Smoking - 347 entries found
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Cummings K.M., Markello S.J., Mahoney M., Bhargava A.K., McElroy P.D., Marshall J.R.
Measurement of current exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
An epidemiological study was performed in a cancer screening clinic in Buffalo (NY, USA) in 1986 to determine the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among 663 never- and ex-smokers by using measurement of urinary cotinine levels and determining the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The most frequently mentioned sources of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke were at work (28%) and at home (27%). Cotinine was found in the urine of 91% subjects. Cotinine values increased significantly with the number of exposures reported.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1990, Vol.45, No.2, p.74-79. Illus. 15 ref.
Ebihara I., Shinokawa E., Kawami M., Kurosawa T.
Cohort mortality study of stone masons
Ishiku no "cohort" kenkyū [in Japanese]
A study of mortality experience was conducted among stone masons in the Tokyo area and cause-specific comparisons were made with the general Japanese male population. A higher total mortality was observed among stone masons. The increase in mortality was due firstly to malignant neoplasms, especially of the respiratory system and stomach, secondly to pneumoconiosis and its complications and to tuberculosis. The observed 2.7-fold increase in lung cancer was not attributed to the effects of age, smoking, radioactivity (such as radon daughters) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Dust exposure per se probably contributes to the development of lung cancer, and smoking is a contributory factor towards the disease.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Oct. 1990, Vol.66, No.10, p.451-458. 57 ref.
Woodward S.D., Winstanley M.H.
Lung cancer and passive smoking at work: the Carroll case
Compensation cases indicating environmental tobacco smoke as a cause of illness have been tested in Australian courts. Mr. Sean Carroll, a Melbourne bus driver, was awarded AUD 65,000 in an out-of-court settlement as compensation for developing small cell carcinoma of the lung, probably as a result of exposure to his passengers' and co-workers' tobacco smoke over the 35 years of his employment. It was estimated that there was a 75% probability that Carroll's lung cancer was caused by passive smoking, and that any contribution by air pollution or diesel fumes was marginal.
Medical Journal of Australia, 3/17 Dec. 1990, Vol.153, No.11/12, p.682-684. 18 ref.
Brugnone F., Perbellini L., Maranelli G., Romeo L., Alexopoulos C., Gobbi M.
Effects of cigarette smoking on blood and alveolar levels of benzene
Effetto del fumo di sigaretta sui livelli ematici ed alveolari di benzene [in Italian]
Benzene was measured in the blood and alveolar air of 34 chemical industry workers exposed to benzene and 134 controls. The results of the biological measurements were compared with the environmental levels of benzene in the room where samples were taken and at the worksite during the previous day's shift. All environmental air samples showed measurable levels of benzene, which agrees with previous observations showing that benzene is a common pollutant also of the living and external environments. In the controls, both blood and alveolar concentrations of benzene were significantly higher in the 68 smokers than in the 66 non-smokers and the biological levels of benzene were inversely correlated with the time that had elapsed since the last cigarette smoked. In the chemical workers, the high biological levels of benzene due to occupational exposure largely exceeded the variations in concentration due to cigarette smoking and cancelled out the differences between smokers and non-smokers. Thus, smoking did not interfere with the interpretation of the results in the occupationally exposed workers, but as a cyclical and additional factor of exposure, it was responsible for the disturbance in the relationships between biological benzene levels and ubiquitous environmental pollution.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1990, Vol.81, No.2, p.101-106. Illus. 28 ref.
Indoor air quality
Papers presented at the International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, 4-6 Nov. 1987, in Tokyo, Japan. Keynote lectures on passive smoking are followed by presentations grouped under the headings "environmental tobacco smoke measurement", "biological effects associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke", "epidemiology of passive smoking" and "general indoor air pollution".
Springer-Verlag, 17 Tiergartenstrasse, W-6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany, 1990. 529p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DEM 198.00.
Books on the working environment
Böcker om arbetsmiljö [in Swedish]
Catalogue of 84 publications classified under the headings: alcohol and tobacco; allergies; responsibilities; construction; research; physical factors; occupational health services; industries and occupations; chemistry; laws and regulations; medicine; psychosocial factors; rehabilitation; stress; ventilation; other.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, Feb. 1990. 8p. Illus.
Olander L., Johansson J., Johansson R.
