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Alcoholism and occupational safety
Alkohol und Arbeitssicherheit [in German]
El alcohol y la seguridad del trabajo [in Spanish]
Alcool e sicurezza del lavoro [in Italian]
L'alcool et la sécurité du travail [in French]
Difficulties encountered in attempting to pinpoint the role of alcohol in accidents and determine the percentage of occupational accidents due to alcohol are considered. Different surveys give percentages varying between 7.5% and 35%. One fact is stressed: alcohol potentiates the effects of harmful substances and physical agents, and thus increases predisposition to accidents. Suggested measures which could reduce or suppress alcohol consumption in the workplace include mechanisation of heavy physical work, thermal insulation, ventilation, air-conditioning and above all the distribution of soft drinks. Review of physiological requirements as regards intake of fluids, and suitable non-alcoholic beverages. Other preventive measures include prohibition or restriction of alcohol consumption, and screening and selection of personnel. Many examples of accidents are given. Spanish translation published in "Notas y documentos sobre prevención de riesgos profesionales", 148, 4° trimestre 1984, p.65-73.
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1980, No.133. 30p. Illus. The Spanish version is in: I.N.M.S.T., No.902, p.65-73.
Asma F.E., Hilker R.R.J., Shevlin J.J., Golden R.G.
Twenty-five years of rehabilitation of employees with drinking problems.
Statistics of 752 workers referred to a rehabilitation programme are given: job efficiency improved, absenteeism was reduced, and the number of off-the-job and occupational accidents was reduced.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1980, Vol.22, No.4, p.241-244. 3 ref.
Working conditions in a section of a superhighway in Northern Italy: problems and solutions
Condizioni di lavoro in un tratto autostradale padano: problemi e soluzioni [in Italian]
A study of the working conditions of toll-booth attendants, couriers, radio operators and technicians responsible for toll collecting on a superhighway. Physical health hazards include: exposure to weather (rain, snow, humidity, overheating of booths); noise (particularly of tractor-trailers); exhaust gases; dust (including asbestos from brakes); eye strain due to strong light (sun in the daytime, headlights at night). Mental health hazards are stress due to: variable work rate; work load (especially during rush hours); shiftwork; disagreement with drivers; uncomfortable working position; continuous monitoring by supervisors; isolation (especially at night). Resulting health complaints are: hearing damage; frequent respiratory problems; sleep disturbances; headaches; deterioration in social relationships; drug addiction; nervous breakdowns. Suggested improvements include: redesign of cabins, improved scheduling, elimination of solitary work.
Medicina dei lavoratori, July-Aug. 1979, Vol.6, No.4, p.365-388.
Torres Pombo J.
Alcoholism and hypersensitivity to chemical pollutants
Hipersusceptibilidad de los alcohólicos a los contaminantes químicos [in Spanish]
Tests to measure the blood alcohol level to detect hypersensitivity to dangerous chemicals, e.g. in workers with α1-antitrypsin or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, are described.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1979, Vol.27, No.108, p.13-17. 7 ref.
Current approaches to occupational medicine.
Contents of this up-to-date review of current topics of interest in occupational health, medicine and hygiene, each written by an expert: lead, occupational and environmental exposure; toxicology of metals other than lead; gases, vapours and fumes (benzene, solvents, welding fume); clinical and biochemical monitoring of benzene workers; asbestos in use; man-made mineral fibres; occupational respiratory disorders; occupational dermatoses; toxicity testing; role of epidemiology in occupational health; pollution assessment and control; development of occupational hygiene; nursing and occupational health; training in occupational safety and health; standards of food hygiene; travel by air, sea, road and rail; alcohol-related disabilities; stress and the individual; stress and the organisation; shift work and health; aspects of sickness absence; screening for all: excellence or extravagance.
John Wright and Sons Ltd., 42-44 Triangle West, Bristol BS8 1EX, United Kingdom, 1979. 368p. Illus. 617 ref. Price: £13.50.
Manasiev E., Petrovski D., Bauer S.
