Smoking - 347 entries found
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Cotton D.J., Graham B.L., Li K.Y.R., Froh F., Barnett G.D., Dosman J.a.
Effects of grain dust exposure and smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function
Lung function was measured by spirography, maximum expiratory flow-volume curve breathing air and helium, the single-breath nitrogen test and a symptom prevalence questionnaire in non-smoking grain workers, smoking grain workers, non-smoking controls and smoking controls to assess the relative effects of smoking and occupational exposure to grain dust in grain elevators. There were similar increased prevalences of respiratory symptoms and reductions in pulmonary function associated with either grain dust exposure or smoking, but the effects of smoking were slightly more pronounced. The combined effects of grain dust and smoking on lung function appeared to be additive except in the least exposed workers (≤5 years) where a synergistic effect was observed in tests of peripheral airways dysfunction.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1983, Vol.25, No.2, p.131-141. Illus. 44 ref.
Welch K., Higgins I., Oh M., Burchfiel C.
Arsenic exposure, smoking, and respiratory cancer in copper smelter workers
The vital status of 1800 men from an original cohort of over 8000 copper smelter workers who, in 1969, had shown a 3-fold excess of respiratory cancer was determined. There was a clear dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and respiratory cancer mortality. Men exposed to ≥5000µg/m3 had a 7-fold excess. Ceiling As exposure seemed to be more important than TWA exposure. Sulfur dioxide and asbestos did not seem to be implicated. Smoking was less important than As exposure, nor was there evidence of an interaction. The problems of estimating As exposure are discussed.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1982, Vol.37, No.6, p.325-335. 12 ref.
Hall S.K., Cissik J.H.
Effects of cigarette smoking on pulmonary function in asymptomatic asbestos workers with normal chest radiograms
History, blood chemistry, blood count, urinalysis, chest radiograph and pulmonary function were studied in 135 men. The 113 workers without radiographic signs of functional impairment were studied for asbestos exposure and smoking history. Workers with >20 years exposure to asbestos had significantly decreased pulmonary functions compared with those with <20 years exposure. There was an additive effect between asbestos and smoking. Significant loss of pulmonary function begins early in asbestos exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1982, Vol.43, No.6, p.381-386. 29 ref.
The relative importance of smoking compared to occupation in decreased pulmonary function
The forced vital capacity and FEV1 were determined in 684 workers grouped according to smoking habits and to disability from pneumoconiosis. The workers were also grouped according to age for each 10 years between 30 and 70 years. Pulmonary function tests showed a linear decrease with increasing age but the added pulmonary insult of smoking affected lung function to a far greater degree than occupational exposure to dust.
Medical Journal of Australia, 9 Jan. 1982, Vol.1, No.1, p.25-28. Illus. 14 ref.
Smoking and duration of asbestos exposure in the production of functional and roentgenographic abnormalities in shipyard workers
Report of a study in which 131 asbestos-exposed shipyard workers were classified by duration of asbestos exposure and smoking history, and an assessment was made of their functional and radiographic abnormalities to determine the relative contribution of these two factors. Both asbestos exposure and smoking contributed to the frequency of FEV1 and FEV abnormalities. In contrast, airway destruction (FEV1/FEV<70%) was unrelated to asbestos exposure but correlated closely with smoking. Abnormalities in DLCO were minimally associated with asbestos exposure but were strongly related to smoking history, suggesting that diffusion impairment in these workers is more likely to be related to smoking and emphysema than to interstitial disease. Significant radiographic pleural abnormalities were associated with both duration of exposure to asbestos and smoking. Interstitial disease did not correlate with asbestos exposure and was only mildly associated with smoking. Smoking contributes to many of the functional and radiographic abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1982, Vol.24, No.1, p.37-40. 11 ref.
Cross F.T., Palmer R.F., Filipy R.E., Dagle G.E., Stuart B.O.
