on psychosocial issues in the workplace. The five main issues considered are stress, violence, alcohol and drug use, HIV/AIDS and tobacco consumption. The impact of these issues on the workplace is outlined and their interrelationships are discussed in detail. The review supports the integrated approach adopted in the SOLVE methodology for the management of psychosocial issues in the workplace.
InFocus Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Mar. 2003. 67 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/whpwb/solve/references.pdf [in English]

CIS 06-39 Goetzel R.Z., Hawkins K., Ozminkowski R.J., Wang S.
The health and productivity cost burden of the "top 10" physical and mental health conditions affecting six large U.S. employers in 1999
Data for 374,799 employees from six large employers were analysed to identify the most costly physical and mental health conditions affecting American businesses. Absence and disability losses constituted 29% of the total health and productivity related expenditures for physical health conditions and 47% for all of the mental health conditions examined. The ten most costly physical health conditions were: angina pectoris; essential hypertension; diabetes mellitus; mechanical low back pain; acute myocardial infarction; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; back disorders not specified as low back; trauma to spine and spinal cord; sinusitis; and diseases of the ear, nose and throat or mastoid process. The five most costly mental health disorders were: bipolar disorder, chronic maintenance; depression; depressive episode in bipolar disease; neurotic, personality and non-psychotic disorders; alcoholism.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.5-14. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 04-746 Machado Godoi A.M.
Survey on the use of drugs among industrial workers
Levantamento sobre uso de drogas entre trabalhadores da indústria [in Portuguese]
The objective of this research, which involved 2657 workers in 34 Brazilian enterprises, was to study the consumption patterns of alcohol, tobacco and narcotics among industrial workers, as well as the factors related to this consumption, the awareness of workers concerning the consumption of these substances and their opinion concerning preventive actions. The study showed in particular that 38.7% of the workers smoked (42.1% of the men and 28.3% of the women), 78.7% regularly drank alcohol, close to 87% had taken at least one pharmaceutical drug during the previous year and 10.5% consumed illegal narcotics. Most workers were favourable to receiving information at the place of work on substance abuse.
Serviço Social da Indústria (SESI), Departamento Nacional SBN, Quadra 1 Bloco C, Edifício Roberto Simonsen, CEP 70 040-903 Brasília, Brazil, 2003. 57p. 9 ref.

CIS 04-570 Landsbergis P.A., Schnall P.L., Pickering T.G., Warren K., Schwartz J.E.
Lower socioeconomic status among men in relation to the association between job strain and blood pressure
The associations between psychosocial job strain and ambulatory blood pressure at work, by level of education, occupational status, and income were assessed by multiple linear regression, adjusted for age, race, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, standing position, and worksite for 283 men, aged 30-60 years, working in eight enterprises in New York City. A substantial association between job strain and blood pressure was found among men with lower socio-economic status, ranging from 2.7-11.8mm Hg systolic and 1.9-6.1mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, depending on their socio-economic status. However, in the groups with high socio-economic status, the association was much smaller, the range in blood pressure being 0-5.3mm Hg (systolic) and 0.2-2.1mm Hg (diastolic). Two of the ten interactions evaluated had a P-value of <0.05. These data provide evidence that the relationship between psychosocial job strain and blood pressure is greater among men with lower socio-economic status.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2003, Vol.29, No.3, p.206-215. 73 ref.

CIS 03-1977 Beaudry C.
Screening tests at the workplace - II
Les tests de dépistage en milieu de travail - II [in French]
A vast majority of Canadian enterprises have adopted internal policies or rules concerning alcohol or narcotics at the workplace. Under certain conditions, employers can require an employee to undergo alcohol or narcotics screening tests, even if such testing is against the employee's will, should they have reasonable grounds to suspect that the employee is carrying out safety-critical tasks under substance influence, in the event of accidents or near misses, or in the case of a follow-up programme for employees with alcohol or narcotics-related absenteeism. This article discusses the legality of screening for alcohol or narcotics use in these three situations, as well as the evidence that the employer needs to provide to demand screening, when required. The legality of pre-employment screening tests for alcohol and narcotics is discussed in another article (see CIS 03-1189).
Travail et santé, Sep. 2003, Vol.19, No.3, p.50-51. 8 ref.

