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Smoking - 347 entries found

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1987

CIS 88-1262 Albrecht W.N., Bryant C.J.
Polymer-fume fever associated with smoking and use of a mold-release spray containing polytetrafluoroethylene
An ephemeral and debilitating flu-like illness was experienced by stamp-makers. A combination of the use of a mould-release spray containing polytetrafluoroethylene, poor general hygiene, and smoking during and after use of the spray was responsible for the workers' symptoms, commonly referred to as polymer-fume fever. Recommendations which resulted in the abatement of illness included: ventilating the vulcanising furnace, cessation of smoking in the workplace, and using a mould-release spray that does not contain fluorocarbons.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.10, p.817-819. 6 ref.

CIS 88-1250 Wallace L., Pellizzari E., Hartwell T.D., Ziegenfus R.
Exposures to benzene and other volatile compounds from active and passive smoking
Personal exposures and breath concentrations of approximately 20 volatile organic substances were measured for 200 smokers and 322 nonsmokers in New Jersey and California. Smokers displayed significantly elevated breath levels of benzene, styrene, ethylbenzene, m+p-xylene, o-xylene, and octane. Significant increases in breath concentration with number of cigarettes smoked were noted for the first four aromatic compounds. Based on direct measurements of benzene in mainstream cigarette smoke, it is calculated that a typical smoker inhales 2mg benzene daily, compared to 0.2mg/day for the nonsmoker. Passive smokers exposed at work had significantly elevated levels of aromatics in their breath.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.42, No.5, p.272-279. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 88-909 Brownson R.C., Chang J.C.
Exposure to alcohol and tobacco and the risk of laryngeal cancer
The association between various risk factors and laryngeal cancer was evaluated using a case-control design. The analysis was limited to white males and included 63 cases and 200 controls. The odds ratios associated with previous tobacco use, adjusted for age and alcohol use, followed an increasing linear trend. Similarly, a dose-response relation between alcohol use and laryngeal cancer was identified. The risk for laryngeal cancer was increased synergistically by alcohol and tobacco. After controlling for alcohol and tobacco, the only occupational category with an elevated risk was non-construction labourers. Further studies of the interaction between alcohol and tobacco, occupational factors, and laryngeal cancer aetiology are suggested.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1987, Vol.42, No.4, p.192-196. 31 ref.

CIS 88-928 Olander L., Johansson J., Johansson R.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet
The effect of room air cleaners on tobacco smoke
Luftrenares effekt på tobaksrök [in Swedish]
Comparative study of the ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke. 31 air cleaners of different types were tested. Measurements covered particle sizes from 0.01 to 7.5 microns and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and hydrogen cyanide. The rates of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionisers were measured. The results are presented in terms of equivalent airflows.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 76p. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 87-1288 Vainio H.
Is passive smoking increasing cancer risk ?
The many published epidemiologic studies are all consistent with a 30% increase in the risk of lung cancer. This increase is plausible in relation to the exposure levels derived from various biological dose indicators. The risks of passive smokers are, of course, smaller than those of active smokers, but it is generally accepted that involuntary risks should be much smaller than those that are self-inflicted. Even a relative risk for lung cancer of 1.3 due to passive smoking would constitute an increase of 390-990 per 100,000 deaths in the life-time risk of dying of lung cancer in people who have never smoked. Normally, this level would be considered "unacceptable", and preventive measures should be taken.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1987, Vol.13, No.3, p.193-196. 36 ref.

CIS 87-1517 Phillips M., Tannahill A., Batten L., Wells J.
Smoking at work
Three articles: No smoke without fire (on the legal and practical implications of workplace smoking policies in the United Kingdom, with a discussion of some recent legal decisions in the USA, Sweden and Australia). Introducing a non-smoking policy (planning, survey of employers' attitudes, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, example of an actual policy from a health care organisation). Women and smoking.
Occupational Health, Mar. 1987, Vol.39, No.3, p.77-87. 16 ref.

CIS 87-471 Work injuries and smoking habits - are they related?
The accident and sickness absenteeism statistics for 1976-1980 of a group of cotton textile workers were reviewed in order to determine if a relation existed between smoking and injuries and if smoking habits were related to days lost. It appears that workers who smoke are at greater risk than those who never smoke, but a wide range of variation in injury/accident classes exists. There is doubt about the real effect of the smoking materials themselves; more elusive factors may be responsible, including personality and/or pharmacological factors.
Professional Safety, Jan. 1987, Vol.32, No.1, p.42-48. Illus. 39 ref.