Carcinogenic effects of radon daughters, uranium ore dust and cigarette smoke in beagle dogs
The development of pulmonary lesions was studied following chronic inhalation exposures to radon at 105 ± 20nCi/l, radon daughters at 605 ± 169 WL, uranium ore dust at 12.9 ± 6.7mg/m3 and cigarette smoke. There were 4 groups of dogs: Group 1 was chronically exposed to radon and radon daughters as well as to uranium ore dust, group 2 received the same chronic exposure plus cigarette smoke, group 3 was exposed to cigarette smoke only, and group 4 (controls) had no exposure at all. The animals of first 2 groups died within 4 to 5 years. The animals of group 3 and the controls were in apparently good health after the 4-5-year period. The beagle dog appears to be a useful animal for modelling pulmonary lesions produced by uranium mine air contaminants. Tumours were produced at levels not much greater than some exposures reported for uranium miners.
Health Physics, Jan. 1982, Vol.42, No.1, p.33-52. Illus. 33 ref.
Cohr K.H., Danø K., Ebbesen P., Forchhammer J., Møller Jensen O., Knudsen I., Poulsen E., Visfedt J., Svane O.
Cancer and chemical substances
Kræft og kemiske stoffer [in Danish]
Titles of chapters of this report prepared by a working group: neoplastic diseases (diagnosis, biochemistry, bodily defenses, genetic factors, carcinogenic chemicals, carcinogenic radiation, etc.); incidence of tumours in Denmark; malignity and evaluation of anatomical and pathological studies in animals and man; epidemiological methods for assessing cancer risk in man; carcinogenicity testing; extrapolation of experimental doses given to animals to the lower doses to which humans are exposed; cellular mechanisms which are significant in carcinogenesis; metabolism of carcinogens in mammals; short-term and long-term carcinogenicity testing; exposure to suspect carcinogens; conclusions and recommendations of the working group. Glossary.
Arbejdstilsynet, Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet, Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Dec. 1981. 108p. Illus. 218 ref. Price: Dan.cr.25.00.
Gomba Ezquerra G.
Asbestosis hazard and lung function
Riesgo asbestósico y función pulmonar [in Spanish]
Report of a study of 200 asbestos-exposed workers in whom a comparison was made between changes in lung dysfunction parameters, radiological changes, and changes in alveolar-capillary transfer. Patients in whom alveolar-capillary transfer function parameters fall below physiological values had decreased lung dysfunction and a higher incidence of radiological lesions of the thorax. The value of the measurement of alveolar-capillary transfer using the oxygen diffusion capacity test in the prevention of asbestos-induced lung dysfunction and radiological changes is discussed.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1981, Vol.29, No.116, p.163-168. Illus. 16 ref.
Nemery B., Moavero N.E., Mawet M., Kivits A., Brasseur L., Stanescu D.
Symptomatology and lung function in iron and steel workers
Etude de la symptomatologie et de la fonction pulmonaire chez les sidérurgistes [in French]
Study of the respiratory state of 272 iron and steel workers aged 45 to 55 (by means of a questionnaire and of several respiratory function tests) and research into the influence of smoking. To evaluate the influence of workplace pollution, a group of 163 persons were classified according to their smoking habits and to their place of work (LD steel plant and continuous casting line on the one hand, plate rolling mill on the other). Non-smokers in the steel plant and on the casting line (12) had a significantly lower specific airways conductance and a higher closing volume than non-smokers in the rolling mill (11). In steel plant workers there was airflow obstruction revealed by the FEV1/VC ratio and by the Vmax 50 and Vmax 75 expiratory flowrates. Amongst the 99 smokers and 41 non-smokers, no difference was noted from one workplace to another. These results suggest that steel plant and casting line workers were subjected to moderate but detectable effects of industrial pollution. These effects appear to be masked by those of smoking in smokers and ex-smokers.
Revue de l'Institut d'hygiène des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1981, Vol.36, No.3, p.198-218. Illus. 80 ref.
Pershagen G., Wall S., Taube A., Linnman L.
On the interaction between occupational arsenic exposure and smoking and its relationship to lung cancer
Arsenic (As) exposure was assessed from detailed company records, and smoking habits determined from interviews next of kin, for a sample of 228 deceased male copper smelter workers. Cases consisted of 76 who had died from cancer of the trachea, bronchus or lung, and each was aged-matched with 2 referents. The age-standardised rate ratio for death from lung cancer was 3.0 for As-exposed non-smokers and 4.9 for smokers without occupational As exposure compared to non-exposed non-smokers. For As-exposed smokers the rate ratio was 14.6, indicating a multiplicative effect for the 2 exposures. 85% of all deaths from lung cancer among smelter workers could be explained by As exposure or smoking. A decrease in one or both exposures is suggested as a prevention measure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.302-309. 35 ref.
