Nutrition - 210 entries found
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Li Y., Sato Y., Yamaguchi N.
Shift work and the risk of metabolic syndrome - A nested case-control study
The objective of this study was to examine the association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) using a large-scale longitudinal study design. Data were collected from a historical cohort of health checkups in the Japanese population. The baseline survey, which involved 16,952 inhabitants of the Minami Saku area of the Nagano Prefecture, was started in 1978. A nested case-control study was conducted between 1987 and 1990. This analysis was restricted to 6,712 men and women (age range 25-59 years). A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of MetS associated with shift work. Compared with the day workers, shift workers had a significantly higher risk of MetS (odds ratio 1.87). It is suggested that the risk of MetS among shift workers be managed by educating this population to adopt suitable dietary habits.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.17, p.154-160. 35 ref.
Borre K., Ertle L., Graff M.
Working to eat: Vulnerability, food insecurity, and obesity among migrant and seasonal farmworker families
In this study on the relationship between food insecurity and obesity among migrant and seasonal farm workers (MSFWs), 36 Latin American MSFW families in North Carolina completed interviews, attended focus groups and were visited at home. It was found that 63.8% of the families were food insecure and of those, 34.7% experienced hunger; 32% of pre-school children were food insecure. Food secure families spent more money on food. Obesity was prevalent in adults and children but the relationship to food insecurity remains unclear.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.443-462. Illus. 77 ref.
Goetzel R.Z., Gibson T.B., Short M.E., Chu B.C., Waddell J., Bowen J., Lemon S.C., Fernandez I.D., Ozminkowski R.J., Wilson M.G., DeJoy D.M.
A multi-worksite analysis of the relationships among body mass index, medical utilization, and worker productivity
The objective of this study was to quantify the direct medical and indirect (absence and productivity) cost burden of overweight and obesity in workers. A cross-sectional study of 10,026 employees in multiple professions and worksites across the United States was conducted. The main outcomes were five self-reported measures of workers' annual health care use and productivity: doctor visits, emergency department visits, hospitalizations, absenteeism and presenteeism. Data were analyzed using multivariate count and continuous data models. Obese employees were found to have 20% higher doctor visits than normal weight employees and 26% higher emergency department visits. Rates of doctor and emergency department visits for overweight employees were no different than those of normal weight employees. Compared to normal weight employees, presenteeism rates were 10% and 12% higher for overweight and obese employees, respectively. Taken together, compared to normal weight employees, obese and overweight workers were estimated to cost employers USD 644 and USD 201 more per employee per year, respectively.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, Vol.52, No.1S, p.S52-S58. Illus. 38 ref.
Meenan R.T., Vogt T.M., Williams A.E., Stevens V.J., Albright C.L., Nigg C.R.
Economic evaluation of a worksite obesity prevention and intervention trial among hotel workers in Hawaii
The objective of this study was to evaluate a work, weight and wellness (3W) programme, a two-year randomized trial of a weight loss program delivered through Hawaii hotel worksites. Data on medical costs, absenteeism and productivity were obtained from the participating hotels. Findings are discussed. 3W's positive clinical outcomes did not translate into immediate economic benefit for participating hotels, although modest cost savings were observed in the trial's second year.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, Vol.52, No.1S, p.S8-S13. 24 ref.
Nigg C.R., Albright C., Williams R., Nichols C., Renda G., Stevens V., Vogt T.M.
Are physical activity and nutrition indicators of the checklist of health promotion environments at worksites (CHEW) associated with employee obesity among hotel workers?
Worksites provide opportunities to reach more than 60% of adults in the United States, including populations diverse in race, ethnicity, gender, age, occupation, income, and health status. Employers that provide worksite weight management interventions have the potential to reduce sick leave, health care costs, and workers compensation costs, and increase employee morale and worker efficiency. Hotels specifically, represent a broad cross-section of job categories, and most hotels are staffed and operated similarly around the world. This study tested the relationship between environmental factors in hotels and employees' body mass index (BMI). Subjects included 11,559 employees of 30 hotels in Hawaii. Findings are discussed. Overall, no logical pattern of association was found between workplace environmental factors and hotel employee BMI levels.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, Vol.52, No.1S, p.S4-S7. 17 ref.
Lowden A., Moreno C., Holmbäck U., Lennernäs M., Tucker P.
Eating and shift work - Effects on habits, metabolism and performance
Compared to day workers, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels and metabolic syndrome. At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating; however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. This literature survey examined studies on food and nutrition among shift workers. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. Dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers are proposed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.150-162. Illus. 96 ref.
Chamoux A., Malaville P.Y.