The effect of air cleaners on tobacco smoke - Part II. Long-term test and complementary measurements
Luftrenares effekt pĺ tobaksrök - Del II. Lĺngtidsprov och kompletterande mätningar [in Swedish]
A long-term test was conducted by loading 3 different room air cleaners with smoke from 20, 200, 400, 600 and 800 cigarettes and measuring their ability to remove gases and particles from the contaminated air. The measurements covered particles from 0.01 to 7.5 microns and gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and hydrogen cyanide. The cleaning efficiencies for particles were approximately constant, while the cleaning efficiencies for the gases decreased considerably with increasing smoke load. The report also describes measurements of the ability of the air cleaners to remove acrolein, the pH of the activated charcoal in the air cleaners, the emission of gases and particles from room air cleaners contaminated by cigarette smoke, and from smoke deposition on room surfaces. The first part of this study was published as Arbete och hälsa 1987:28 (CIS 89-1962).
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1989. 38p. Illus. 16 ref.
Passive smoking. Health effects and workplace resolutions
Le tabagisme passif - Effets sur la santé et solutions en milieu de travail [in French]
Passive smoking (also known as involuntary smoking) is the exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke. The tobacco smoke inhaled by passive smokers is usually called environmental tobacco smoke. Concern about its health effects is relatively recent and parallels evidence of health effects in non-smokers. The available information is summarised here as: tobacco smoke composition and exposure; signs, symptoms and possible consequences of exposure; ventilation standards and requirements for tobacco smoke; policies and programmes in the workplace.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Feb. 1989. 9p. 23 ref.
Hull C.J., Doyle E., Peters J.M., Garabrant D.H., Bernstein L., Preston-Martin S.
Case-control study of lung cancer in Los Angeles County welders
A case-control study of lung cancer in white male welders was undertaken to investigate possible environmental and occupational causes of a 50% excess of lung cancer observed in this occupational group. The subjects were identified from a population-based cancer registry in Los Angeles County. A standardised questionnaire was administered to either subjects or proxy informants of 90 lung cancer cases and 116 non-lung cancer controls. Significantly increased risks of lung cancer were associated with tobacco smoking and with shipyard welding with at least a 10-year latency since first exposure. It was concluded that the excess of lung cancer in this welding population is contributed to by a higher frequency of smoking and with probable exposure to asbestos in shipyards.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.16, No.1, p.103-112. Bibl.
Schumacher M.C., Slattery M.L., West D.W.
Occupation and bladder cancer in Utah
The relationship between bladder cancer and occupation, industries, and occupational exposures in Utah were examined in a population-based, case-control study conducted between 1977 and 1983. Life-long occupational histories were obtained for 417 cases (332 men and 85 women) and 877 controls (685 men and 192 women). Increased risks were detected among men for employment in the leather and textile industries which increased with duration of employment. Among men and women, increased risk was detected among clerical workers. A protective effect was seen among men and women for 10 or more years employment in professional, managerial, and technical occupations. Increased risk for bladder cancer was detected among carpenters who smoked but not among carpenters who never smoked. Interactions between smoking and other industrial or occupational exposures were not demonstrated, and for the most part, smoking did not confound the estimates of the bladder cancer-occupation relationships.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1989, Vol.16, No.1, p.89-102. Bibl.
Borland R., Owen N., Hill D., Chapman S.
Staff members' acceptance of the introduction of workplace smoking bans in the Australian public service
The acceptability to employers of workplace smoking bans is an important factor in their introduction and in subsequent compliance. This study describes the acceptance by affected staff members before the ban on smoking in Australian public service premises. 4215 (79% of those who were approached) public servants were surveyed from areas of 6 departments across 3 states. 25 per cent of the sample were current smokers. Support for the bans was strong, with 76% of the sample approving over all. Approval among smokers was less, with 40% of smokers approving, compared with 82% of ex-smokers and 90% of "never" smokers. Thus, the results show a generally favourable attitudinal milieu among employees who were facing an impending ban on smoking, and far from unanimous opposition from smokers.
Medical Journal of Australia, 6 Nov. 1989, Vol.151, No.9, p.525-528. 18 ref.
Kentner M., Weltle D., Valentin H.
Passive smoking and pulmonary function in adults
Passivrauchen und Lungenfunktion bei Erwachsenen [in German]
Study of the effects of passive smoking exposure on lung function. A group of 1,364 office employees free of lung diseases were divided into smokers, non-smokers, passive smokers and ex-smokers. Lung function parameters such as forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow and maximal expiratory flow rates were determined. Results were standardised for age, height and body weight. No essential lung function impairments were found for passive smokers.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1989, Vol.24, No.1, p.8-13. Illus. 62 ref.
Kjaergaard S.K., Pedersen O.F., Frydenberg M., Schřnheyder H., Andersen P., Bonde G.J.