Covey L.S., Wynder E.L.
Smoking habits and occupational status
Study conducted to determine the relation between occupational category and smoking habits. Multiple aspects of smoking were taken into consideration: smokers/non-smokers (i.e. never smoked), type of tobacco, previous smoking habits of ex-smokers, amount smoked, age began, tar yield of usual brand smoked. Data were obtained for 1977-1979 on 2,528 patients aged 41-70 hospitalised for diseases not previously linked with tobacco use; 38% of this sample had cancer of a site not previously linked with smoking; 62% had non-cancer conditions. Results: the criteria taken into consideration in analysing smoking habits varied significantly according to occupational category; these variables are not apparent in non-smokers/smokers/number of cigarettes-per-day surveys; there is a higher incidence of smoking intensity in blue-collar than in white-collar occupations; it can be expected that workers in occupations with higher indices of smoking intensity will have higher rates of tobacco-related diseases than those in lower cigarette intensity exposures.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1981, Vol.23, No.8, p.537-542. Illus. 25 ref.
Laryngeal cancer: An explanation for the apparent occupational associations
The aetiology of laryngeal cancer is reviewed, and established causative factors are considered (smoking, alcohol, vocal abuse). Recent attempts to link laryngeal cancer with various types of occupational exposure (in particular asbestos but also nickel, mustard gas and isopropyl alcohol) are looked at. It is hypothesised that laryngeal cancer occurs as a result of exposure of the larynx to lipid-soluble carcinogenic agents - mainly from tobacco smoke but also, occasionally, from industrial agents such as mustard gas - that can penetrate the squamous epithelial covering. Alcohol and vocal abuse may have promoting effects. It is postulated that in many occupations involving asbestos exposure (e.g. construction and shipbuilding), workers are prone to abuse their voices.
Medical Hypotheses, 1981, Vol.7, No.7, p.951-956. 22 ref.
Thomas G.B., Williams C.E., Hoger N.G.
Some non-auditory correlates of the hearing threshold levels of an aviation noise-exposed population
Data collected in the Thousand Aviator Study, which identified normal and impaired hearing level groups, were analysed using 33 non-auditory dimensions. The two equally noise-exposed groups could be differentiated according to their smoking history and eye colour. The impaired hearing group reported smoking more cigarettes for a greater period of time than did the members of the normal hearing group and blue-eye individuals were over-represented in the impaired hearing group. The 31 other physical, psychological, and sociological measures which were compared failed to appear differently in the two groups.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1981, Vol.52, No.9, p.531-536. 47 ref.
Spinaci S., Arossa W., Forconi G., Arizio A., Concina E.
Prevalence of airways obstruction and identification of exposure groups in an industrial working population
Prevalenza della broncostrizione funzionale ed individuazione dei gruppi a rischio in una popolazione industriale al lavoro [in Italian]
Lung function tests, x-ray examinations and a standardised questionnaire were used to determine the prevalence of airway obstruction in 2422 workers in 4 age groups in the range 20-60 years. The population was also divided into groups based on smoking habits and exposure to garbage, silica, asbestos, and bronchoirritants. Airway obstruction prevalence, defined as a FEV1-vital capacity ratio below the ECSC normal limit, was 7% for the total population and 11-17% among smokers in the age range 41-60 years. A high prevalence ratio was found amongst smokers exposed to asbestos or bronchoirritants when compared to non-smokers.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1981, Vol.72, No.3, p.214-221. 23 ref.
What is the significance of occupational hygiene standards in the light of smoking habits?
Wat is the betekenis van arbeidshygiënische `normen' met en zonder tabak? [in Dutch]
Evaluation of the working environment requires familiarity with the phenomenological aspects of pollutant behaviour as well as with kinetic and dynamic features of toxic agents. Substantiation of TLV and MAC values is sometimes poor. Check results of the 1976 TLV lists in the Netherlands showed findings leading to the conclusion that lower TLVs should be observed systematically in order to be safe. The interactions between the effects of tobacco smoke and a number of agents (asbestos, chlorine, radon, cotton and coal dust, cadmium) make it clear that the smoking habit is an important determining factor in occupational diseases. The degree and extent of these diseases could be substantially lowered if industrial health officers would approach the problem from the point of view of their competence on the subject of mixed exposures. The net effect could be a need for lower TLVs for smokers or an essential change in smoking habits in workers exposed to agents whose effect can be potentiated by smoking.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 28 Oct. 1981, Vol.59, No.21, p.762-771. 30 ref.
