Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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Saini R.S., Jaitli H.
Beedi industry - Working for solutions
This article describes a survey carried out in the beedi industry in the city of Gwalior, India. The 75 respondents were all women, of average age 36 (13 to 75), having worked in the sector for an average of 14 years. Four suffered from asthma, 17 from chest pain and three from tuberculosis. All complained of breathlessness. Earlier studies report frequent miscarriages among women beedi workers due to the continuous squatting posture. Workers were found to have minimal awareness of their rights. Several recommendations are made for improving occupational health in this sector.
Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, June 2001, Vol.2, No.1, p.10-14. 12 ref.
Sero-prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi among Flemish forestry workers
Seroprevalentie van Borrelia burgorferi bij Vlaamse bosarbeiders [in Dutch]
The number of registered cases of Lyme disease has been increasing each year in Belgium. To evaluate the impact of Lyme disease among forest workers, a sero-prevalence study was conducted in 1996, involving 261 employees of the forestry department of the Flemish community. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Lyme disease. The frequency of tick bites in the past year and the extent of self-reported symptoms of employees Lyme disease were also noted. It was found that 9% of the investigated population had a positive serology (IgM or lgG antibodies measured by ELISA and immunofluorescence) for B. burgdorferi.The forestry workers reported an average of 17 tick bites per year. The highest levels were reported in the provinces of Limburg, Antwerp and Flemish Brabant. 13% of the employees retrospectively reported a skin rash which resembled erythema chronicum migrans (ECM). This study showed that the risk of Lyme disease is real and correlates with the high degree of exposure.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2001, Vol.XXXVIII, No.3, p.113-118. 28 ref.
Luo J.C., Kuo H.W., Cheng T.J., Chang M.J.W.
Abnormal liver function associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide and hepatitis B virus
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) has excellent solvent properties and is used intensively in the production of synthetic leather and resins. It has caused hepatoxicity in human and animal studies. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus infections are reported to be the major causes of chronic liver diseases (including liver cirrhosis and liver cancer) in Taiwan. This study examined the dose-response relationship of the observed abnormal liver function among the DMF-exposed workers and the interactions among DMF, other chemical exposures, HBV infection, and potential confounders on liver abnormalities. It was observed that a significant dose-response relationship existed between liver function abnormalities and DMF exposure among workers in Taiwan, and that HBV carrier status or increased BMI had synergistic effects with DMF exposure in causing liver abnormalities (abnormal liver function tests and clinical chronic liver diseases).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.474-482. 29 ref.
Unheard voices of silicosis affected people in Lalkuan, Delhi
This article presents the results of a survey conducted in a suburb of New Delhi (India), where an important stone-crushing activity had taken place for over 40 years. The purpose was to identify persons who were affected by silicosis or silico-tuberculosis. 146 persons were interviewed, of whom 83 were suspected to be affected on the basis of their symptoms and occupational history. Information was also collected from families of persons who had died from these affections. It is hoped that the survey will give rise to increased awareness of silicosis as an occupational disease.
Collective Initiatives, Oct. 2001, Vol.2, No.2, p.14-18.
Lee H.S., Phoon W.H., Ng T.P.
Radiological progression and its predictive risk factors in silicosis
141 patients with silicosis contracted from granite work with available serial chest X-ray films of acceptable quality taken over a period of 2 to 17 years were selected for study. 94 had ended exposure at least 5 years earlier. Radiological progression was assessed by paired comparison of the initial and most recent radiographs. Overall, 37% of patients had radiological evidence of progression. As expected, progression was more likely to be found after longer periods of follow up (the interval between the two chest X-ray films) with a 20% increased odds of progression for every additional year of follow up. After adjustment for varying intervals of follow up, the probability of radiological progression was found to be significant if large opacities were present in the initial chest X-ray film. Progression was also less likely to be found among those who had ended exposure to silica earlier. Tuberculosis was also associated with increased likelihood of progression.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.58, No.7, p.467-471. 8 ref.
Regulations for Hazardous Biological Agents [South Africa]
Regulations issued under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451). Contents: definitions; scope; classification of biological agents; information and training; duties of persons who might be exposed to hazardous biological agents (HBAs); risk assessment by employers or self-employed persons; monitoring exposure; medical surveillance; records; control of exposure to HBAs; personal protective equipment and facilities; maintenance of control measures, equipment and facilities; prohibitions; labelling, packaging, transporting and storage; special measures for health and veterinary isolation facilities; special measures for laboratories, animal rooms and industrial processes; disposal of HBAs. In annex: indicative list of incidents; hazardous biological agent guidelines (incl. list of bacteria, viruses and parasites with their hazard classification); precautions for workplaces (incl. table of precaution codes connected with specific infections or conditions; table presenting clinical syndromes or conditions warranting additional precautions aimed at the prevention of infection pending conformation of diagnosis); containment rules.
Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 27 Dec. 2001, Vol.438, No.22956, p.3-67. Illus.
http://www.gov.za/gazette/regulation/2001/22956.pdf [in English]
Bartual Sánchez J., Bereguer Subils M.J., Bernal Domínguez F., Freixa Blanxart A., Guardino Solá X., Hernández Calleja A., Martí Solé M.C., Rosell Farrás M.G.
Quality of indoor air
Calidad de aire interior [in Spanish]
Persons living in industrialized countries spend 60 to 80% of their time in enclosed areas. Consequently, the questions of quality of indoor air and associated health problems are becoming more and more important. This document presents the state of current knowledge in this area. Contents: general concepts (thermal comfort, air quality criteria, contamination sources); odours; chemical contaminants; radon; cigarette smoke and passive smoking; biological contaminants; ventilation of premises; example of analysis of an indoor air quality problem.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. vi, 200p. Illus. 43 ref.
Global programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work
Programme mondial sur le VIH/SIDA et le monde du travail [in French]
Programa mundial sobre el VIH/SIDA y el mundo laboral [in Spanish]
Folder containing 4 leaflets, including a message from the Director-General of the ILO and two copies (one pocket-sized) of "An ILO code of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work". This code of practice provides guidelines to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the world of work in the context of the promotion of decent work. The guidelines cover: prevention of HIV/AIDS; management and mitigation of the impact of HIV/AIDS and the world of work; care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. Folder with 4 leaflets and 1 booklet (8p. + vii, 32p. 79 ref.).
Predicting the ultraviolet radiation distribution in a room with multilouvered germicidal fixtures
A relatively inexpensive method to reduce transmission of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, consists in irradiating the upper part of a room with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To obtain a protection of workers in the lower part of a room from radiation, multilouvered UV germicidal fixtures, producing a horizontal beam, are used. In this article, a model is developed to predict the UV fluence rate at any location in the upper room for such fixtures and also total UV power emitted by the same.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.434-445. Illus. 15 ref.
Recommendations for hairdressers
Recommandations pour les métiers de la coiffure [in French]
Contents of this guidance note aimed at the hairdressing occupation: hand protection (protective creams, gloves), protection of the back and the musculoskeletal system (shoes, support stockings, weight of hairdryers, avoiding wrist flexions and repetitive movements); protective clothing; instruments and products (allergies, ergonomics, cleaning); actions to be undertaken in the event of accidents (splashes in eyes, cuts); recommended vaccinations (tetanus).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.185-187.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in care homes
This booklet is aimed at owners, managers and employees of care institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes, specialized institutions for handicapped persons or persons undergoing rehabilitation programmes and residential care homes owned by local authorities. Its purpose is to help them understand and meet their duties under current safety and health legislation. Contents: legal framework; managing health and safety; reporting of incidents; first aid; hazardous substances; control of infection; patient handling; aggression and violence to staff; work-related stress; legionellosis; utilities (gas and electricity); asbestos; general working environment; health and safety in the kitchen, the laundry and outdoors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 60p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Blood-borne viruses in the workplace - Guidance for employers and employees
Blood-borne viruses (BBVs) include hepatitis B, hepatitis C and hepatitis D, which affect the liver, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This guidance note is aimed at all persons involved in work where exposure to blood or other body fluids may occur. Contents include: description of BBVs; types of work where exposure to BBVs may occur; legal responsibilities of employers and employees; actions to be taken after possible infection with a BBV; special considerations for first-aid attendants.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 8p. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Legionnaires' disease - A guide for employers
Legionnaire's disease is a potentially-fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella bacteria. Legionella are widespread in the environment, and may grow in cooling towers and hot and cold water distribution circuits. They survive low temperatures and thrive at temperatures between 20°C and 45°C in presence of nutrients such as rust, sludge, scale, algae or other bacteria. Aimed at employers, this booklet outlines the steps they need to take in order to fulfil their legal responsibilities against the risk of legionnaire's disease at the place of work. In particular, these steps include conducting a risk assessment, implementing preventive measures and keeping records.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, May 2001. 9p. 4 ref.
Annual Report 2000
The fatality and reportable injury rate in the South African mining industry declined during the year 2000, continuing the 16-year general downward trend, and currently stands at 0.71 and 12.72 per thousand workers, respectively. Hearing loss, tuberculosis and silicosis are the major occupational health concerns. Other topics covered in this annual report: mine safety and health reports, safety and health surveys, safety and health equipment, management involvement and internal control, and regional reports, including safety and health reviews, inspections, audits, compliance with legislation, penalties and hazard evaluation.
Department of Minerals and Energy, Private Bag X 59, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 26 Feb. 2001. iv, 108p. Illus.
Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens; Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries: Final Rule [USA]
This is a revision of the Bloodborne Pathogens standard (for 1991 original, see CIS 93-371) in conformity with the requirements of the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. New examples have been included in the definition of engineering controls, along with two new definitions (needleless systems and sharps with engineered sharps injury protections). In addition, employers who are required to establish an Exposure Control Plan must document how the Plan is implemented. Certain employers are also required to establish and maintain a log of percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps.
Federal Register, 18 Jan. 2001, Vol.66, No.12, p.5318-5325.
http://www.osha.gov/FedReg_osha_data/FED20010118A.html [in English]
http://www.osha.gov/FedReg_osha_pdf/FED20010118A.pdf [in English]
Practical guide - Butchers
Aide mémoire - Filière viande de boucherie [in French]
This manual is aimed at managers and persons responsible for the safety and health of butchers in France. It offers practical guidance on main issues of occupational safety and health in general, as well as on the principal hazards and their prevention. Contents include: general approach to safety and health; safety and health institutions; costs of accidents; responsibilities; safety training; first aid; frequent hazards and corresponding prevention measures (use of knives, manual handling and the lifting of loads, in-plant traffic, mechanical and chemical hazards, fire and explosion, electrical hazards, infections, work on screens, work in isolation, subcontractors); workplace design; hygiene; inspections.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., May 2001. 72p. Illus. 28 ref.
Martínez Plaza C.A.
Stress - Medical aspects
Estrés - Aspectos médicos [in Spanish]
This manual consisting of 5 parts and 35 chapters provides an in-depth coverage of the medical aspects of stress. Part I describes stress, stress factors and situations which lead to stress. Part II is devoted to neurological and endocrinal structures, the limbic system, the central nervous system and the immune system, as well as their interactions with stress. Part III covers physiological responses to stress and the relationship between the nervous and immune systems. Part IV describes diseases caused by stress (cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, neurological, endocrinal and metabolical disorders, skin diseases, infection, inflammations, auto-immune diseases, rheumatism, urinary, sexual, menstrual and reproduction disorders, sleep disorders, alcoholism and mental disorders). Part V deals with various methods of stress evaluation therapy (psychological and pharmacological), as well as the effects of stress at the individual, family, social and occupational levels.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 988p. Illus. Approx. 2000 ref. Price: EUR 36.06.
Regulatory Decree 6/2001 approving the schedule of occupational diseases and the corresponding codifying index [Portugal]
Decreto Regulamentar n°6/2001: aprova a lista das doenças profissionais e o respetivo índice codificado [in Portuguese]
This Decree introduces a renewed schedule of occupational diseases, in line with the recommendations of Directive 90/326/EEC (see CIS 90-1061). The major change from the previous schedule concerns infectious and parasitic diseases: on one hand, fungal infections restricted to the skin are transferred to the corresponding clinical group. On the other hand, infectious diseases with clear occupational connotations (streptococcus suis, erysipeloid etc.) are included now in this group. HIV/AIDS, although not in the schedule, may be recognized as an occupational disease in certain situations. Regulatory Decree 12/80 (of 8 May) and its modification as given in the Despacho Normativo 253/82 (22 Nov.) are revoked.
Diário da República, 5 May 2001, Series I-B, No.104. 6p.
http://www.terravista.pt/baiagatas/1075/dreg62001.html [in Portuguese]
Patterns of ill-health in Irish construction workers
In the Irish construction industry, data on illness and injury resulting in absenteeism or permanent disabilities leading to early retirement were not known. The objectives of the research were to establish these data, and to develop a database to contribute to define health promotion policies for the sector. The population base for the study comprised construction workers who were members of the Construction Federation Operatives Pension and Sick Pay Scheme. Over 29,000 records of absences of more than three days duration in the 16 year period from 1981 to 1996 were examined. There was an annual average of 7.8 absences per 100 workers due to injury or illness, the mean length of absence being 23.5 working days. Findings include the main diseases, age-linked differences, causes of invalidity and causes of early retirement.
Construction Employees Health Trust, Canal House, Canal Road, Dublin 6, Ireland, 2000. 24p. Illus. 14 ref. Co. Dublin
Code of practice on the management of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis at workplaces
This revised code of practice provides practical guidance for the management of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the workplace. It describes the nature and means of transmission of the diseases and presents guidance on risk management: sources of infection; hazardous activities and occupations; control measures; personal hygiene; sharp instruments; cleaning and disinfection; spills; waste management; vaccination; personal protective equipment; information and training; monitoring and evaluation. Replaces CIS 99-1353.