Respiratory disease and lung function in a tobacco industry
In a field study, 75 workers from a cheroot factory were compared with 50 reference workers from a large telephone company. Questionnaire responses revealed higher prevalences of cough and shortness of breath on exercise among the tobacco workers than among the controls. Cigarette smoking was the same in the two groups, but tobacco workers also smoked cheeroots. Significantly decreased values (p<.01) of forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found among tobacco workers compared to referents. After adjusting for number of cigarettes and cheroots smoked, there remained no significant differences. There was a suggestion (p < .10) of decreased FEV1.0 among light or nonsmoking tobacco workers. When cigarette consumption only was considered, this difference was significant (p<.01). Lung function values were not associated with the very low measured dust exposures. Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine, diurnal and weekly changes in FEV1.0 skin-prick tests were similar to that expected in a nonexposed population. Differences in lung function between the two groups may result from excess cheroot consumption and higher previous exposure to tobacco dust among the tobacco workers.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1989, Vol.44, No.3, p.164-170. Illus. 22 ref.
Robins J.M., Blevins D., Schneiderman M.
The effective number of cigarettes inhaled daily by passive smokers: Are epidemiologic and dosimetric estimates consistent?
Since the early 1980's, a number of epidemiologic studies have implicated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as a cause of lung cancer among non-smokers passively exposed to other people's tobacco smoke. A recent National Academy of Science Report (USA) on environmental tobacco smoke (NAS, 1986) summarised 13 such studies. Each study provided an estimate of the ratio of the lung cancer mortality rate among non-smokers with smoking spouses to the mortality rate among those with non-smoking spouses. The weighted average of the 13 study-specific rate ratios was roughly 1.3. It is shown that if this summary rate ratio is causally related to ETS and not to bias then the estimated number of lung cancer deaths attributable to ETS exposure occurring in US non-smokers in 1985 lies in the range of 2500-5000. Further it is examined whether the summary rate ratio of 1.3 is consistent with the existing epidemiologic data on active smokers and the dosimetric measurements that have been made on mainstream and environmental tobacco smoke. If consistent with this other data, the hypothesis is that the rate ratio of 1.3 is causally related to ETS exposure will be strengthened.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, May 1989, Vol.21, No.3, p.215-238. 18 ref.
Protection of non-smokers in the workplace
Nichtraucherschutz am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Measures are proposed to convince employees within enterprises to stop smoking or at least to reduce their cigarette consumption.
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, Apr. 1989, Vol.39, No.2, p.13-16.
Introducing a smoking policy at work - A case study
The article describes the step-by-step introduction of a new smoking policy in the Performing Right Society (London), which resulted in setting up a smoke-free working environment. Two main objectives of anti-smoking policy - education of workers about the harmful effects of smoking and change of the working environment in order to minimise the harmful effects of passive smoking on the non-smoker are pointed out.
Occupational Health, June 1989, Vol.41, No.6, p.163-165.
Becher H., Jedrychowski W., Flak E., Gomola K., Wahrendorf J.
Lung cancer, smoking, and employment in foundries
A case-referent study on lung cancer was conducted in Cracow, Poland. Men dying of lung cancer within a 6-year period (1980-1985) formed the case group. The reference series was selected from death registers and was frequency-matched with the cases by sex and age. Deaths due to other respiratory diseases were excluded. Information on the occupation, smoking habits, and residency of 901 cases and 875 referents was collected from their next-of-kin. The combined effect of smoking and industrial exposure, in particular employment in steel or iron foundries, was investigated by multivariate analyses and was very well fitted by a multiplicative model. Foundry employment, in particular in the younger age (<70 years) group, occupational exposure to known carcinogens in other industries for more than 20 years, and smoking were found to be risk factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1989, Vol.15, No.1, p.38-42. 22 ref.
Zhang Z.F., Yu S.Z., Li W.X., Choi B.C.K.
Smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer
A cohort of 1624 employees (957 men, 667 women) in a rubber factory in Shanghai were followed up from 1972 and their 12 year mortality experience is presented. The relative risk of lung cancer for smokers was 8.5 for men and 11.4 for women, and for rubber workers exposed to curing agents or talc powder it was 3.2 for men and 4.6 for women.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol. 46, No.1, p.12-15. 20 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Passive smoking at work
This booklet dealing with passive smoking suggests ways of reducing the exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke at work, and answers some common questions about risks to the health of non-smokers from tobacco smoke.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1989. 9p.