Occupational cardiovascular diseases
Pathologies cardiovasculaires professionnelles [in French]
With about two million deaths each year, cardiovascular diseases are highest cause of mortality in the European Union, accounting 42% of all deaths. The nine main cardiovascular risk factors (abnormal blood lipids, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, abdominal obesity, stress, alcohol consumption, insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables, and insufficient physical activity) allow to predict 90% of the cardiovascular risk. Occupational risk factors include in particular the stress that results from psychological constraints and shift work. This article addresses the risk factors, diagnosis, work capacity, prevention and compensation of occupational cardiovascular diseases. Replaces CIS 99-1173.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 13p. Illus. 48 ref.
Huang S.L., Li R.H., Tang F.C.
Comparing disparities in the health-promoting lifestyles of Taiwanese workers in various occupations
This study describes the various levels of overall health-promoting lifestyles and behaviours of workers within different occupational categories, and examines the effects of occupational category, perceived workload and BMI level. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 796 participants by means of self-reporting questionnaire which included the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) to measure the overall HPLP and six health-promoting behaviors (nutrition, health responsibility, self-actualization, interpersonal support, exercise and stress management). Multiple regression analysis showed that the various occupational categories sustained significant differences in overall HPLP, nutrition, self-actualization, interpersonal support and stress management (after controlling for certain specific factors). The obese group had less participation in overall health-promoting lifestyles and stress management when compared with the moderate BMI group. Implications of these and other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.256-264. 35 ref.
An overview of safety and health for workers in the horse-racing industry
Between 1993 and 1996, 6,545 injuries occurred among jockeys during horse races in the United States, an injury rate of 606 per 1,000 jockeys years. In 1987, it was reported that more than 100 jockeys had been killed in work-related incidents since 1950. Numerous studies in the published scientific literature conclude that the low body weight requirement for jockeys increases the risk of acquiring eating disorders in order to control weight. These concerns about potential work-related hazards for jockeys and other employees in the horse racing industry were raised at a Congressional hearing in 2005. This guide is intended for all workers associated with the horse-racing sector. It summarizes NIOSH's efforts in responding to the Congressional inquiry and provides recommendations for reducing the number of injuries and improving the health among workers in the sector.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2009. vi, 20p. Illus. 53 ref.
http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/publications/2009-128.pdf [in English]
Pehkonen I., Takala E.P., Ketola R., Viikari-Juntura E., Leino-Arjas P., Hopsu L., Virtanen T., Haukka E., Holtari-Leino M., Nykyri E., Riihimäki H.
Evaluation of a participatory ergonomic intervention process in kitchen work
This study evaluated a participatory ergonomic intervention process applied in 59 kitchens of schools, nursing homes and care centres in Finland. Workers participated in workshops, and generated and evaluated solutions to optimize musculoskeletal load in their work. An ergonomist initiated and supported the process. By the end of the programme, 402 improvements were implemented.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2009, Vol.40, No.1, p.115-123. Illus. 38 ref.
Meck J.V, Buccello-Stout R.R., Warren L.E.
The NASA Flight Analog Project: Head-down bed rest studies
Whole supplement of the major aerospace medicine journal, devoted to the physiological and psychological effects of long-term space travel involving situations of low or no gravity, as simulated by volunteers spending 60-90 days in a bed-rest position on a bed inclined -6° relative to the horizontal (under normal conditions of gravity). The study measured the effects of this simulation on: vital signs and fluid balance; nutritional status; the bones; the cardiovascular system; immune status, latent viral reactivation and stress; postural reflexes, balance control and functional mobility; behavioural and psychological issues; cognitive functioning.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.80. No.5 (Section II: Supplement), whole issue (65p.) Illus. Bibl.ref.
Miller D.P., Han W.J.
Maternal nonstandard work schedules and adolescent overweight
This study investigated whether nonstandard work schedules by mothers were associated with adolescent overweight. Multiple regression analyses were conducted using a sample of 2353 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the association between the number of years mothers worked at nonstandard schedules and adolescent overweight at age 13 or 14 years. Separate analyses were also conducted by family income and family type. Child's body mass index increased significantly if mothers worked either a few years or many years at nonstandard schedules. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that nonstandard work schedules among near-poor families may disrupt the work-family balance, affecting adolescent overweight.
American Journal of Public Health, Aug. 2008, Vol. 98, No.8, p.1495-1502. Illus. 44 ref.
Psychosocial aspects of shift work
Les aspects psychosociaux du travail en équipes [in French]
More and more enterprises resort to shift work which, for most workers, is not a matter of choice. This article reviews the various psychosocial effects of shift work. Topics addressed: economic advantages of shift work for enterprises; individual factors; sleep and fatigue; nutrition; psychological effects; effects on human relations; possible improvements; advice on how to organize shift work.
Prevent Focus, Nov. 2008, No.9, p.16-19. Illus.
Thierry S., Chouanière D., Aubry C.
