Nutrition - 210 entries found
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Vahter M., Berglund M., Lind B., Jorhem L., Slorach S., Friberg L.
Personal monitoring of lead and cadmium exposure - a Swedish study with special reference to methodological aspects
Methods for determining personal exposure to lead and cadmium were tested in Stockholm in 1988. Lead and cadmium in breathing-zone air, 24-h duplicate diets, and faeces of 15 nonsmoking women (27-46 years of age) were studied. Blood was collected at the beginning of and immediately after the test period (seven consecutive days). Most technical problems were encountered in the 24-h collection of airborne particles. The pumps were noisy, and the batteries had to be recharged every 6-8h. The lead and cadmium levels in faeces were found to be useful indicators of the total ingested amounts of these metals. Because of the large day-to-day variation in the dietary intake of lead and cadmium, the sampling period for duplicate diets and feces should be at least 5-6d.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1991, Vol.17, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 41 ref.
Points of safety and health: Ensuring safety and health in the workplace
Elementary safety and health precautions to be taken by employees are surveyed in this training manual. Each aspect of prevention is accompanied by a checklist of simple, easy-to-follow instructions. In addition to the usual safety and health issues, this manual also covers psycho-social aspects of well-being on the job, the specifically Japanese approach to zero-accident workplaces through Kiken-Yochi (hazard prediction), and hints on off-the-job safety and health (driving, regular medical checkups, physical exercise, healthy eating and sleeping habits, avoidance of stress).
Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, 1991. 48p. Illus.
Potential contribution of dietary sources to urinary cadmium and β2-microglobulin excretion of occupationally exposed workers
To determine the potential contribution dietary cadmium may have toward total urinary excretion of cadmium and β2-microglobulin of occupationally exposed workers, 260 residents of the town of Walsall (England) who grew a proportion of their vegetable diet in urban garden soils were studied. Urinary excretions of cadmium were significantly elevated above those reported for the general population (p<.001). For nonsmoking, nonoccupationally exposed residents, urinary excretion of cadmium was found to be up to 34% of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Biological Exposure Index. In evaluating biological monitoring data of cadmium-exposed workers, the potential significance of dietary intake from urban grown produce should not be overlooked.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.11, p.1175-1179. Illus. 32 ref.
Brossard B., Durand P., Marquis S.
Management views of health promotion needs
Etude de besoins en matière de promotion de la santé - La perspective de dirigeants d'entreprises [in French]
A questionnaire was administered to 52 high-ranking executives to study management views on health promotion needs. Executives listed anti-smoking, nutrition and physical activities as being the most beneficial health promotion areas to their enterprise and its employees. Twenty-five executives mentioned the profitability of their enterprise and 19 the improvement of employees' health as being their main reasons for undertaking such activities. Results from a logistic regression analysis showed individual characteristics of the enterprise to have an influence on the existence of worksite health promotion activities but not on the willingness of executives to collaborate in their implementation. It appears that these activities are considered justified by the majority of high-ranking officers interviewed but that many of them are reluctant to engage in such activities until efficiency criteria are established.
Travail et santé, Spring 1991, Vol.7, No.1, p.S-2 to S-9. Illus. 26 ref.
O'Neill I.K., Chen J., Bartsch H.
Relevance to human cancer of N-nitroso compounds, tobacco smoke and mycotoxins
Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on N-Nitroso Compounds held in Lyon, France, 25-27 Sept. 1989. Papers are grouped under the following headings: introductory papers on N-nitroso compounds and cancer; dosimetry methods for determining human exposure to N-nitroso compounds, mycotoxins and tobacco; exposure and aetiology; mechanisms and biological effects of N-nitroso compounds and mycotoxins; tobacco-related cancer; prevention of exposure to N-nitroso compounds.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1991. xix, 614p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 70.00.
Be aware of diversity and work - A challenge for ergonomics
Conhecer a diversidade e trabalhar com a flexibilidade: um desafio para a ergonomia [in Portuguese]
In order to help make appropriate ergonomic plans for the future Brazilian workforce, this article analyses anthropometric data based on 2 Brazilian surveys: one on 3,100 industrial workers in Rio de Janeiro (1988), the other on a representative sample of the whole Brazilian population (1975). Variables considered: height as a function of age, regional origin and race; height as a function of race and salary. Data of subsidiary interest include: calory and protein intake per person per day in Japan (1910-1980); height and weight as a function of age and socio-economic status in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), 1977-78; height as a function of age for boys, 5-17yrs old, Japan, in 1949 and 1979; selected comparative anthropometric data for the French, the Chinese, for Bantu workers, for industrial workers in Mexico and in Rio de Janeiro (1987-88).
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Dec. 1990, Vol.18, No.71, p.50-61. Illus. 8 ref.
Kiara S.K., Husman K., Kangas J., Klen T., Louhelainen K., Tupi K., Akhabuhaya J.L., Norse D., Choudhry A.W., Selema R.B., Tibone C., Lehtinen S., Bridbord K., Farlee C.
