Smoking - 347 entries found
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Trout D., Decker J., Mueller C., Bernert J.T., Pirkle J.
Exposure of casino employees to environmental tobacco smoke
Topics: cotinine; nicotine; casinos; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; passive smoking; respirable dust.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.40. No.3, p.270-276. 29 ref.
Montesdeoca Hernández D., Montesdeoca Hernández M.J.
Prevention of smoking and alcoholism by the mutual occupational accident insurances: A proposal
La prevención del tabaquismo y alcoholismo desde las mutuas de accidentes de trabajo: una propuesta [in Spanish]
Topics: alcoholism; health programmes; information of personnel; plant safety and health organization; role of insurance institutions; smoking; Spain.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1997, Vol.44, No.175, p.75-80.
Lamarre G., Mullender N.
Smoking behaviour in a large organisation after the introduction of the Evin law
Evolution du tabagisme dans une grande entreprise après l'application de la loi Evin [in French]
Topics: controlled smoking; France; legislation; programme evaluation; questionnaire survey; smoking; workplaces.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, No.2, p.181-188. Illus. 17 ref.
Cathcart M., Nicholson P., Roberts D., Bazley M., Juniper C., Murray P., Randell M.
Enzyme exposure, smoking and lung function in employees in the detergent industry over 20 years
Topics: asthma; detergent industry; enzymes; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; pulmonary function; respiratory function tests; smoking; United Kingdom.
Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.47, No.8, p.473-478. Illus. 16 ref.
Ashley M.J., Eakin J., Bull S., Pederson L.
Smoking control in the workplace: Is workplace size related to restrictions and programs?
Topics: Canada; controlled smoking; large enterprises; questionnaire survey; small enterprises; smoking.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1997, Vol.39, No.9, p.866-873. 38 ref.
A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in welders
This meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies carried out on the lung cancer risk among shipyard, mild steel and stainless steel welders consisted of calculating combined relative risks (RR). Similar values were observed in studies of the "any welding" or "study design" category. Furthermore, welders are likely to be exposed to asbestos and seem to smoke more than the general male population. A 30-40% increase in the RR of lung cancer cannot be explained by hexavalent chromium and nickel exposure among stainless steel welders. The combination of the carcinogenic effects of asbestos exposure and smoking may account for part of the observed lung cancer excess.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.104-113. 73 ref.
Kawakami N., Takatsuka N., Shimizu H.
Occupational factors, smoking habits and tobacco withdrawal symptoms among male Japanese employees
A questionnaire survey of 2,862 male employees in a Japanese electrical company identified 1,443 subjects with an experience of quitting smoking for at least three days. Of these, 67% had experienced tobacco withdrawal symptoms. Statistical analysis indicated that younger age, technical/clerical occupation, exhaustion after work, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking and the number of attempts to quit smoking were significantly associated with tobacco withdrawal symptoms.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1997, Vol.35, No.1, p.9-15. 31 ref.
Proposal for a data sheet on tobacco smoke
Proposition de fiche toxicologique de la fumée du tabac [in French]
Contents of this data sheet on tobacco smoke: description; short-term exposure effects; long-term exposure effects; fire and explosion hazards; ventilation; regulations; control; training and information.
European Union of Nonsmokers, 14 rue de Sébastopol, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Confédération française des travailleurs chrétiens, 13 rue des Ecluses Saint-Martin, 75010 Paris, France, Jan. 1997. 4p. Illus. 13 ref.
Hnizdo E., Murray J., Klempman S.
Lung cancer in relation to exposure to silica dust, silicosis and uranium production in South African gold miners
In a cohort of 2260 South African gold miners, 78 cases of lung cancer were found during the follow-up period from 1970 to 1986. The risk of lung cancer was associated with tobacco smoking, cumulative dust exposure, duration of underground mining and silicosis. No association was found with uranium production. The results cannot be interpreted definitively in terms of causal association. High levels of exposure to silica dust on its own are important in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and silicosis is either coincidental or represents an increased risk. The risk is also increased in miners spending many hours underground, in which case high levels of silica dust exposure may be a surrogate for exposure to radon daughters.
Thorax, Mar. 1997, Vol.52, p.271-275. 19 ref.