1986

CIS 90-484 Olsen J.H., Jensen O.M., Kampstrup O.
Influence of smoking habits and place of residence on the risk of lung cancer among workers in one rock-wool producing plant in Denmark
Cancer incidence was studied among 5,317 employees in a rock-wool production plant in Denmark. During the period 1943-1982 a marginally significant excess of 240 cancer cases was observed versus 211.0 cases expected. Among the subgroup of male workers an increasing risk with time since first employment was observed for cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx, cancer of the respiratory system, and cancer of the bladder, of which only the excess of the former reached significance. The increased risk of lung cancer among male workers with 20yrs or more since first employment, which was not significant, could not be explained by deviations in local lung cancer incidence, place of residence among the rock-wool male workers, or smoking habits prevailing among unskilled workers in the eastern part of Denmark.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.48-52. 9 ref.

CIS 89-599 Alexandersson R., Randma E.
Effects of exposure to cobalt in tungsten carbide manufacturing. A five-year follow-up study
Effekter av exponering för kobolt i hĺrdmetallindustrin - En 5-ĺrsuppföljning [in Swedish]
Previous studies have shown that an average exposure of 0.06mg Co/m3 may have both an acute and a chronic (mainly obstructive) effect on pulmonary function. Pulmonary function in 27 workers exposed to cobalt and 19 non-exposed controls from the same enterprise was determined in a 5-year follow-up study. The mean exposure to cobalt decreased from 0.08mg/m3 to 0.03mg/m3 during the period of study as a result of environment improvement measures. However, additional impairment of pulmonary function still occurred in smokers exposed to cobalt. Annual impairment in FEV1.0 amounted to 44mL/year in addition to the normal age-related impairment.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 19p. 21 ref.

CIS 89-350 IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans - Tobacco smoking
Conclusions of a meeting of experts (Lyon, France, Feb. 1986) on public health. Contents: worldwide tobacco-smoking patterns; chemistry and analysis of smoke; biological data relevant to the evaluation; epidemiological studies of cancer in humans; conclusions and evaluations; international tobacco sales, 1966-1983.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1986. 421p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 88-1602 Olander L., Johansson J.
Measurement of cigarette smoke during passive smoking - Report on particle concentration measurements under controlled conditions
Mätning av cigarettrök vid passiv rökning - Redovisning av partikelhaltsmätningar under kontrollerade betingelser [in Swedish]
Exposure of non-smokers to cigarette smoke, carbon monoxide and particle concentrations was measured. Aerosol size distributions and concentrations for the interval 0.01-1.0µm were measured in an exposure room of 100m3 during exposures to smoke from 5, 10 and 20 cigarettes during 1, 2 and 4h. The significance of the measured concentrations for the exposure is discussed. A comparison with measured concentrations in body fluids will be made in a separate report.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 43p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 88-870 Blood nicotine levels and lung function tests as a function of smoking habits among office workers in Ankara
Ankara'da çeşitli kurumlarda çalişanlarin sigara içme durumuna göre kan nikotin seviyeleri ve akciğer fonksiyon testleri [in Turkish]
This survey (with an inserted English-language summary) of 322 office workers (71 smokers) showed that while blood nicotine levels were correlated with individual smoking history and/or passive exposure to tobacco smoke, there was no relationship between the results of lung function measurements on one hand and smoking habits or history and blood nicotine levels on the other, except when blood nitotine levels were very high (>1.5mg/kg). The latter finding does not agree with findings elsewhere, possibly because of the high incidence of respiratory infection and the high levels of air pollution in Ankara at the time of the survey.
İSGÜM, PK: 393 Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey, 1986. 24p. Illus.

CIS 87-536 Jäppinen P.
Smoking among Finnish pulp and paper workers - Evaluation of its confounding effect on lung cancer and coronary heart disease rates
The mortality and cancer incidence study involved 3,520 pulp and paper workers; 1,290 sawmill workers were used as comparison. Questionnaires were sent to 537 people still alive and 264 next-of-kin of decedents; replies were 86.6% and 80.9%, respectively. The prevalence of smoking was determined for 1956 and 1981. The smoking habits could not explain the observed excess of lung cancer, nor the increased mortality from coronary heart disease found among the pulp and paper workers. Postal questionnaires may be a feasible tool for assessing smoking habits in retrospective cohort studies.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.12, No.6, p.619-626. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 86-1835 Olsen J.H., Jensen O.M., Kampstrup O.
Influence of smoking habits and place of residence on the risk of lung cancer among workers in one rock-wool producing plant in Denmark
Cancer incidence was studied among 5,317 employees in a rock-wool production plant in Denmark. During the period 1943-1982 a marginally significant excess of 240 cancer cases was observed versus 211 cases expected. Among the subgroup of male workers an increasing risk with time since first employment was observed for cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx, cancer of the respiratory system, and cancer of the bladder, of which only the excess of the former reached significance. The increased risk of lung cancer among male workers with 20 or more years since first employment could not be explained by deviations in local lung cancer incidence, place of residence among male rock-wool workers, or smoking habits prevailing among unskilled workers in the eastern part of Denmark. The number of cases, however, was too small to exclude the effect of chance in this single investigation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1986, Vol.12, suppl.1, p.48-52. 9 ref.