CIS 03-1987 Verdugo R., Vere A.
Workplace violence in sectors with implications for the education sector: Issues, solutions and resources
Schools are traditionally viewed as places for teaching and learning, not as places where violence occurs. And while the vast majority of schools are safe, the recent spate of school violence has created concern about safety in schools throughout the world. Teachers are concerned about their safety worldwide as well as about what can be done to remedy the problem. This working paper focuses comparatively on trends and experiences from other sectors, drawing lessons and suggesting ways in which the growing challenges of violence and stress may be addressed in schools and other educational sites. Contents: definition of key concepts; causes of workplace violence and stress; sector-specific environment as originator of violence and stress at work; scope of violence and stress in the sector and its impact; examination of strategies to remedy the problem.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. vi, 42p. 176 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/education/wp208.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1985 Hoel H., Einarsen S.
Violence at work in hotels, catering and tourism
Violence and stress at work are more prevalent in the service sector than in most others, because they arise from the contact between workers and the public and/or the customer. This working paper is a review of the literature on violence at work in hotels, catering and tourism. Contents: definitions; working conditions which may be conducive to violence and stress at work; vulnerable groups of workers; occurrence of violence and stress; economic impact of violence and stress; causes of stress; causes of sexual harassment; causes of violence and bullying (including the role of alcohol and drugs); under-reporting of violence; prevention, reduction, management and coping strategies.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. iii, 35p. 106 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/tourism/wp211.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1784 Verma Y., Kumar A., Rana S.V.S.
Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in traffic policemen of north India
Traffic controllers face the risk of exposure to benzene present in the ambient air as a component of fuel exhaust. Inhaled benzene is metabolized and excreted as phenol. Six traffic policemen employed at each of six major towns of north India were monitored during these investigations. 30 healthy persons (five per city) who had never been occupationally exposed to benzene and lived in clean surroundings were selected as controls. Among the exposed subjects, it was observed that urinary phenol was much higher than the values prescribed by ACGIH. Furthermore, social habits such as alcohol consumption and smoking were found to modulate benzene metabolism. It was noticed that smoking synergizes the effect of benzene whereas antagonistic effects of alcohol were observed.
Industrial Health, July 2003, Vol.41, No.3, p.260-264. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 03-1669 Roberts S.E.
Work-related mortality among British seafarers employed in flags of convenience shipping, 1976-95
The objective of this study was to analyse the causes of all deaths among British seafarers who were working in flags of convenience merchant shipping between 1976 and 1995, to compare their mortality with that of British seafarers employed in British merchant shipping and to discuss the implications for safety and health. Data from official mortality files were used. Out of 200 deaths in flags of convenience shipping, 68 were caused by illness, 91 by accidents, three by homicide, seven by suicide, four by drug and alcohol intoxication and 27 by unknown causes. Deaths from causes other than diseases, including maritime disasters, were significantly higher in flags of convenience ships than in British ships. There were insufficient data to determine relative mortality rates, and further studies should focus on this aspect.
International Maritime Health, 2003, Vol.54, No.1/4, p.7-25. 28 ref.

CIS 03-1993 Stansfeld A.S., Head J., Rasul F., Singleton N., Lee A.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupation and mental health: Secondary analyses of the ONS Psychiatric Morbidity Survey of Great Britain
This report presents the results of a survey among adults living in the United Kingdom on possible links between occupation and psychological morbidity. Among the over 12,000 households identified in a random sample, 69.5% agreed to participate in an interview. Occupations, expressed by Standard Occupational Classification codes, were linked to common mental disorders, self reported sickness absence data, illicit drug use, psychotropic drug use and use of health services. Higher levels of psychosocial disorders were found among clerical and secretarial, sales, security and service occupations, while lower levels were found among craft and related occupations, plant and machine operators, and managers and administrators.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xvi, 123p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr168.pdf [in English]