This issue is primarily devoted to the theme of occupational safety and health (OSH) in agriculture. Contents: occupational hazards in agriculture; use of pesticides in agriculture; population, food needs and resources in Africa; OSH training in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar; occupational health in agriculture; health care training in remote rural areas of Botswana; specific risks to women involved in agricultural activities in Botswana; mobile clinic unit in Zimbabwe; post-doctoral research positions available for African candidates at a public health research institute in the United States.
East African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 31 Dec. 1989, No.3, p.1-32 (whole issue). Illus. 21 ref.
Institute of Personnel Management
The corporate health care revolution: strategies for preventive medicine at work
This book is divided into three main sections: Part 1 reviews the origins and scale of current health problems and discusses the US and British experience of health promotion programmes, from both an economic and a medical viewpoint. Part 2 provides background information concerning 5 major risk factors (exercise, nutrition, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, stress) which may interact to produce various diseases, but which can be favourably influenced by worksite health promotion activities. Part 3 discusses how these risk factors interact to contribute to a number of major diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. The practical application of some health promotion strategies is also discussed.
Kogan Page Ltd., 120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, United Kingdom, 1989. 396p. Bibl. Index. Price: GBP 30.00.
Apud E., Bostrand L., Mobbs I.D., Strehlke B.
Guide-lines on ergonomic study in forestry
These guidelines were prepared for research workers in developing countries. The first section looks at human biological methods for research in ergonomics and covers: energy expenditure; physical working capacity; evaluation of heavy work, energy intake and expenditure; body size and muscular strength. The second section describes the design and application of an ergonomic checklist covering a range of conditions found in forestry. Section 3 on noise looks at effects of noise on humans, measurement and assessment of noise at work, noise control and audiometry. The fourth section describes the collection, compilation and analysis of statistics and other approaches to accident study. The final section provides a simple guide to work study methods for foresters.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 242p. Illus. Bibl.
Candas V., Bothorel B.
Data sheet on hygiene and life at work - 1: Hydration, work and heat
Fiche d'hygiène de vie au travail - 1: Hydration, travail et chaleur [in French]
In everyday life, at home and at work, even in moderate thermal conditions the human body loses water. The resulting water-mineral imbalance can have effects that are more or less harmful. Contents of the article: water loss, its origins and effects, and more particularly the effects of organic dehydration on the thermophysiological, cardiovascular and endocrinal responses of the human body; rehydration by oral ingestion and its efficiency depending on the type of drink ingested; recommendations for workers and consultants, based on existing data in the specialised literature and on the results of scientific researches such as those carried out at the Laboratory of Environmental Physiology and Psychology in Strasbourg (France).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1989, No.135, Note No.1727-135-89, p.241-245. 35 ref.
Guide-lines for procedures for the inspection of labour conditions on board ships [ILO]
Directive concernant les procédures applicables à l'inspection des conditions de travail à bord des navires [BIT] [in French]
These guide-lines were adopted by a tripartite ILO meeting of experts held in Geneva during October 1989. They are intended to assist ship inspectors, labour inspectors and others concerned with labour and social conditions on board ship to carry out examinations or inquiries. National laws and regulations or agreements between shipowners and seafearers relating to seafarers' labour and social conditions, laid down in conformity with the provisions of Convention No. 147, must be observed by both national and foreign flagships calling at their ports. Annex I contains substantive provisions of the Merchant Shipping (minimum Standards) Convention, 1976 (No.147) Annex II contains substantive provisions of the labour inspection (Seamen) Recommendation, 1926 (No.28).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. 45p.
Canteens and food services in industry: A manual
The aim of this manual is to assist government officials, labour inspectors, employers, human resources managers and workers' representatives in developing countries to determine what type of food service would best meet the needs of workers in various circumstances. It provides suggestions on how to upgrade or expand existing services or create new ones. Topics addressed: standards and government requirements; nutrition; types of food services (mess rooms, food vans, canteens, local vendors); organization, management and financing of canteens; canteen safety and hygiene check list; chilling and freezing methods of food preservation.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1988. 116p. 71 ref.
Šaripov A.H., Gulja Ju. S.
Occupational safety and health in gas-lift well operation
Ohrana truda pri gazliftnoj ėkspluatacii skvažin [in Russian]
This reference manual is intended for gas-lift facility operators and young workers newly employed by these undertakings. Contents: basic provisions of the Soviet labour code; equipment, processes and production structure; working conditions (working environment and control of worker exposure to workplace hazards; electric power and protection against electric current; manual work and mechanisation); safe worker behaviour on gas-lift facility territory (general requirements; safety signs and colours, written instructions, posters, sound and light signalling; safe transportation of personnel by various types of vehicles; materials handling and lifting; safety requirements for hand tools; requirements for the safe execution of hazardous operations involving gases; chemicals (methanol); pressure vessels; machinery and mechanisms; general electrical safety requirements; fire safety); occupational hygiene and sanitation (welfare facilities; ventilation; lighting; food provision, catering; personal protective equipment); occupational injuries and first aid (hypothermia, frostbites and freezing; hyperthermia, heat strokes and burns; chemical and food poisoning; electrical injuries; wounds; fractures; ligament sprains, joint dislocations, contusions; traumatic shock; artificial respiration).