WorkSafe Western Australia, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, rev. ed. Sep. 2000. 46p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.safetyline.wa.gov.au/PageBin/codewswa0197.pdf [in English]
Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (seventh individual directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) [European Union]
Directive 2000/54/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 18 septembre 2000 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'exposition à des agents biologiques au travail (septième directive particulière au sens de l'article 16, paragraphe 1, de la directive 89/391/CEE) [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2000/54/CE del Parlamento Europeo y del Consejo, de 18 de septiembre de 2000, sobre la protección de los trabajadores contra los riesgos relacionados con la exposición a agentes biológicos durante el trabajo (Séptima Directiva específica con arreglo al apartado 1 del artículo 16 de la Directiva 89/391/CEE) [in Spanish]
Consolidated version of Directive 90/679/EEC (CIS 91-29, which is repealed) with its various amendments, also repealed: 93/88/EEC (CIS 94-783), 95/30/EC (CIS 99-730), 97/59/EC (CIS 97-1430) and 97/65/EC (CIS 97-1790). The aim of the Directive is to protect workers against risks to their health and safety arising from exposure to biological agents at work. Contents: definitions; scope, risk determination and assessment; employers' obligations (replacement, risk reduction, information for the competent authority, hygiene and individual protection, information and training of workers, worker information in particular cases, list of exposed workers, consultation and participation of workers, notification to the competent authority); miscellaneous provisions (health surveillance; health and veterinary care facilities other than diagnostic laboratories; special measures for industrial processes, laboratories and animal rooms; classification of biological agents). In annex: indicative list of activities; Community classification (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi); practical recommendations for the health surveillance of workers; indications concerning containment measures and containment levels; containment measures for industrial processes; recommended code of practice on vaccination.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 17 Oct. 2000, Vol.43, No.L 262, p.21-45. Illus.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2000/l_262/l_26220001017en00210045.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2000/l_262/l_26220001017fr00210045.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2000/l_262/l_26220001017es00210045.pdf [in Spanish]
Sobaszek A., Fantoni-Quinton S., Frimat P., Leroyer A., Laynat A., Edme J.L.
Prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection among health care workers in pediatric and immunosuppressed adult units
The objective of this study was assess the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among health care personnel working with children and immunosuppressed patients. The study involved a clinical examination, a medical and occupational questionnaire, the assessment of tasks performed, and CMV serologic testing of 400 female health care workers. Overall seroprevalence was 44.25%. Prevalence differed significantly with age and parity (number of children) and was higher among personnel who worked in closer contact with the patients (nurse's aides) than among those whose tasks required more technical skills (nurses), 57.3% vs. 34.5%. Logistic regression analysis between prevalence of CMV antibodies, age, parity and type of job showed that contact with patients was as significant a factor as parity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.42, No.11, p.1109-1114. 24 ref.
Russi M., Buitrago M., Goulet J., Calello D., Perlotto J., van Rhijn D., Nash E., Friedland G., Hierholzer W.
Antiretroviral prophylaxis of health care workers at two urban medical centers
This study examined the influence of job category, source patient HIV status and exposure type on whether health care workers initiated antiretroviral prophylaxis after potential blood-borne pathogen exposures. Of 639 exposures over an 18-month period, 82 individuals (13%) elected to receive prophylaxis, of whom 66% took medications for fewer than 96 hours and only 12% completed a 4-week course. Reasons for early drug discontinuation included confirmation of source patient HIV negative serological status (65%), gastrointestinal side effects (13%), headache (4%), and personal decision after counseling or other inputs (18%). Individuals exposed to HIV-positive source patients were more likely to initiate prophylaxis (odds ratio (OR), 5.1). Licensed nurses were less likely than others to accept prophylaxis (OR 0.5), whereas physicians and medical students were more likely to accept prophylaxis (OR 1.9).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.42, No.11, p.1092-1100. 33 ref.
Picciotto D., Provenzani A., Sorrentino S., Vitale F., Vesco G., Caracappa S., Verso M.G.
Rickettsiosis in Sicily and mass media: A not entirely groundless attention
Rickettsiosi in Sicilia e mezzi di comunicazione di massa: attenzione non del tutto immotivata [in Italian]
The prevalence of rickettsial diseases was assessed in Sicily (Italy) with special attention to possible occupational exposure, due to a high number of cases reported in the press. Epidemiological data showed that Sicily was indeed the Italian region where most cases of rickettsiosis occurred. Analysis of the clinical data showed that an occupational risk existed among small farmers, and that there was also a risk for other subjects active in rural areas, due to contact with infected dogs.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.91, No.5, p.494-500. 7 ref.