CIS 03-1445 Sakata K., Suwazono Y., Harada H., Okubo Y., Kobayashi E., Nogawa K.
The relationship between shift work and the onset of hypertension in male Japanese workers
This study addresses the effect of shift work on the onset of hypertension. The design was that of a cohort study conducted during 1991-2001, which involved 5338 workers. The event was the onset of hypertension (systolic pressure ≥140mm Hg and/or diastolic pressure ≥90mm Hg and/or the taking of hypertension medication). Logistic regression analyses were performed, including job schedule type, age, body mass index, lifestyle and the results of blood chemistry measurements as covariates. The odds ratio of the onset of hypertension in shift workers was 1.10 and significant. The study revealed that shift work independently affected the onset of hypertension, and suggested that shift work is a risk factor for the onset of hypertension.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.45, No.9, p.1002-1006. 19 ref.

CIS 03-1189 Beaudry C.
Screening tests at the workplace
Les tests de dépistage en milieu de travail [in French]
A vast majority of Canadian enterprises have internal policies or rules concerning alcohol or narcotics at the workplace. Some employers require new applicants to undergo pre-employment medical examinations during which screening can be applied. In Canada, the charter of rights and freedoms protect the workers against discriminatory practices. For applicants to jobs which are not critical from the standpoint of safety, imposing pre-employment screening tests may be considered discriminatory. The issue of the legality of pre-employment screening tests for alcohol and narcotics is discussed in light of several examples from jurisprudence. The legality of post-employment screening tests for alcohol and narcotics will be discussed in another article.
Travail et santé, June 2003, Vol.19, No.2, p.50-51. 10 ref.

CIS 03-1498 Helping small businesses prevent substance abuse
This manual on substance abuse in small enterprises is based on the findings of an ILO project aimed at developing models of prevention programmes suited to small enterprises. Contents: main aspects of substance abuse (substances, physiological effects, socio-demographic factors); emphasis on prevention (promoting good health, role of management, links with the community and the family); substance abuse at the workplace; substance abuse prevention in small businesses; establishing a substance abuse prevention programme (legislative and cultural norms, project leadership, project structure, implementation).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. viii, 111p. Illus. Price: CHF 15.00; USD 9.95; GBP 6.96; EUR 12.00.

CIS 03-1118 Di Martino V., Gold D., Schaap A.
Managing emerging health-related problems at work - SOLVE: Stress, Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs, HIV/AIDS, Violence
Gérer les problèmes émergents liés à la santé dans le monde du travail - SOLVE : Stress, violence, alcool et drogue, VIH/sida, tabagisme [in French]
SOLVE is an interactive educational programme designed to assist in the development of policy and action to address psychosocial issues at the workplace. Stress, alcohol and drugs, violence (both physical and psychological), HIV/AIDS and tobacco all lead to health-related problems for the worker and lower productivity for the enterprise or organization. Taken together, they represent a major cause of accidents, fatal injuries, disease and absenteeism at work in both industrialized and developing countries. SOLVE focuses on prevention in translating concepts into policies and policies into action at the national and enterprise levels. This training package (folder and CD-ROM) provides the foundation for a five-day interactive training course with a goal to give participants the knowledge and skills to formulate a comprehensive policy and strategies to address these issues in the workplace. (See also CIS 01-746).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. Loose-leaf folder. Approx.120p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM.

CIS 03-969 Lispcomb H.J., Dement J.M., Li L.
Health care utilization of carpenters with substance abuse-related diagnoses
Construction industry workers in the United States have high rates of alcohol and substance abuse. In this study, a cohort of unionized carpenters was identified. Their claims for medical care through union insurance and workers' compensation were well documented. Use of medical services and compensation costs were compared between carpenters with and without alcohol- and substance-abuse related diagnoses (ASRD). Through private insurance, those with ASRD had 10% higher outpatient utilization and 2.1 times higher rates of hospitalizations for injury care, 2.6 times higher rates of outpatient care and 2.9 times higher inpatient admissions for non-injury care. Individuals with ASRD had increased rates (10%) of outpatient utilization through workers' compensation. These findings support the need for alcohol and drug abuse prevention and treatment services for this workforce.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.120-131. 39 ref.