CIS 86-1669 Oldham P.D., Bevan C., Elwood P.C., Hodges N.G.
Mortality of slate workers in north Wales
This mortality study of 725 slate workers and 530 controls revealed no excess mortality associated with past exposure to slate dust by non-smokers, while there was a significant (26%) excess among smokers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.43, No.8, p.550-555. Illus. 4 ref.

1985

CIS 97-1774 Regulation concerning passive smoking in the workplace 1985 [Iceland]
Reglur um tóbaksvarnir á vinnustöđum [in Icelandic]
This Regulation specifies measures for the prevention of harmful effects due to passive smoking in the workplace.
Administration of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 10120, 130 Reykjavik, Iceland, 1988. 1p.

CIS 88-897 Fernández Granda A., González Domínguez A., Pérez Garrido S.
Asbestos and tobacco
Asbesto y tabaco/Asbesto y tabaco [in Spanish]
Literature survey on the interaction of exposure to tobacco smoke and asbestos in the evolution of lung cancer. Coverage: Part 1: histopathology of tobacco and asbestos; the impairment of the immune system of the lungs due to smoking. Part 2: carcinogenic effects of tobacco; mutagenic effects of tobacco and asbestos; the synergistic effects of asbestos and tobacco smoke.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1985, Vol.32, No.128, p.35-41; Oct.-Dec. 1985, Vol.32, No.129, p.27-34. 98 ref.

CIS 88-1049 Teixeira C.
Prevention of smoking: Legislative means - short comparative analysis
Prevençăo do tabagismo: Medidas legislativas - breve análise comparativa [in Portuguese]
Comparative study of anti-smoking legislation in various countries, including provisions applying in the workplace. Contents: recommendations of international organisations (WHO, EEC, Council of Europe); prohibitions (in public places, public transportation, health-care and educational institutions, entertainment and sports facilities, workplaces); information measures (prohibition or regulation of advertising, obligatory health warnings); education of the public; sanctions. In the appendix: WHO Recommendations and Resolutions; list of laws in various countries; detailed list of Portuguese laws and regulations.
Ministério da Qualidade de Vida, Lisboa, Portugal, 1985. 97p. 8 ref.

CIS 88-277 Henschler D.
Passive smoking in the workplace
Passivrauchen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Chapter contained in the loose-leaf collection "Toxicological and Medical Basis for the Establishment of Maximum Permissible Concentrations". (Gesundheitsschädliche Arbeitsstoffe - Toxikologische-arbeitsmedizinische Begründung von MAK-Werten). The levels of the main airborne substances which might been inhaled by passive smokers are given in a table. Results of epidemiological studies and possible mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of passive exposure to cigarette smoke are discussed.
Verlag Chemie GmbH, Postfach 1260/1280, 6940 Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany, 11th. supplement. 1985. Vol.1. 26p. 95 ref.

CIS 88-260 Pollution of workplaces by tobacco smoke and deterioration of working conditions
Pollution des lieux de travail par la fumée du tabac et atteintes aux conditions de travail [in French]
Summary of the proceedings of and the proposals made at the 12th Congress of LCFTP (Versailles, France, 20-21 Apr. 1985). Two points were emphasised: the right of every worker to breathe air that is as little polluted as possible, and the scientific evaluation of the health hazards associated with passive smoking.
Ligue Contre la fumée du tabac en public, LCFTP, 14 rue du Petit Ballon, 68000 Colmar, France, 1985. 5p.