Piitulainen E., Tornling G., Eriksson S.
Effect of age and occupational exposure to airway irritants on lung function in non-smoking individuals with α1 antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ)
Severe α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is associated with an increased risk of lung emphysema, especially in smokers. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors other than smoking for declining lung function. Lung function was studied in 225 self-reported never-smoking PiZZ subjects included in the Swedish AAT deficiency register. Lung function was poorer in men than in women. Among the PiZZ subjects, men reported occupational exposure to gases, fumes or dust more frequently than women. In those aged 50 or older, lung function declined. Asthmatic symptoms and occupational exposure to airway irritants appear to constitute additional risk factors for this condition.
Thorax, Mar. 1997, Vol.52, p.244-248. Illus. 16 ref.
Incidence of drug use in the world of work, 1996
La incidencia de las drogas en el mundo laboral, 1996 [in Spanish]
This report presents the findings of cross-sectional epidemiological study based on a survey of a sample of 2300 employed persons and 300 unemployed persons or persons seeking their first job. Its objectives were to shed light on the prevalence the drug consumption (including alcohol and tobacco) in Spain, and to compare the findings with those of a similar survey conducted ten years earlier. A first section provides data on the consumption by substances according to various factors (employment status, age, sex, region of residence, social class and religious beliefs). The second section discusses the motivations, attitudes and consequences of drug consumption. Finally, several preventive measures aimed at employers are proposed.
Fundación de Ayuda contra la Drogadicción, Avda. de Burgos 1 y 3, 28036 Madrid, Spain, 1996. 258p. Illus. 86 ref.
Moulin J.J., Wenger W., Wild P.
Proposed method of accounting for the effects of tobacco smoke in cohort studies - Epidemiologic studies of mortality in the industrial sector
Proposition d'une méthode pour la prise en compte des effets de la fumée de tabac dans les études de cohortes - Etudes épidémiologiques de mortalité en milieu industriel [in French]
Topics: bronchial cancer; cancer; carcinogenic effects; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; frequency rates; industries; mathematical models; mortality; respiratory diseases; smoking; statistical evaluation.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 1996. 92p. Illus. 96 ref.
Lam T.H., Jiang C.Q., Liu W.W., Zhang W.S., He J.M., Zhu C.Q.
Smoking and exposure to occupational hazards in 8,304 workers in Guangzhou, China
Topics: age-linked differences; China; cross-sectional study; dust; harmful physical agents; harmful substances; health hazards; manufacturing industries; sex-linked differences; smoking; synergism.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1996, Vol.46, No.5, p.351-355. 10 ref.
Testing times for the mining industry: A Western Australian perspective on alcohol and drugs workplace problems
Topics: alcoholism; Australia; drug dependence; drug testing; economic aspects; implementation of control measures; legislation; mining industry; risk factors; smoking; survey.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.6, p.711-724. 20 ref.
Küpper H.U., Breitstadt R., Ulmer W.T.
Effects on the lung function of exposure to carbon black dusts - Results of a study carried out on 677 members of staff of the DEGUSSA factory in Kalscheuren/Germany
The lung function of 677 workers of a carbon black plant in Germany was measured. Among smokers, carbon black dust exposure had a minimal impact on lung function, with a significantly higher incidence of obstructive airway disease (7.3%) than in non-smokers (3.9%). No significant impact of fine dust exposure on lung function could be detected in non-smokers (including ex-smokers) and exposure to fine dust among smokers had less effect on pulmonary function than did smoking.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 1996, Vol.68, No.6, p.478-483. Illus. 23 ref.
Bezabeh S., et al.
Does benzene cause multiple myeloma? An analysis of the published case-control literature
In a review of population-based and hospital-based control studies published through mid-1995, no increased association was found between multiple myeloma and benzene exposure or surrogates for benzene exposure. Exposures to petroleum products and employment in petroleum-related occupations did not appear to be risk factors for multiple myeloma. Cigarette smoking, as a surrogate of benzene exposure, was not associated with multiple myeloma, while some studies of products of combustion described as "engine exhaust" did show a significant association with multiple myeloma.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.6, p.1393-1398. Illus. 28 ref.
Andrews B., Oates F., Naden P.