Combined effects of cigarette smoking and occupational air pollution in welding environment.
Study of 318 subjects (65.7% welders and 34.3% non-welders) in a shipyard. No synergy between cigarette smoking and welding fumes was clearly demonstrated. The chronic effects of cigarette smoking on lung function were approximately the same as those of welding fumes. Reduction in lung function indices was clearly dependent on smoking rate and duration of smoking. The correlation is less evident when subjects smoke prior to lung function testing or where there has been long-term exposure to welding fumes.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1981, Vol.72, No.1, p.61-66. Illus. 22 ref.
Relative importance of cigarette smoking in occupational lung disease.
This review considers coal, iron and steel, slate, and asbestos workers. Only in the slate industry does dust exposure contribute as much to respiratory morbidity and mortality as do workers' smoking habits. The problem of a synergistic effect between asbestos and smoking is discussed. While control of occupational exposure to respiratory hazards remains important, a far greater improvement to respiratory health would be produced by controlling tobacco smoking.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.1-13. Illus. 30 ref.
Sannolo N., Nota G., Miraglia V.R., Acampora A.
Determination of thiocyanates in serum of smokers and non-smokers by gas chromatography
Determinazione dei tiocianati nel siero di fumatori e non fumatori mediante gas-cromatografia di spazio di testa [in Italian]
Every smoker's body manufactures thiocyanates, which are the metabolites of cyanides which are among the combustion products of tobacco. Determination of thiocyanate levels is used as a criterion for evaluating exposure to tobacco smoke and to distinguish smokers from non-smokers. On the other hand, persons exposed occupationally to CO have high carboxyhaemoglobin levels. A correlation between the thiocyanate level and the carboxyhaemoglobin level enables the percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin due to CO exposure to be established.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, Aug.-Dec. 1980, Vol.4, p.337-343. Illus. 11 ref.
Galan Cortes J.C., Hinojal Fonseca R.
Smoking and absenteeism
Tabaco y absentismo laboral [in Spanish]
The problem of the smoking habit and resulting mortality in Spain and elsewhere is discussed. The effects of smoking on absenteeism were studied in a large metallurgical plant in a random sample of 1,000 workers. 62% of the workers smoked; absenteeism was 2.15% higher in smokers; 41.7% of absences could be avoided if workers did not smoke; mortality was 30.28% higher in smokers.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1980, Vol.28, No.111, p.170-177. 31 ref.
The cigarette factor in lung cancer due to chloromethyl ethers.
In a prospective study of 51 men exposed to chloromethyl ethers, 11 developed lung cancer over a 10-year period. The risk was higher in those who did not smoke cigarettes at the start of the study. Cigarette smoking appeared to inhibit the carcinogenic effect of chloromethyl ethers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.22, No.8. p.527-529. 7 ref.
Brown C.P., Spivey G.H., Valentine J.L., Browdy B.L.
Cigarette smoking and lead levels in occupationally exposed lead workers.
111 workers at a secondary lead smelter were studied for smoking and personal hygiene habits. 53% of smokers had blood lead levels (PbB)>60µg/dl, compared to 31% of non-smokers. PbB increased with increasing cigarette consumption. Those who kept their cigarettes with them at the workplace had higher PbB levels than those who did not. Direct environmental contamination of cigarettes or impaired lung clearance mechanisms may be involved in the differences.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, July 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.877-883. 19 ref.
McMillan G.H.G., Pethybridge R.J., Sheers G.
Effect of smoking on attack rates of pulmonary and pleural lesions related to exposure to asbestos dust.
Two groups of 1414 and 1009 originally examined in 1966 and 1968 were reexamined in 1970. The prevalence of radiographic asbestos-related lesions was significantly higher in smokers and ex-smokers than in non-smokers, taking account of differences in age and exposure risk.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.37, No.3, p.268-272. Illus. 6 ref.