Izdatel'stvo Nedra, pl. Belorusskogo vokzala 3, 125047 Moskva, USSR, 1988. 57p. Illus. Price: SUR 0.20.
Rotational shiftwork: A summary of the adverse effects and improvement strategies
Travail de poste par roulement: sommaire des effets néfastes et des stratégies correctives [in French]
Information note. The shiftworker is at risk for health problems because of irregular patterns of eating, working, socialising, and sleeping. The results can adversely affect physical and psychological health. Special care must be taken by both the shiftworker and the employer to prevent as many of the adverse effects as possible. Design of the shift schedule to make it compatible with the body's circadian rhythms is an extremely important factor. Cooperation of the employer, the shiftworker, and the family of the shiftworker is essential.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1987. 14p. Illus. 29 ref.
Training manual on equipment and occupational safety and health in group catering - System of comprehensive programmed instruction based on support cues
Učebnoe posobie po oborudovaniju i ohrane truda v obščestvennom pitanii (sistema kompleksnogo programmirovannogo obučenija na baze opornyh signalov) [in Russian]
This book is designed for technical school teachers and students. It adapts "SCPI-SC", an advanced teaching and learning method of "support cues" or "signals", developed by Soviet secondary school teacher V. ¿atalov, for the specific purpose of teaching an "Equipment and Occupational Safety and Health in Group Catering" course to technical school students. A "support cue" or "signal" is any informational unit (fact, figure, event, etc.), which somehow sticks in the learner's mind and later on serves as a catch for restoring as much of the delivered information as possible. Contents: system characteristics; system introduction; programming of the "Equipment" course instruction; programming of knowledge check within the SCPI-SC framework; programming of the "Occupational Safety and Health" course (organisational, methodological and planning features of the subject learning); OSH support cues and units; instruction cards for practice work.
Izdatel'stvo Ėkonomika, Berežkovskaja nab. 6, 121864 Moskva, G-59, USSR, 1987. 332p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: SUR 1.50.
Musculoskeletal system and work strain
Skelett- und Bewegungssystem und Arbeitsbeansprechung [in German]
Strain, as measured by heart rate and energy consumption, was compared with degenerative changes of the skeletal and locomotor systems. There is no protection against injuries offered by existing limitations on permissible load. Single loads and static work components seem to cause or promote injuries. For measuring local muscle strain the electromyogram is suitable. Biomechanics and orthopaedists must try to identify the forces affecting the skeletal system and locomotor apparatus, and conduct epidemiologic investigations to state reliable limits.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, 1987, Vol.37, No.5, p.143-148. 86 ref.
Iso H., Sato S., Fukuuchi K., Doi M., Shimamoto T., Komachi Y.
Appropriateness of salt intake recommendations for preventing circulatory disorders in persons working at high temperatures
Junkanki shikkan taisaku no tame no kōonka sagyō jūjisha ni taisuru gen'en shidō no datōsei ni kansuru kentō [in Japanese]
To reduce the incidence of circulatory disorders in Japan, reductions in dietary salt intake to 10g/day or less have been recommended. To determine the validity of this recommendation for persons working at high temperatures, 7 subjects engaged in greenhouse labour were studied. The amount of perspiration during farming work in greenhouses was 0.7 - 3.0L/day. This amount was proportional to the net working time spent in the greenhouse. Two methods were used for estimating the amount of salt lost in perspiration. From the measured volumes of perspiration and previously published estimates of salt concentration in perspiration, the range of salt lost in perspiration was estimated to be 2 - 9g/day. The amount of salt lost in perspiration was 2 - 8g/day when calculated by subtraction of 24hr urinary salt excretion from 24-hr oral salt intake. Under the extreme conditions of watermelon pollination, which included 6h of work in greenhouses for one subject, the amount of perspiration was 3L/day, with an estimated maximum salt loss of 8 - 9g. Salt intake should be limited to 10g/day or less even for healthy farm labourers working under extreme conditions.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Aug. 1987, Vol.34, No.8, p.413-419. Illus. 13 ref.
Dermatitis of the hands in caterers
Hand eczema among 50 caterers was occupational in 47 and endogenous in 3 cases. Irritants were considered more important than sensitisers. There was a corrlation between atopy and sensitisation to type-I but not type-IV allergens. The commonest type-I sensitiser was fish; garlic was the commonest typ-IV sensitiser. 50% dilutions of garlic and of onion in arachis oil were not irritant and seemed effective patch test materials. The prognosis was not good; the hand eczema continued even in some of those who changed their jobs.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1987, Vol.17, No.5, p.265-269. 5 ref.
Amano M., Yatsuki K., Umeda G.