Aboriginal health worker smoking; results of a Western NSW survey
A questionnaire survey was conducted among Aboriginal health workers in New South Wales, Australia, to assess their tobacco use and their awareness of an ongoing project to quit smoking. Of the 22 respondents, 14 were current smokers, 6 were nonsmokers and 2 were ex-smokers. Most respondents said they were interested in special staff training to help others to quit smoking. These preliminary results add to the limited data available on Aboriginal smoking habits.
Aboriginal and Islander Health Worker Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1996, Vol.20, No.5, p.19-22. 14 ref.
Kross B.C., et al.
Proportionate mortality study of golf course superintendents
A mortality study was carried out among 686 golf course superintendents who died between 1970 and 1992. These workers were exposed to a variety of hazards including pesticides. Results showed a significant excess mortality from smoking-related diseases, including arteriosclerotic heart disease and respiratory diseases such as lung cancer and emphysema. There were also increased levels of brain cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cancer of the large intestine, prostrate cancer and diseases of the nervous and sensory systems. Preventive strategies such as smoking cessation programmes and precautions for the reduction of pesticide exposure are recommended.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1996, Vol.29, No.5, p.501-506. 43 ref.
Morales Suárez-Varela M.M., et al.
Tobacco and alcohol consumption as health risk factors in seafarers
Hábito tabáquico y alcohólico como factores de riesgo del estado de salud de los trabajadores del mar [in Spanish]
An epidemiologic study based on information obtained from 707 clinical histories of seafarers from Valencia, Spain, was conducted in order to investigate tobacco and alcohol consumption and its relationship to health conditions in this population of workers. It was found that tobacco and alcohol consumption was higher than in the population of both the Community of Valencia and Spain and this habit plays an important role in the development of pathologies. Tables included. (Summary in English).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1996, Vol.43, No.168, p.27-36. 29 ref.
Shaham J., Meltzer A., Ashkenazi R., Ribak J.
Biological monitoring of exposure to cadmium, a human carcinogen, as a result of active and passive smoking
Levels of blood cadmium and urine cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) were determined as biological markers of exposure to cigarette smoke in a group of workers comprising 47 active smokers, 46 passive smokers, and 65 unexposed nonsmokers. The mean blood cadmium levels in the active and passive smokers were significantly higher than in the unexposed nonsmokers. The mean cotinine level was significantly higher in active smokers than in the passive smokers or nonsmokers. Exposure to cigarette smoke is harmful in both active and passive smokers and is a confounder to be taken into account in epidemiologic studies and surveillance programmes on cadmium-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1220-1228. 64 ref.
Lehucher-Michel M.P., Ait Amara Y., Botta A.
Micronucleus assay on exfoliated urothelial cells: Effect of smoking and application to occupational biomonitoring
Application du test de numération des micronoyaux aux cellules urothéliales exfoliées: effet du tabagisme et intérêt en médecine du travail [in French]
Exposure to genotoxic chemicals increases the incidence of bladder cancer. Smoking seems to have an additive effect on this cancer risk. Exfoliated bladder cell micronuclei assays may constitute a useful testing for genotoxic effects in populations with an increased risk of bladder cancer due to exposure to chemical substances. A micronucleus assay was applied to 73 healthy donors not occupationally exposed to genotoxic chemicals. Among the variables studied in 50 subjects presenting a number of analyzed urothelial cells at least equal to 1000, only smoking showed a significant effect on micronucleated cell rates (P = 0.007). Micronucleated cell levels in ex-smokers were slightly lower but not significantly different from that of smokers suggesting that smoking could generate clones of basal micronucleated cells in urothelial tissues. The importance of extending the micronucleus assay to target tissues is stressed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.6, p.429-437. Illus. 82 ref.
Takkouche B., Gestal-Otero J.J.
The epidemiology of lung cancer: Review of risk factors and Spanish data
Risk factors of lung cancer with an emphasis on Spanish and European data are reviewed. In Spain, though lung cancer incidence rates are much lower than in Europe in general (especially for women), lung cancer mortality increased much more rapidly for men than for women between the 1950s and 1980s. This trend can be explained by tobacco consumption, which remains the major risk factor for lung cancer. Occupational radon and asbestos exposures are other factors, though not as important. Genetic factors could also play an aetiologic role.
