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Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found

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CIS 02-1534
Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
Official Mexican Standard - Environmental Protection - Environmental Health - Dangerous Biologically Infectious Residues - Classification and Specifications for Handling [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana - Protección ambiental - Salud ambiental - Residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos - Clasificación y especificaciones de manejo [in Spanish]
This standard was emitted in accordance with the provisions of the General law on ecological balance and environmental protection. Contents: definitions and terminology; classification of biologically dangerous infectious residues; classification of establishments generating biologically dangerous infectious residues; handling of such residues. The previous standard on the same subject (NOM-087-ECOL-1995) is repealed.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 17 Feb. 2003, Vol.DXCIII, No.10, p.10-20. Illus. 42 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1463
World Health Organization (WHO)
Hospital Infection Control Guidance for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Conseils en matière de lutte contre l'infection nosocomiale [in French]
Guidance document designed to prevent the spreading of SARS infection to health care workers involved in the treatment of patients with the disease, whether in an outpatient/triage or an inpatient setting. Measures include the wearing of protective clothing and personal protective equipment, disinfection and attention to sharps.
Internet document, 2003. 2p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 02-1462 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Health information and advisories
Collection of information sheets on the prevention of infection SARS in various occupational settings, such as: workplaces with foreign workers (particularly from countries with many diagnosed cases of SARS); management of commercial buildings and apartment complexes; hotels and serviced apartments; commercial aircraft; airports. Illustrated 1-page factsheets on SARS are included in English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil.
Internet document, Ministry of Health, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 22p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 02-1461 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Isolation and infection control
A set of interim guidelines published with the aim of reducing the risk if infection by SARS for people occupationally exposed to the disease, in particular in a health care and air travel setting. Individual fact sheets are devoted to the protection of workers in the following areas: health care workers in close contact with SARS patients; cleaners of commercial aircraft following a flight with a passenger with suspected SARS; workers exposed to SARS patients in healthcare and other institutional settings; workers exposed to human remains (bodies) of SARS patients; specific guidelines devoted to aerosol-generating procedures on patients with suspected SARS; laboratory biosafety guidelines for handling and processing specimens associated with SARS.
Internet document, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, 2003. 16p. [in English]

CIS 02-1460
Health Canada
Infection control guidance for health care workers in health care facilities and other institutional settings - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Guide de prévention des infections pour les travailleurs de la santé dans les établissements de soins et autres établissements: Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS) [in French]
This fact sheet was developed to assist health care workers in the prevention of the transmission of SARS in institutions where patients suspected of having or diagnosed with the disease are being cared for. Contents: patient triage; hand washing; wearing of masks for eye and face protection; wearing of gloves and gowns; guidelines for patient accommodation; patient transport within the facility and between institutions; disinfection of patient care equipment; environmental control; avoidance of aerosol-generating procedures; post-mortem care.
Internet document, 2003. 6p. [in English] [in French]


CIS 08-1469 OSHA Fact Sheet - Bloodborne pathogens
Bloodborne pathogens are infectious materials in blood that can cause disease in humans, including hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Workers exposed to these pathogens risk serious illness or death. This information sheet explains the protection against bloodborne pathogens provided by the OSHA standard specifying the legal obligations of employers to prevent exposure among workers at risk. These obligations include hazard evaluation, exposure evaluation, implementing engineering controls, providing personal protective equipment, information and training of personnel, medical supervision and maintaining records.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2002. 2p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-278
Health and Safety Executive
Working with sewage - The health hazards
This leaflet for persons working with sewage explains the main health risks (gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and hepatitis), the measures to be taken to prevent infections and what to do in case of illness.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2002. 6p. [in English]

CIS 06-454 Jarke J, Marcus U.
HIV infection of occupational origin among medical personnel - An assessment
Berufsbedingte HIV-Infektionen bei medizinischem Personal - eine aktuelle Übersicht [in German]
In Germany, the risk of workplace infection by HIV is lower than that for hepatitis B or C. The possibilities for preventing a chronic infection by one of these viruses by a post-exposure intervention are comparable. Prophylactic procedures following a known or possible exposure to HIV are described in detail in German-Austrian recommendations concerning post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. In 44 declared cases of HIV infection of occupational origin among health care workers in Germany, only eight were identified as being clearly linked to work. In 16 cases, the link with occupational exposure was judged to be insufficient and in 20 cases, other risk factors were evident. To detect HIV infections contracted at work following an undeclared exposure and to facilitate the evaluation of the risk of transmission at work, all health care personnel in all sectors at risk should be offered HIV tests at regular intervals.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, 2002, No.5, p. 218-220, 222-231. 73 ref.