Cervicobrachial disorders in female school-lunch cooks
Bōchō gakkō kyūshoku joshi chōriin no keikenwan shōgai [in Japanese]
To clarify the relationship between cervicobrachial disorders in female school-lunch cooks and the number of lunches served, cooks of 2 towns were examined medically and their working conditions were compared. The number of cooks in town O just met the standard set by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture for the given number of pupils, while town M had more cooks than the required minimum. There were more cooks medically classified as "Normal" in M than in O, and more classified as "Need therapy" in O. Prevalence rates of abnormal median nerve extension tests, painful movement of the neck and muscle tenderness were higher in O cooks than in M cooks, and rates of subjective symptoms were correspondingly higher. The average numbers of lunches and classes per cook were 137 and 3.3, respectively, for O and 114 and 2.9 for M. There was a positive correlation between the number of subjective symptoms and the number of lunches per cook. Overload due to a shortage of cooks was apparently the main cause of the high prevalence of cervicobrachial disorders in O cooks.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.5, p.366-374. 22 ref.
Ito Y., Minohara M., Kurita H., Niiya Y, Sarai S.
Relationship between blood lead concentration and frequencies of food intake in workers occupationally exposed to lead
Enbakuro sagyōsha no chishu enryō to shokuhin sesshu hindo to no kanrensei [in Japanese]
The relationship between food intake and blood lead concentration in 382 male steel workers occupationally exposed to lead, aged 18-55 years, was investigated. Blood lead concentrations were significantly lower in workers with high intake of pulses, salad and calcium-containing foods, and also in workers with active intake of potatoes and vegetables. This seems to indicate that active intake of foods containing vitamins and trace metals could be an important factor in maintaining the health of workers occupationally exposed to heavy metals such as lead.
Fujita-Gakuen Igakkaishi - Bulletin of the Fujita-Gakuen Medical Society, Aug. 1987, Vo.11, No.1, p.93-96. 18 ref.
Ito Y., Minohara M., Niiya Y., Ishigaki K., Otani M., Sarai S.
Relationship between subjective symptoms and frequencies of food intake in workers occupationally exposed to lead
Enbakuro sagyōsha no jikaku shōjō to shokuhin sesshu hindo to no kanrensei [in Japanese]
The relationship between subjective symptoms and food intake in 286 male steel-workers occupationally exposed to lead, aged 18-55 years, was investigated. Workers with subjective symptoms of lead poisoning such as tiredness and dullness were getting significantly lower intakes of vegetables, fruits and vitamin C-containing foods. Lower intakes of vitamin B1- or calcium-containing foods also increased these subjective symptoms in the workers. This suggests that active intake of protein and carbohydrate, and of vitamin-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits, could be useful for reducing subjective symptoms and maintaining the general health of steel workers
Fujita-Gakuen Igakkaishi - Bulletin of the Fujita-Gakuen Medical Society, Aug. 1987, Vol.11, No.1, p.163-167. 12 ref.
Dannaker C.J., White I.R.
Cutaneous allergy to mustard in a salad maker
A case of allergic contact dermatitis to mustard (Brassica nigra) in a salad maker is reported. The sources of skin contact included a commercial salad cream, a vinaigrette, and various members of the mustard family, Cruciferae. The Cruciferae include many salad vegetables and condiments which contain allergenic isothiocyanates. The extent of skin contact among salad makers and other food handlers may be significant, and sensitisation to isothiocyanates from this large family of vegetables may be an important cause of food contact allergy in these individuals.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1987, Vol.16, No.4, p.212-214. Illus. 7 ref.
Scratch-chamber tests in food handler dermatitis
Foods were tested by the scratch-chamber and open application techniques in 80 hand dermatitits patients, 55 of whom were food handlers. Both immediate and delayed reactions were seen. Most immediate scratch-chamber test reactions were provoked by vegetables and spices in patients with birch pollen allergy, and most delayed reactions from spices in patients with allergy to balsam of Peru, and from onion and leek. The evaluation of allergic and irritant reactions was difficult. Positive open application tests were seen in about 75% of patients with immediate or delayed scratch-chamber reactions. Immediate reactions from vegetables, fish and meat, and delayed reactions from orange and lemon peel and onion showed the best clinical relevance. Wet work, surface-active agents and other irritant factors were considered the main causes, and food allergies only as contributory factors in food handler hand dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1987, Vol.16, No.1, p.11-20. Illus. 40 ref.
Kirchner A., Kliem M., Helms V., Kirchner J.H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Hand-guided carts - Safe design and use
Handgeführte Wagen - Sicherheitsgerechte Gestaltung und Einsatz [in German]
This report deals with the handling of manually guided carts (according to DIN 4902) used for the transport of goods and materials in different industries and services. Owing to the frequency of accidents involving hand carts, factors contributing to the accidents were analysed, a biomechanical model of cart use was developed, and design improvements were proposed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, PF 101110, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1986. 271p. Illus. 122 ref.
Gawkrodger D.J., Lloyd M.H., Hunter J.A.A.
Occupational skin disease in hospital cleaning and kitchen workers
Skin disorders were reported in 33% of catering staff and 35% of women cleaners who returned a questionnaire, and were employed in a large hospital. Hand dermatitis occurred in 15% of the caterers and 12% of the cleaners. In the majority, the dermatitis was irritant in origin and related to their wet work occupations. Cleaners had a high prevalence of jewellery dermatitis. Limited patch testing revealed a majority positive to nickel, but a third were negative, indicating that jewellery reactions often but not invariably predict nickel sensitivity. Few subjects were atopic, but some psoriatic patients with hand problems were encountered. Most workers were able to carry on in their occupations despite having hand dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1986, Vol.15, No.3, p.132-135. 14 ref.