Toluene addiction in workers exposed to organic solvents
Toksikomanija prema toluenu u radnika profesionalno izloženih organskim otapalima [in Serbocroatian]
Medical examination of 36 chemical workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, chiefly toluene, are reported. Exposure was assessed by air sampling and urinary metabolite studies. Two workers presented addiction to toluene, which gave them a sense of euphoria and mild inebriation on inhalation. The occurrence of incidents when toluene was not present in the atmosphere and the absence of complaints in its presence are evidence of psychic and physical dependence on the solvent.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, Sep. 1979, Vol.30, No.3, p.251-257. 7 ref.
Seamen's work and mental health - A literature review.
Merenkulkijoiden työ ja mielenterveys - Kirjallisuuskatsaus [in Finnish]
Problems discussed include isolation of life aboard ship (limited social activity, separation from home and lack of family life); shift work; noise and vibration; temperature extremes and variations. While the physical workload has decreased in the job, heavy responsibilities have increased the mental stress. It appears that seamen have more mental problems than the average, as shown by neuroses and alcoholism. Adaptability to the work was studied from the viewpoints of work efficiency and mental health risk.
TTL/23-1979, Katsauksia 27, Institute of Occupational Health (Työterveyslaitos), Laajaniityntie 1, 01620 Vantaa 62, Finland, 1979. 46p. Illus. 95 ref. Price: Fmk 6.00.
Le Net M.
The cost of a human life
Le prix de la vie humaine. [in French]
In this introduction the author defines an estimated cost of a human life, giving the reasons and values on which he bases this cost and the various ways of approaching his calculation, taking into account financial and economic factors (loss of production and direct losses) and subjective factors (damages and compensation aspect). As he advances in his study, he shows the methods he uses and the data involved in each method. Application of conclusions drawn from the above calculations in estimating the cost, for society as a whole, of the principal social evils (traffic, commuting and workplace accidents, accidents at birth, suicides, abuse of cigarette smoking, alcoholism). Description of different methods used for the above calculations in Great Britain, Australia and the Federal Republic of Germany, and comparison of their results with those obtained in France. Lastly, considerations on the role and importance of the concept of defining the cost of a human life, following lines of argument which lead to philosophical and political considerations.
Notes et études documentaires No.4455, La Documentation française, 29-31 quai Voltaire, 75340 Paris Cedex 07, France, 1978. 151p. 59 ref. Price: FF.18.00.
Contents of this data sheet: types of solvent (aliphatic, aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, glycol derivatives, esters, etc.); properties; industrial uses; routes of entry; occupational exposure levels (ACGIH); hazards (toxicity, flammability and combustibility shown in synoptic tables); flash points; so-called "safety solvents"; precautions for vapour degreasing, immersion cleaning, etc.; process control (substitution of less toxic or volatile substances, equipment design, process location, ventilation and closed systems); personal protective equipment; respiratory and skin protection; monitoring; transportation and storage; training and supervision; preplacement examination; alcoholism (alcohol acts synergetically with most solvents on the liver and central nervous system); medical care and first aid; glossary. Appendix: synoptic table of some 100 industrial solvents with boiling point, vapour pressure, lower and upper explosive limits, autoignition temperature, vapour density, flash point; 2-page summary for posting up.
Data sheet F-3, Canada Safety Council, 1765 St. Laurent Boulevard, Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4, Canada, 1978. 28p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: Can-$1.50.
Proceedings - Reducing occupational stress.
American, British and Scandinavian methods of dealing with health and stress were discussed in 24 papers presented at a conference supported by NIOSH (New York, USA, 10-12 May 1977). Subjects covered: social support; computerisation and psychosocial factors; management stressors; incidence of disease/risk; stress factors of white-collar workers; blue-collar stressors; workload and myocardial infarction; industrial physicians and nurses; psychiatric consultation; special therapy (hypnosis for attenuation of burn depth); the organisation's system for coping with stress; organisation structure and mid-career stress; organisational management; legislative programmes; Swedish programmes; legislative job reform in Norway; Swedish approaches to job reform; productivity of the chronic schizophrenic; mental health programmes; new government programmes; alcohol abuse; psychosocial stress.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-140, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1978. Illus. 222p. 165 ref.