CIS 06-453 Hoffman F, Kralj N., Beie M.
Needle-stick injuries in health care - Frequency, causes and preventive measures
Kanülenstichverletzungen im Gesundheitsdienst - Häufigkeit, Ursachen und Präventionsstrategien [in German]
Health service personnel are at risk of infection by blood-borne pathogens, notably the hepatitis B and C virus and the human immunodeficiency virus (HBV, HCV, HIV) which may be contracted during injuries or punctures with sharp or pointed instruments or needles. An epidemiological study conducted in two German health care establishments showed that some 500,000 needle-stick injuries occur each year in Germany, most of them during the disposal or recapping of used syringes. The administration of post-exposure prophylaxis is recommended for all health service workers immediately after the declaration of exposure. Programmes for the prevention of needle-stick injuries (avoidance of recapping, waste disposal in specially adapted containers, wearing surgical gloves) would limit the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis and avoid the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Gesundheitswesen, 2002, No.5, p. 259-266. Illus. 112 ref.

CIS 03-672 Johnson K.A., Ruppe J.
A job safety program for construction workers designed to reduce the potential for occupational injury using tool box training sessions and computer-assisted biofeedback stress management techniques
This programme was conducted at a building company in Hawaii employing a multi-cultural workforce performing included drywall and carpentry work. The following topics were selected for this project: fire prevention training; blood-borne pathogen training; ergonomic risk evaluation and ergonomic interventions; stress evaluation; training on avoiding slips, trips, and falls; electrical safety training; computer-assisted methods of stress evaluation (based on electromyography, electrocardiography, electroencephalography and recordings of galvanic skin response, heart rate, blood volume and breathing). Workshops and training sessions were held for each topic. As a result of the programme, subsequent observed safety hazards, reported injuries, and levels of perceived stress were reduced for the majority of the study population.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2002, Vol.8, No.3, p.321-329. 10 ref.

CIS 03-529 Cabinet Regulation No.189/2002 of 21 May 2002 - Labour protection requirements when coming into contact with biological substances [Latvia]
Darba aizsardzības prasības, saskaroties ar bioloģiskajām vielām [in Latvian]
Regulations issued under the Labour Protection Law of 2001 (see CIS 01-1571) on protection against biological hazards in the workplace. Contents: general provisions; risk assessment; prevention and reduction of risk; list of workers who may be at risk of exposure to biological agents; informing supervisory and control authorities; labour protection requirements in medical and veterinary care institutions; special measures in laboratories, premises intended for animals and industrial processes; health surveillance of employees; informing, training, consultation and participation of employees. In annex: classification of harmful biological agents, by type (bacteria and similar organisms, viruses, parasites, fungi); containment measures and levels for the protection of workers against biological agents (in general and as part of industrial processes).
Latvijas Republikas Saeimas un Ministru Kabineta Ziņotājs, 2002, No.12, p.140-. Internet copy: 27p. (Latvian), 28p. (English). [in Latvian] [in English]

CIS 03-930 Miller A.K., Tepper A., Sieber K.
Historical risks of tuberculin skin test conversion among non-physician staff at a large urban hospital
Following cases of nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among workers at a 1000-bed urban hospital, an extensive evaluation was carried out of this risk among workers with potential exposure to tuberculosis patients or to contaminated biological samples. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence and risk of tuberculin skin test (TST) conversions among workers employed between 1 January 1990 and 30 September 1992. Personal, social and occupational risk factors were evaluated in 2,362 workers with potential exposure and 886 workers with no known exposure. The 33-month cumulative rate of TST conversion was 5.8% for potentially exposed workers and 2.0% for controls. Among workers with potential tuberculosis exposure, statistically significantly elevated risks were found for nurses, laboratory technicians, pharmacy workers, phlebotomists, housekeepers, clerks, emergency room workers and emergency responders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.42, No.3, p.228-235. 33 ref.

CIS 03-513 Notification No. 918 of 2002 concerning the list of occupational diseases [Denmark]
Bekendtgørelse om fortegnelse over erhvervssygdomme [in Danish]
This Notification (effective 1 Dec. 2002) outlines the requirements for a disease to be considered as occupational and the conditions under which entitlement to compensation can be granted. In annex: schedule of diseases caused by chemical agents; occupational skin diseases due to unspecified substances; other diseases due to unspecified substances; infectious and parasitic diseases; diseases due to physical agents; cancers not classified elsewhere; tooth and gum problems due to occupational causes; particular problems of employees who work with children; IARC list of potentially carcinogenic substances, with their corresponding carcinogenicity codes. Notification No.357 of 17 May 2001 on the same subject is repealed.
Lovtidende A, 26 Nov. 2002, Vol.162, No.918, p.7116 (with Annexes: 24p.) [in Danish]