Markova M., Nestorova V.
Physiological norms and requirements for nutrition of agricultural workers during intense field work
Fiziologični normi i iziskvanija za hraneneto na selskostopanskite rabotnici pri usilena polska rabota [in Bulgarian]
Distribution by number according to the intensity of physical labour and to age groups from 18 to 60 years and over 60 years was determined on the basis of physiological needs of energy and foodstuffs for agricultural workers during intensive field work. Energy consumptions were measured for 12 kinds of agricultural activities. Requirements for protective occupational nutrition and drinking regimes were formulated for green-houses. Two proposed diets for workers exposed to organophosphorus or organochlorine pesticides have been published by the Bulgarian Ministry of Health in the Official Bulletin, Nos. 9 and 10, 1985.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1986, Vol.29, No.6, p.73-75. 6 ref.
Kobayashi F., Watanabe T.
Study of the health and living conditions of day labourers - analysis of 5 years of health examination records
Hiyatoi rōdōsha no seikatsu to kenkō ni tsuite - 5-nenkan no kenshin kiroku no bunseki [in Japanese]
Every winter, especially before and after the New Year, more than 100 day-labourers are compelled to sleep outdoors around Nagoya station owing to the scarcity of jobs. Their age distribution peaks in their forties, and the percentage of men above sixty is very low. As job opportunities decrease, their living conditions become worse. Almost none of them have joined a health insurance programme. The following are considered to be their most important health problems: (1) trauma and other musculoskeletal diseases caused by heavy muscular work; (2) diseases such as tuberculosis, exaggerated by malnutrition or bad living conditions; (3) alcoholic liver disease or other alcohol-related diseases. These results suggest the necessity of more comprehensive and more effective policies.
Japanese Journal of Public Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.33, No.12, p.761-768. 10 ref.
Garas'ko E.V., Brodilo L.I., Zaripova E.P.
Effectiveness of vitamin supplements and ultraviolet irradiation on women operating sewing machines
Ėffektivnost' dopolnitel'noj vitaminizacii i ul'trafioletovogo oblučenija rabotnic švejnogo ceha [in Russian]
An erythaema dose of ultraviolet light (5.5 milliequivalent radium/m2) was administered to 95 women during the fall, winter and early spring (8h/day). Vitamin supplements were provided for 4 months (1 Dec.-31 Mar.). The vitamin dose was adjusted to take account of each subject's job. Clinical examination and tests showed that vitamin supplementation improved the overall state of health of the workers, decreased the fragility of capillaries in their skins and increased the light sensitivity of their visual analysers. The activity of their immune systems was also increased. However, hypovitaminosis was only reduced, not eliminated. It is recommended that vitamin supplementation be administered throughout the winter and spring (Dec.-May).
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1985, No.8, p.83-84. 8 ref.
Baumann M., Ley F.X.
Magnesium deficiency and heat cramps
Déficit magnésique et crampes de chaleur [in French]
This study investigates the role of magnesium deficiency in the development of heat cramps, included in Schedule 58 of the list of occupational diseases in France. The study sample included 53 underground miners divided into 3 groups: 19 workers acclimatised to work in a hot environment, 17 workers with episodes of heat cramps in their past, and 17 newly-hired workers. Blood, sweat and urine tests revealed: 1) red-cell magnesium concentration fell significantly in the newly-hired workers after 8 weeks of work in a hot environment; 2) a high rate of magnesium elimination through sweat (5mmol/24h) occurs in some subjects; 3) a significantly higher concentration of magnesium in the sweat of workers with past episodes of heat cramps. These results indicate a direct role of magnesium deficiency in the development of heat cramps, and they also show that some people have a predisposition to lose this cation through sweat.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1985, Vol.46, No.4, p.251-256. Illus. 19 ref.
Wigaeus Hjelm E., Frisk C.
Physical strain on Vietnamese forest workers
The physical work capacity and the physical workload during forest work was studied in 10 Vietnamese who worked with the supply of wood to the pulp and paper mill in Bai Bang, a Swedish aid project. The workers' physical work capacity was relatively high. The forest work was very demanding due to physically heavy work, heat stress and loss of body fluid through sweating. The total workload could be reduced without decreased productivity by using more frequent but shorter resting periods and increased water intake. Supplying rubber boots and raincoats could also make it possible to increase the productivity by making it possible to do some work even on rainy days, constituting quite a number of days per year.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 13p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: Swe.cr.25.00.
Rosenfeld R., Bátěk F., Rosenfeldová A., Steiglová J., Kvapilová I.
Calcium deficiency and coal miners' pneumoconiosis
Vápníkový dluh a uhlokopská pneumokonióza [in Czech]
Fibrogenic dust reduces bone mineralisation in miners and increases their calcium requirement. Calcium deficiency decreases resistance to fibrogenic dust and increases the likelihood of miners' pneumoconiosis. Increased dietary calcium and calciferol are recommended for protection against pneumoconiosis.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1984, Vol.36, No.8, p.286-289. Illus. 4 ref.