Outline of occupational hygiene
Lineamenti di igiene del lavoro [in Italian]
The chapter heads of this reference book are: hygiene requirements for the workplace; microclimatic factors; atmospheric pressure; lighting; electricity; noise; vibration; ionising radiation; non-ionising radiation; maximum admissible concentrations; gases and toxic substances; air respirability and lack of oxygen; industrial dusts; atmospheric pollution by industrial effluents; waste disposal; hygiene in agriculture; fatigue; ergonomics; diet; alcohol; accident prevention; work clothes; work fitness and periodic preventive surveillance of workers; mental hygiene; health education; functions of the occupational hygienist; aspects of work legislation; appendices (lists of light and insalubrious occupations, exposure limits, occupations requiring periodic medical surveillance, decree concerning notifiable diseases, water protection standard).
Società Editrice Universo, Via G.B. Morgagni 1, Roma, Italy, 1977. 687p. Illus. Bibl.
D'Souza M.F., Coppin C.M.S., McCallum R.I., Pickering C.A.C., Gadian T., Morris J.G., Atherley G.R.C., Merriman R.J., Phillips M.R., Rose G., Davey J., Bailey A.
Proceedings of a symposium held in London, United Kingdom, on 31 May 1977. Papers read: introductory review and history; pre-employment screening (experience of a Group Occupational Health Service in southern England); screening for occupations involving changes in temperature and pressure; allergy problems; prevention and early diagnosis of occupational bladder tumours; screening for asbestosis (synopsis); function and evaluation of audiometry; screening for heart disease; screening for breast cancer; screening for alcohol abuse; synopsis of discussion.
Society of Occupational Medicine, 11 St. Andrews Place, Regents Park, London NW1 4LE, United Kingdom, 1977. 71p. 124 ref. Price: £3.25.
Thiess A.M., Hofmann H.T., Elschnig G.
Medical and toxicological assessment of diethylene glycol butyl ether and other components of wallpaper paint
Arbeitsmedizinisch-toxikologische Beurteilung von Butyldiglykol und anderen Inhaltsstoffen von Tapetenfarben [in German]
Detailed study of the effects of diethylene glycol butyl ether (DGBE) after 2 cases of poisoning due to dispersion paints had been attributed to this substance in an earlier study: case histories; composition of dispersion paints; acute and subacute toxicity of DGBE in animals; toxicity of other components of the paints. The severe hepatic and renal lesions observed cannot have been caused by DGBE.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Jan. 1977, Vol.27, No.1, p.1-6. 13 ref.
Job transfers for medical reasons among the "Aéroport de Paris" personnel - Motivation - Justification
Les mutations de poste pour raisons médicales parmi le personnel "d'Aéroport de Paris" - Motivations - Justifications. [in French]
MD thesis. From 5,800 employees in 1975 in the several Paris airports (grouped under the name Aéroport de Paris), there were 163 job transfer requests from Apr. 1968 to Apr. 1976. Among the male employees these requests came mostly from the ramp staff (30%). Review of the pathological conditions that motivated about 75% of these requests: neuropsychiatric (35% of the requests), rheumatological (16.5%), gastroenterological (9.2%), cardiovascular (6.5%), etc. with, for each condition, the age, sex, initial job and action taken. Discussion of motivation relative to working conditions: noise (6.8%) and shift work (9.8%).
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisière - Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1977. 73p. 59 ref.
Mexican Secretariat of State for Labour and Social Welfare, Directorate of Occupational Medicine and Safety (Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Dirección de Medicina y Seguridad en el Trabajo).
Man and work
El hombre y el trabajo [in Spanish]
Chapters by various contributors include: importance of occupational medicine; industrial lead poisoning; vascular problems in workers who have to remain continuously in standing posture; rehabilitation of workers with heart disease; cost to society of occupational accidents and diseases; outline of ergonomics; industrial noise measurement; use of Naphthol AS (3-hydroxy-N-phenyl-2-naphthalenecarboxamide) in the textile industry; abuse of drugs (narcotics, tobacco, alcohol, pharmaco-dependency); establishment of an industrial toxicology centre; toxic substances and individuals - dynamic relation (enzymes, metabolism, immunology, detoxification, chelation); future trends in toxicology; trends in occupational safety; drafting of OSH regulations; occupational safety in Mexican iron and steel industry (smelting plants, foundries, steelworks; accident causes and factors); OSH in the textile industry; accident prevention in Mexican coal mines; humanisation of work.