Passive smoking at work
This booklet provides information about passive smoking at work. It suggests ways of reducing the exposure of non-smokers to tobacco smoke at work, and answers some common questions about risks to the health of non-smokers from tobacco smoke. Contact addresses for further information are provided.
Health and Safety Executive, Library and Information Services, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 10p.
Oguro H., Naruhashi H., Ueda K., Suzuki M., Mitoku K., Miwa M., Wakamatsu C., Yasuda Y., Shirai K., Hatano S., Minowa M., Ashizawa M., Ito K., Watanabe M., Miura H.
A case-control study of lung cancer with special reference to asbestos exposure
Sekimen-bakuro to haigan ni kansuru kanja taishō kenkyū [in Japanese]
A case-control study of lung cancer was carried out in Yokosuka City, Kanagawa Prefecture, the pre-war location of a Japanese naval factory and the present location of a U.S. naval base. Cytologically or pathologically confirmed fatal cases of lung cancer in males during the period 1978-1982 in Yokosuka Kyosai Hospital were compared to a control group in the same hospital. Controls who died from causes other than cancer, pneumoconiosis, accident or suicide were matched by age to the cases. Information including occupational and smoking history was obtained by interviews with the families of the 96 cases and 86 controls. The relative risk (odds ratio) of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure or with suspected exposure was 2.41 and 1.56 respectively, after control for age and smoking. The age-controlled relative risk for smoking without exposure controlled for age, was 8.28, suggesting a synergistic relationship between smoking and asbestos exposure.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Aug. 1988, Vol.35, No.8, p.461-468. 31 ref.
Sterling T.D., Mueller B.
Concentrations of nicotine, RSP, CO and CO2 in nonsmoking areas of offices ventilated by air recirculated from smoking designated areas
Concentration of nicotine, respirable suspended particles (RSP), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured in offices under different conditions of smoking regulation: smoking prohibited; smoking prohibited areas receiving recirculated air from designated smoking areas; smoking and nonsmoking sections of these designated smoking areas. Nicotine levels in non-smoking receiving recirculated air from smoking offices were approximately 1.0µg/m3. RSP, CO and CO2 concentrations were approximately the same in these offices as compared to nonsmoking offices not exposed to recirculated air from smoking areas. Providing a designated but not separately ventilated smoking area appears to be effective in eliminating most components of ETS from nonsmoking office work areas.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1988, Vol.49, No.9, p.423-426. 7 ref.
Venables K.M., Upton J.L., Hawkins R., Tee R.D., Longbottom J.L., Newman Taylor A.J.
Smoking, atopy, and laboratory animal allergy
This study examined data from 3 cross sectional surveys of 296 laboratory workers exposed to small mammals. Four indices of laboratory animal allergy were studied: symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma, or of any occupational allergy, skin weals to animal urine extracts, and positive radioallergosorbent tests with urine extracts. Pooled data from the 3 surveys showed an association between smoking and all indices except radioallergosorbent tests; the association was significant for symptoms of occupational asthma. One of the 3 surveys consistently showed a stronger association of allergy indices with smoking than with atopy. Associations with smoking persisted after satisfying by atopic status, suggesting that smoking may be a risk factor for laboratory animal allergy.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.45, No.10, p.667-671. 18 ref.
Vaskövi B., Szívós K., Kertész M., Horváth A., Bácskai G.
Role of tobacco smoking in interior cadmium exposure
A dohányzás szerepe a belsőtéri kadmium-expozícióban [in Hungarian]
The cadmium (Cd) content of 4 different types of Hungarian-made cigarettes was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The measured values were 0.46-1.64µg/g. The aerosol concentration of smoke resulting from the simultaneous burning of 6 cigarettes was also evaluated in a room with cubic capacity of 14m3. This aerosol concentration decreased exponentially with time, reaching approx. background levels after 2h. Cd contamination of the air in the room was in the range of 0.033-0.100µg/m3, a level that would contribute significantly to the total Cd exposure of people working in rooms of similar size, including that of non-smokers (passive smoking).
Egészségtudomány, 1988, Vol.32, p.14-19. 17 ref.
Armstrong B., Tremblay C., Theriault G.
Compensating bladder cancer victims employed in aluminium reduction plants
A criterion for eligibility to compensation is sought for bladder cancer cases among workers in the aluminium smelting industry. Probability that a case of bladder cancer was caused by occupational exposure can be estimated from a relationship derived from results of epidemiologic studies. Because the effects of occupational exposure and smoking apparently combine multiplicatively, this probability is independent of whether a case patient smoked. Estimated probabilities of causation have been used in a criterion for eligibility to compensation by the Quebec workers' compensation board. Workers with cancer for whom the upper 95% confidence limit of the probability of causation is at least 50% are compensated. This implies a minimum cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene of 19µg/m3/year. Possible alternative approaches to compensation are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1988, Vol.30, No.10, p.771-775. Illus. 14 ref.