CIS 03-797 NIOSH hazard review - Health effects of occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica
This review summarizes the adverse health effects of worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica; properties, production, potential and sampling methods; health effects (silicosis, tuberculosis, lung cancer, other cancers and nonmalignant respiratory diseases; autoimmune and chronic renal diseases); review of experimental studies; exposure limits, monitoring and control; research needs.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Apr. 2002. xviii, 127p. Illus. Approx. 500 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-442
Health and Safety Commission
Legionnaires' disease - The control of legionella bacteria in water systems
This approved code of practice and guidance replaces two separate documents: the 1995 edition of the code of practice (CIS 95-1523) and the technical guidance HSG70. It also takes into account recent technical developments and alternative strategies for controlling risks of legionellosis and limiting exposure to legionella. Contents: scope and application; identification and assessment of the risk; management responsibilities, training and competence; preventing or controlling the risk of exposure to legionella; record-keeping; responsibilities of manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers; cooling systems and hot and cold water services (design and construction, management; treatment programmes; monitoring; cleaning and disinfection).
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2002. vi, 62p. lllus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 8.00.

CIS 03-432 Mohren D.C.L., Jansen N.W.H., Kant I., Galama J.M.D., van den Brandt P.A., Swaen G.M.H.
Prevalence of common infections among employees in different work schedules
This study examined the prevalence of common infections among employees in different work schedules. Self-administered questionnaire data from the Maastricht Cohort Study on "Fatigue at Work" (n=12,140) were used. Job title was used as a matching variable between day and shift workers. Multilevel analysis of a two-level structure was carried out, in which the individual employees (level 1) were nested within job titles (level 2), adjusted for demographics, chronic disease, health behaviour, work-related factors, fatigue and sleep quality. Results from the multilevel analyses showed that, compared to day work, shift work was associated with a higher risk for common infections, with the highest risk in three-shift workers. Compared to day work, shift work was further associated with differences in health, health behaviour, sleep, fatigue and perceived job characteristics, factors that may influence the occurrence of infections.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.44, No.11, p.1003-1011. 62 ref.

CIS 03-438 Touche S., Leprince A., Abiteboul D.
Controlling infection hazards in microbiology laboratories
Maîtrise des risques infectieux en laboratoires de microbiologie [in French]
Work carried out in microbiology laboratories and in medical laboratories that analyse biological samples from patients involves infection hazards for the workers. The nature and magnitude of these hazards depend on the type of laboratory under study. It is therefore important that laboratory workers and all persons concerned with their occupational hygiene prepare their specific occupational safety and health plan. Based on two studies carried out in hospital environments, the objective of this review article is to describe an approach to evaluating hazards and to define an approach to prevention. Contents: description of the hazards; hazard identification and exposure evaluation; risk control strategy.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.91, p.231-245. 27 ref.

CIS 03-242 Laraqui C.H,, Laraqui O., Douma A., Mounassif M., Rahhali A.
Perception of occupational hazards among health care workers in prisons in Morocco
Perception des risques professionnels chez le personnel de soins en milieu carcéral au Maroc [in French]
The aim of this study was to identify the perception of occupational hazards among health care workers in prison, to evaluate their satisfaction at work and to propose preventive measures. This survey was carried out in 2000 in several prisons. Among the 140 distributed questionnaires, 58% were recovered. 72.8% of the staff declared that night guard had a negative influence on their work and health and 90.1% on their social life. 35% found the working atmosphere confined, 80.2% complained of physical constraints including 50.6% from draught, 35% from excessive heat and 74% from humidity. Poor lighting of the premises was underlined by 55.5%. The most feared infectious diseases were tuberculosis (98.8%), scabies (93.8%), syphilis (91.4%), viral hepatitis (41.9%) and HIV (41.9%). Risky objects most frequently mentioned were hollow needles (80.2%), solid needles (76.5%), blades and scalpels (75.2%). Incidents involving exposure to blood were reported by 87.7% of the staff 80.2% had been threatened by prisoners. Only 2.5% had benefited from training in hygiene and prevention.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.374-381. 15 ref.