La Prensa Médica Mexicana, Paseo de las Faculdades 26, México, 20, D.F., Mexico, 1976. 198p. 96 ref.
ABC of in-plant traffic and road safety
ABC der Verkehrssicherheit im Betrieb und auf der Strasse [in German]
Some general hints for traffic safety are followed by texts of and comments on the relevant regulations in the German Democratic Republic (In-plant Traffic Ordinance, Highway Code, Order concerning transport of dangerous goods, etc.).
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1976. 408p. Illus. Price: M.6.40.
Agricultural occupational disease in some Bordeaux vineyards
Pathologie professionnelle agricole rencontrée dans quelques châteaux du Bordelais. [in French]
MD thesis. Part 1: diseases and hazards associated with wine growing (overturning of tractors, noise and vibration (tractor drivers); injury due to tools; tetanus; low-back pain; insect bites and stings, snake bites; poisoning by toxic chemicals; accidents during grape harvesting). Part 2: diseases of wine cellar workers: alcoholism; accident hazard during tunning; lead poisoning; CO2 hazard during storage of vine plant. Part 3: results of a study in 550 workers in vineyards employing more than 10 workers. The level of safety was higher than when only 2 or 3 workers were employed. However, 7 cases of lead poisoning were seen in workers engaged in taking off the crown-cork of oxidised bottles.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unités d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1976. 91p. 15 ref.
Occupational health and safety symposia.
This publication contains the main papers presented at the 35th American Medical Association's Congress on occupational health, held on 29-30 Sep. 1975 in Cincinnati, Ohio, and co-sponsored by NIOSH. The aim was to develop information to assist private practitioners with part-time occupational medical responsibilities. Topics presented were: epidemiology for part-time occupational physicians; identification and rehabilitation of the problem drinker; potential trauma at the workplace; agricultural hazards; maximum utilisation of the handicapped worker; behavioural aspects of injuries; occupational injury control; and hazardous particulates and noise. Address by Dr. J.F.Finklea, Director of NIOSH.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-136, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Feb. 1976. 238p. Illus. 137 ref.
Proceedings - 6th Congress of the International Ergonomics Associaton "Old World, New World, One World" and Technical Program of the 20th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society.
The 126 papers at this meeting, held 11-16 July 1976 in College Park, Maryland, USA, were grouped under: industrial ergonomics; education; ergonomics and agricultural engineering; health care/health delivery (symposium); consumer products; ergonomics and age (symposium); remote manipulator systems; test and evaluation; job enlargement; visual research; occupational safety; work satisfaction; man-computer interaction; environmental effects; driver behaviour; engineering anthropometry; space and aeronautics; ergonomic research; standardisation; simulation; consumer product safety; hours of work and shift work; work physiology; and computer programming. All papers are in English except 2 in French and 1 in German.
Human Factors Society, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, California 90405, USA, 1976. 563p. Illus. 1345 ref.
The problem and management of alcoholism in industry.
After defining the alcoholic and reviewing the extent of alcoholism in the British Isles, the author deals with construction of an alcoholism policy within undertakings to ensure identification of alcoholics and their appropriate treatment. The broad lines of management of the alcoholic patient are set out.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 2 Apr. 1976, Vol.26, No.2, p.61-64. 15 ref.
Occupational medicine information sheets
Feuillets de médecine du travail. [in French]
Collection of information sheets, perforated for separate filing, each sheet devoted to some specific subject in the fields of occupational pathology, ergonomics, occupational safety and health, etc. Published in the form of separate parts issued regularly, each part containing several information sheets, this publication is intended mainly for students and practitioners in the field of occupational medicine. The issues numbered 5 to 8 inclusive are devoted to: occupational disease due to carbon disulfide and formol; rubber industry occupational hazards; occupational safety and health in mines; elements of occupational psycho-sociology; employment of women; asbestosis; poisoning due to organic lead compounds; occupational safety and health in shipbuilding, dockwork, milk and milk products industries, oils for cooking and human consumption; spray painting; International Labour Organisation (reference to the CIS); occupationally-induced parasite diseases, hepatonephritis, hepatitis, kidney disease, mouth and dental diseases; poisoning due to manganese, fluorine, chromium, zinc, nickel, coalminers' silicosis and pneumoconiosis; ionising radiations; pharmaceutical industry; steel industry.