Olander L., Johansson J., Johansson R.
Tobacco smoke removal with room air cleaners
The ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke was studied. Thirty-one air cleaners were tested. Various air-cleaning devices were used, i.e. electrostatic precipitators, electric fibre filters, ionisers, activated carbon, impregnated alumina, ionising lamps, and an electron generator. The airflow rates were in the range of 0-500m3/h. The measurements covered particle sizes of 0.01-7.5µm and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons, and hydrogen cyanide. No formal standard procedure exists for testing room air cleansers; therefore the tests were made in the following way. Tobacco smoke was generated and mixed in a closed room. The room air cleaner was started, and the decay rates for the gases and particles were measured. The results were calculated as equivalent airflow rates, i.e. the clean airflow rate causing the same decay rate for contaminant concentrations in a room. The equivalent airflow rates were 0-360 m3/h. The rate of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionisers was also measured. One general conclusion was that it is much more difficult to remove gases than particles.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1988, Vol.14, No.6, p.390-397. Illus. 23 ref.
Blanc P.D., Golden J.A., Gamsu G., Aberle D.R., Gold W.M.
Asbestos exposure - Cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers
The roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers were studied with the view to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analysed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 15 Jan. 1988, Vol.259, No.3, p.370-373. 36 ref.
Gardner M.J., Powell C.A., Gardner A.W., Winter P.D., Fletcher A.C.
Continuing high lung cancer mortality among ex-amosite asbestos factory workers and a pilot study of individual anti-smoking advice
A continued doubling of lung cancer mortality to the end of 1986 is reported among 4825 male workers formerly exposed to amosite asbestos in the United Kingdom. Risk increased with increasing level of exposure. There were 93 deaths from lung cancer, compared to the 45 to be expected at national rates. In an attempt to reduce mortality among the workers still living, 1001 among them were sent information on the lung cancer findings and on anti-smoking advice through their general practitioners. 78% of the general practitioners indicated their intention to follow up the anti-smoking suggestions with their smoking patients. Also, 62% of the smokers among the men who replied indicated their intention to stop or cut down on cigarette smoking, although at 30% the overall response rate was disappointingly low. It is now proposed to extend the notification coverage to all the ex-amosite workers and to examine lung cancer trends in future years. It is possible that over 500 lung cancer deaths could be averted in these men.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1988, Vol.38, No.3, p.69-72. 18 ref.
A case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in relation to occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption
A case control study based on data from a cancer registry was conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, alcohol use, and occupation on renal cell cancer risk. Information was obtained for 326 male and female cases and 978 age- and sex-matched controls. Elevated risks were identified for cigarette smokers and for men employed as truck drivers. No relationship between alcohol consumption and renal cancer was observed.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1988, Vol.43, No.3, p.238-241. 27 ref.
The right of the employer to transfer a civil servant to another position to provide protection against cigarette smoke in the workplace
Ermessen des Dienstherrn bei der Umsetzung eines Beamten im Zusammenhang mit Nichtraucherschutz am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
In its decision of 26 Nov. 1987 the federal administrative court of the Federal Republic of Germany ruled that a non-smoking civil servant may not be transferred to a room in which smokers are working. The court's opinion is presented.
Recht im Amt, 1988, Vol.35, No.5, p.128-131.
Smoking and pulmonary fibrosis
A review of the relevant literature provides evidence that cigarette smoking causes microscopic diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in humans at autopsy. The association shows a dose-response relationship and the fibrosis is often severe. Experimental animal studies have confirmed these observations when the exposure to inhaled smoke was prolonged or heavy. Six published and one unpublished cross-sectional chest x-ray surveys of the adults have shown low profusion of small irregular opacities related to smoking with a dose-response relationship when this has been studied. Although information on radiographic-pathologic correlation is deficient, these studies support the hypothesis that smoking causes diffuse interstitital pulmonary fibrosis which is radiologically visible with low profusion in low prevalence. The x-ray manifestations may be confused with early pneumoconiosis such as asbestosis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1988, Vol.30, No.1, p.33-39. Illus. 29 ref.
Marsh G.M., Sachs D.P.L., Callahan C., Leviton L.C., Ricci E., Henderson V.