Goethe W.H.G., Watson E.N., Jones D.T.
Handbook of nautical medicine
This handbook is aimed at doctors on board ships and at other crew members responsible for health. It covers a wide range of topics, including: the history of nautical medicine; the ship's medical centre and medical chest; medical care on ships without a doctor (including radio medical advice); work and recreation at sea; effects of ship design on the physical and mental health of seamen; effects of macroclimate and microclimate; lighting; noise and vibration; water supply; waste and wastewater disposal; food; psychological problems; occurrence, frequency and aetiology of diseases and trauma on ships; accidents; classes of diseases (gastrointestinal, respiratory, musculoskeletal, venereal, skin, cardiovascular, urologic, mental, other); dental problems; treatment of sick seamen ashore; preventive medicine aboard (education, personal and food hygiene, alcohol and drug abuse, smoking, immunisation, disinfection and disinfestation, international health regulations); special topics (fitness for duty, dangerous cargoes, fishing fleets, women and children on board, the sea pilot, extreme conditions, search and rescue at sea, lifesaving appliances, offshore medicine, underwater medicine and diving).
Springer-Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, Postfach D-1000 Berlin 33, 1984. 490p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DM.198.00.
White M.K., Ronk R.
Do you have a hot and/or strenuous job?
The need for fluid intake to prevent dehydration and associated reduction in performance and possible illness is discussed. Training is recommended to familiarise workers with the level and type of fluid intake which is required to replace loss of body fluids through sweating in hot environments or when wearing impermeable protective clothing.
Professional Safety, May 1984, Vol.29, No.5, p.27-29. Illus. 15 ref.
Gertner A., Israeli R., Cassuto Y.
Water and electrolyte balance in workers exposed to a hot environment during their workshift
The study was conducted on 45 naturally heat-acclimatised workers having free access to water and performing light to moderate work in a warm environment at the metalworking shops of 2 plants located in the south of Israel. The average WBGT at the work area ranged from 24 to 29°C. Results of all the physiological tests performed on the workers indicated that the water and electrolyte balance can be maintained in workers who can choose their own work regimen.
Ergonomics, Feb. 1984, Vol.27, No.2, p.125-134. 32 ref.
Iron, copper and manganese metabolism in workers performing heavy physical work
Obmen železa, medi i marganca v organizme rabočih pri tjaželom fizičeskom trude [in Russian]
Examinations of 19 forging-shop workers showed that plasma iron levels were maximal in autumn and winter and minimal in spring and summer. The lowest levels of iron in the blood constituents were also found in the summer. Copper and manganese levels remained constant throughout the year. Iron in both blood fractions and copper in the plasma were lower after a work shift than before; manganese remained unchanged. Measurements of dietary intake and excretion of the 3 elements showed that the workers were in negative iron and manganese balance in winter and especially in summer. This probably reflects an excessive proportion of iron and manganese-poor vegetables in the diet and can be corrected by changes in, or suplements to, the diet.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1983, No.9, p.21-24. 8 ref.
Vanhanen V.D., Gončarov G.Ja., Makuha O.I., Artemov A.A.
Energy expenditure and energy requirements of women in cotton spinning and weaving mills
Ėnergetičeskie zatraty i potrebnosti v ėnergii ženščin hlopčatobumažnogo prjadil'no-tkackogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
The relationship between task and energy metabolism was determined for women performing 18 different tasks in a modern cotton textile plant. The physical effort required of the workers was moderate in more than half the cases; only 1.1% of the women performed extremely light or extremely heavy work. Energy expenditure during the workday was 918-1819kcal/60kg. There were more cases of energy expenditure above the 3.5kcal/kgh reference level in the spinning section of the plant than in the weaving section. The workers can be classified into 3 groups according to their dietary energy requirements.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1983, No.10, p.13-15. 10 ref.
Antov G., Kazakova B., Parlapanova M.
Experimental study on the atherogenic effect of carbon disulfide
Eksperimentalno proučvane na aterogennija efekt na serovăgleroda [in Bulgarian]
Carbon disulfide (CS2) administration at 10 and 50mg/m3 was followed by electrophoresis of serum proteins and qualitative and quantitative analysis of fibre structure in the myocardium and aorta of albino rats on a 30-day atherogenic diet. The combination of CS2 with the atherogenic factor intensified the changes in the cardiovascular system and serum proteins observed with the individual effect of both factors. Intoxication and decreased animal survival as well as alterations in serum, myocardium and aorta occurred at a concentration of 10mg/m3. Thus, CS2 has an atherogenic effect.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, Mar. 1983, Vol.26, No.6, p.471-476. Illus. 26 ref.
(Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po standartam)
Electromechanical and electrical heating equipment for group catering establishments - General requirements and test methods
Oborudovanie ėlektromehaničeskoe i ėlektronagrevatel'noe dlja predprijatij obščestvennogo pitanija - Obščie tehničeskie trebovanija po bezopasnosti i metody ispytanij [in Russian]
This standard (effective 1 Jan. 1984) applies to the design of all kinds of electromechanical and electrical heating equipment. Additional requirements are set out for equipment to be used for transportation and in tropical areas. Contents: safety requirements (marking, operating instructions, safe design; electrical safety, methods of testing). Electrical safety requirements include: requirements for current-carrying parts; starting of electrical equipment; input power and current; resistance of insulation; leakage current; durability; temperature limit of windings; moisture resistance; stability; structural strength; wiring system; cables; flexible cords; contact voltage protection.