European Journal of Epidemiology, Aug. 1996, Vol.12, p.341-349. Illus. 99 ref.
Bergman T.A., Johnson D.L., Boatright D.T., Smallwood K.G., Rando R.J.
Occupational exposure of nonsmoking nightclub musicians to environmental smoke
Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in three nightclubs was assessed using total suspended particulate (TSP), the ultraviolet absorbing fraction of TSP (UVPM), gaseous nicotine, saliva nicotine, saliva cotinine, and perceived smokiness as exposure/dose indicators. Measured exposures were as high as, or higher than, those of other occupational groups studied, including bartenders and waitresses. UVPM levels were associated with gaseous and saliva nicotine concentrations. Correlation of TSP with UVPM and with gaseous and saliva nicotine was poor, suggesting that TSP should not be used as the sole indicator of ETS exposure. Saliva nicotine did not appear to be a reliable indicator of absorbed dose.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1996, Vol.57, No.8, p.746-752. 27 ref.
Ryan J., Zwerling C., Jones M.
Cigarette smoking at hire as a predictor of employment outcome
A one-year follow-up study of a cohort of 2,537 U.S. postal service workers showed that cigarette smoking at the time of hire was associated with increased risk of accidents, injuries, disciplinary measures and involuntary turnover. In a follow-up study one year later, smokers' elevated risks for accidents, injuries and discipline had decreased, while the risk for involuntary turnover was slightly higher. Absence rates for smokers were higher in both periods. Employees who are known to smoke at the time of hire are at increased risk of adverse employment outcomes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1996, Vol.38, No.9, p.928-933. 27 ref.
Hennrikus D.J., Jeffery R.W., Lando H.A.
Occasional smoking in a Minnesota working population
In a population of working adults the prevalence of occasional smoking was examined together with long-term smoking patterns of occasional smokers. Occasional smokers constituted 18.3% of all smokers in the baseline sample and 21.5% of all smokers in the cross-sectional sample surveyed 2 years later. Job monotony or repetitiveness were related to an increase in daily smoking at follow-up, while a change to more restrictive workplace smoking policies was associated with quitting. The results also confirm that a substantial proportion of smokers are low-rate users.
American Journal of Public Health, Sep. 1996, Vol.86, No.9, p.1260-1266. 15 ref.
Nathan P.A., Keniston R.C., Lockwood R.S., Meadows K.D.
Tobacco, caffeine, alcohol and carpal tunnel syndrome in American industry - A cross-sectional study of 1464 workers
The effects of legal drug use on the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were studied in 656 nonclaimant workers and 808 working patients with upper extremity symptoms. Greater use of tobacco combined with greater consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol abuse was associated with more median nerve slowing, more specific hand/wrist symptoms, and more definite CTS as confirmed by nerve conduction studies. Greater use of alcohol was associated with a reduced prevalence of symptoms. While legal drugs affect the health of the median nerve and the prevalence of CTS, their effects explain only a small portion of the total risk.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1996, Vol.38, No.3, p.290-298. 23 ref.
Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Greco T.M.
Health and social concerns of restaurant/bar workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
Smoking (22) and non-smoking (21) workers were surveyed by means of interviews to assess their reactions to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in three restaurant settings. There was a significant difference between the non-smokers and the smokers in their attitudes towards ETS in workplace (non-smokers showed more health symptoms and anti-smoking attitudes than smokers). Carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations ranged from 1 to 23ppm; carbon dioxide (CO2) from 100 to 6,000ppm and nitrogen oxides were in practice non detectable. Levels of CO increased during the entire workshift, CO2 levels increased when workplaces were more crowded. Designation of non-smoking sectors did not seem to reduce workers' exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.87, No.2, p.122-132. Illus. 33 ref.
Soden K.J., Marras G., Amsel J.