Regulating the risk of tuberculosis transmission among health care workers
The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease rates is discussed, and a probability framework is introduced for the apportioning of the infection risk between occupational and non-occupational exposure. It is argued that most TB infections among health care workers are work-related. A 0.2% overall annual risk of TB infection is proposed as acceptable, because in the context of an infection surveillance programme it limits the cumulative disease risk faced by health care workers close to the value for the general United States population. Based on the probability framework, an estimate of the background community infection rate and the traditional Wells-Riley risk model it is shown that a target workplace infection risk value can be derived and applied to risk management decision making.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.334-339. Illus. 20 ref.
Moore J.S., Christensen M., Wilson R.W., Wallace R.J., Zhang Y., Nash D.R., Shelton B.
Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids: Involvement of a possible new taxon of rapidly growing mycobacteria
Contamination of air and metalworking fluid (MWF) systems by a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) was detected in a manufacturing plant with recent cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Environmental sampling was performed to determine the extent of the contamination and its variability over time. RGM were present in multiple indoor air samples, central MWF storage tanks, and cutting, drilling, and grinding machines. Contamination was essentially limited to a formulation of semi-synthetic MWF recently introduced in the plant. In general, the mycobacterial counts were stable over time, with the degree of contamination ranging from 102-107 colony forming units/mL. Using molecular techniques, it was found that the mycobacterial isolates consisted of a single strain and represented a previously undescribed taxon closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus. The relationship of this mycobacterium to the cases of HP remains unknown.
AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.205-213. Illus. 23 ref.
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
DDT and its derivatives
At very high concentrations, DDT has been shown to mimic the effect of sexual hormones in vitro. This has been confirmed for very high dosages in animal studies. However, existing studies in humans show no correlation between DDT contamination and adverse effects subject to hormonal influences. The association between DDT contaminations and breast cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies but cannot be confirmed on the whole. In most developed countries, DDT use has been discontinued. The study did not discuss the question of possible consequences from persistent use of DDT in certain developing regions of the world, for example for fighting malaria.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. xviii, 151p. Illus. 209 ref.
Vandersmissen G., Moens G., Vranckx R., de Schryver A., Jacques P.
Occupational risk of infection by varicella zoster virus in Belgian healthcare workers: A seroprevalence study
The presence of varicella zoster virus (VZV, chickenpox) antibodies was investigated in health care personnel in Belgian hospitals. The prevalence of VZV seropositivity was 98.5%. Seronegative workers were significantly fewer among nursing than among non-nursing staff. Because of this low overall susceptibility, VZV infection seems not to be an important occupational risk among healthcare workers. A negative history of chickenpox had no value as a predictor of susceptibility in adults.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.621-626. Illus. 28 ref.
Brenner H., Ahern W.
Sickness absence and early retirement on health grounds in the construction industry in Ireland
Records of sickness absence among construction workers in Ireland since 1981 were analysed. The mean annual absence rate was 7.8/100 workers. Three quarters of the absences were among younger workers; however, the rate of absence and the mean duration of it increased with age. Injury was the most frequent reason for absence, followed by infectious disease and musculoskeletal disorders. The mean annual rate of early retirement on health grounds was 5.3/1000 workers. The median age at retirement was 58 years. Cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders accounted for nearly one third of the conditions leading to permanent disability.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.615-620. Illus. 24 ref.
Special feature on "foreign experiences"
Dossier "Expériences étrangères" [in French]
Collection of articles on experiences in the field of occupational medicine in Morocco, the Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso. Cases presented: occupational hazards in a small-scale cooperative manufacture of ceramic tiles in Morocco; contact dermatitis in the construction industry in Morocco; survey of sexually-transmitted diseases among workers of a luxury hotel complex in Morocco; preventive vaccination in occupational settings in the Ivory Coast; psycho-pathological disorders and night work among women in the health care sector in Burkina Faso.
Revue de médecine du travail, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.1, p.21- 52. Illus. 53 ref.
Pouliquen P., Catilina P.
Leptospirosis vaccine - Pharmacosurveillance survey carried out among doctors who administer the vaccination
Vaccin leptospires - Enquête de pharmacosurveillance auprès des médecins vaccinateurs [in French]
Leptosirosis consists of a bacterial infection which may be particularly serious and possibly fatal. It is transmitted to man by rats, through sludge or contaminated water, and is recognized as an occupational disease. The main risk populations include workers in waste disposal, waste water treatment, roadwork, maintenance and inspection of sewers, and analytical laboratories. This article presents the results of a survey of occupational physicians, aimed at establishing current practices in medical inspection, frequency rates of leptospirosis and the effectiveness of vaccination. Preventive vaccination is shown to be a useful way of fighting leptospirosis.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.83-88. Illus. 18 ref.
Touche F., Fleury L., Berlie C., Domart M., Pernet M., Leprince A.