Ashley M.J., Corey P., Chan-Yeung M.
Smoking, dust exposure, and serum α1-antitrypsin
These relations were studied in 344 red cedar sawmill workers, 202 workers in other sawmills, 467 grain elevator workers, and 118 municipal service workers. In all groups, current smokers had higher serum α1-antitripsin concentrations than non-smokers. There was a significant relationship between duration of employment and α1-antitripsin concentrations only in the non-cedar worker category. Smoking and industrial dust exposure may influence serum α1-antitripsin concentrations.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, May 1980, Vol.121, No.5, p.783-788. Illus. 15 ref.
Samet J.M., Epler G.R., Gaensler E.A., Rosner B.
Absence of synergism between exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking in asbestosis
Data from 383 workers exposed to asbestos were analysed with multivariate statistical models. Methods included a respiratory symptoms questionnaire, occupational history, physical examination, pulmonary function tests, and chest radiography. There was no synergism between the 2 exposures, but additive, independent effects were noted.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1979, Vol.120, No.1, p.75-82. 33 ref.
Smoking and industrial respiratory disease
La cigarette et les maladies respiratoires industrielles. [in French]
It is recalled that cigarette smoke contains some 750 toxic chemicals in the form of particulates or gases, and that their effects are added to those of industrial pollution (risk of chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, byssinosis, silicosis, siderosis, asbestosis). Anti-smoking campaigns should be organised in the foundry, metalworking, textile, asbestos and other industries.
Prévention, Mar. 1979, Vol.14, No.2, p.14-15.
Smoking and health - A report of the Surgeon General.
This document, mostly on public health, contains sections discussing the combined effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances and cigarette smoking and occupational factors in cancer and lung diseases.
DHEW Publication No.(PHS) 79-50066, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Jan. 1979. 1132p. Illus. 2669 ref.
Adverse health effects of smoking and the occupational environment.
Published as NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 31, this warning notice refers to research that indicates that smoking can act in combination with harmful chemical and physical agents to produce or increase the severity of a wide range of adverse health effects. Cigarettes, cigars, pipe and chewing tobacco and any by-products resulting from their burning and/or use are discussed. NIOSH recommends that use of and/or carrying tobacco into the workplace should be curtailed. Background information includes the modes of interaction of smoking: toxic agents in tobacco products may also occur in the workplace; workplace chemicals may be transformed into more harmful agents; tobacco products may serve as vectors for facilitating entry into the body; effects of smoking may be additive with other agents; the effects may be synergistic; smoking may contribute to accidents. Research needs are listed.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.79-122, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Feb. 1979. 11p. 46 ref.
Naseem S.M., Tishler P.V., Anderson H.A., Selikoff I.J.
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in asbestos workers.
The microsomal enzyme aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) seems to play an important role in the early metabolism of a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, particularly benzo(a)pyrene and other aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke. AHH activity and inducibility were studied in the lymphoblasts of 47 asbestos workers and 31 controls. Mean inducibility (3-methylcholanthrene(MC)- or dibenz(a.h.)anthracene(DBA)-induced divided by basal enzyme activity) was greater in the occupationally exposed subjects than in the controls. The estimated change in mean value (± SE) of MC inducibility was 0.88 ± 0.21 (P<0.001), and that of DBA inducibility was 1.59 ± 0.56 (P<0.01). The differences in inducibility of AHH resulted from increases in induced activity, not from any appreciable change in basal activities, and were independent of subject age, sex, smoking habits, year of first exposure to asbestos, yield of lymphoblasts, or the rate of blastogenesis. Increased AHH inducibility may bear some relation to the greatly increased (8-fold) risk of bronchogenic carcinoma in asbestos workers who smoke.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Oct. 1978, Vol.118, No.4, p.693-700. 47 ref.
Chan-Yeung M., Ashley M.J., Corey P., Maledy H.
Pi phenotypes and the prevalence of chest symptoms and lung function abnormalities in workers employed in dusty industries.