CIS 86-1064 Swensson Ĺ., Wannag A., Glřersen E., Vale J.R.
Study of the effects of the mineral nepheline syenite on the lungs. 1. Experimental study of fibrogenic effects. 2. Clinical study of the lungs of exposed miners
2. Lungmedisinsk undersřkelse av bergverksarbeidere eksponert for nefelinsyenitt [in Norwegian]
Undersökningar över inverkan pĺ lungorna av mineralet nefelinsyenit. 1. Experimentella undersökningar över den fibrogenetiska effekten [in Swedish]
Intratracheal administration of 40mg nepheline-syenite particles in 1mL water to each of a number of rats produced only a slight foreign-body reaction in the lungs. The reaction did not progress over an 8-month observation period. Thirteen men aged 27-54 years who had been heavily exposed to nepheline-syenite dust for 7-15 years were examined for possible signs of pneumoconiosis. Clinical and radiological examination revealed no lung abnormalities; spirography and single-breath carbon monoxide transfer tests revealed some small-airway impairment, which could be attributed to the miners' heavy smoking.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 30p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 86-1062 Araki S.
Peptic ulcer in factory workers: incidence, prevalence and risk factors (preliminary report)
The prevalence rate of active and inactive peptic ulcer was 23% in male workers aged 31-60 at a plastics processing factory in Tokyo. Similarly, the incidence of active and inactive peptic ulcer during one year was 5% or more. The findings from a case-control study suggested that smoking and family history were the major aetiological factors. The incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcer in male factory workers in Japan appear to be higher than elsewhere.
Igaku no Ayumi, Feb. 1985, Vol.132, No.7, p.526-527. 8 ref.

CIS 86-635 Kilburn K.H., Warshaw R.H., Einstein K., Bernstein J.
Airway disease in non-smoking asbestos workers
97 non-smoking white male insulators from midwestern USA had significantly reduced FEV1.0 and forced expiratory flow from 75 to 85% of expired volume (FEF75-85) when compared to a reference population of Michigan male non-smokers. There were parenchymal opacities with a profusion of 1/0 or greater in 7 and pleural changes in 13 of the 97 non-smokers. Asbestos, in the absence of cigarette smoke effects and other diseases, appears to decrease airflow, probably by the distorsion of small airways (<2mm) by peribronchiolar fibrosis. This stiffening of lung parenchyma protects midflow (FEF25-75) as the fibrosis increases the lung's radial traction on airways <2mm. This observation contributes to the natural history of impairment due to asbestos disease.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1985, Vol.40, No.6, p.293-295. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 86-707 Sorso M., Einistö P., Husgafvel-., Jörventaus H., Kivistö H., Peltonen Y., Tuomi T., Valkonen S., Pelkonen O.
Passive and active exposure to cigarette smoke in a smoking experiment
6 volunteer female habitual smokers were exposed during a 2-week experimental period to cigarette smoke, both actively and passively in an exposure chamber where the ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, particles, and aldehydes were monitored. Samples of blood and urine were taken from each subject after 3 nonsmoking days and after each day of active or passive smoking. The only parameters showing an increasing trend after passive exposure, as compared with nonsmoking samples, were urinary mutagenicity and plasma cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.16, No.3-4, p.523-534. Bibl.

CIS 86-420 House R.
The health effects of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke
Involuntary (passive or second-hand) exposure to tobacco smoke can be defined as the inhalation of tobacco combustion products other than by directly puffing on a cigarette, cigar or pipe. Aspects covered in this report: exposure conditions, physicochemical characteristics of tobacco smoke, relative exposure to smoke constituents from passive vs active smoking; health effects (general overview, irritation and annoyance, exacerbation of pre-existing disease, pulmonary effects in children, chronic respiratory effects in adults, cancer).
Health Studies Service, Special Studies and Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of Labour, 400 University Ave., Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, June 1985. 83p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 86-533 Baker E.L., Dagg T., Greene E.E.
Respiratory illness in the construction trades - 1. The significance of asbestos-associated pleural disease among sheet-metal workers
314 asbestos-exposed construction workers (USA) were assessed for the rate of roentgenographic and lung function abnormalities. Pleural abnormalities were common (70% in workers with >30 years employment) and showed a significant correlation with decreased forced vital capacity. In contrast, forced expiratory volume in 1s showed a stronger association with smoking than with pleural abnormality. Cigarette smoking was shown to increase the effect of asbestos in causing pleural disease. Pleural disease in asbestos-exposed workers is an indicator of exposure and of early impairment of pulmonary function.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1985, Vol.27, No.7, p.483-489. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 86-465 Blair A., Hoar S.K., Walrath J.
Comparison of crude and smoking-adjusted standardized mortality ratios
To systematically evaluate bias in estimating relative risks associated with occupational exposures obtained in the absence of smoking data, the crude and smoking-adjusted standardised mortality ratios for selected occupations using data from a study of US veterans were compared. The correlation was high for lung cancer (r=0.88), bladder cancer (r=0.98) and intestinal cancer (r=0.97). Greater differences occurred for lung cancer, which is more strongly related to smoking than the other two types of cancer.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1985, Vol.27, No.12, p.881-884. 8 ref.