Risks of infection in medical laboratories
Risques infectieux dans les laboratoires d'analyses médicales [in French]
Despite the fact that each day, a large number of potentially contaminating samples are handled in medical laboratories, data on the risks of infection are still scanty. A first study was conducted in 1996 in 26 medical laboratories belonging to five hospitals, with the objective of collecting the basic data necessary for hazard evaluation (see CIS 98-954). The study carried out two years later in the same laboratories enabled the assessment of trends with respect to approaches and risk perception. It includes a description of the laboratories, a retrospective inventory of infectious diseases and injuries involving blood exposure and a survey on the perception of the risks of infection. Results highlight favourable trends with respect to facilities, equipment and procedures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.233-239.
Benbirk E., Tiberguent A., Dômont A.
Comparative study of the HAV seroprevalence among water purification station workers, sewage workers and administration workers
Enquête comparative de séro-prévalence de l'hépatite A entre les professionnels d'une station d'épuration, de l'assainissement et administratifs [in French]
An HAV seroprevalence study was conducted among 390 water-purification station workers, 201 sewage workers, and 643 non-occupationally exposed administrative workers. All workers were male, with similar age and socio-educational characteristics. After correcting for age, the rate of hepatitis A seroconversion for all populations was about 69%. Occupational exposure to sludge and sewage were the most important transmission risk factors for hepatitis A. Water-purification station workers exposed to soiled earth polluted with sludge were subject to major risk of hepatitis A transmission with an odds ratio of 1.85. For sewage workers, contact with floating corpses appeared to be an increasing occupational risk for hepatitis A, with an odds ratio of 1.59. A multivariate analysis was also performed to determine the characteristics of the exposed groups and evidence certain patterns of hepatitis A exposure. Vaccination against hepatitis A appears to be the best way to fight against this biological risk, although hygiene and safety measures must not be overlooked.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.7-28. Illus. 51 ref.
Chew M.H.L., Arguin P.M., Shay D.K., Rollin P.E., Shieh.W.J., Zaki S.R., Rota P.A., Ling A.E., Ksiazek T.G., Chew S.K., Anderson L.J.
Risk factors for Nipah virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore
During 10-19 March 1999, 11 workers in one of two Singapore abattoirs developed Nipah-virus-associated encephalitis or pneumonia, resulting in one death. A case-control study was conducted to determine occupational risk factors for infection. Case patients were workers from the affected abattoir who had anti-Nipah IgM antibodies; control subjects were randomly selected workers from the same abattoir who tested negative for anti-Nipah IgM. All 13 case patients versus 26 (63%) of 41 control subjects reported contact with live pigs. No unusual illnesses among pigs processed during February-March were reported. Contact with live pigs appeared to be the most important risk factor for human Nipah virus infection. In the other abattoir where no case was reported, the use of face shields increased among eviscerators 3-4 months before the outbreak. Direct contact with live, potentially infected pigs should be minimized to prevent transmission of this potentially fatal zoonosis to humans.
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2000, No.181, p.1760-1763. 14 ref.
Biardeau B., Mullender N.
Job-related travel abroad: What demands, what answers?
Déplacements professionnels à l'étranger: quelles exigences, quelles réponses? [in French]
With the globalization of markets, an ever increasing number of companies need to send their employees abroad for short or long periods, often to parts of the world with serious health risks. In such cases, the occupational physician is often consulted for the prevention of travel-linked diseases. His or her role is to inform and advise the employee about to embark on a trip, depending on the risks linked to the assignment (destination country, living conditions, length of stay). The occupational physician has access to numerous sources of information, in particular the medical press, information systems and the Internet.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.1, p.33-38. 15 ref.
Solomon A., Rees D., Felix M., Venter E.
Silicosis and tuberculosis: A proposed radiographic classification of tuberculosis to accompany the ILO international classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses
A significant proportion of workers exposed to silica dust are at risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). The higher the International Labour Organization (ILO) category of silicosis, the greater the TB risk. Subtle radiographic presentations of TB may be the initial manifestation of TB, particularly in the absence of sputum identification of TB bacilli. A proposed TB X-ray-reading form in addition to the ILO categorization of silicosis is offered. The implementation of a standardized TB X-ray reading approach should enable the detection of indolent TB lesions.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.215-219. Illus. 10 ref.
Alonso Espaladé R.M., Martí Solé M.C., Constans Aubert A.
Biological hazard prevention in the laboratory: Work with parasites
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio; trabajo con parásitos [in Spanish]
This information note describes the risks associated with working with parasites in laboratories as well as the appropriate corresponding protective measures. Contents: different types of parasites and the diseases for which they are responsible; characteristics of parasites (host-parasite relationship, means of infection, ways of entry); description of protozoa, trematodes, nematodes and cestodes, risks to workers involved in their handling and precautions to be taken.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 11 ref.
Hofmann F., Jäckel R.