Carboxyhemoglobin levels in methylene chloride-exposed employees
Methylene chloride is a volatile liquid used in a wide variety of industrial applications. The present OSHA permissible occupational exposure (500ppm, 8h TWA) is proposed to be reduced to 25ppm. This is due to the concern about potentially adverse cardiac effects related to high levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) consequent to the exposure. Exposure assessments of non-smoking employees of a plant exposed to methylene chloride in the production process was performed, comparing the levels of COHb found with those of smokers. Exposure values were similar in both groups, with individually measured methylene chloride exposures averaging up to 99ppm. COHb levels ranged between 1.7-4% in non-smokers and between 4.95-6.35% in smokers. A dose-response effect was seen only in the non-smoking group. It was concluded that the observed COHb levels, resulting from exposures to methylene chloride at or below the current permissible limit (ACGIH) of 50ppm (8h TWA) are at a sufficiently low level and unlikely to produce an adverse cardiac effect in humans.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.38, No.4, p.367-371. 12 ref.
Cipriáin Chocarro C., Lázcoz Rojas J.L., Lezáun Eslava M., Pangua Cerrillo S.
Smoking in the enterprise
El hábito tabáquico en la empresa [in Spanish]
Survey of smoking in a large Spanish enterprise (306 employees). A sample of 280 workers was investigated by a questionnaire survey (269 valid responses). Distribution by smoking habits (48% smokers, 16% ex-smokers, the rest non-smokers). Three major methods are recommended in order to avoid passive smoking by non-smokers: physical separation of the two categories of workers; complete prohibition of smoking in the workplace; installation of smoke extraction equipment and appropriate ventilation.
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 1996, No.135, p.43-50. Illus. 18 ref.
Boffetta P., Vainio H., Saracci R.
Epidemiology versus a smoke screen
This brief communication criticizes recent statements by the European tobacco industry that available epidemiological evidence does not support an association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of lung cancer. An evaluation by a tobacco-financed group of experts in other scientific disciplines is criticized for its inaccurate interpretation of epidemiological studies. Evaluations by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) conclude that passive smoking gives rise to some risk of cancer.
Lancet, 10 Aug. 1996, Vol.348, No.9024, p.410. 4 ref.
Zitting A.J., Karjalainen A., Impivaara O., Kuusela T., Mäki J., Tossavainen A., Järvisalo J.
Radiographic small lung opacities and pleural abnormalities in relation to smoking, urbanization status, and occupational asbestos exposure in Finland
In a study of a representative sample of the Finnish adult population (7085 individuals), full-size chest radiographs were analyzed and data on urbanization status, health, smoking and occupational history were collected. The risk of bilateral pleural plaques was higher among urban men and women, even when adjusted for age and probability of occupational asbestos exposure and smoking. Risks of small lung opacities and thickening of the visceral pleura were positively associated with smoking and the risk of small lung opacities was also higher among smokers than non-smokers in the population fraction with unlikely occupational asbestos exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1996, Vol.38, No.6, p.602-609. 19 ref.
Cardiovascular disease and occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
Results of chemical analysis, animal experiments and human studies are reviewed and found not to support claims of an association between workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and occupational coronary heart disease. Based on current OSHA practices for the regulation of emissions from other complex mixtures, it is proposed that ETS levels be regulated by monitoring levels of its surrogates, particularly nicotine, carbon monoxide, benzo(a)pyrene and carbon disulfide, substances associated with cardiovascular disease. Data indicate that the levels of these substances potentially arising from ETS do not approach their respective permissible exposure limits. Further regulation of ETS to prevent cardiovascular disease does not appear to be warranted.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.285-294. 75 ref.
Bortkiewicz A., Pałczyński C., Makowiec-Dąbrowska T., Górski P.
Cardiac arrhythmia in women performing heavy physical work
The response of the circulatory system to heavy physical work was assessed in 35 women employed as printing machine operators. Heart rates during work, leisure time and sleep were evaluated with Holter ECG recordings. In nine of the women, heart rhythm disturbances (in particular, supraventricular extrasystoles) were found, which occurred in connection with the physical tasks performed. Conduction disturbances were observed at night in three cases. Elevated blood pressure was found in five of the subjects, but without ECG alterations. Among those with ECG changes, only one had abnormal blood pressure. Sixty percent of the examined women were overweight and many of them were habitual cigarette smokers.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1995, Vol.8, No.1, p.23-31. 49 ref.