CIS 85-1960 Damber L., Larsson L.G.
Professional driving, smoking, and lung cancer: a case referent study
This study involved 604 men who died of lung cancer and 1071 controls (467 alive). Questionnaires included questions on occupation, time and type of employment and smoking habits. On the whole, professional drivers were heavier smokers than controls, explaining the slightly increased crude risk ratio for lung cancer among them. Smoking drivers ≥70 years old had a high relative risk of lung cancer (relative risk 23 when compared with non-smoking non-drivers of the same age group). Smoking drivers <70 years old had a relative risk of lung cancer of 5.8. A synergistic effect of smoking and exposure to gasoline is suggested.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1985, Vol.42, No.4, p.246-252. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 85-1937 Smoking, occupation, and allergic lung disease
Short review of evidence on the effect of smoking on occupational respiratory disease. Smoking seems to have, for once, a protective effect against extrinsic allergic alveolitis (an immunologically mediated granulomatous reaction to inhaled organic dust). On the other hand, occupational asthma caused by inhaled agents is significantly more likely in smokers than in non-smokers.
Lancet, 27 Apr. 1985, Vol.1, No.8435, p.965. 13 ref.

CIS 85-1262 Berry G., Newhouse M.L., Antonis P.
Combined effect of asbestos and smoking on mortality from lung cancer and mesothelioma in factory workers
The mortality of 1250 male and 420 female asbestos workers was observed over 1971-1980. Mortality due to lung cancer and mesothelioma was related to smoking habits. After allowing for the effect of smoking on lung cancer, the relative risk due to asbestos was highest for those who had never smoked, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for ex-smokers - this trend was statistically significant. There was no significant association between smoking and deaths due to mesothelioma.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1985, Vol.42, No.1, p.12-18. 16 ref.

1984

CIS 88-269 The chronic consequences of smoking: Chronic obstructive lung disease - A report of the Surgeon General
Chapter 7 of this major report made to the US Congress is on passive smoking, including information on the measurement of exposure, acute physiological response of the airway to smoke in the environment, symptomatic response to chronic passive cigarette smoke exposure in healthy subjects, pulmonary function in adults exposed to involuntary cigarette smoke and the effects of passive smoke exposure on people with allergies, asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease.
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office on Smoking and Health, Rockville, MD 20857, USA, 1984. 545p. Illus. Bibl. Index.

CIS 86-631 Spáčilová M., Mazánková V., Hykeš P.
Development of silicosis in relation to smoking habits
Vznik a vývoj silikózy ve vztahu ke kuřáckým návykům [in Czech]
In 333 persons with silicosis, divided into 2 subgroups according to smoking habits, the length of exposue required for the development of the illness, age at onset of silicosis, age at death, duration of silicosis and its development were compared. Smokers needed a shorter exposure time than nonsmokers and were of lower age at the onset of the illness and at death. The development of silicosis judged by X-ray manifestations and respiratory function was the same in both groups. Thus, smoking may accelerate the appearance of the illness but does not appear to affect its further development.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1984, Vol.36, No.8, p.290-293. 7 ref.

CIS 86-646 Janisch R.
Effect of smoking on occupational hearing loss
Vliv kouření na profesionální nedoslýchavost [in Czech]
In a group of 1289 miners working as breakers, an adverse hearing effect of smoking was observed at regular preventive ear, nose and throat examinations. The correlation between years of smoking and hearing loss was a logarithmic function for decibel decrease at 1000, 2000 and 3000Hz, a divided radical function for decibel decreases at 4000Hz, and a linear function for total percent hearing loss calculated according to Fowler.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1984, Vol.36, No.10, p.381-384. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 85-1363 Paggiaro P.L., Viegi G., Toma G., Begliomini E., Loi A.M., Ferrante B., Baschieri L.
Role of smoking in the determination of CO diffusion impairment in silicosis victims
Rôle du tabagisme dans la détermination des troubles de la diffusion du CO chez les silicotiques [in French]
The aim of this study was to evaluate data on carbon monoxide (CO) diffusion impairment among silicosis victims, as they relate to chest radiographs and smoking habits. The study involved 48 cases of silicosis presenting small irregular opacities with a low dispersion. In non-smokers who had no complication of silicosis, CO diffusion was not considerably reduced. In smokers, there was a definite correlation between the amount smoked and the reduction of CO diffusion values. A joint effect of exposure to silica dust and of smoking might be responsible for functional respiratory changes.
Revue des maladies respiratoires, 1984, Vol.1, No.5, p.309-312. 12 ref.