Driving and health - A literature survey
Conduite et santé - Une revue de la littérature [in French]
This literature review analyses available information on health hazards related to driving in the course of one's occupation. Main findings: there are reports of low back pain which may be invalidating for persons required to lift loads; work organization is often complicated, with irregular working hours; there is a significant cardiovascular risk, with non-negligible mortality from myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular strokes; certain types of individual behaviour also constitute risk factors (smoking, unbalanced diet). For some of these risks, preventive measures exist (equipping vehicles with antivibration seats, ergonomic improvements of drivers' cabs, abiding with regulations concerning working hours, adapting work schedules). Prevention with respect to individual behaviour having an impact on health should also be encouraged.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2008, No.113, p.45-63. Illus. 88 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20118/$File/TC118.pdf [in French]
Creating a pipeline to heat stress prevention
In the United States in 2005, 47 workers died from exposure to environmental heat and five died from contact with a hot object or substance. There are three types of heat stress: heat cramps (cramps in extremities, especially legs); heat exhaustion (dizziness, weakness, fainting, nausea, headache, cold and clammy skin, dry tongue, thirst); heat stroke (high body temperature, decreased level of consciousness, change in behaviour, not sweating, red or pale skin, elevated heart rate and rapid breathing). When heat cramps and heat exhaustion are not treated rapidly, the situation can escalate to heat stroke, which is a life-threatening illness. This article discusses the prevention of heat stress among workers in the petrochemical industry. It emphasizes the importance of monitoring work environment temperatures, work breaks and the consumption of fluids.
Occupational Hazards, May 2008, Vol.70, No.5, p.41-43. Illus.
Worthington puts wellness to work
This article describes the wellness promotion efforts of a steel processing enterprise employing around 8000 workers at 68 sites within the United States and in 10 other countries. At their headquarters, the company operates a gym, a medical centre and a pharmacy. It offers a choice of health care plan options and the chance to participate in a voluntary wellness programme. Employees who voluntarily participate in the programme first undergo a health screening. Participation involves monetary benefits in health insurance costs. Moderate and high-risk employees must acquire two points per quarter to maintain their presence in the programme. To earn points, participants can choose from a variety of options, such as completing an online healthy living programme, participating in the company wellness challenge or joining a weight management or smoking cessation programme. The company employs a dietician, who is on hand to help employees evaluate their food choices, convert recipes into healthier versions and promote smoking cessation. Two full-time personal trainers at the company's fitness facilities help employees develop exercise plans. Other features of the programme are discussed.
Occupational Hazards, Apr. 2008, p.22-28. Illus.
Vieira E.R., Kumar S., Narayan Y.
Smoking, no exercise, overweight and low back disorder in welders and nurses
This study assessed the association between smoking, lack of exercise, being overweight and low back disorder among welders and nurses. A total of 111 workers (64 welders and 47 nurses working in a steel company and a hospital respectively) completed a questionnaire on their personal and occupational factors. The annual and lifetime rates of work-related low back disorder were respectively 3.4% and 58%. Forty percent of the workers smoked and 49% did not exercise regularly. The lifetime rate of low back disorder was 86% for the workers that smoked and did not exercise, and 66% for the overweight workers. This study shows that low back disorder is common among welders and nurses. Low back disorder preventive programs in industry should include smoking cessation, regular physical activity campaigns and the promotion of healthy eating habits.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2008, Vol.38, No.2, p.143-149. Illus. 31 ref.
Soleo L., Gigante M.R., Antelmi A., Lovreglio P., Drago I., Gagliardi T., Sannelli G., Schiavulli N., Conversano M., Bailardi F., Greco L., Persechino B., Iavicoli S.
Exposure assessment of carcinogenic metals (Cr, As) in steel foundry workers and in the general population in Taranto (Italy)
Valutazione dell'esposizione a metalli cancerogeni (Cr, As) nei lavoratori dello stabilimento siderurgico e nella popolazione generale di Taranto (Italia) [in Italian]
Steelworks can expose workers to low concentrations of chromium and arsenic, both carcinogenic metals. These metals can also be released into the environment surrounding the industrial plants and expose the general population living near them. Non-occupational exposure to these metals also exists through the ingestion of certain foods. A total of 195 workers at an Italian steel plant with possible exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium and two control groups consisting of 105 subjects living near the foundry, and 144 subjects living approximately 20km away, were examined. A questionnaire was administered to acquire data on personal factors, health, lifestyle and occupational and non-occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium. Urinary inorganic arsenic and chromium were tested by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium was found to be markedly below the environmental threshold limit values indicated by international organizations. No significant differences emerged among the three groups. Other findings are discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, 3rd quarter 2007, Vol.3, No.3, p.37-56. Illus. 36 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_03_3_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_03_3_en.pdf [in English]
Bianchi C., Bianchi T.