CIS 03-439 Salmon R.L., Parry S.M.
Health and Safety Executive
The chronic health effects of exposure to biological agents - A systematic literature review
The aim of this report was to review and critically evaluate the scientific evidence for chronic health effects associated with infection by biological agents of occupational relevance, and to highlight any knowledge gaps. Two systematic literature reviews were conducted. The first searched for documented evidence of occupational transmission for each of the listed agents. The second searched for evidence of chronic health effects in those agents with a documented occupational relevance. The occupational transmission search identified 4124 references, and the chronic health effects search more than 2000. Comparatively little convincing evidence was found. Many studies concentrated on particular age and sex groups. There were no prospective studies commencing in childhood. There was some evidence that all the biological agents included in the report could be acquired in occupational settings.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. x, 281p. 2385 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1758 Crestois M., Muqa M.F., Lambert S.
Dental prosthetists
Les prothésistes dentaires [in French]
Dental prosthetists are exposed to dusts and a variety of pollutants. Contents of this information note on the job of dental prosthetist: organization of the workplace layout; accidents (burns, cuts, injuries); products and materials (plaster, coating materials, abrasive tools and materials, resins, waxes, ceramics, alloys and metals); health hazards (respiratory and skin allergies, pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hard metal pulmonary fibrosis, berylliosis, risks caused by cadmium); general preventive measures (work premises, choosing products, choosing techniques, personal protection, recommended vaccinations, prevention of infection hazards).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.517-524.

CIS 02-1943 Lot F., Migueres B., Yazdanpanah Y., Tarantola A., Abiteboul M., Domart M., Bouvet E.
Occupational HIV and HCV seroconversions among health care workers in France - Situation as of 30 June 2001
Séroconversions professionnelles par le VIH et le VHC chez le personnel de la santé en France - Le point au 30 juin 2001 [in French]
This article presents the results of an ongoing study on contaminations by the human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) among health care workers in France as of 30 June 2001. No new cases of HIV seroconversion were reported since 1997, the total number of cases since the start of the study remaining at 13. With respect to HCV, 43 seroconversions were reported, of which 32 were the result of contacts with patients known to be infected at the time of accidental exposure. The breakdown in the number of cases is given by occupation, by health care department and by geographical region, together with data concerning the circumstances of the accidental infection, clinical surveillance and biological monitoring, medical follow-up evolution. The study protocol and the questionnaires are included as appendices.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.157-166. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 02-1938 Haug T., Søstrand P., Langård S.
Exposure to culturable microorganisms in paper mills and presence of symptoms associated with infections
Based on an exposure assessment, workers exposed to culturable bio-aerosols in 11 paper mills were divided into three exposure groups. 781 exposed and 285 unexposed workers completed a questionnaire that provided data pertaining to infections and associated symptoms. Concentrations of culturable bacteria in process waters varied in the range 104-106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and in bio-aerosol concentrations varied typically in the range 104-105 CFU/m3. Operators exposed to bio-aerosols reported higher incidence of symptoms associated with infections compared to the reference population (odds ratio 1.7-5.9), and the group of highest exposed workers reported higher incidence than the lowest exposed group. It is concluded that exposure to bio-aerosols containing culturable microorganisms may induce symptoms associated with infections among operators in paper mills.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.498-505. 32 ref.

CIS 02-1942 Averhoff F.M., Moyer L.A., Woodruff B.A., Deladisma A.M., Nunnery J., Alter M.J., Margolis H.S.
Occupational exposures and risk of hepatitis B virus infection among public safety workers
A questionnaire and seroprevalence survey was conducted to determine the frequency and type of occupational exposures (OEs) and the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection experienced by public safety workers (PSWs). Of the 2910 PSWs who completed the survey, 6.8% reported at least one OE in the previous 6 months, including needlestick (1.0%), being cut with a contaminated object (2.8%), mucous membrane exposure to blood (0.9%), and being bitten by a human (3.5%). The rate of OE varied by occupation with 2.7% of firefighters, 3.2% of sheriff officers, 6.6% of corrections officers, and 7.4% of police officers reporting ≥1 OE. The HBV infection prevalence was 8.6%, and after adjustment for age and race, it was comparable to the overall US prevalence and did not vary by occupation. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine to PSWs early in their careers will prevent HBV infection associated with occupational and non-OEs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.591-596. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1779 Quality of indoor air... Something to be closely watched!
La qualité de l'air intérieur... à surveiller! [in French]
This full issue is devoted to indoor air quality in workplaces in Quebec (Canada). Main topics covered: nature of indoor air contaminants; sources of indoor air pollutants; proactive prevention management; disorders due to poor indoor air quality; non-environmental variables associated with complaints concerning the quality of indoor air (stress, job dissatisfaction, psychogenic effects); evaluation of fungal contamination and preventive measures; advice for avoiding the degeneration of an indoor air quality problem into a crisis situation; information communication within the enterprise during interventions following a problem or a crisis; ventilation of premises and air renewal; compensation of disorders due to indoor air quality; right of refusal to work because of poor indoor air quality.
Convergence - Revue de gestion de la santé-sécurité, Aug. 2002, Vol.18, No.3, p.1-19 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1270 Le Bâcle C., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C.
The forest and its ills: From tree to man - XXVIIIth national symposium of agricultural medicine, 22 June 2002, Tours
La forêt et ses maux: de l'arbre à l'homme - XXVIIIe symposium national de médecine agricole, 22 juin 2001, Tours [in French]
This article is a summary of the papers presented at an agricultural medicine symposium devoted to forestry, held on 22 June 2001 in Tours, France. Contents: economic and social role of forestry in France; occupational hazards during forestry work and woodworking; forestry workers and vibration hazards; hazards from toxic substances used for the treatment of wood; prevention of diseases caused by arthropods; epidemic haemorrhagic fever; Lyme's disease.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.65-74.