CIS 85-1024 Collishaw N.E., Kirkbride J., Wigle D.T.
Tobacco smoke in the workplace: an occupational health hazard
The hazards to non-smokers from involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke in offices are evaluated. Aspects covered: composition of tobacco smoke, risks of involuntary exposure; estimates of exposure to tobacco smoke among non-smokers; air quality standards.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 15 Nov. 1984, Vol.131, p.1199-1204. 53 ref.

CIS 85-753 Terai T., Yozawa H., Nakano I., Yamaguchi E., Okazaki N.
Smoking habits and pathophysiology in farmer's lung
Clinical and immunological parameters were analysed in 14 cases of farmer's lung. Since almost all of these patients were non-smokers, effects of smoking habits on serum antibody prevalence in farmers were studied by an epidemiological survey. In addition, the effect of smoking habits was analysed with special reference to lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in cases of sarcoidosis. Taken together, these studies showed that serum antibody prevalence was higher in non-smokers than in smokers, and that lymphocytosis in bronchoalveolar fluid was lower in smokers with sarcoidosis than in non-smokers. Smoking habits may be related to the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Japanese Journal of Thoracic Diseases, Jan. 1984, Vol.22, No.1, p.20-25. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 85-736 Harto Castańo A., Pingarrón Carrazón J.M.
Thiocyanate determination in blood as an aid in the diagnosis of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning, and as an indicator of tobacco smoking. Description of three determination methods
La tiocianuremia como ayuda al diagnóstico del oxicarbonismo crónico e indicador del tabaquismo. Descripción de tres métodos para su determinación [in Spanish]
Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels are quite high in smokers; therefore, their determination cannot always be used for the evaluation of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure in the workplace. Hydrogen cyanide, a component of cigarettes, is transformed into thiocyanates by smokers, so that the presence of thiocyanates in blood can be used to distinguish smokers from non-smokers. 3 determination methods for thiocyanates are described, 2 using spectrophotometry, and the 3rd using cathode desorption. Analysing COHb levels and thiocyanate levels as a function of number of cigarettes smoked per day, it is shown that even at 5 cigarettes a day, approx. 50% of the COHb in workers exposed to CO is due to smoking, while at over 30 cigarettes a day, almost all of it is. The level of thiocyanates being directly proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the level of CO exposure can be calculated from the 2 sets of data.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan. 1983-Mar. 1984, Vol.31, No.121, p.1-8. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 85-459 Steenland K., Beaumont J., Halperin W.
Methods of control for smoking in occupational cohort mortality studies
Indirect control for the effects of smoking, using only existing data, can be exercised through analysis of other smoking-related causes of death besides the cause-of-death of primary interest, use of an internal reference group instead of the national population, adjustment of the excess risk based on hypothetical smoking habits, or analysis for a dose-response relation between occupational exposure and disease. Direct control, which requires interviews, may be exercised through a survey of the smoking habits of currently employed cohort members, a survey of all cohort members, or a "nested" case-referent study within the cohort. The choice of method depends on the cost and the degree of accuracy required by the investigator.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1984, Vol.10, No.3, p.143-149. 30 ref.

CIS 84-1944 Moulin J.J., Gaertner E., Betz M.
Environment, occupation and bronchopulmonary cancer - A methodical approach
Environnement, profession et cancer broncho-pulmonaire - Une approche méthodologique [in French]
A method was developed for the evaluation of the relative importance of smoking and of industrial chemical substances in the development of cancers of the respiratory tract. Cancers of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts are analysed for an estimation of the role of smoking, since lung cancer can also be caused by substances inhaled in the workplace. A thorough analysis of available epidemiological studies indicates a definite role of the inhalation of industrial chemicals in the development of such cancers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1984, No.116, Note No.1494-116-84, p.363-375. 70 ref.

1983

CIS 88-486 Smoking restrictions [Sweden]
English translation of the original Swedish recommendations concerning restrictions on smoking on working premises and in personnel facilities, as well as on public premises and in outdoor spaces to which the general public has access. The recommendations include examples of measures which can be taken to limit the harmful effects of tobacco. The aim of these general recommendations is to provide an environment where nobody will be exposed unwillingly to discomfort or health hazards caused by smoking. The basic principle of the recommendations is that a smoker's desire to smoke should be overridden by other people's desire for a smokeless environment.
National Swedish Board of Occupational Safety and Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 25 Apr. 1983. 15p. 12 ref.