Editions Maloine, Paris, France 1974-1976, Nos. 5,6,7 and 8, 77, 73, 79 and 68p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: FF.28.00 each.
Axelson O., Hane M., Hogstedt C.
A case-referent study on neuropsychiatric disorders among workers exposed to solvents.
Published reports give justification for the belief that long-term exposure to solvents might induce chronic but non-specific neuropsychiatric conditions (disturbances in memory, emotional disorders, etc.). This case-referent study of data from a regional Swedish pension fund register indicated a risk ratio of 1.8 in regard to non-specific neuropsychiatric disorders among workers such as painters, varnishers and carpetlayers who are exposed to various solvents (turpentine and mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) as compared to workers not so exposed. Moreover a dose-response relation seems to exist between exposure in terms of years in occupation and neuropsychiatric conditions, the exposure to various solvents possibly playing an aetiological role.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1976, Vol.2, No.1, p.14-20. 17 ref.
Job stresses and the police officer: identifying stress reduction techniques.
These proceedings of a symposium on psychological stress as a factor in illnesses of police officers (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 8-9 May 1975) contain 20 papers. Subjects covered: self-esteem and stress; stress, distress and adaptation in police work; stress reduction techniques; female officers; situation-specific stressors and training; comparative view; health factors; psychiatric viewpoint; person-role fit: current knowledge and research; personal problems; application of stress research findings to police stress; tasks and related stress factors from an organisational perspective; small police department; understanding stress; simulated stress in recruit selection; officers from minority groups; reducing occupational stress; treatment and prevention programme; stress awareness.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-187, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1975. 248p. Approx. 190 ref.
Magid E., Hilden M.
Elevated levels of blood lead in alcoholic liver disease.
In order to investigate the effect of alcohol intake on erythrocyte δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity, serum alcohol concentration and ALA-D activity were determined in 4 groups of patients: chronic active and inactive alcoholics, chronic alcoholics and non-alcoholics with liver cirrhosis. It appears that patients with liver cirrhosis may accumulate lead at an increased rate and that alcohol intake may cause release of lead from the liver into the blood and thereby depress ALA-D activity. Persons with chronic liver disease therefore constitute a special risk group with respect to subclinical lead poisoning, and the determination of ALA-D as an indicator for lead exposure might be falsified.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 11 July 1975, Vol.35, No.1, p.61-65. 8 ref.
Conditions of work and life on board North Sea oil prospection vessels
Conditions de travail et de vie à bord d'un navire de travaux pétroliers en Mer du Nord. [in French]
The author of this MD thesis worked as physician on board a vessel engaged in laying pipelines and other offshore operations involving the lifting and positioning of heavy components for the construction of oil rigs and platforms for petroleum prospection. Contents: conditions of work (general aspects: duration of tour of duty on board, daily hours of work, climatic conditions, noise, hazard of decks cluttered with equipment); specific problems affecting certain catergories of crew (deck hands, crane operators, welders, divers); safety problems (responsibilities, hazards, human aspects); conditions of life (crew accomodation, diet, leisure, alcohol, sexual problems, psychological aspects). The last chapter is devoted to the practitioner's point of view: sick bay and pharmaceutical equipment on board, transport of patients to shore facilities, types of consultations and other work confronting the physician.
Faculté de Médecine, Lille, France, 1975. 75p. Illus. 16 ref.
Maximum allowable concentration of trichloroethylene in workplace atmosphere
La concentration maximale admissible de trichloréthylène dans l'atmosphère des locaux de travail. [in French]
MD thesis. Contents: general observations on trichloroethylene (uses, properties, TLVs); metabolism; correlation between concentration in air and urinary level of trichloroacetic acid; correlation between concentration in workplace atmosphere and in air expired by exposed workers; acute and chronic effects of poisoning. The author warns that health damage may be caused by atmospheric concentrations lower than the present TLV (100ppm or 520mg/m3) and recommends the adoption of a TLV of 60ppm. A chapter is devoted to potentiating factors (alcoholism, pregnancy, various technical situations). Prevention is briefly discussed. The relevant French regulations are indicated.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine de Cochin - Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1975. 64p. 36 ref.