CIS 02-757 Robert E., Saillenfait A.M.
Occupational hazards for pregnant women
Risques professionnels chez la femme enceinte [in French]
There currently exist very few occupational exposure factors clearly identified as presenting a risk for human reproduction, the most important being solvents and lead for women working in the chemical industry and certain infectious agents (rubella, toxoplasmosis and human immunodeficiency virus) for health care personnel. It is necessary at the same time to evaluate the intensity of exposure through regular measurements, to carry out biological monitoring of exposed workers and to be alert to the general clinical symptoms which include migraine, nausea or perceived ill odours. The importance of applying the basic preventive measures should be emphasized and additional collective or individual protective measures should be provided if necessary. Pregnant women need to inform their occupational physician of their state as soon as possible so as to enable the provision of less constraining working conditions before possibly considering the interruption of work.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 6p. 39 ref.

CIS 02-739 Hannerz H., Tüchsen F.
Hospitalizations among female home-helpers in Denmark, 1981-1997
The objective of this study was to elucidate the disease pattern among female home-helpers in Denmark. Cohorts of all 20-59-year-old Danish female home-helpers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed, to calculate age-standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) and time trends (1981-1997) for a large variety of diagnostic aggregations. Significantly high SHRs were found for injuries, infectious and parasitic diseases, and for diseases of the nervous system, circulatory system, the respiratory organs, digestive system, and the musculoskeletal system. When adjusting for social group, the SHRs for varicose veins, ischaemic heart diseases (IHD), and musculoskeletal disorders were still significantly high while the SHR for malignant neoplasm of respiratory organs became significantly low. The time trends revealed increased relative risks for IHD and asthma, and a decreasing relative risk for duodenal ulcer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 02-541 Order No.47/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on health protection while working with biological agents [Slovak Republic]
Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pri práci s biologickými faktormi [in Slovak]
This Order (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to biological agents at work. In annex: classification of biological agents; lists of bacteria and similar organisms, viruses, parasites and fungi (with classification codes); safety precautions in certain situations with risk of exposure to biological agents.
Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 1 Feb. 2002, No.22, p.494-513. [in Slovak]

CIS 02-939 Piacentino J.D., Schwartz B.S.
Occupational risk of Lyme disease: An epidemiological review
Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Since the early 1980s, a large body of literature has evaluated the occupational risk of Lyme disease. The availability of a new vaccine to prevent Lyme disease makes it necessary for occupational health professionals to make decisions regarding the risk of the disease among certain categories of employees.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.59, No.2, p.75-84. 64 ref.


CIS 09-833 The 6th International Symposium on Maritime Health
Proceedings of the International Conference on Maritime Health held in Manila, Philippines, 5-8 November 2001. Leading international maritime health experts have gathered to discuss scientific issues in maritime occupational health and safety. Participants included ship managers, maritime experts, health practitioners, occupational health physicians and maritime authorities.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-1286 HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B and C - Preventing exposure at work
This booklet is aimed at employers and workers who are not expected to come into contact with blood and body fluids at their workplace but who could nonetheless have contact with these fluids in rare, isolated incidents that cannot be foreseen. This booklet describes the health effects caused by HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C viruses, together with their mode of infection, and explains how to prevent or reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Includes examples of safe work practices.
WorkSafe, Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Canada, 2001. iv, 34p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 04-722 Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Biological risk prevention in laboratories: Work with bacteria
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio: trabajo con bacterias [in Spanish]
This information note covers the prevention of biological hazards in laboratories during work involving bacteria. It lists the main species that may be pathogenic for exposed workers along with the level of biological security required during their handling. Contents: applicable legislation; general characteristics of bacteria; main bacterial agents that are pathogenic for humans; risks incurred in laboratories and precautions to be taken; list of bacteria and their risk class.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 6p. Illus. 10 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 04-471 Anthrax
Maladie du charbon (anthrax) [in French]
Datasheet on anthrax: definition; causes; characteristics; symptoms and diagnosis; treatment; anthrax as an occupational disease; prevention.
Internet information note, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 135 Hunter Street East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 1M5, 2001. 3p. [in English] [in French]