Direct methods of obtaining information on cigarette smoking in occupational studies
This article reviews and evaluates the availability, reliability, validity and efficiency of various data sources and techniques for obtaining individual smoking data, including existing records, biological markers and surveys. Emphasis is placed on obtaining retrospective smoking histories. Both theoretical and practical aspects of smoking surveys are discussed in detail and are illustrated with a review of the recent literature and with data from two recent retrospective studies conducted at the University of Pittsburgh. Several recommendations involving both the use of smoking data and areas for future methodological research are presented.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.1, p.71-103. 65 ref.
Siemiatycki J., Wacholder S., Dewar R., Wald L., Bégin D., Richardson L., Rosenman K., Gérin M.
Smoking and degree of occupational exposure: Are internal analyses in cohort studies likely to be confounded by smoking status?
Occupational cohort study of 857 French-Canadian men born between 1910-1930 and interviewed around 1980 in the context of an occupational cancer case control study. The collected information included smoking habits, job history and toxic chemicals that they were exposed to in each of their jobs. There was no correlation between types of jobs and degree of exposure to workplace substances on one hand and job dirtiness and smoking history on the other. These findings do not support the view that non-smokers sought out cleaner job environments than smokers. They do imply that internal "dose-response" analyses in cohort studies are unlikely to be seriously confounded by smoking habits.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.1, p.59-69. 9 ref.
Stellman S.D., Boffetta P., Garfinkel L.
Smoking habits of 800,000 American men and women in relation to their occupations
The distribution of cigarette smoking (as well as of cigar and pipe smoking in men) by occupation was examined in over 800,000 men and women aged 45-70 who were enrolled in the American Cancer Society's prospective study in 1982. Striking variations were seen for men - less striking variations for women. Smoking rates were significantly higher in groups exposed to a number of occupational hazards, compared to groups not so exposed. A considerable amount of variation is related to social class, but some individual occupations exhibit notably high (law enforcement) or low (clergy) smoking rates. This information can be quite useful in planning morbidity or mortality studies of specific occupational groups or in analysing data from existing studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.1, p.43-58. Appendix. 6 ref.
Brackbill R., Frazier T., Shilling S.
Smoking characteristics of US workers, 1978-1980
Data from the 1978-1980 National Health Interview Survey smoking questionnaire were used to analyse prevalence and levels of cigarette smoking among groups of US workers. Although there was a higher percentage of current smokers among men than women in the general population, there were few differences in the prevalence of smoking among men and women for specific occupations. Race and employment status had an influence on prevalence of smoking. Both the currently unemployed and black subjects generally had a higher proportion of current smokers, although the latter smoked fewer cigarettes. Industry also played a major role in the variation of smoking habits. The percentage of current smokers of a given occupation had a 25% difference depending on the industry they were employed in, such as 52% vs 26% for managers and administrators.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1988, Vol.13, No.1, p.5-41. 20 ref.
The effects of passive smoking
This data sheet covers: evidence for the effects of passive smoking; smoking policies in the workplace; success of a policy.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R ODA, United Kingdom, 1988. 5p. 7 ref.
Pesatori A., Latocca R., Zocchetti C., Bertazzi P.A.
Controlling for smoking in the epidemiological study of occupational cancer
Effetto di confondimento del fumo di tabacco nell'accertamento di rischi oncogeni professionali [in Italian]
Statistical study of the proportion of smokers in various occupational groups in Italy. Discussion of how the results can be used to allow for smoking in epidemiological studies of cancer.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1987, Vol.78, No.3, p.175-189. Illus. 21 ref.
Olander L., Johansson J., Johansson R.
The effect of air cleaners on tobacco smoke
Luftrenares effekt pĺ tobaksrök [in Swedish]
Report on a study concerning the ability of room air cleaners to remove gases and particles from air contaminated with tobacco smoke. 31 air cleaners were tested. 12 used electrostatic precipitation, 6 an electret-fibre filter, 6 a fibre filter and 7 an ioniser. Activated charcoal (for 9), impregnated aluminium (for 3) and an ionising lamp or electron generator (for 3) were employed for gas cleaning. Measurements covered particle sizes from 0.01 to 7.5 microns and the following gases: carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrocarbons and hydrogen cyanide. The rate of ozone emission by electrostatic precipitators and ionisers was measured. The results are presented as equivalent airflows.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1987. 76p. Illus. 51 ref.