Izdatel'stvo standartov, Novopresnenskij per. 3, 123557 Moskva, USSR, 20 Sept. 1983, 79p. Price: Rbl.0.30.
Haguenoer J.M., Furon D.
Industrial toxicology and health - Behaviour in the work environment as a problem of health education
Toxicologie et hygiène industrielles - Le comportement en milieu de travail, problème d'éducation pour la santé [in French]
This work is addressed to industrial physicians and other professionals responsible for the health of employees; important information is provided to help workers understand their health problems and fight against unhealthy lifestyles. 5 lifestyle factors are analysed: 1. nutrition and work (dietary errors, particular work conditions, hours of work, nutritional pathology and group catering); 2. addiction to organic solvents (trichloroethylene, chloroform, glues, aliphatic nitrites); 3. smoking (pathology of exposure to tobacco smoke by smokers and non-smokers); 4. alcoholism (consequences at work, interactions with the working environment); 5. influence of prescription drugs on behaviour in the workplace.
Technique et documentation, Lavoisier, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris Cedex 08, France, 1983. 560p. Illus. Bibl. Price: FF.360.00.
Another burning subject: heat stress
Un autre sujet brûlant: la contrainte thermique [in French]
A survey of heat stress, covering: types of heat (radiation, convection, conduction); the role of humidity; heat regulation of the human body; symptoms of overexposure to heat (heat stroke, heat exhaustion, dehydration, salt depletion, skin problems); protection against excessive heat (water and salt intake, acclimatisation, protective clothing, periods of rest, medical supervision, proper information of workers). A Portuguese-language translation of this article was published under the title "Sobrecarga térmica" in Prevenção no trabalho, Feb.-Mar. 1984, No.74, p.7-10.
Prévention, Apr. 1983, No.4, p.26-29,31. Illus.
Takashina S., Sugata I.
Lower backache among farmers in suburban districts and preventive measures
A survey was conducted on the incidence of low back pain among farmers in suburban areas in Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. A great number of full-time farmers complained of low back pain; many of those had a history of neurosis or neurotic tendencies. Working posture, carrying of heavy objects, and cold exposure were the proximate causes of the lumbago. A study of the living and working conditions of these farmers suggested a correlation of the amount of labour, dietary protein deficiency, experience of abortions and shortage of sleep with the occurrence of low back pain. In orthopaedic examinations, no factor but age could be correlated with low back pain. Prophylactic exercises were recommended, but the effect of the exercises has not yet been ascertained.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, Nov. 1983, Vol.32, No.4, p.851-859. Illus. 7 ref.
Andersson R., Carlsson A., Byfält Nordqvist M., Sollenberg J.
Urinary excretion of hippuric acid and o-cresol after laboratory exposure of humans to toluene
Volunteers were exposed to 80ppm toluene for 2h under different workloads for periods of 30min and with varying diet. There was no correlation between total urinary excretion, excretion rate and concentration of the metabolites and respiratory uptake of toluene. Thus neither metabolite was a reliable measure of individual toluene uptake under the conditions of the trial. A number of other factors are considered to influence the fraction of the retained toluene that is excreted as hippuric acid and o-cresol in the urine.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.53, No.2, p.101-108. Illus. 21 ref.
Melhado J.C., Dine J.M., Rosa A.A.P., De Seabra Santos M.T.R., Vaisman M.
The influence of nutrition on the productivity of public utility labourers in Rio de Janeiro
Influência do estado nutricional na produtividade de trabalhadores da construção civil no município do Rio de Janeiro [in Portuguese]
An attempt at explaining why there is a significant increase in accident rates among Brazilian labourers between 9-11am. The hypothesis is stated that accident proneness is caused by hypoglycaemia in the workers due to little or no breakfast. Interviews and physical examinations of 320 randomly chosen workers confirmed the low levels of food intake: 58 workers had no breakfast at all, 144 had only coffee (with or without bread). The average calorie intake in the morning was 134.62, against the recommended 600cal for manual workers. 20% of the workers had glucose levels in their blood of <80mg%.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 1983, Vol.11, No.44, p.43-49. Illus. 27 ref.
This data sheet covers the use, hazards and recommendations for safe installation and operation of power-driven kitchen machines used in restaurants, hotels, hospitals, industrial plants and food service agencies. Contents: safe working conditions; machine guarding; power supply control; cutters and choppers; slicers; grinders; waste food disposers; mixers; band-saws; miscellaneous equipment; inspection form.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL. 60611, USA, 1983. 5p. Illus.
Abbas L., Bierre N., Fuchez J., Bellanger G.