CIS 03-1920 Łuczak M., Zużewicz M.A.
Biological hazards - A case study
Zagrożenia biologiczne - wybrane zagadnienia [in Polish]
This document describes living organisms which are biological hazards for humans: bacteria, fungi and viruses, as well as irritating agents, allergens, carcinogens and biological toxic agents. The development cycles of Chlamydia and Legionella are also presented.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 64p. Illus. 24 ref

CIS 03-1212 Occupational diseases - Procedures manual aimed at health services
Doenças relacionadas ao trabalho - Manual de procedimentos para os serviços de saúde [in Portuguese]
This manual on CD-ROM aimed at health services personnel covers occupational safety and health, workers' medical assistance and medical supervision. Its purpose is to enable them to characterize the occupation-disease relationship. It is divided into four sections that cover the following issues: conceptual aspects and strategies to be adopted with respect to occupational health; various occupational pathologies; data sheets of chemicals that may cause occupational diseases; schedule of approved occupational diseases. A printed version was abstracted as CIS 02-1715.
Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, Brasília, Brazil, 2001. CD-ROM.

CIS 03-929 Pelle-Duporte D., Gendre J.C.
Outbreaks of ornithosis in a poultry processing plant
Epidémies d'ornithose dans un abattoir de volailles [in French]
Psittacosis or ornithosis, also known as avian chlamidiosis, is an infectious zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci bacteria, of which birds are the usual vectors. In humans, it causes pneumopathy and other flu-like symptoms. The two outbreaks described in this article occurred in a poultry processing plant in the west of France. Thanks to their knowledge of the work environment, occupational physicians were able in both cases to establish a diagnosis and to coordinate the inquiry among workers and their physicians, thereby enabling a prompt and efficient treatment of the affected workers. These two outbreaks are not isolated cases, other instances having occurred in the poultry industry.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2001, No.85, p.49-57. 22 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-440 Kralj N.
Technical and immunological methods of preventing hepatitis B viral infections
Sicherheitstechnische und immunologische Prävention berufsbedingter Hepatitis-B-Virus-Infektionen [in German]
In this thesis, a critical review of occupational hazards and epidemiology relating to hepatitis B infection was carried out, together with incidents that give rise to infections in occupational settings. The frequency with which the piercing of gloves occurred in hospital environments was also evaluated for the purpose of defining the conditions giving rise to such incidents. Results were compared to those of published studies. Despite the adoption of purely technical prevention measures such as wearing double-layer protective gloves or incision-resistant gloves, and protecting the skin to avoid skin diseases, protective vaccination remains an indispensable prevention measure.
FFAS, Postfach 5171, Freiburg, Germany, 2001. 124p. Illus. 152 ref.

CIS 03-51 Safety and Health at Work (Biological Agents) Regulations of 2001 [Cyprus]
Oi perí Asfáleias kai Ugeías stēn Ergasía (Biologikoí Parágontes) Kanonismoí tou 2001 [in Greek]
These regulations (issued under the authority of the 1996 Act concerning safety and health at work, see CIS 98-5) specify the provisions needed in order to protect workers against biological hazards. In annex: schedules of bacteria, viruses and parasites, with corresponding hazard codes; limitations on industrial procedures because of the presence of biological hazards.
Episêmos Efêmeris tês Dêmokratias, 6 Apr. 2001, No.3487, Suppl. III(I), p.1572-1603.

CIS 03-200 Wong O., Harris F., Rosamilia K., Raabe G.K.
Updated mortality study of workers at a petroleum refinery in Torrance, California, from 1959 to 1997
This cohort study involved 3328 workers employed at a refinery for at least one year between 1959 and 1997, with an observation period from 1960 to 1997. Mortality data were analysed in terms of cause-specific standardized mortality ratios with expected deaths based on US national data. The overall mortality of the cohort was significantly lower than expected. Overall cancer mortality was also lower than expected, with significant mortality deficits being observed for certain specific sites. For other diseases, no significant increases were observed, with specific mortality deficits for ischaemic heart disease, chronic endocardial disease and other myocardial insufficiencies, all other heart disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Detailed analysis by length of employment did not reveal any significant mortality excess or upward trend. Analyses of male employees by job classification (process and maintenance) showed significantly elevated mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and suicide among maintenance workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1089-1102. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1675 Libouton P., Caroyer J.M., Machtelinckx V.
New occupational diseases recognized by the Occupational Disease Fund
Nouvelles maladies professionnelles reconnues par le Fonds des maladies professionnelles (F.M.P.) [in French]
Nieuwe beroepsziekten erkend door het fonds de beroepsziekten (F.B.Z.) [in Dutch]
The list of compensated occupational diseases increases regularly. This article gives an overview of the latest occupational diseases recognized by the Belgian Occupational Disease Fund (Fonds des maladies professionnelles). They include lung cancer and cancer of the larynx caused by asbestos, the organo-psychotic syndrome caused by solvents, gonarthrosis, warts and asthma.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.179-186. 17 ref.