Alcouffe J., Botran-Aly C., Brehier M., Cabanis D., Dupery M., Fabin C., Fleuret C., Goux A., Lidove E., Scain M.J., Simonnet M., Vergriete G.
Smoking in small and medium-sized enterprises [in France] - Two years after application of the "Loi Evin"
Tabagisme en petites et moyennes entreprises - Deux ans après l'application de la loi Evin [in French]
In 1992, the 12 occupational physicians of the inter-enterprise medical service of St. Maur (Val-de-Marne département of France) defined a cohort for a long-term study of smoking habits in the working population. In July 1992 and July 1994, they determined the distribution of smokers and nonsmokers in five groups of workplaces defined by the extent to which smoking was prohibited or the opportunities to smoke were limited. Between the two dates, the number of smokers fell among those at whose workplaces smoking was prohibited by the enterprise, but rose among those at whose workplaces it was prohibited by law. No significant change was seen in the three other groups (smoking limited by peer pressure or the demands of the job; jobs whose compatibility with smoking varied from day to day; no limitation on smoking).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.63, p.181-185. 11 ref.
Burns P.B., Swanson G.M.
Stomach cancer risk among black and white men and women: The role of occupation and cigarette smoking
A telephone interview survey was carried out to determine occupational and tobacco-use histories for 739 stomach cancer cases and 3750 population controls. Cigarette smokers had a 50% increase in stomach cancer risk; risk increased with increasing levels of smoking. The majority of occupations with significant increases in stomach cancer risk were among white men and included agricultural workers, driver sales, assembly workers, mechanics and material movers. Black women assembly workers and white women food workers were also at increased risk. No association was found between dust exposure and stomach cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.37, No.10, p.1218-1223. 35 ref.
Hammond S.K., Sorensen G., Youngstrom R., Ockene J.K.
Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
A survey was carried out to measure the average weekly concentration of environmental tobacco smoke in 23 worksites in Massachusetts, USA. Approximately 25 samplers were placed in each worksite for a week. Nicotine concentrations fell from a median of 8.6µg/m3 in the open offices at worksites that allowed smoking to 1.3µg/m3 in sites that restricted smoking, and to 0.3µg/m3 in worksites that banned smoking. Non-office workspaces were similarly affected. Results indicate that occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke presents a substantial risk to workers in the absence of a policy restricting or banning smoking.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 27 Sep. 1995, Vol.274, No.12, p.956-960. Illus. 30 ref.
Cocchiarella L.A., Sharp D.S., Persky V.W.
Hearing threshold shifts, white-cell count and smoking status in working men
The association between cardiovascular risk factors and high-frequency hearing loss was examined using medical records from 699 employees with low workplace noise exposure. High-frequency hearing was significantly associated with white-blood-cell (WBC) count (previously implicated as a marker for cardiovascular disease), smoking status, mean corpuscular volume and the globulin/albumin ratio, especially in men ≤40 years old. The association with WBC count remained significant after controlling for other factors. Findings suggest that high-frequency hearing loss may be used as a marker for susceptibility to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.45, No.4, p.179-185. Illus. 46 ref.
Caporaso N.E., Landi M.T.
Molecular epidemiology: A new perspective for the study of toxic exposures in man. A consideration of the influence of genetic susceptibility factors on risk in different lung cancer histologies
Epidemiologic evidence for genetic susceptibility factors in tobacco-related cancer is suggestive but not determinant. Variability in results depends on: assay misclassification, non-correspondence of phenotype/genotype in certain subjects, disease heterogeneity, exposure variation, ethnic and racial variation. Future studies should concentrate on the presence of multiple genetic markers. The observation that the tobacco-cancer association is weaker for adenocarcinoma than for the other lung cancers suggests some interaction of the genetic trait with exposure to tobacco smoking.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol.85, No.1, p.68-77. 45 ref.
What everyone should know about smoking at work
Training booklet on how to deal with smoking in the workplace. Main topics: hazards of active and passive smoking; positive results of reducing or elimination of smoking in the workplace (including organizational savings); tips on how to quit smoking.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###
Sulotto F., Romano C., Insana A., Carrubba Cacciola M., Cerutti A.