Gadomska H., Traciłowska B.
Study on the impact of safety posters
Badania nad recepcją plakatów z dziedziny bhp [in Polish]
Results of a study made among several hundred workers from different occupational categories, asked to evaluate 3 groups of posters on noise, alcoholism and materials handling. The posters and the comments of the workers questioned are reproduced. Posters judged attractive, intelligible and suggestive were those of large size, with good colour contrast, dealing with the subject in a humorous and original way, transmitting their message realistically or by means of familiar, evocative metaphore, analogy or simple symbols, and representing persons or events liable to provoke an affective reaction (e.g. a poster representing the tragic consequences of non-observance of preventive measures). A French translation of the article is available under No. INRS 11B-75 from the French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1974, Vol.24, No.83, p.315-330. Illus. 11 ref.
This book concerns mainly the psychological stresses of work and the interplay these have with the more traditional aspects of the occupational environment. It is intended to help professionals and laymen to apply the benefits of current knowledge in the occupational health field, which is fully dealt with in other handbooks. The natural history of accidents and the nature of occupational disorders are discussed. Chapters are devoted to alcoholism and industry, rehabilitation, redundance and retirement, health screening and occupational health services. The subjects are not treated in depth but suggestions for further reading are given and relevant sources of information indicated.
Medical and Technical Publishing Co. Ltd., St. Leonard's House, St. Leonardgate, Lancaster, United Kingdom, 1974. 177p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: £4.50.
Cramér K., Goyer R.A., Jagenburg R., Wilson M.H.
Renal ultrastructure, renal function, and parameters of lead toxicity in workers with different periods of lead exposure.
Renal biopsies from 5 men with heavy occupational exposure to lead were compared with studies of their renal function and parameters of lead toxicity. 2 men had lead exposure of less than 1 year, while 3 had been exposed for from 4 to more than 30 years. Renal function studies were performed in 2 men from whom renal biopsies could not be obtained. The study demonstrates that the pathogenesis of chronic lead nephropathy is a continuum of morphological and functional change that can be divided into 2 stages which are described.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1974, Vol.31, No.2, p.113-127. Illus. 30 ref.
Pharmacodynamics and occupational safety
Pharmacodynamie et sécurité dans le travail. [in French]
Taking drugs before reporting for certain kinds of work may be harmful to health and increase the risk of accident. The author considers the action of certain antalgics and amphetamines and the undesirable or dangerous interaction between certain medicaments, and recalls the effects which the environment and the worker's behaviour may have on the action of drugs. He studies the action of industrial toxics on the metabolism of drugs as well as that of drugs on the metabolism of industrial toxics.
Revue de la protection, Dec. 1973, No.174, p.34-40.
6th national preventive medicine days for hospital staff
VIe Journées nationales de médecine préventive du personnel hospitalier. [in French]
Proceedings of this congress (10-12 May 1973, Tours, France) at which 2 reports were presented: Psychological approach among hospital staff (Meau R., Sudre M.C., Paquiet J.); Standards of aptitude to be met by hospital personnel (Doumert J., Barbier C., Cherif S., Jallet M.F., Pigney F., Ronot P.). These reports were supplemented by various communications dealing with the following subjects among others: absenteeism due to psychic factors; psychiatric pathology among hospital staff; psychosomatic disturbances among female hospital staff; psychological difficulties which confront practitioners responsible for preventive medicine among hospital staff; epidemiology and prophylaxis of viral hepatitis in hospitals.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1973, Vol.34, No.12, p.681-781. Illus.
Office of Public Information, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20582, USA, 1973. 36p. Gratis.
Films and filmstrips on occupational safety and health.
This catalogue (including brief descriptions and distributor's address) of occupational safety and health films and filmstrips has been compiled to provide a current reference of audiovisual aids available on free loan. It covers the following subjects: alcoholism, chemicals, construction and plant safety, noise; vision, industrial medicine, mining, protective devices, radiation, supervision, etc. There is also a list of organisations that rent and sell films and filmstrips.
Office of Public Information, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, Maryland 20582, USA, 1973. 36p. Free.
Ranc M.P., Malone T.B.
Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society.