CIS 02-1945 Brouwers J.F.
Proposed procedure to be adopted in non-hospital environments following injuries by potentially-contaminated blood-stained objects
Proposition de procédure à suivre, en dehors d'un milieu hospitalier, lors d'un accident du travail avec blessure causée par un objet souillé par du sang susceptible d'être contaminé [in French]
Outside of the hospital sector, many enterprises and public services are also confronted with the risk of occupational accident resulting in wounds acquired with objects possibly soiled by infected blood. Although the working procedure for such accidents is well known and regularly applied in hospitals, this is generally not the case in other sectors. This article proposes an approach derived from hospital recommendations. Appendices include information documents aimed at the enterprise-level occupational safety and health committee, at the medical practitioner treating the patient on the day of the accident and at the medical practitioner following this patient, as well as a list of hospitals in Belgium that are able to apply urgently a preventive AIDS tritherapy to injured workers who are not part of their personnel.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.167-178. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1930 Avanzi G.
Tetanus prophylaxis. Proposed rationalization of procedures in the occupational field
Profilassi antitetanica. Proposta di razionalizzazione delle procedure in ambito occupazionale [in Italian]
It is proposed to apply periodic tetanus antitoxin antibodies at the workplace as a cost-effective way to ensure workers' immunity.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.120-124. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1929 Colton R.D., Colton S.D.
An alternative to regulation in the control of occupational exposure to tuberculosis in homeless shelters
In the United States, five million workers are exposed to tuberculosis (TB) in the course of their work every year. The occupational risk of exposure to TB among social workers at homeless shelters is particularly acute. TB rates among the homeless are estimated to be 150 to 300 times the nationwide rate. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) responded to the risk to workers in homeless shelters by proposing a regulation mandating that shelters identify shelter residents who represent a potential risk and to remove those residents from the homeless shelter environment. This article concludes that the risk of TB exposure among workers in homeless shelters is best viewed as a public health problem rather than as exclusively a worker protection problem. Accordingly, in addition to seeking worker protection through regulatory controls, OSHA should seek to promote occupational health through a public health response as well.
New Solutions, 2001, Vol.11, No.4, p.307-324. 1 ref.

CIS 02-1464 Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Balty I., Le Bâcle C.
Anthrax: A "forgotten" disease that is now a bioterrorist risk
Le charbon: une maladie professionnelle "oubliée" devenue menace bioterroriste [in French]
Anthrax is an animal disease transmissible to humans. It has been listed in the French schedule of occupational diseases since 1938. It is not well understood and is often overlooked, because just a few general practitioners or occupational physicians have ever been confronted with cases. Since September 2001, this disease has emerged at the forefront of the news in a context of international terrorist risk. The French National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Research (INRS) has received numerous requests for information, both on the disease itself and on preventive measures to be adopted in the mailrooms of enterprises. Since it involves a terrorist threat, the recommendations presented in this article are in line with those adopted by public agencies and are aimed at minimizing the consequences both for exposed persons and for the enterprise as a whole.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.375-387. 25 ref.

CIS 02-1281 Lacombe A.M.
Job study of local authority employees specialized in nursery schools (ATSEM)
Etude du poste d'agent territorial spécialisé des écoles maternelles (ATSEM) [in French]
The role of local authority employees specialized in nursery schools is to assist teachers, provide care to the children (particularly during dressing, washing, serving snacks and rest periods) and carry out housework tasks within the school premises. This article presents the findings of a study on the working conditions of these employees aimed at understanding the reasons behind their high rates of absenteeism. The study involved timed observations, heart rhythm measurements, podometry and noise dosimetry. Results enabled the definition of the job profile. The study showed that one third of the absenteeism was related to infectious diseases favoured by contact with children, one third was linked to physical and psychological working conditions and one third was due to various causes. Several leads were identified for improving the least satisfactory aspects of this occupation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.4, p.455-461. 9 ref.