Malignant mesothelioma: Global incidence and relationship with asbestos
Literature survey. Mesothelioma incidence varies markedly from one country to another. The areas of high incidence generally correspond to the sites of industries with high asbestos use, such as shipbuilding and asbestos-cement industry. However, in some countries with high asbestos consumption, mesothelioma incidence is low. The reasons for this situation are not clear. Mesotheliomas generally develop after long-time exposures to asbestos and with latency periods of often more than 40 years. An inverse relationship exists between intensity of asbestos exposure and the length of the latency period. Some recent studies show that the risk increases with the duration of exposure. Possible co-factors in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related mesothelioma include genetic predisposition, diets poor in fruit and vegetables, some viruses, immune impairment and recurrent pleural inflammation. While a levelling-off in mesothelioma incidence has been registered in some countries, a worsening of the epidemic is predictable in large parts of the world.
Industrial Health, June 2007, Vol.45, No.3, p.379-387. Illus. 89 ref.
Chiarello P., Scatena Sobrinho P., Campanelli Marçal Vieira M.N., Diez Garcia R.W.
Protein-energy supplements to preserve nutritional status of sugar cane cutters
Sugar cane cutters in south-eastern Brazil are temporarily hired for the harvest period of eight months. They often have minimal benefits and may not receive adequate nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in weight and body composition of sugar cane cutters during harvest with the use of protein-energy and electrolyte supplements. Three products were used daily: a milk drink, a seasoned manioc meal mixture and an electrolyte replacement fluid, adding approx. 400kcal and 28.5g of protein/day. There were small reductions in body mass index and percentage body fat with maintenance of lean mass. There was a significant improvement in hydration status, serum albumin and cholesterol. There were no medical absences related to dehydration. These supplements may have a useful role to play in reducing lean mass losses and maintaining nutritional and hydration status of these workers.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.575-577. 9 ref.
OSHA guidance update on protecting employees from avian flu (avian influenza) viruses
Orientación actualizada de OSHA acerca de cómo proteger a los empleados contra los virus de la gripe aviar (influenza aviar) [in Spanish]
This health protection guide is aimed at employers whose employees may be exposed to avian influenza (AI) viruses. It contains guidance for poultry employees, animal handlers other than poultry employees, laboratory employees, healthcare workers who treat patients with known or suspected AI, food handlers, airport personnel exposed to passengers suspected of being AI-infected, travelers on temporary work assignment abroad, United States employees stationed abroad and other employee groups that may be at risk. It discusses modes of infection, infection control measures, use of personal protective equipment, vaccination, antiviral drugs and medical supervision of exposed personnel. Appendices provide technical information about AI viruses and, in particular, about H5N1, an AI virus currently circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa that rarely causes disease in humans but when it does, the case fatality rate is high.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 71p. 55 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AvianFlu/avian_flu_guidance_spanish.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AvianFlu/avian_flu_guidance_english.pdf [in English]
Fit for life
This article discusses the benefits of employer-managed health promotion programmes. Such programmes create competitive advantage by encouraging employees to remain fit and in good health. They include, for example, improving the physical and psychosocial work environments, anti-smoking campaigns, on-site gyms and flu vaccination, as well as information on healthy diets and lifestyles. Programmes implemented by several Canadian enterprises are cited as examples.
Accident Prevention, Sep.-Oct. 2006, Vol.54, No.4, p.20-24. Illus.
Creating a healthy workplace: A guide for occupational safety and health professionals and employers
This guide provides practical ideas to support occupational safety and health professionals and employers in the improvement of health and well-being in the workplace. For each of the following eight key areas it suggests five simple steps that can make a real difference to the organization and the people working in it: creating a safe and healthy workplace; recruitment, retention and rehabilitation; mental well-being and minimizing stress; musculoskeletal disorders; tobacco smoke and smoking cessation; alcohol and other substance misuse; physical activity; healthy eating.
Faculty of Public Health and Faculty of Occupational Medicine, 4 and 6 St Andrews Place, London NW1 4LB, United Kingdom, 2006. 38p. Bibl.ref.
http://www.fph.org.uk/resources/AtoZ/r%20_healthy_workplaces.pdf [in English]
Useful tips - Balanced diet for good health
Astuces pour des actions - Manger équilibré pour être en bonne santé [in French]
This information sheet is aimed at employers wishing to implement a healthy eating campaign. It covers the following aspects: advantages of a healthy eating campaign; Belgian legal requirements concerning enterprise canteens; offering a choice of healthy beverages and menus; canteen hygiene requirements; dissemination of information on hygiene and nutrition to the employees.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2005. 2p.
Jégaden D., Dewitte J.D.
Health of deep-sea fishermen: Past and present, and future prospects
La santé des marins pêcheurs: passé, présent et perspectives d'avenir [in French]
This article discusses the health hazards faced by deep-sea fishermen, in particular smoking, alcoholism and poor diets. Other risk factors include noise (it is estimated that the average on-board exposure during the time spent at sea is higher than 85dB(A)), as well as postures and movements that can give rise to musculoskeletal diseases. Finally, there are stress, fatigue and other psychological risk factors that have effects on health and on the frequency of accidents.