Interaction and synergism in epidemiological investigations: The case of smoking and occupational exposure in respiratory disease
Interazione e sinergismo in studi epidemiologici. Il caso del fumo di tabacco e le esposizioni professionali nella patologia respiratoria [in Italian]
The paper briefly reviews the concepts of interaction and synergism as found in the epidemiological literature, explaining their meaning from the statistical point of view with the use of numerical examples. The various types of interaction are defined (interaction as a departure from the additive or the multiplicative model; effect modification; interaction in multiple regression). These concepts are illustrated with practical examples from studies on the relationship between smoking and occupational exposure in lung cancer and in other lung diseases among occupationally exposed groups. The author concludes: 1) that the type of interaction between risk variables depends only on the statistical model chosen to interpret the findings. This model does not necessarily coincide with a particular biologic model; 2) that the only work-related risks which seem to be associated with smoking in a way consistent with the multiplicative model are asbestos and perhaps arsenic. Most other risks studied to date in these terms yield results which seem consistent with the additive model.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1987, Vol.78, No.2, p.93-104. 31 ref.
Morris S.C., Ukmata H., Begraca M., Canhasi B., Haxhiu M.A.
Epidemiological data base for a health effects study at a coal gasification plant
Information was collected on all the 757 present and former workers at a coal gasification plant for the period from the time it began operation (1971) to 1980. The same information was collected on a control population of 500 lignite surface miners. The data include age, smoking history, year of work, job title, medical diagnoses (encoded according to the International Classification of Diseases) and selected laboratory results. This sort of retrospective encoding of individual medical records can provide an economical and comprehensive database for epidemiological studies. Because of the national system of socialised medicine, similar information is available for all worker organisations in Yugoslavia. Preliminary results showed an association between heavy smoking, elevated incidence of chronic bronchitis and low professional or socio-economic status; no similar effect was observed in the case of circulatory system disease.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, June 1987, Vol.38, No.2, p.149-157. 6 ref.
Commentary: Passive smoking and lung cancer
This article reviews several studies carried out in various countries in order to examine the relationship between passive smoking and respiratory disorders. The results show that passive smoking leads to reduction of lung function and gives rise to an increased risk of cancer. An estimate is provided on the number of deaths per year in Australia due to passive smoking (136).
Community Health Studies, Supplement to Vol.XI, No.1, 1987, p.6-8. 10 ref.
Diagnosis of chronic bronchitis during prophylactic check-ups of workers engaged in the production of printer's ink
O diagnostike hroničeskogo bronhita pri profilaktičeskih osmotrah rabočih proizvodstva poligrafičeskih krasok [in Russian]
409 workers of a printer's ink factory were interviewed by means of the WHO questionnaire aimed at detecting the symptoms of bronchopulmonary diseases. Chronic bronchitis was detected in 27.1% of the workers exposed to industrial pollutants and in 20.9% of a control group. Smoking was the major contributing factor to the disease. Preceding acute pneumonia, pleurisy and the impact of occupational hazards also played important roles. Application of the diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO, respiratory function tests and radiographic testing along with identification of dry bronchitis, offer a mechanism for a more complete detection of patients with chronic bronchitis and more accurate definition of the disease type.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1987, No.6, p.21-24. 11 ref.
Jenkins M., McEwen J., Moreton J., East R., Seymour L., Goodin M.
Smoking policies at work
This booklet describes the problems which may arise from smoking at work and recommends possible policies in response to an increasing number of demands from both smokers and non-smokers concerning the matter.
Health Education Authority, 78 New Oxford Street, London WC1A 1AH, United Kingdom, 1987. 48p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
Kasuga H., Mikami R., Tamura M., Miyazaki R., Narita N.
Effects of smoking on asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural changes
Sekimen bakuro ni yurai suru haiya kyōmaku byōhen ni taisuru kitsuen no eikyō [in Japanese]
A radiologic study was made on 184 male asbestos workers in order to determine the effects of smoking on asbestos-related pulmonary and pleural changes. The effects of smoking on the prevalence of pleural changes could not be demonstrated, but the prevalence of pulmonary changes significantly increased with length of smoking history. These findings are of great importance in the health management of asbestos workers.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1987, Vol.29, No.3, p.191-195. Illus. 6 ref.
What everyone should know about smoking in the workplace
Information booklet on smoking in the workplace, explaining in detail the hazards of "active" and "passive" smoking in the working environment. It contains practical advice on how to reduce or eliminate smoking in the workplace and on how to stop smoking.
Channing L. Bete Co., South Deerfield, MA 01373, USA, 1987. 15p. Illus.
Adachi S., Muramatsu S., Aoki Y., Takemoto K., Kimura K.