Information sheets on biological substances
Merkblätter Biologische Arbeitsstoffe [in German]
After an introduction to the German legal framework, this publication reproduces the regulatory texts on biological substances with commentary, describing the mode of action of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogenic agents and gives practical advice for working with biological substances. An overview of microbiological testing and directives for risk assessment in various types of workplaces as well as information on prevention measures (vaccination, personal protective equipment) are also included. Information sheets on biological substances are all identically laid out and provide a rapid overview of the characteristics of the pathogenic agent, the diseases it causes and protection measures to be taken.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Langsberd/Lech, Germany, 2000. Approx. 250p. (binder). Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Trad Fager C.
Tuberculosis, AIDS and work
Tuberculosis, SIDA y trabajo [in Spanish]
More than two thirds of the world population is believed to be infected by tuberculosis. The association between tuberculosis (TB) and immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) shows characteristic morbidity. This article describes the clinical features of TB, including its association with AIDS. This article reviews transmission factors, susceptibility and resistance to bacilli, treatment and screening, in particular in the Argentinian context. In terms of occupational hazards, TB represents a risk factor for workers in hospitals, veterinary practices, geriatric care institutions and in the meat processing industry. Various screening methods are also discussed.
Salud Ocupacional, Jan.-June 2000, Vol.XVIII, No.76, p.10-17. Illus.
Department of Labour
Code of Good Practice on key aspects of HIV/AIDS and employment [South Africa]
This Code of Practice was issued in order to set out guidelines for employers and trade unions to the implementation of non-discriminatroy practices for HIV-infected workers. It is to be read in conjunction with other labour legislation, including the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451), the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1452) and the Mine Health and Safety Act (see CIS 96-1928). Summary: promotion of a non-discriminatory work environment; HIV testing (incl. prohibition of compulsory pre-employment testing), confidentiality and voluntary disclosure; promotion of safe workplaces (incl. particular attention to the prevention of HIV transmission in health care professions); compensation for occupationally acquired HIV; employee benefits; dismissal (prohibition of dismissal solely on the basis of HIV/AIDS status); grievance procedures; management of HIV in the workplace; assessing the impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace; measures to deal with HIV/AIDS in the workplace (incl. the development of HIV/AIDS Policies). In annex: glossary.
Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 1 Dec. 2000, Vol.426, No.22506, p.4-17.
http://www.gov.za/gazette/regulation/2000/21815.pdf [in English]
Ahlén C., Mandal L.H., Johannessen L.N., Iversen O.J.
Survival of infectious Pseudomonas aeruginosa genotypes in occupational saturation diving environment and the significance of these genotypes for recurrent skin infections
Occupational saturation divers suffer from various skin disorders, of which skin infections are the most serious and frequent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the microbe most often isolated. P.aeruginosa isolates from 292 skin infections in operational saturation divers and about 800 isolates from occupational saturation diving systems have been collected during the period 1986 to 1998. 472 P.aeruginosa isolates have been genetically analyzed, of which 181 originate from skin infections in divers. 97 different P.aeruginosa genotypes have been defined. Some of these genotypes are solely found from skin infections, some solely from the saturation environment and about 25% were found both from infections and from the saturation environment. Eight frequent infectious genotypes are shown to be present over several years, both in infections and in the saturation environment. The study suggests that skin infections in occupational saturation divers are commonly caused by environmental strains and not by diver-to-diver contagion.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2000, Vol.37, No.5, p.493-500. Illus. 10 ref.
Johnson K.R., Braden C.R., Cairns K.L., Field K.W., Colombel A.C., Yang Z., Woodley C.L., Morlock G.P., Weber A.M., Boudreau A.Y., Bell T.A., Onorato I.M., Valway S.E., Stehr-Green P.A., Sepkowitz K.A.
Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from medical waste; Further adventures of the tubercle bacillus
Three cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) were reported among workers at a medical waste treatment facility in 1997. The facility accepted contaminated medical waste where it was shredded, blown, compacted and finally deactivated. There was no previous documentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission as a result of processing medical waste. The three patient-workers' isolates had different DNA fingerprints. One worker had a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Equipment failures, insufficient employee training and respiratory protective equipment inadequacies were identified at the facility. It is concluded that the processing of contaminated medical waste resulted in transmission of M. tuberculosis to at least one medical waste treatment facility worker. The issue of the journal also contains an editorial article (by Sepkowitz K.A.) on the worldwide resurgence of TB.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 2000, Vol.284, No.13, p.1683-1688; p.1701-1702. Illus. 40 ref.
Balge M.Z., Krieger G.R.