Société française de Médecine Maritime, Faculté de médecine de Brest, CS 93837, 29238 Brest cedex 3, France, Nov. 2005. 8p. 30 ref.
Tomenson J.A., Carpenter A.V., Pemberton M.A.
Critical review of the epidemiology literature on the potential cancer risks of methyl methacrylate
This literature review on the carcinogenicity of methyl methacrylate (MMA) to humans focused on cast acrylic sheet manufacturing workers because of the high exposure potential in this industry. Excesses of respiratory, stomach and colorectal cancers were observed in some cohorts of workers exposed to MMA, although there was little to suggest that MMA exposure was responsible for these excesses of respiratory and stomach cancer and it is more likely that they resulted from lifestyle exposures such as cigarette smoking or diet. An excess of colorectal cancer in one group of workers exposed to high levels of MMA during the 1930s and 1940s remains unexplained. Overall, the lack of consistency of the various studies, the absence of dose-response relationships and the lack of support from animal toxicology do not provide persuasive evidence that MMA is a human carcinogen.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.603-612. 15 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/mh9xd63vwlcuwwaklqfw/contributions/j/0/7/4/j074765m63uq0548.pdf [in English]
Hope A., Hjelle J., Aanderud L., Aakvaag A.
Time and temperature effects on body fluid loss during dives with the open hot-water suit
Bodyweight (BW) losses up to 5kg have been observed during diving with open hot-water suits (HWSs). The objective of the two series of dives performed in this study was to examine hormonal, haematological and dehydration effects during shallow HWS diving. Changes in thermal stress, haemoglobin, haematocrit, aldosterone and electrolyte excretion correlated with BW reduction. BW loss during HWS diving is mainly caused by sweating. Dives of 4h produce an isotonic dehydration. Therefore a break for fluid intake is recommended.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2005, Vol.76, No.7, Section I, p.655-660. Illus. 13 ref.
Food at work: Workplace solutions for malnutrition, obesity and chronic diseases
This book reviews the history and economics of workplace nutrition and presents case studies from a range of countries and enterprises which show how businesses can benefit from improved attention to food at work. Provides evidence that improvements such as the provision of canteens and cafeterias, meal vouchers, mess rooms, arrangements with local vendors and the provision of safe drinking water are within the reach of any business. Presents a checklist for enterprise decision-making, describes international standards, policies and programmes and considers the roles of governments, employers and trade unions.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xv, 448p. Illus. 164 ref. Price: CHF 60.00.
Khalfallah T., Chaari N., Henchi M.A., Abdallah B., Ben Chikh R., Saafi M.A., Akrout M.
Evaluation of the impact of the Ramadan fasting month on physical workload
Evaluation de l'impact du jeûne du mois du Ramadan sur la charge physique de travail [in French]
The daily habits of Muslims show important changes during the month of Ramadan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fasting during the month of Ramadan on physical work aptitude. It involved 148 employees of a woodworking enterprise spread across 10 workshops, and was designed as a comparative study of the physical strain for two consecutive one-month periods, during and not during Ramadan. Heart rates were monitored continuously during work. The physical strain was found to be higher during the month of Ramadan. In particular, work was classified as being heavier according to the scale of strenuousness of Chamoux. It appears that an occupational hygiene strategy for the month of the Ramadan, including a suitable work rhythm organization together with nutritional and behavioral education, would be beneficial.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2004, Vol.65, No.7-8, p.564-570. 30 ref.
Medical salesmen - Relationship between health and work
Les visiteurs médicaux - Relations santé travail [in French]
There are more than 20,000 medical salesmen in France. The objective of this cross-sectional epidemiological study was to better understand the risk factors and physical and mental health problems of medical salesmen and to propose practical preventive measures. The study is also of relevance to persons responsible for salespersons in general, including occupational safety and health specialists, in view of the many common aspects that apply to these mobile workers. It was conducted in the form of a self-administered questionnaire returned by 1003 medical salesmen. Interpretation of the questionnaire by occupational physicians focused on the following aspects: hazards during driving; lifestyles and nutrition; stress, anxiety and depression.
Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise (CISME), 10, rue de la Rosière - 75015 Paris, France, 2004. 145p. Illus. 45 ref. Price: EUR 17.50 (including VAT).
International Labour Office (ILO)
Kit on improvement of occupational safety and health in carpet weaving sector
Pack containing three training booklets and three videos on: musculoskeletal problems and their prevention in carpet weaving; nutritional needs of child and adult carpet weavers; health problems and their prevention in carpet weaving. It also includes seven posters on: musculoskeletal problems and their prevention in carpet weaving; nutritional needs of child and adult carpet weavers; health problems and their prevention in carpet weaving; skin problems and their prevention in carpet weaving; eye problems and their prevention in carpet weaving; respiratory problems and their prevention in carpet weaving; rights of carpet weaver children; from carpet weaving to education.