Normal blood carboxyhaemoglobin and methaemoglobin levels in a sample of military conscripts
Valori normali di carbossiemoglobinemia e di metaemoglobinemia in un campione di militari di leva [in Italian]
Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) and methaemoglobin (MetaHb) values in blood were measured in a population of 296 asymptomatic military conscripts who were not under medical treatment and had no occupational exposure. The mean COHb value was 3.25 (SD=1.45%) in smokers and 1.34 (SD=0.8) in non-smokers, with a wide variability in both subgroups, particularly among smokers. The COHb levels in moderate smokers were lower than in heavy smokers, but smoking just before the blood test greatly increased the COHb levels. Non-smoking country dwellers had lower COHb levels than non-smoking city dwellers, but the COHb levels of smokers were independent of residence and were only smoking-related. The sample MetaHb level was 0.81 (SD=0.37) and was influenced by country living and smoking. Levels were lowest in non-smoking country dwellers (0.66, SD=0.38%) and increased with moderate smoking (0.71, SD=0.40%). Heavy smoker levels were independent of residence. Smoking just before the blood test had no effect on the value.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.85, No.4, p.289-298. Illus. 21 ref.
Hedge A., Erickson W.A., Rubin G.
The effects of alternative smoking policies on indoor air quality in 27 office buildings
The effect of alternative smoking policies, which prohibited or restricted smoking, on indoor air quality was studied in 27 air-conditioned office buildings. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, respirable particulates, formaldehyde, ultraviolet particulate matter, nicotine, air temperature, relative humidity and illumination were measured at eight sample sites in each building. Smoking policy had no effect on carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, relative humidity, formaldehyde, air temperature or illumination for open office areas. It did have an effect on levels of respirable suspended particulates, ultraviolet particulate matter and nicotine.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1994, Vol.38, No.3, p.265-278. 21 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidance note on passive smoking in the workplace
Contents of this guidance note: passive smoking as a risk to occupational health and safety (adverse health effects, legal aspects); assessment of risk in the workplace; control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (establishment of a smoke-free workplace, use of designated smoking areas, engineering controls, administrative controls); implementation of a workplace policy.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, July 1994. vii, 28p. 19 ref.
Bernstein M., Pairon J.C., Morabia A., Gaudichet A., Janson X., Brochard P.
Non-fibrous dust load and smoking in dental technicians - A study using bronchoalveolar lavage
A study was conducted with transmission electron microscopy to find out whether bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) could be used to identify subjects with occupational exposure to mineral particles. BAL fluid from 46 dental technicians and 41 controls with lung diseases but free from occupational exposure to dusts was analyzed. The total particle concentration in BAL fluid was significantly higher in dental technicians than in controls (12.18 x 105 particles/mL of BAL fluid, compared to 2.03 x 105 particles/mL, p<0.001). Dental technicians had significantly more crystalline silica, aluminium, and alloys containing nickel and chromium. There was a non-significant two-fold increase of total particle concentration in the lungs of dental technicians who were smokers compared with non-smokers. The results strongly support the use of BAL fluid analysis to assess dust accumulation in workers in heavily exposed occupations such as dental technicians. This is a valid method to evaluate occupational exposure to non-fibrous mineral particles, and possibly to determine the occupational aetiology of some respiratory diseases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.51, No.1, p.23-27. 25 ref.
Fontham E.T.H., Correa P., Reynolds P., Wu-Williams A., Buffler P.A., Greenberg R.S., Chen V.W., Alterman T., Boyd P., Austin D.F., Liff J.
Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in nonsmoking women - A multicenter study
A multicentre population-based case-control study to determine the relative risk of lung cancer in nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was carried out in five metropolitan areas in the USA. Tobacco use by spouses was associated with a 30% excess risk of lung cancer. The excess risk of lung cancer among women ever exposed to ETS during adult life in the household was 24%, in the workplace 39%, and in social settings 50%. When these sources were considered jointly, an increasing risk of lung cancer with increasing duration of exposure was observed.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 June 1994, Vol.271, No.22, p.1752-1759. 50 ref.