The proceedings of this meeting held on 16-18 Oct. 1973 consist of 83 communications reprinted directly from unedited copy submitted by the authors and devoted to the following main subjects: aerospace research; advances in human factors methodology; human factors research; human factors in transportation, noise, manufacturing; remote control applications; human factors and the handicapped; engineering anthropometry; safety systems engineering.
Human Factors Society, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, California 90406, USA, Oct. 1973. 520p. Illus. 912 ref. Price:US-$15.00.
Work humanisation in industry
L'humanisation du travail dans l'entreprise industrielle. [in French]
This book, written by a plant physician who paints a large canvas of the psycho-sociological aspects of modern work, contains sections on: definition, psychological, physiological and sociological basis of ergonomics; study of several means of humanising work (communications, environment, etc.); role of specialised social workers in humanisation of work (plant physicians, safety engineeers and industrial psychologists, welfare officers, nurses); conclusions.
Epi, 68 rue de Babylone, 75007 Paris, France, 1973. 157p. 50 ref. Price: FF.40.00.
Seminar manual: Occupational injuries.
Collection of papers on all aspects of occupational injury presented at a seminar held at the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons on 28-30 Mar. 1973, covering the following subjects: definition of injury; epidemiology; cost of occupational injuries; fatigue; direct injuries; industrial disasters; environmental hazards; work strains and problems; effect of the legal process on disability; government agencies and accident prevention; role of management; safety engineering techniques; ergonomics.
The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, Spring Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia, 1973. 249p. Illus. 511 ref. Price: Aus-$10.00.
Marchand M., Furon D., Cabal C., Saison S.
Drug dependence in industry
Les toxicomanies en milieu industriel. [in French]
Article dealing with the phenomenon of dependency on ethyl ether, trichloroethylene, toluene and motor car petrol in industry. Taking each one of these substances, the authors review briefly the past and present situation as regards dependence in industry, mentioning the aetiological circumstances and indicating the acute effects of ingestion (principally euphoria and sometimes hallucination) and the characteristics of the addiction. The workers' health, impaired by the dependence, is also damaged by specific complications due to poisoning of the system (neurovegetative and psychic disorders). These addictive phenomena should not be overlooked on account of the risk of escalation and serious occupational accidents. The plant physician should have young and immature workers showing a predisposition to this type of addiction transferred away from posts where they would be exposed to these products.
Evolution médicale, 1973, Vol.17, No.2, p.107-113.
Knowles W.B., Sanders M.S., Muckler F.A.
Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society.
The 105 papers submitted to this conference held at Los Angeles (USA) on 17-19 Oct. 1972 deal with the following main subjects: environmental design (systems, anthropometry, noise); driving research; manual control tasks (applications and research); target detection; stress studies; human factors applications; medical and health systems; quality control (inspection tasks); human factors methodology; system performance and simulation; instructional technology (educational systems, training media and methodology); information systems; man-computer interfaces; vision and visual perception research; illumination and performance.
Human Factors Society, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, California 90406, USA, Oct. 1972. 476p. Illus. 586 ref. Price: US-$15.00.
Motor fleet safety manual - A guide to building and maintaining an effective accident control system
This manual is designed to help management to set up a loss and accident prevention programme. Introductory chapters concerning the costs of accidents, the elements of a safety programme, and accident reporting and investigation are followed by chapters on driver selection and supervision, alcohol and drugs, establishment of an employee safety and a vehicle safety programme, types of hazard, safety policy and supervision of a scattered fleet, special features for different fleets (sales fleet, utility fleet, police fleet, ambulance fleet, school bus fleet) and motivation. Appendices contain further information on job safety analysis, protective colour scheme for vehicles, braking, maintenance, carbon monoxide dangers, etc.
National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 2nd edition 1972. 408p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: US-$10.00.
Poisoning by industrial substances
Vergiftungen durch Industriestoffe [in German]
A review of the mode of action and symptoms of the following types of substances: asphyxiant gases; irritant gases; narcotics; central nervous system poisons; substances producing specific organic lesions; chemicals producing skin lesions; and carcinogenic and teratogenic substances. First aid advice is given in many cases.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Apr. 1972, Vol.3, No.4, p.164-168, and May 1972, No.5, p.213-216. Illus.