Centre for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (CIWCE), Civic Centre Township (near Chandni Chowk), Lahore, Pakistan, 2003. Pack containing three training booklets 42p., 57p., 40p., three videos on CD-ROM and seven posters.
Brake D.J., Bates G.P.
Fluid losses and hydration status of industrial workers under thermal stress working extended shifts
This study examined the fluid consumption, sweat rates and changes in the hydration state of 39 male underground miners in northern Australia on extended shifts under significant levels of thermal stress (WGBT>28°C). Urinary specific gravity was measured before, during and at the completion of the working shift. Environmental conditions were measured hourly during the shift. Fluid replacement was measured during the working periods and during the meal breaks. It was found that dehydration did not occur in well-informed workers. Fluid replacement during meal breaks was not significantly increased above fluid replacement rates during work time. Urinary specific gravity was found to be a good indication of hydration status and a practical method for improving workforce awareness and understanding of this important risk factor.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.60, No.2, p.90-96. Illus. 44 ref.
Bruneteau P., Delevoye A., Demeester E., Hunzinger E., Ribes M.L., Roux F., Van Brederode A., Havart C.
Restaurant dishwashers: Metrological studies
Plongeur en restauration. Etudes métrologiques [in French]
This study on the dishwashing occupation was carried out in a large enterprise canteen serving 1200-1300 meals each day and employing 34 persons, including seven dishwashers. The study was carried out between April 2001 and April 2002 and focussed on the three hazards considered the most critical, namely noise, physical workload and the risk of onset of musculoskeletal diseases. Data were collected by means of two questionnaires, one addressed to the restaurant manager, the other to the concerned staff. Sonometry and sound dosimetry measurements were carried out in the dishwashing area. Physical workload was evaluated by measurements of heart rate. Muscular effort and awkward articular postures were evaluated from video recordings. Several ergonomic and working condition improvements were recommended on the basis of this project. An occupational medicine data sheet on the dishwashing occupation is included in the form of an insert. Contents: characteristics of the occupation; risk factors and constraints; hazard evaluation methods; health effects and occupational pathology; prevention; medical supervision; regulations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.281-289. Illus. 14 ref. + Insert 2p.
Yrjänheikki E., Sundström-Frisk C., Moen B., Shushkova.T.S., Istomin A.V., Rayangulov B.M.
Safe work environment
Collection of articles on safe work environments in the Nordic countries and Russia. Topics covered: national programmes; taking human factors into account in accident prevention; research needs in the occupational health of seamen; nutrition of working women in the Russian North.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2002, Vol.5, No.3, p.59-79 (whole issue). Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/2967A60D-C312-426C-979C-8AD193A026AC/0/barents02_3.pdf [in English]
Clapp A.J., Bishop P.A., Smith J.F., Lloyd L.K., Wright K.E.
A review of fluid replacement for workers in hot jobs
Prolonged work in hot environments leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body. The rate of sweating varies among individuals and depends on the environmental conditions, but with protective clothing and in very hot environments, rates can reach 2.25L/h. Because hypohydration will impair physical performance and increases the risk of heat injury, consumption of fluids is necessary to prevent dehydration. Much of the research on rehydration has been conducted in sports settings. This review interprets the existing research literature on hydration to provide industrial hygienists and safety professionals with scientific bases for making recommendations regarding beverage availability and hydration practices. Although water fountains are very common, some previous research has reported that drinks containing low to moderate levels of electrolytes and carbohydrates may provide some significant advantages in industrial situations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.190-198. 95 ref.
Anthropometric study of Algerian farmers
An anthropometric study involving 36 body dimensions was carried out in a population of Algerian date-palm farmers. Effects of age were studied, and data of Algerian farmers and farmers from both developed and developing countries were compared. It was found that both stature and weight correlated significantly with many body dimensions. In addition, age was found to affect body height and weight. Moreover, it was found that stature and weight have increased with time: currently, farmers are taller and heavier than farmers of the 1960s. Algerian farmers are also taller and heavier than farmers of many developing countries. However, when compared with the farmers of developed countries, they are shorter and lighter.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 2002, Vol.29, No.6, p.331-341. Illus. 26 ref.
Janer G., Sala M., Kogevinas M.
Health promotion trials at worksites and risk factors for cancer
45 worksite health promotion programmes following specific quality criteria were selected and estimated for behavioural changes in cancer risk factors and the effectiveness of different intervention components. Tobacco control programmes found quit rates of about 5% with relapse rates of 40% to 80% at 6 months after the intervention. Effectiveness increased with the duration of the intervention for at least 6 months, repeated contacts with the participants, continuous support and tailored messages. There was less evidence for the long-term effectiveness of incentives. Programmes on diet, alcohol, physical activity, overweight and solar radiation showed the same positive trends. The overall evidence indicates a modest but positive effect of health promotion programmes at worksites.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2002, Vol.28, No.3, p.141-157. Illus. 76 ref.