CIS 85-2039 Wagner V., Wagnerová M., Lambl V., Hřebačka J.
Smoking and humoral immunity tests in vinyl chloride workers
Tabakismus a testy humorální imunity u pracovníků s vinylchloridem [in Czech]
In 142 persons working in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant, levels of immunoglobulins, lysozyme and some proteins in serum and their correlation with age, length of exposure and smoking habits were monitored. There were large differences in IgG and IgA levels between smokers and nonsmokers, and a subgroup was particularly sensitive to the effect of smoking on simultaneous exposure to vinyl chloride.
Studia pneumologica et phtiseologica cechoslovaca, 1983, Vol.43, No.10, p.677-684. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 85-45 Ames R.G., Amandus H., Attfield M., Green F.Y., Vallyathan V.
Does coal mine dust present a risk for lung cancer? A case-control study of U.S. coal miners
2 case-control studies based on 317 white male lung cancer mortality cases are presented. A one-to-one matched-case design was used to examine the risk of coal mine dust exposure and cigarette smoking. A two-to-one matched-case design was used to examine the lung cancer risk of coal mine dust exposure independent of cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking predicts lung cancer mortality in white male coal miners in the USA, and there is no evidence that coal mine dust exposure by itself or in interaction with cigarette smoking leads to increased lung cancer mortality.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1983, Vol.38, No.6, p.331-333. 13 ref.

CIS 84-1854 Li V.C., Kim Y.J., Terry P.B., Cuthie J.C., Roter D., Emmett E.A., Harvey A., Permutt S.
Behavioural, attitudinal, and physiologic characteristics of smoking and nonsmoking asbestos-exposed shipyard workers
The smoking characteristics of shipyard workers participating in an asbestos medical surveillance programme were assessed using a self-assessment questionnaire on the smoking history and respiratory symptomatology of 871 current smokers who participated in the smoking study, and chest roentgenograms and pulmonary function test results and medical records for the entire population which included 1,711 current smokers, 988 former smokers and 1,292 never-smokers. The men in the smoking study were well informed of their susceptibility to serious disease. Age-adjusted results showed no differences in rate of pulmonary function abnormalities and chest film abnormalities between current smokers who voluntarily participated in the smoking study and those who did not. All pulmonary function testing abnormality and chest film abnormality rates were significantly lower for former smokers and never-smokers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1983, Vol.25, No.12, p.864-870. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 84-2044 Haguenoer J.M., Furon D.
Industrial toxicology and health - Behaviour in the work environment as a problem of health education
Toxicologie et hygične industrielles - Le comportement en milieu de travail, problčme d'éducation pour la santé [in French]
This work is addressed to industrial physicians and other professionals responsible for the health of employees; important information is provided to help workers understand their health problems and fight against unhealthy lifestyles. 5 lifestyle factors are analysed: 1. nutrition and work (dietary errors, particular work conditions, hours of work, nutritional pathology and group catering); 2. addiction to organic solvents (trichloroethylene, chloroform, glues, aliphatic nitrites); 3. smoking (pathology of exposure to tobacco smoke by smokers and non-smokers); 4. alcoholism (consequences at work, interactions with the working environment); 5. influence of prescription drugs on behaviour in the workplace.
Technique et documentation, Lavoisier, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris Cedex 08, France, 1983. 560p. Illus. Bibl. Price: FF.360.00.

CIS 84-1676 Ames R.G., Gamble J.F.
Lung cancer, stomach cancer, and smoking status among coal miners - A preliminary test of a hypothesis
A case-referent study which compared 46 white male coal miners who died from stomach cancer with 46 age-matched miners who died from lung cancer, and with reference miners who died from other cancers or from non-cancer, non-accident causes failed to confirm the Meyer hypothesis that inhaled carcinogens are a risk for both stomach and lung cancer, with stomach cancer occurring in persons with non-impaired lungs and lung cancer in persons with impaired lungs. The data suggest that airway obstruction may be a precondition for stomach cancer and normal pulmonary function a precondition for lung cancer, which is a reverse relationship than that postulated. For coal miners with airway obstruction, more years of coal mine dust exposure posed a slightly elevated stomach cancer risk while for miners with normal ventilatory function, cigarette smoking posed a disproportionately elevated lung cancer risk.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.443-448. 11 ref.