The unions look at alcohol and drug dependency
Point de vue syndical sur l'alcoolisme et la toxicomanie [in French]
Having reviewed the main features of alcoholism and drug dependency in modern society, and the effects of these two diseases on the working population, the author, dealing primarily with alcoholism, illustrates the conditions under which collaboration between employers and unions might valuably contribute to the prevention of alcoholism: systematic labour-management consultation on the elaboration of a treatment programme; good general industrial relations; high priority given by society to the need for treatment; availability of community sources for the treatment and rehabilitation of alcoholics; and full-employment policies. The author classes alcoholism as a "dangerous working condition" which should receive the full attention of safety and health efforts.
International Labour Review - Revue internationale du Travail - Revista internacional del trabajo, Oct. 1972, Vol.106, No.4, p.335-346.
Phoon W.H., Pincherle G.
Blood uric acid in executives
A survey was made among British businessmen in an attempt to elucidate the interplay of various factors causing hyperuricaemia (body weight, haemoglobin levels, alcohol consumption, serum cholesterol, sex and age) and the various results that may ensue. The mean blood uric acid level in over 7,000 male executives was 5.96mg/100mL (standard deviation 1.12). This was significantly higher than the mean level (4.64mg/100mL) in 778 females from the same social background. The women showed a rise in mean level with age which was not found in the men. In the men, significant correlations were found with haemoglobin level, cholesterol level, electrocardiographic findings, relative weight and stated alcohol consumption. These results and the importance of blood uric acid determinations in a screening programme are discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1972, Vol.29, No.3, p.334-337. Illus. 19 ref.
Porphyria cutanea tardiva as an occupational disease
Porphyria cutanea tarda als Berufserkrankung [in German]
Analysis of 28 cases (25 men and 3 women) of porphyria cutanea tardiva. The analysis revealed a high incidence of cases in persons working in the open air (agricultural and forestry workers, track layers, brick-layers), in persons with regular alcohol consumption and in persons with hepatic lesions. Referring to a specific case, the author discusses whether or not porphyria cutanea tardiva is an occupational disease and makes special reference to the following points: effect of light, porphyria, medical history, and occupational relationship.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Aug. 1972, Vol.20, No.4, p.159-165. Illus. 47 ref.
Antonjuženko V.A., Golova I.A., Alieva N.K.
Sensory function in chronic occupational poisoning due to narcotics
Sostojanie analizatornyh funkcij pri hroničeskoj professional'noj intoksikacii nekotorymi veščestvami narkotičeskogo dejstvija [in Russian]
Medical examination of persons with severe or moderately severe narcotics poisoning (non-saturated hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons and methyl methacrylate) revealed changes in essential sensory functions (taste, smell, balance, hearing, sight). The balance-function changes were not the most marked. An insufficiency of the central vestibular analyser attributable to a lesion of the vestibular centres was found. Lesions to other sensory nerves were due to functional and dynamic disorders in the corresponding cortex zone, which might be attributable to reticular-formation dysfunction in persons with localised cortical symptoms.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1972, Vol.16, No.9, p.19-22. 6 ref.
Concepts of thresholds in standards setting
A discussion of the premises on which the concept of threshold of toxicological response is based, confined to chemical substances in the air of workplaces, for which the threshold concept is represented by a non-linear relationship between dose and initial response. The metabolic factors governing toxicological response - particularly homeostasis and adaptation, are reviewed. The precautions to be observed in establishing threshold limit values for man in industry are discussed at some length (heterogeneity of the human species, synergistic factors - alcohol drinking, smoking, dietary habits, predisposing diseases, etc.).
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep. 1972, Vol.25, No.3, p.153-157. Illus. 5 ref.
Mehl J., Fuchs E., Foussereau J.
Occupational pathology of epoxy resins
Pathologie professionnelle des résines d'époxy [in French]
Following a review of the chemical structure and synthesis of epoxy resins, their properties, uses and trade names, the authors consider the health hazards of these products (dermatitis, respiratory disorders, other accidents), indicate conditions under which sensitisation may take place (irritation, individual resistance, alcoholism, psychological factors) and antigenicity conditions, and survey the results of skin tests. They give rules for effective disease prevention and propose criteria for medico-legal compensation examinations.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1971, Vol.32, p.713-722. 88 ref.
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