Studies on removal of cigarette smoke as an indoor air contaminant
Tabako temuri o shu to shita shitsunai kūki osen busshitsu no jokyo ni kansuru kenkyū [in Japanese]
Efficiencies of solid adsorbents and air cleaners containing the adsorbents were examined, especially with reference to removal of gaseous and volatile compounds in cigarette smoke. Glass fibre and cellulose filters were inadequate for removal of gaseous and volatile compounds in cigarette smoke such as nicotine. Removal efficiencies and durabilities of 11 different types of solid adsorbents were examined. Several adsorbents removed aldehydes and ammonia in side stream cigarette smoke perfectly and durably. But there was no adsorbent which could remove nitric oxide effectively. Two types of air cleaners, one for floor use made of filter and pellet adsorbents, the other for wall mounting made of electrostatic filter and honeycomb adsorbents, performed well, because the adsorbents could remove nicotine in the air which could not be removed by filters.
Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Aug. 1987, Vol.25, N°2, p.1-12. Illus. 11 ref.
Extrapulmonary localisation of asbestos-induced carcinomas. Larynx carcinomas
Izvănbelodrobni lokalizacii na azbestinducirani karcinomi. Karcinomi na larinksa [in Bulgarian]
A concise survey of the concepts in the available literature on asbestos-induced carcinomas of the larynx. Regardless of some contradictory conclusions, the possibility of asbestos-induced carcinomas of the larynx in exposed workers cannnot be excluded. Additional co-factors such as tobacco smoking are discussed. The necessity of systematic longitudinal studies on asbestos-exposed and control groups is stressed.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1987, Vol.30, No.2, p.83-85. 15 ref.
Al-ma (had ul-(arabiyy li ṣ-ṣiḥḥa wa-s-salâmat il-mihniyya
Safety and health posters
Set of 8 posters to encourage maintenance of electrical equipment, use of hearing protectors, reading of instructions before using or storing chemical products, use of warning signs and flagmen during work on roads and proper lifting and carrying techniques, and to discourage smoking (control passive smoking), careless work and carelessness with fire.
Arab Institute for Occupational Health and Safety, P.O. Box 5770, Damascus, Syria, no date. 8 posters.
Barone J.A., Peters J.M., Garabrant D.H., Bernstein L., Krebsbach R.
Smoking as a risk factor in noise-induced hearing loss
The relation between cigarette smoking and hearing loss among 2,348 noise-exposed white male participants in a hearing conservation programme was studied. When subjects with hearing loss were defined as those in the top third of the hearing loss distribution (at 3, 4, and 6kHz) for their age category, and controls were those in the lowest third of the distribution, the crude relative risks for smokers were significantly elevated compared with persons who had never smoked. The effects of smoking, having a noisy hobby, and years worked at the plant were independent factors for hearing loss. When hearing loss cases were defined according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health criteria for beginning impairment, present smoking was a statistically significant independent predictor of impairment. These results suggest that smokers are at increased risk of noise-induced hearing loss.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.741-745. 26 ref.
Enterline P.E., Marsh G.M., Esmen N.A., Henderson V.L., Callahan C.M., Paik M.
Some effects of cigarette smoking, arsenic, and SO2 on mortality among US copper smelter workers
This is a report on the 1949-1980 mortality experience of 6,078 white male workers who worked for at least 3yrs between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1976 at 1 or more of 8 copper smelters. The completeness of the cohort was verified statistically, and worker exposures to arsenic, SO2, dust, nickel, cadmium, and lead were estimated from retrospective surveys. By using internal controls, a dose-response relationship for lung cancer was observed with exposure to arsenic and SO2. When cigarette smoking data were included with arsenic and SO2 exposure data in a nested case-control analysis, only smoking and arsenic were statistically significant factors. The arsenic-lung cancer relationship was confined to a single smelter where the raw materials had a high arsenic content. In the remaining smelters, mortality for all causes of death and for all cancer was not high based on comparisons with national, state, and local rates.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.10, p.831-838. 19 ref.
Albrecht W.N., Bryant C.J.
Polymer-fume fever associated with smoking and use of a mold-release spray containing polytetrafluoroethylene
An ephemeral and debilitating flu-like illness was experienced by stamp-makers. A combination of the use of a mould-release spray containing polytetrafluoroethylene, poor general hygiene, and smoking during and after use of the spray was responsible for the workers' symptoms, commonly referred to as polymer-fume fever. Recommendations which resulted in the abatement of illness included: ventilating the vulcanising furnace, cessation of smoking in the workplace, and using a mould-release spray that does not contain fluorocarbons.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.29, No.10, p.817-819. 6 ref.
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