Results of a computerised questionnaire survey on renal colic among the flight crew of civilian aircraft
Résultats d'une enquête informatisée sur la colique néphrétique du personnel navigant technique de l'aviation civile et commerciale [in French]
This computerised questionnaire survey was conducted in 1982 to find out the frequency of renal colic among the flight crews of Air France, as compared with a previous survey in 1967. Starting in 1966, Air France flight personnel have been advised to drink only non-carbonated water during flights as a preventive measure, and the effects of this recommendation were also investigated in this survey. The 1967 survey found the renal colic incidence to be 7.6% among flight personnel, as opposed to 3.4% among ground workers. The new survey shows an incidence of 10.3% among flight personnel, with a positive correlation with seniority of service. The main factor causing renal colic seems to be the lowering of humidity during flight. The importance of following the preventive advice is emphasised.
Médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 3rd quarter 1983, Vol.22, No.87, p.199-206. 5 ref.
Abbas L., Bellanger G., Fuchez J., Cantegril M.
Lipid profile of civil and commercial airline technical flight personnel aged 50-55 years
Bilan lipidique du personnel navigant technique de l'aéronautique civile et commerciale entre 50 et 55 ans [in French]
Lipid profile of 163 pilots aged 50-55 years: 45% had hyperlipidaemia; 22% isolated hypercholesterolaemia; 9% isolated hypertriglyceridaemia; and 14% mixed hyperlipidaemia - a higher percentage than found in similar studies of other social and occupational categories (miners, hospital workers, administrative workers). Calorie and lipid assessments of the meals offered to pilots indicated a hypercaloric diet with an excessively high percentage of lipids. Emphasis is placed on the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fats and the need for detailed and individualised information on cardiovascular disease risks and the relevant prophylactic measures.
Médecine aéronautique et spatiale, 1982, Vol.21, No.83, p.194-198. 24 ref.
Schatte C.L., Mathias M.M.
Effect of dietary fat on pulmonary enzymes and toxicity during normobaric hyperoxia
Male rats were fed a diet containing 10, 20, 40 or 60% of calories as fat having a constant polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.7. After 21-28 days of feeding, the animals were exposed to pure oxygen at 1atm for ≤72 hours. Some animals were sacrificed after 0 or 48h of oxygen exposure, and lung tissue was analysed for the activities of the hexose-monophosphate shunt and prostaglandin dehydrogenase/reductase. Other animals were exposed to hyperoxia until death. With increasing dietary fat content, the pre-exposure activities of the 2 enzymes decreased and oxygen-induced mortality increased. There was no dietary effect on enzyme activities after 48h of hyperoxia.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 1982, Vol.53, No.7, p.629-632. 25 ref.
Group catering. Rules of hygiene
Restauration en collectivité. Règles d'hygiène [in French]
This brochure summarises measures to be taken to prevent food poisoning in group catering. Topics discussed: food hygienee (receiving, storage, dealing with surplus); installation and maintenance of facilities and equipment; health and hygiene of personnel.
Comité français d'éducation pour la santé, 9 rue Newton, 75116 Paris, France, 1982. 10p. Illus. 6 ref.
Morishita T., Horiguchi S., Ichikawa N.
Industrial hygienic study on low back disorders among female workers
680 women at day nurseries and school canteens, and 79 applicants for day nurseries were studied. Work-time studies, various questionnaires, physical fitness tests and orthopedic examinations were included. The incidence of low-back disorders was higher in school canteens than at the other workplaces. Factors significant for development of low-back disorders in day nursery staff were handling weight, floor condition at the workplace, marriage status, strength of abdominal and back muscles, and spinal mobility.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, Apr. 1982, No.18, p.203-220. Illus. 23 ref.
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Sweden)(Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen)
Restaurants and other large catering establishments
Restauranger och andra storhushåll [in Swedish]
These directives (effective 1 Jan. 1984) apply to restaurants and large kitchens, but not to catering establishments for less than 30 persons/day. Sections cover: definitions; general requirements (layout and size of premises, water supply and sewers, microclimate and ventilation, noise control, lighting equipment, communication ways, work posture and manual handling tasks, ergonomic workplace design; serving carts; cleaning aids; chemical products used for cleaning, disinfection and dishwashing; personal protection (gloves, aprons, etc.); electrical equipment); requirements for cold storage rooms, kitchens, bars and other special premises; rules for central dishwashing rooms. An appendix contains detailed commentaries with proposals for ergonomic design and references to pertinent Swedish standards and directives.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 28 Feb. 1983. 58p. Illus.
This book describes the pattern of work offshore and the medical problems which it generates and it is designed to healp the doctor who has to provide medical care for the expanding offshore oil industry. Chapters cover: introduction (geological exploration, drilling, production, communications and transport, hazards); legal aspects of safety, health and welfare on the United Kingdom continental shelf; pre-employment and periodic medical examinations; provisions of back-up services; offshore medical care; special problems (harmful substances, obesity, dust, drilling mud, welding, noise and vibration, trauma, infestations, endemic diseases, psychological disturbances, drugs and alcohol, drowning, hypothermia); diving; catering and hygiene; dental problems; investigation of accidents.
Springer-Verlag, Postfach 10 51 60, Haberstrasse 7, D-6900 Heidelberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1982. 208p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$.35.60.
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