CIS 02-1459 Balty I., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Dornier G.
Legionella at the workplace
Les légionnelles en milieu de travail [in French]
Legionella are bacteria that are frequently encountered in wet environments. Thus, they are naturally present in waterways, lakes and occasionally in soil. They proliferate in hot water systems, certain industrial cooling systems and air-conditioning systems, and can give rise to epidemics or isolated cases of legionellosis. Contents of this information note on the prevention of legionella at the place of work: risks to humans; regulations; protective measures.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2001, No.611, 4p. Insert. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 02-1458 Anthrax: Stay informed
Anthrax has gained attention with the recent threat of being used as a biological weapon; this article reviews the precautions to be taken and the treatment available. Anthrax is primarily an infectious disease of cattle caused by spores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The spores are highly resistant to inactivation and may be present in the soil even after decades. Occupational exposure to anthrax occurs among workers in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products (hides, skin, hair, wool, horn, hooves, etc.) which harbour spores. Human infection occurs by cutaneous exposure (cutaneous anthrax) or by inhalation (pulmonary anthrax). The mortality rate of cutaneous anthrax is of 20% whereas that of pulmonary anthrax is of 80% or even higher. The former can usually successfully be treated with antibiotics, the latter by ciprofloxacin. The only known effective prevention against anthrax is vaccination. Protective measures applying to workers are cited.
Industrial Safety News, National Safety Council, Plot No.98A, Sector 15, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614, India, Sep.-Oct. 2001,Vol.33, No.9 & 10, p.1-3. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 02-1280 Leggat P., Kedjarune U.
Occupational risks of modern dentistry: A review
Occupational health risks in modern dentistry include exposure to infectious diseases (such as hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)), musculoskeletal and other injuries, contact dermatitis, radiation, noise, mercury, dental materials and stress. Percutaneous injuries are of particular concern to those dentists who may be exposed to serious infectious agents (such as HIV, HBV and HCV), and education on how to avoid such injuries would be beneficial. Dentists should receive HBV immunization and use personal protective measures and appropriate sterilization or high-level disinfection techniques. Dentists should be kept up to date with current OHS practices (particularly in areas such as exposure to mercury, radiation and some of the newer dental materials) through continuing education programmes.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.279-286. 48 ref.

CIS 02-941 Scherrer Y., Boillat M.A.
Are guards in the penitentiary system of the Canton of Vaud at risk of occupational exposure to blood-transmissible diseases?
Les surveillants travaillant dans le système pénitentiaire vaudois sont-ils soumis à un risque d'exposition professionnelle à une maladie transmissible par le sang? [in French]
Prison staff is at risk of blood-transmissible diseases given the nature of the of inmate population they are confronted with, in particular in the course of searches, acts of violence and accidents. The objective of this study conducted in a Swiss canton was to characterize the real and perceived risk of occupational blood-transmissible diseases in this occupation. Hepatitis B (HB) was used as an indicator of blood transmissible diseases, and HB serology of all employees (n = 248) was determined. Furthermore, a questionnaire was addressed to all employees. 19% of the warders had been wounded during searches in cells and 8.2% when searching inmates. One third of the guards had been at least once in contact with the blood of a prisoner. However, no increases in the number of seroconversions were observed. Finally, risk perception remains intense, concerning 73% of the guards and 20% of the remaining staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.83-91. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-694 Pelclová D., Ameille J., Urban P., Fenclová Z., Lebedová J.
Occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: Criteria for their recognition and compensation
Les maladies professionnelles en République tchèque: critères de reconnaissance et d'indemnisation [in French]
Statistical data concerning occupational diseases in the Czech Republic are presented. Czech criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases and some advantages and disadvantages of the Czech system are discussed. 1751 cases of occupational diseases were recognized in the Czech Republic in the year 2000. Diseases due to physical factors were the most frequent, with 39.9% of the cases in the year 2000; diseases of the respiratory system and skin diseases each accounted for 20.7%; infectious diseases represented 16.4% of all occupational diseases; poisonings were accounted for only 2.1%, and other diseases (i.e. disorders of vocal cords) 0.2%. A disadvantage of the Czech system is the lack of satisfactory incentives for the prevention of occupational diseases. As an illustration, the charges levied on employers are not increased in proportion with the increased incidence of occupational diseases.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2001, Vol.62, No.8, p.629-633. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 02-731 Saini R.S., Jaitli H.
Beedi industry - Working for solutions
This article describes a survey carried out in the beedi industry in the city of Gwalior, India. The 75 respondents were all women, of average age 36 (13 to 75), having worked in the sector for an average of 14 years. Four suffered from asthma, 17 from chest pain and three from tuberculosis. All complained of breathlessness. Earlier studies report frequent miscarriages among women beedi workers due to the continuous squatting posture. Workers were found to have minimal awareness of their rights. Several recommendations are made for improving occupational health in this sector.
Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, June 2001, Vol.2, No.1, p.10-14. 12 ref.

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