Smoking and work-related health
Occupational hazards with which smoking has a synergistic effect are reviewed. Studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among smokers occupationally exposed to certain toxic substances, in particular asbestos, compared to non-smokers. Similar results were found in surveys of tin miners exposed to radioactive materials. Cigarette smokers have a greater than expected incidence of occupational asthma symptoms, while an excess of cancer of the kidneys and bladder has been observed in smokers exposed to occupational causes of these diseases. Implications for health and safety staff are outlined, in particular the need for effective smoking policies.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 1994, Vol.12, No.5, p.16-19. Illus. 21 ref.
Is your workplace addictive?
The problems of addictive behaviour and their manifestation and management in the workplace are reviewed. While addictions to alcohol, drugs, smoking and gambling are frequently encountered, other addictions, such as "workaholism", are less well known. Alcohol misuse results in considerable costs to industry in terms of working days lost, while smoking has a wide range of direct and indirect consequences for the health of employees. The development of addictive behaviour is discussed along with the management of addictions and profiling of potential addicts.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 1994, Vol.12, No.1, p.14-17. 19 ref.
Working with smokers
Travailler avec des fumeurs [in French]
Roken op het werk [in Dutch]
Contents of this training booklet on the prevention of harmful effects of smoking in the workplace: overview; policies by the enterprise; Belgian legislation concerning the matter; strategic options (prohibition of smoking, taking into consideration local conditions, consulting and involving workers, evaluation and follow-up of the chosen policy); additional material measures that may be taken; the situation in practice; references to Belgian legislation applying to smoking in the workplace. List of useful addresses.
Commissariaat-generaal voor de Bevordering van de Arbeid, Ministerie van Tewerkstelling en Arbeid, Belliardstraat 51, Bureau A 438, 1040 Brussel, Belgium, 1993. 26p. 5 ref.
Information for enterprise management: Non-smoking workplaces
Information pour les directions d'entreprises - Place de travail sans fumée [in French]
Eine information für Betriebsleitungen: Nichtrauchen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Informazioni per le direzioni aziendali: Non si fuma sui posti di lavoro [in Italian]
This brochure provides brief guidance on how managers can create a smoke-free working environment.
Association suisse contre la tuberculose et les maladies pulmonaires (ASTP), Falkenplatz 9, Case postale, 3001 Berne, Switzerland; and Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1993. 12p. Illus.
Society of Occupational Medicine, Health and Safety of Strasbourg - Meeting of 26 March 1993
Société de médecine, d'hygiène et de sécurité du travail de Strasbourg - Séance du 26 mars 1993 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Health and Safety of Strasbourg (France, 26 Mar. 1993): report on a programme aimed at the prevention of tobacco smoking in a large plant; the ergonomics of garbage collecting.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.695-700.
Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region - Meetings of 11 December 1992, 15 January, 12 February and 19 March 1993
Société de médecine du travail et d'ergonomie de Bordeaux et de sa région - Séances des 11 décembre 1992, 15 janvier, 12 février et 19 mars 1993 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meetings of 11 Dec. 1992, 15 Jan., 12 Feb. and 19 March 1993 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Ergonomics of Bordeaux and region (France): occupational physicians and workers working with food; implementation in enterprises of the French Decree of 29 May 1992 on the prohibition of smoking in premises used by all employees; new techniques of respiratory function testing; qualifications in occupational medicine; attempts at defining ethics in occupational medicine; study of the effects of noise on the hearing of workers in a marshalling yard; assessment of an indicator of workload and ageing; usefulness of aptitude assessments of expatriate workers for overseas living.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.682-694.
Society of Occupational Medicine of the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and Corsica regions - Meetings of 29 September and 25 November 1992, 19 January and 12 February 1993
Société de médecine du travail de la région Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur et de la région Corse - Séances des 29 septembre et 25 novembre 1992, et des 19 janvier et 12 février 1993 [in French]
Papers presented at the meetings of the Society of Occupational Medicine of the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur and Corsica regions (France, 29 Sep. and 25 Nov. 1992, 19 Jan. and 12 Feb. 1993): collectors' badges and epoxy resins - investigation after the reporting of a case of an occupational disease; in-plant management of smoking under French legislation concerning smoking in the workplace; sleep disturbances and the working population; classification of sleep disturbances; sleep physiology and the faculties of adaptation; postural deficiency syndromes; neurophysiopathogenic aspects of the postural system; ophthalmic posture and occupational medicine.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.669-681.
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