CIS 03-681 Chaturvedi A.K., Smith D.R., Soper J.W., Canfield D.V., Whinnery J.E.
Characteristics and toxicological processing of postmortem pilot specimens from fatal civil aviation accidents
Autopsied biological samples from civil aviation accident pilot fatalities are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for toxicological evaluation. However, such evaluation is dependent on types and amounts of submitted samples, and obtaining suitable samples is governed by the nature of the accident. The characteristics of these samples and their toxicological processing have not been well documented in the literature. Therefore, the CAMI Toxicology Database was searched for these aspects. It was found that the toxicologically preferred samples of blood and urine were available in 78% and 56% of the cases, respectively. Other samples were also frequently available. Samples were primarily analyzed for combustion gases, alcohol and drugs. An effective quality control is maintained throughout the process. It is concluded that in the majority of the aviation accidents, sufficient amounts and types of biological samples were submitted for toxicological evaluation.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.74, No.3, p.252-259. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 03-500 Alcohol and drug problems at work - The shift to prevention
This document is a practical manual to setting up and managing substance abuse prevention programmes in the enterprise. It describes the physiological effects of alcohol and drugs and the problems relating to intoxication, regular use and dependency as they affect the workplace. It presents a step-by-step guidance on designing, implementing and sustaining prevention programmes. It also provides examples of alcohol and drug policies from companies around the world, useful checklists, self-assessment tools and an extensive list of Internet, print and audiovisual resources. The document was prepared in collaboration with the United Nations Office of Drug Control and Crime Prevention (UNODC).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. 119p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: CHF 15.00.

2002

CIS 09-998 Murthy P.
Developing community drug rehabilitation and workplace prevention programmes
While there has been accumulating knowledge of the problems associated with substance abuse (drugs and alcohol) in India, there has been little documentation on effective responses for preventing and dealing with these problems. This report presents the experiences of a collaborative project on community rehabilitation and workplace prevention programmes in India. The project highlights the importance of an integrated approach to substance abuse problems. It portrays the experiences of non-governmental organizations and enterprises in developing comprehensive strategies, and highlights the impact of effective community and workplace prevention programmes.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 500, 1400 Vienna, Austria, 2002. 48p. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 03-1623 Cedergren M.I., Selbing A.J., Källén B.A.J.
Risk factors for cardiovascular malformation - A study based on prospectively collected data
This study included 277 women who had infants with a severe cardiac defect. Data on parental age, maternal reproductive history, disease in early pregnancy, reported maternal use of drugs and alcohol, smoking habits, parental occupation and maternal body mass index (BMI) were extracted from medical records. Maternal diabetes mellitus was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular malformation (odds ratio (OR) 2.38), as was a high BMI (> 29, OR 1.46). A tendency towards an increased risk was found for involuntary childlessness, spontaneous abortion, thyroid drugs and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Some known risk factors for cardiac defects (eg. maternal diabetes mellitus and the use of antiepileptics) could be identified in this study but other postulated risk factors could not be verified. It is possible, however, that there is an association with the use of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs or drugs for thyroid disease. The relationship between a high BMI and cardiovascular malformation observed in this study may be explained by impaired maternal glucose tolerance.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2002, Vol.28, No.1, p.12-17. 23 ref.

CIS 03-1737 Elci O.C., Akpinar-Elci M., Blair A., Dosemeci M.
Occupational dust exposure and the risk of laryngeal cancer in Turkey
Among 7631 cancer cases from the Okmeydani Hospital, Istanbul, between 1979 and 1984, 958 larynx cancer cases were identified among men. After exclusions, 940 laryngeal cancer cases and 1519 referents were available. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain basic information on the patients. A job-exposure matrix was developed for occupational dusts, including silica, asbestos, wood, cotton, and grain, and age-, smoking-, and alcohol-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate risks of laryngeal cancer. An excess of laryngeal cancer occurred for workers potentially exposed to silica and cotton dust, particularly for supraglottic cancer (OR 1.8, for silica and OR 1.6, for cotton dust), and there was a significant dose-response relationship with silica exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.28, No.4, p.278-284. 46 ref.

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