Epidemiologic surveys were carried out in 1,138 white men employed in sawmills and grain elevator terminals in British Columbia (Canada). In additional to the administration of an occupational health questionnaire and spirometry, Pi phenotype and the concentration of serum α1-antitrypsin were determined. Most of the workers (88.8%) had the Pi M phenotype, 8.0% the MS phenotype, 2.7% the MZ phenotype and 0.4% had other phenotypes. No differences were found among the 3 major phenotypes in the prevalence of chest symptoms and lung function abnormalities, even among cigarette smokers. Workers having the MZ phenotype with intermediate α1-antitrypsin deficiency are not particularly susceptible to the development of chronic obstructive lung disease under the conditions prevailing in these industries.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Feb. 1978, Vol.118, No.2, p.239-245. Illus. 21 ref.
Claude J.R., Lellouch J., Truhaut R.
Epidemiological survey of changes in carboxyhaemoglobinaemia in relation to tobacco smoking in 1,414 human males
Etude épidémiologique des variations de la carboxyhémoglobinémie en rapport avec la consommation de tabac chez 1414 sujets humains du sexe masculin. [in French]
The results of this study, which covered a homogeneous group as regards social background and occupation, showed the essential role of inhalation (voluntary or not) of CO, either through cigarette smoking or through chronic occupational exposure to atmospheres laden with cigarette smoke, and the phenomenon of a persistence of CO after discontinuance of exposure. This persistence has an influence on screening for occupationally-induced CO poisioning, and explains to some extent not only the harmful effects of smoking, but also those of occupational exposure to CO as a ischaemic heart disease risk factor.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1978, Vol.39, No.6, p.333-337. 10 ref.
Weiss W., Theodos P.A.
Pleuropulmonary disease among asbestos workers in relation to smoking and type of exposure.
The chest X-rays of 40 and 48 workers, respectively, aged 40 years and more at 2 asbestos processing plants were studied: plant A used only chrysotile asbestos throughout its history, plant B had also used amosite from 1950 to 1964. The prevalence of pulmonary disease was 25% in A and 33% in B, pleural thickening 18% and 35% respectively. In plant A there was no apparent relation, while in plant B there was a definite relation between smoking and pulmonary disease, and perhaps pleural thickening. Both types of asbestos and smoking habits appear to be determinants of pleuropulmonary disease in asbestos workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1978, Vol.20, No.5, p.341-345. 11 ref.
Kilbom Å., Vesterberg O., Askergren A.
Smoking habits and α1-antitrypsin in serum in patients with silicosis and in control subjects
Alfa-1-antitrypsin i serum och rökvanor hos dammexponerade individer med och utan silikos [in Swedish]
The smoking habits and α1-antitrypsin concentration in the blood of 19 silicosis patients and 46 healthy subjects were examined. The patients worked in drilling and blasting in construction work for 34 years (average) and the controls 31 years. The control group smoked more cigarettes than the patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. The patients had lower α1-antitrypsin than the controls, but neither group had very low concentrations. No great importance can be attached to the deficiency as a risk factor for silicosis development.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1978:5, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, S-100 26 Stockholm, Sweden. p.33-39. 9 ref.
Axelson O., Sundell L.
Mining, lung cancer and smoking.
This update of an earlier study of zinc-lead miners showed a 16-fold increase in lung cancer mortality. Surprisingly, non-smokers were more apt to develop lung cancer than smokers, but the induction-latency time was about nine years shorter on the average for smokers. An explanation for these findings might be that smoking increases the thickness of the mucous layer and therefore protects the bronchial epithelium against alpha radiation from radon daughters, but it also promotes the development of cancer once induced by the radiation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1978, Vol.4, No.1, p.46-52. 20 ref.
Wehner A.P., Busch R.H., Olson R.J., Craig D.K.
Chronic inhalation of cobalt oxide and cigarette smoke by hamsters.
Exposure of hamsters to a 10µg/l cobalt oxide aerosol (TLV: 0.1mg/m3, recommended to be changed by the ACGIH to 0.05mg/m3) caused pneumoconiosis but did not affect life span nor produce other lesions. Cigarette smoke significantly increased the incidence of tumours and other non-pneumoconiotic lesions, as well as the animals' life span.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1977, Vol.38, No.7, p.338-346. Illus. 29 ref.
Tola S., Nordman C.H.
Smoking and blood lead concentrations in lead-exposed workers and an unexposed population.