CIS 84-1304 Higashi T., Toyama T., Sakurai H., Nakaza M., Omae K., Nakadate T., Yamaguchi N.
Cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions in rayon textile workers with special reference to H2S exposure
The study was conducted in 18 viscose rayon plants in Japan. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure was determined by personal passive dosimetry and FEV was measured before and after an 8-hour shift in 30 matched pairs of exposed and non-exposed workers. Exposure averaged 3ppm (0.3-7.8ppm) for the exposed workers and 0.1ppm for the controls. No significant difference in 8-hour pulmonary function test was observed, and no significant correlation between individual pulmonary function changes and individual H2S exposure was obtained. FEV indices in one group of 324 workers were better in exposed non-smokers than in non-exposed non-smokers. A questionnaire survey of 2379 exposed workers and 2968 non-exposed workers revealed a correlation of respiratory symptoms with smoking habits, but not with work history in rayon plants.
Industrial Health, 1983, Vol.21, No.4, p.281-292. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 84-1069 Suta B.E., Thompson C.R.
Smoking patterns of motor vehicle industry workers and their impact on lung cancer mortality rates
Follow-up of a recent mortality study in which automotive workers were found to have an excess of approx. 30% in lung cancer over the general population. When differences in smoking habits are considered, the proportionate mortality ratios for lung cancer in white male automotive workers fall from 1.3 to approx. 1.1. Smoking habits can affect mortality rates for lung cancer when the smoking habits of the population studied differ from that of the general population. At least part of the excess in lung cancer mortality in automotive workers may be explained by smoking.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1983, Vol.25, No.9, p.661-667. 19 ref.

CIS 84-1063 Thomas D.C.
Statistical methods for analyzing effects of temporal patterns of exposure on cancer risks
Methods compared are: (1) multivariate logistic analysis incorporating simple exposure indices; and (2) direct fitting to models of the disease process. Case-control data relating lung cancer to asbestos and smoking are used to illustrate the approaches. From approach (1) average age at exposure, age at risk, and duration of exposure contributed direct or interaction effects. In a 2-stage initiation-latency model the median latency period was estimated at 11 years overall, being somewhat longer for asbestos- and shorter for smoking-induced tumours. Latency periods seemed to be inversely related to the average intensities of both asbestos and smoking. In a multistage model, the best fit was obtained with asbestos acting at the fourth and smoking at the fifth stages. Lifetime risks of lung cancer are projected. Annex: mathematical formulation of the exposure indices.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.353-366. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 84-148 Foliart D., Benowitz N.L., Becker C.E.
Passive absorption of nicotine in airline flight attendants
The amounts of carbon monoxide and nicotine absorbed by 6 female non-smoking flight attendants during transoceanic commercial flights were determined by blood and urine tests. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations showed no significant differences before and after flights; mean blood nicotine concentrations increased in 5 of the subjects from 1.6 to 3.2mg/ml. Urinary nicotine excretion during the flight averaged 12.9µg. It was estimated that the flight attendants were exposed to an average of 0.12-0.25mg nicotine, and to smoke concentrations up to 0.43mg. The concentrations absorbed are unlikely to have physiological effects.
New England Journal of Medicine, May 1983, Vol.308, No.18, p.1105. 4 ref.

CIS 83-1400 Frans A.
Pulmonary gas exchange in normal persons and in coal mines - Chapter 3
Les échanges gazeux pulmonaires du sujet normal et du mineur de charbon - Chapitre 3 [in French]
Part 3 of this study (see CIS 83-525 and CIS 83-526) deals with pulmonary gas exchange in coalminers and is in 3 sections: Smoking-induced lesions, anthracosilicosis and its radiological classification. Factors affecting pulmonary gas exchange in coalminers (pulmonary mixing, functional defects in the respiratory capillaries, and pulmonary haemodynamics in the coalminer). Gas exchange indices (regional distribution of perfusion, ventilation and ventilation-perfusion ratio, pulmonary diffusion capacity, blood gases and related indices).
Revue de l'Institut d'hygične des mines - Tijdschrift van het Instituut voor mijnhygiëne, 1983, Vol.38, No.1, p.5-98. Illus. 679 ref.

CIS 83-639 Cotton D.J., Graham B.L., Li K.Y.R., Froh F., Barnett G.D., Dosman J.a.
Effects of grain dust exposure and smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function
Lung function was measured by spirography, maximum expiratory flow-volume curve breathing air and helium, the single-breath nitrogen test and a symptom prevalence questionnaire in non-smoking grain workers, smoking grain workers, non-smoking controls and smoking controls to assess the relative effects of smoking and occupational exposure to grain dust in grain elevators. There were similar increased prevalences of respiratory symptoms and reductions in pulmonary function associated with either grain dust exposure or smoking, but the effects of smoking were slightly more pronounced. The combined effects of grain dust and smoking on lung function appeared to be additive except in the least exposed workers (≤5 years) where a synergistic effect was observed in tests of peripheral airways dysfunction.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1983, Vol.25, No.2, p.131-141. Illus. 44 ref.

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