Goetzel R.Z., Ozminkowski R.J., Bruno J.A., Rutter K.R., Isaac F., Wang S.
The long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health and wellness program on employee health risks
This study reports the effectiveness of Johnson & Johnson's "Health & Wellness" programme in reducing the health risks of 4586 employees who participated in two serial health screening programmes, with a minimum of one year between screenings. The study also examines the impact of participation in a high-risk intervention programme called "Pathways to Change®" on health risk factors. Results indicate significant risk reduction in 8 of 13 risk categories examined for all employees who participated in two health risk assessments. When comparing "Pathways to Change" participants with non-participants, participants outperformed their non-participant counterparts in six categories but performed worse in five other categories that were not specifically targeted by the high-risk programme. The study underscores the ability of large-scale and well-attended corporate health and productivity management programmes to have a positive effect on the health and well-being of workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.417-424. 14 ref.
27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health - Grenoble, 4-7 June 2002
27e Congrès national de médecine et santé au travail - Grenoble, 4-7 juin 2002 [in French]
Proceedings of the 27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health held in Grenoble, France, 4-7 June 2002. Main topics covered: microbiological and toxicological risks of water-based paint; household waste treatment and health hazards; PAH; violence in the workplace; new strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders; prevention by routine medical examination; pluridisciplinarity; occupational medicine and quality; influence of the Internet on practices in occupational medicine; ethics and occupational health; perception of hazards and risk-taking; ionizing radiation; sleep and work (diagnosis of hyper-somnolence); nutrition; occupational asthma and options for prevention; occupationally-related cardiovascular risk; effects of company restructuring on health; working after the age of 50; socio-occupational health inequalities.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2002, Vol.63, No.3-4, p.133-354 (whole issue). Bibl.ref.
The 6th International Symposium on Maritime Health
Proceedings of the International Conference on Maritime Health held in Manila, Philippines, 5-8 November 2001. Leading international maritime health experts have gathered to discuss scientific issues in maritime occupational health and safety. Participants included ship managers, maritime experts, health practitioners, occupational health physicians and maritime authorities.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Verma Y., Rana S.V.S.
Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners
Exposure to benzene was monitored in service station employees and dry cleaners in Meerut City (India) by measuring the phenol content in urine samples taken from them. The influence of three factors was determined, namely alcohol consumption, smoking and food habits (vegetarians and non-vegetarians). While smoking and food habits had little effect on phenol excretion, it was found that alcohol-consuming subjects excreted more phenol. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of humans to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.330-333. 29 ref.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Genistein - Model substance for describing endocrine effects of phytoestrogens
Based on a literature survey, this report reviews the effects of genostein. Genostein is a phyto-estrogen, i.e. its effects are similar to those of estrogens. High concentrations of genostein are found notably in soybeans which are a staple food in Asia. It is therefore important to understand the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and induced effects of this product. At genistein concentrations corresponding to those of the typical Asian diet, findings included relatively low effects on the hormonal system and a lengthening of the menstrual cycle among pre-menopausal women. These effects may influence cancer incidence rates, in particular for breast cancer. However, many studies highlight the beneficial effects of diets rich in genostein or phyto-estrogens. In vitro studies and animal experiments show genistein to have toxicological properties similar to those of estrogens.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. xviii, 134p. 237 ref.
Understanding your health better
Mieux connaître votre santé [in French]
Verstandig omgaan met je gezondheid [in Dutch]
Booklet on health and well-being. Topics covered: healthy diet; physical exercise; smoking; alcohol consumption; narcotics and medicinal drugs; stress.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2000. 21p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: EUR 3.00.
Alcouffe J., Brehier M., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y., Faupin F.
The employee water cycle: Role of the occupational physician
Le cycle de l'eau chez les salariés: action du médecin du travail [in French]
To assess the working conditions of employees with respect to their possibilities of consuming and evacuating liquids at their place of work, and to investigate the existence of functional signs or symptoms related to disturbances in the water cycle, an investigation was carried out by 102 physicians in a sample of 1,301 employees. 95% had access to at least one source of water; 1.7% were prohibited from drinking due to specific workplace hazards; the quality of drinking water was rated satisfactory by 75% of employees, who overwhelmingly expressed their preference for water fountains; 90% had access to sanitary facilities close to the workplace, but 32% were not satisfied by their cleanliness and 40% by their ventilation; 20% avoided using the company toilets, while 37.4% claimed to hold back from urinating as long as possible. Disturbances in the water cycle are more frequent among women; the pathology occurring most often being cystitis (19.3 %), which is significantly associated with holding back from urinating as long as possible at the workplace. Occupational hygienists need to ensure that chilled water is available and that sanitary facilities are clean and well-ventilated.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.3, p.313-323. Illus. 10 ref.