Blood lead (Pb-B) concentrations were measured and the smoking history was taken from 355 men representing the general population and 2,209 men occupationally exposed to lead. No association between smoking and Pb-B could be demonstrated in the men from the general population, but a dose-response relationship was found between the amount of smoking and the Pb-B concentrations of men occupationally exposed to lead. Smokers had statistically significantly higher Pb-B levels than non smokers. This result can probably be attributed to the contamination of fingers and cigarettes in the lead-exposed workplaces rather than to the small amount of lead contained in the cigarettes. The deleterious effect of smoking upon the lung clearance mechanism can also be a contributing factor.
Environmental Research, Apr. 1977, Vol.13, No.2, p.250-255. 19 ref.
Hoffmann D., Wynder E.L.
Smoking and occupational cancers.
In this review, the relative importance of smoking as a cofactor in occupational cancer is discussed. Sections are devoted to: respiratory cancer (uranium mining, asbestos, nickel, arsenicals, chromate, chloromethyl ethers, vinyl chloride (VC), coke oven fumes, gas workers); urinary cancer. There is a lack of epidemiological data on the joint action of occupational carcinogens and tobacco smoke, especially for nickel, coke oven and gas workers, and chemical workers exposed to halo ethers, VC and some urinary carcinogens. Synergistic and/or additive effects are established for exposure to radon daughters and some asbestos types. Implications for prevention.
Preventive Medicine, June 1976. No.2, Vol.5, p.245-261. 105 ref.
Chloromethyl ethers, cigarettes, cough and cancer.
10-year prospective study (1963-1973) in 125 chemical workers, 88 of whom had been exposed to chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME) and bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME). Correlations are shown between CMME/BCME exposure, smoking habits, cough, expectoration, dyspnoea, ventilatory impairment (low end-expiratory flow rate), and lung cancer.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1976, Vol.18, No.3, p.194-199. 16 ref.
Joder P., Wüst W., Bühlmann A.A.
Silicosis, chronic bronchitis and cigarette smoking
Silikose, chronische Bronchitis und Rauchgewohnheiten [in German]
Studies in 333 patients with occupational silicosis reported to the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund in Zurich from 1956 to 1974, who had worked in foundries (30%), quarries (30%), tunnelling (30%), and ceramics, glass and other industries (10%). The incidence of chronic bronchitis and/or airways obstruction in those with mild or severe silicosis was over 50%. A positive correlation between cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis and/or airways obstruction was found only in younger patients with mild to moderate silicosis. Bronchitis and obstruction were not more frequent in silicotic foundry workers exposed to irritating fumes. Impairment of lymph drainage and bronchial changes in silicosis apparently plays a greater role in the development of chronic bronchitis and airways obstruction than does cigarette smoking.
Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift - Journal suisse de médecine, 21 Feb. 1976, Vol.106, No.8, p.239-244. 24 ref.
Chronic bronchitis and work conditions in industry and smoking habits
Hronični bronhitis i uslovi rada u različitim privrednim organizacijama i navika pušenja [in Serbocroatian]
From 1961 to 1971, dust and hazardous chemical substances were determined in industrial working environments. The measurements were made during the summer and winter. The length of exposure to air pollutants, types of air pollution, and smoking habits were correlated with chronic bronchitis. The bronchitis was significantly related to exposure to air pollutants at work and to smoking habits.
Ergonomija, 1975, Vol.2, No.1, p.5-14.
Joshi R.C., Madan R.N., Brash A.A.
Prevalence of chronic bronchitis in an industrial population in North India.
In this survey a prevalence of chronic bronchitis of 12.5% was found in 473 subjects between the ages of 17 and 64 years; this is comparable to that observed in areas of low community air pollution in Europe and North America. As in similar surveys, cigarette smoking was found to be the major factor in the development of chronic bronchitis. Air pollution and ethnic differences appeared to play little or no part.
Thorax, Feb. 1975, Vol.30, No.1, p.61-67. Illus. 31 ref.
Bahrmann E., Paun D.