Occupational health and safety
Detailed manual aimed at occupational health and safety (OHS) specialists in the United States. Contents: the OHS professions; OHS programmes (programme design, occupational medicine, occupational health nursing, safety, industrial hygiene, environmental regulations, radiation safety, workers' compensation management, travel health, remote work, ergonomics, employee safety and security, emergency response, community involvement, programme assessment and evaluation); human resource issues (pre-placement testing, stress management, substance abuse, scheduling shiftwork, employee education, gender issues in the workplace, workers with disabilities, outsourcing of OHS services); future issues (infectious diseases, occupational health in developing countries, sources of help).
National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca IL 60143-3201, USA, 3rd ed., 2000. ix, 595p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 79.95 (members), USD 99.95 (non-members).
Rescalvo Santiago F.
Occupational medicine II
Medicina del trabajo II [in Spanish]
Manual of occupational medicine in 2 volumes aimed at company health services. The first volume covers management issues (see CIS 01-706) while the second is devoted to pathologies. Contents include: occupational carcinogenesis; lung cancer; diseases of the upper respiratory tract; respiratory diseases; acute respiratory infections; tuberculosis; viral hepatitis; HIV infections and AIDS; risks to women's health in various occupational settings; teratogenic effects; modifications to male fertility; cataract; heart diseases; musculoskeletal diseases; sick building syndrome; diseases caused by the use of visual display terminals; toxic and neurotoxic substances; occupational psychopathy; neurosis and alcoholism.
IBERMUTUAMUR, Ramírez de Arellano 27, 28403 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 524p. Illus. Ref.bibl.
Worker health chartbook, 2000
This publication provides information on occupational safety and health surveillance from different sources in the United States. It covers fatal injury and fatal illness by State, age, race, sex and occupation as well as non-fatal injury by sector and injury type, and non-fatal occupational diseases. One chapter is dedicated to mining. Descriptions of surveillance systems and of industry and occupation coding systems are included in the appendixes.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Sep. 2000. xvii, 250p. Illus. 88 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety on floating fish farm installations
This booklet provides guidance on the design, construction and safe use of floating fish farm installations, including fish pens or cages, walkways, gangways, vehicle ways, land access ways and shelters. Topics covered include: construction and maintenance of installations; guardrails and working surfaces; safety and rescue equipment; weather protective clothing; shelters; lighting; electrical hazards; radio communications; manual handling; lifting operations; facilities; first aid; health hazards; diving operations; training and supervision; sea conditions; navigation markers; boats; legislation applicable in the United Kingdom. Replaces CIS 97-1476.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Feb. 2000. 14p. Illus. 13 ref.
Dermatologic disease: Twenty-two year experience at the USAF aeromedical consultation service and review of other military and civilian experiences
The Aeromedical Consultation Service (ACS) is a U.S. Air Force tertiary referral service which evaluates aviators with complex medical problems and makes recommendations for their aeromedical disposition. This study reports the experience with dermatologic disease among aviators referred to the ACS over a 22-year period from 1975-1997. Fungal diseases were seen most frequently (14.5%). Five aviators were permanently disqualified from flying duties due to chronic urticaria. A review of other military and civilian experiences with dermatologic disease is also presented.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.71, No.3, p.230-237. 34 ref.
Weldon M., VanEgdom M.J., Hendricks K.A., Regner G., Bell B.P., Sehulster L.M.
Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus in drinking water workers and wastewater workers in Texas from 1996 to 1997
To determine if wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) than drinking-water workers, 359 wastewater and 89 drinking-water workers were evaluated for risk factors by questionnaire and tested for anti-HAV. Anti-HAV positivity was 28.4% for wastewater and 23.6% for drinking-water workers. After adjustment for age, educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity, the odds ratio for the association between anti-HAV positivity and wastewater industry employment was 2.0. Among wastewater workers, never eating in a lunchroom, ≥8 years in the waste water industry, never wearing face protection, and skin contact with sewage at least once per day were all significantly associated with anti-HAV positivity. Wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of anti-HAV than drinking-water workers, which suggested that wastewater workers may have been at increased risk of occupationally acquired hepatitis A.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.821-826. 18 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Drycleaners - Are you in control?
This booklet covers the issue of safety and health in dry cleaning shops and offers guidance for preventing or reducing these risks. A check list allows readers to verify their level of understanding of these hazards. The main hazards present in this field of activity include: explosions of pressure vessels as a result of faulty pressure systems; proliferation of bacteria (giving rise to legionnaire's disease) in cases of inappropriate or insufficient treatment of cooling towers; inhalation of solvent vapours, and particularly of perchloroethylene, spills of reactive chemicals on the skin and in the eyes; injuries caused by the lifting of loads and repetitive movements; miscarriage.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 11p. Illus. 5 ref.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 5/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-553). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by firemen, ambulance drivers, educational workers and childminders, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 4/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by taxi and bus drivers, cleaners, restaurant and pub doormen, and library and shop workers, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).
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