Sugaring the pill
Despite recent legislation in the United Kingdom, many people with diabetes feel they get a raw deal in the jobs market. However, the increasing number of cases means that occupational health staff are more likely to have contact with the condition and should be aware of sufferers' needs.
Occupational Health, Apr. 1999, Vol.51, No.4, p.20-21. Illus. 4 ref.
Engineering Employers' Federation (EEF)
Think about health - An employee's guide to occupational health
This guide aimed at employees is a reminder of the main health hazards they encounter at work. Topics covered: handling harmful substances; respiratory diseases; skin diseases; noise and vibration; radiations; movement, posture and repetitive work; health surveillance; personal protective equipment; stress; smoking, alcohol and substance abuse; improving lifestyle.
Safety & Environment Department of the EEF, Customer Services Department, EEF, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London SW1H 9NQ, United Kingdom, 4th ed., 1999. 31p. Illus. Price: EEF members GBP 1.20 per copy, min. order 10 copies; non-members: GBP 1.50 per copy.
Ideura Y., Kawakami T., Sakai K., Itani T.
Time budget of rough terrain crane operators
Rafu teren kurēn operēta no seikatsu jikan chōsa [in Japanese]
Rough terrain crane operators working for a heavy construction hoisting company were surveyed by questionnaire to obtain basic data regarding their needs for safe and comfortable crane operation. Results revealed that nighttime shift operations often resulted in insufficient sleeping periods. Since drowsiness at work can be very dangerous, the lack of sleeping time should be addressed by rotating assigned operators on the nighttime shift. Half of the operators skipped breakfast or had it in the car on the way to work, thus posing the problem of an unbalanced diet. Regarding physical fatigue, stiff shoulders, probably resulting from operating the crane, were commonly reported. This may suggest that the right-side lever requires precise control and should be improved. 12 of the 16 operators surveyed reported mental fatigue due primarily to heavy traffic and working with other workers at the job site.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Sep. 1999, Vol.75, No.9, p.331-341. Illus. 7 ref.
Stein T.P., Schluter M.D.
Plasma amino acids during human spaceflight
Plasma amino acid distribution patterns were measured before, during and after flight on the Space Shuttle. The plasma samples were collected from the four payload crewmembers of a 1993 shuttle mission. Samples were taken 45, 15 and 8 days before flight; inflight on days 2, 8 and 12 after launch; post flight on the day of landing; and again 6, 14 and 45 days after landing. Most of the changes found pertained to the essential amino acids, particularly the branched chain amino acids (BCAA). The principle findings were: a) plasma aminograms for inflight days 8 and 12 were very similar and both aminograms were very different from that of flight day 2. Flight day 2 was not different from the preflight ground control; b) with increasing time in space, there was an increase in the concentration of leucine and isoleucine in the plasma. This increase occurred even though dietary BCAA intake was not increased inflight; and c) concentrations of total essential amino acids and BCAA in particular were decreased on the day of landing. Topics: amino acids; blood monitoring; blood plasma; body weight; determination in blood; nutrition; plasma changes; space travel.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.70, No.3, p.250-255. Illus. 22 ref.
Pan G., Takahashi K., Feng Y., Liu L., Liu T., Zhang S., Liu N., Okubo T., Goldsmith D.F.
Nested case-control study of esophageal cancer in relation to occupational exposure to silica and other dusts
In a nested case-control study of a cohort of industrial workers, 125 oesophageal cancer cases and 250 controls were identified from the death registry file. History of occupational exposure to various dusts was estimated. Occupational exposure to silica dust was the most important risk factor among all the variables investigated, with a 2.8-fold risk and a clear dose-response by length of exposure. Ingestion of silica particles after lung clearance may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer among workers exposed to silica. Topics: alcoholism; case-control study; coal dust; diet; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; mortality; oesophageal carcinoma; respirable dust; silica; steelworks.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.272-280. 33 ref.
de la Iglesia Huerta A.
Cardiovascular risk factors in the Spanish working population
Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la población laboral española [in Spanish]
Topics: alcoholism; body weight; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes mellitus; diet; geographical variables; hyperlipaemia; hypertension; hyperuricaemia; ischaemia; obesity; questionnaire survey; risk factors; smoking; Spain.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1998, Vol.XLV, No.178, p.35-47. Illus. 26 ref.
Engineering Employers' Federation (EEF)
Think about office health and safety - The employee's guide
This guide aimed at office employees is a reminder of basic safety and health practices at the workplace. Topics covered: moving around safely; ergonomics and posture; equipment (VDUs, photocopiers, cutting equipment); electrical hazards; fire prevention; contractors and lone workers; hazardous substances; comfort of working environment; stress; smoking, alcohol and substance abuse; improving lifestyle; first aid.
Safety & Environment Department of the EEF, Sales Department, EEF, Broadway House, Tothill Street, London SW1H 9NQ, United Kingdom, 1998. 31p. Illus. Price: EEF members: GBP 1.20 per copy; non-members: GBP 1.50 per copy.
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