Scientific proof of the harmful effects of active and passive inhalation of tobacco smoke
Zur wissenschaftlichen Begründung des Tabakschadens durch aktives und passives Zigarettenrauchen [in German]
Analysis of medical statistics proves beyond doubt the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. This article examines the toxicological aspects and allergic and psychic factors involved in the action of tobacco smoke. In passive inhalation of other people's cigarette smoke the effects are potentiated by allergy to any one of the various tobacco-smoke constituents. A chapter is devoted to the damage caused by tobacco smoking, considered from the occupational health point of view, with special reference to the standards laid down in the German Democratic Republic for maintaining fresh air conditions in the workplace. Medical and legal grounds for prohibiting cigarette smoking during working hours.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, Oct. 1974, Vol.29, No.43, p.2017-2022. 16 ref.
Sundell L., Rehn M., Axelson O.
An epidemiological study concerning herbicides.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). A preliminary study of 324 Swedish railway workers spraying herbicides on railway tracks between 1957 and 1971 showed 2 lung cancer cases in excess of predictable statistics (1 adenocarcinoma and 1 oat-cell cancer). Although the number of subjects and especially the number of cancers were small, the possibility that amitrole (1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine) and the combined action of this substance and smoking might have caused the lung cancers cannot be ruled out.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.375-380. Illus. 20 ref.
Kibelstis J.A., Morgan E.J., Reger R., Lapp N.L., Seaton A., Morgan W.K.C.
Prevalence of bronchitis and airway obstruction in American bituminous coal miners.
8,555 USA bituminous coalminers were examined by spirometry, chest radiography and respiratory questionnaire. The relationship of bronchitis and airway obstruction to dust exposure and cigarette smoking was determined, taking into account also the number of years of exposure and age factors. The prevalence of bronchitis was higher in smoking miners than in non-smoking or ex-smoking co-workers. Surface workers showed less bronchitis than face workers, reflecting their lower dust exposure, this difference being statistically significant only for non-smokers and ex-smokers. Airway obstruction occured in surface workers less frequently than in face workers. Smoking was the most important factor associated with obstruction.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Oct. 1973, Vol.108, No.4, p.886-893. Illus. 16 ref.
Bullous lung disease in short order cooks.
A survey was made in Philadelphia to determine the prevalence rate of bullous lung disease and to study its association with occupation and smoking. This report describes results in a population of 1,191 male short order cooks included in the survey. Although these results suggest that there is an association between short order cooking and primary bullous disease of the lung and that cigarette smoking, race and age are factors in the development of the disease, the evidence is not conclusive.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1973, Vol.15, No.3, p.202-203. 5 ref.
Archer V.E., Wagoner J.K., Hyg S.D., Lundin F.E.
Uranium mining and cigarette smoking effects on man.
As reflected by FEV1 measurements, cigarette smoking by uranium miners augments the loss of pulmonary function associated with ageing and exposure to mine dust and radiation. The rate of cigarette smoking in miners is probably cocarcinogenic rather than synergistic.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1973, Vol.15, No.3, p.204-211. Illus. 31 ref.
Merchant J.A., Lumsden J.C., Kilburn K.H., O'Fallon W.M., Ujda J.R., Germino V.H., Hamilton J.D.
An industrial study of the biological effects of cotton dust and cigarette smoke exposure.
Evaluation of 846 white male textile workers from a cross-sectional study showed that cigarette smoking interacts with exposure to lint-free cotton dust to increase byssinosis prevalence and severity and to augment the deleterious effect of cotton dust on ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1973, Vol.15, No.3, p.212-221. Illus.
Berry G., Newhouse M.L., Turok M.
Combined effect of asbestos exposure and smoking on mortality from lung cancer in factory workers
The smoking habits of over 1300 male and 480 female asbestos-factory workers were studied, and cancer mortality in this group over a 10-year period was examined. The number of deaths was compared with the expected number in the general population of the area. By adjusting the expected figures to allow for smoking habits, the influence of the occupational factor could be studied. No significant excess cancer mortality was found in workers whether smokers or non-smokers, with low to moderate exposure, but among workers who smoked and who were severely exposed, the excess was highly significant. The analysis, particularly of the data relating to the women, where there was a high proportion of non-smokers, supports the multiplicative hypothesis for the action of 2 carcinogens.
Lancet, 2 Sep. 1972, Vol.2, No.7775, p.476-479. 16 ref.
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