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Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found

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CIS 07-1215 Biological agents and occupational health
Les agents biologiques et la santé au travail [in French]
Biologische agentia en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Aimed at employers, this guide comments on the Belgian Royal Order of 4 August 1996 concerning the protection of workers against risks connected with the exposure to biological agents at work (see CIS 00-1532) and explains how to ensure its compliance within the enterprise. Contents: definitions and scope; health effects of biological agents; hazard evaluation; documents to be completed by employers; risk prevention and control; health surveillance; vaccination; roles of the various parties involved in risk prevention and health surveillance.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2007. 36p. Illus. 11 ref. [in Dutch] [in French]

CIS 07-1208 Rammeh H., Ben Mansour H., Hidri A., Nouaigui H.
Legionella: To what extent and what prevention measures?
Les légionelles: quelle ampleur et quelle prévention? [in French]
Contents of this special feature on legionellosis: bacterium responsible for propagation; zones of bacterial build-up; contamination by aerosol inhalation; individual factors that increase the risk; exposures that involve risk; epidemiological data; clinical forms (Pontiac fever, legionellosis); diagnosis; medical treatment; risk factors (humidification chambers, cooling towers); prevention (design of equipment, personal protection); environmental survey (sampling and analysis).
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2007, No.40, p.2-10. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 07-1212 Durcy M.
Ornithosis-psittacosis: Beware of infections caused by birds
Ornithose-psittacose: gare aux infections dues aux oiseaux [in French]
Construction industry workers are at risk of exposure to ornithosis-psittacosis, an infectious disease transmitted by bird droppings. The bacterium which causes the infection is very stable and can survive several months in dried droppings without losing its potency. The most frequent signs are fever, shivering, headache, cough and flu-like symptoms. It can also cause moderate or severe bronchopneumonia. It is recognized as an occupational disease in France. Preventive measures include the usual hygiene precautions, working in a manner to avoid the formation of aerosols and use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2007, No.92, p.58-59. Illus.


CIS 08-1457 Bloodborne facts - Protect yourself when handling sharps
A needlestick or a cut from a contaminated scalpel can lead to infection from hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus which causes AIDS. Although few cases of AIDS have been documented from occupational exposure, approximately 8700 health care workers each year contract hepatitis B. About 200 will die as a result. Aimed at health care personnel, this information sheet explains how to avoid the risk of cut and stick injuries (disposing of sharps in puncture-resistant containers, handling of sharps containers).
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, [2006]. 1p. [in English]

CIS 08-1058 Driscoll T.
Work-related infectious disease in Australia: Causes and affected workers
This article consists of a literature-based review of epidemiological studies on work-related infectious disease in Australia. It reviews the magnitude, severity, causes and affected occupational groups. A wide range of Australian workers are at considerable risk of developing some kind of work-related infection. Most of these cases are relatively minor, but some result in significant morbidity. The main infections include both zoonotic and non-zoonotic organisms. The main occupational groups at risk include healthcare workers, childcare workers, agricultural workers, and meat and livestock workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2006, Vol.22, No.4, p.303-314. 104 ref.

CIS 08-467 OSHA Fact Sheet - Avian flu
Fact sheet on avian flu, covering: symptoms in humans; ways of infection; employees at potential risk of exposure; treatment; general precautions and specific control measures; training.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 2p. [in English] [in Spanish]

CIS 08-217 Abiteboul D.
Infection hazards faced by health care personnel
Risques infectieux professionnels pour le personnel de santé [in French]
While accidents that involve exposure to blood have been widely studied and have given rise to so-called universal precautions which form the basis of preventive measures against infection hazards among health care personnel, there also exist other forms of contamination. There are many potentially responsible pathogens, but epidemiological data that would allow the quantification of the hazard are lacking. The pathogens are also often responsible for nosocomial infections, thus making the protection of staff and patients closely related and justifying the implementation of standard precautions, completed where appropriate by specific measures applicable to exposures from aerosols, droplets or direct contact. These technical measures must be accompanied by appropriate medical prevention (vaccination, medical treatment after exposure and medical supervision).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.152, 13p. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 08-76 Pietroiusti A., Forlini A., Magrini A., Galante A., Coppeta L., Gemma G., Romeo E., Bergamaschi A.
Shift work increases the frequency of duodenal ulcer in H. pylori infected workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether shift work is associated with an increased rate of peptic ulcer in H. pylori infected workers. During a two year period, workers with persistent dyspeptic symptoms underwent non-invasive evaluation of H. pylori status. The workers testing positive were included in the study and divided into 247 day workers and 101 shift workers. In all workers, a gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and biopsy specimens were taken from the stomach. It was found that the prevalence of duodenal ulcer was significantly higher in shift workers than in day-time workers (odds ratio OR=3.92) and persisted after multivariate analysis, taking into account possible confounding factors (OR=3.96). It is concluded that shift work increases the ulcerogenic potential of H. pylori infection and should be considered a risk factor for duodenal ulcer in infected shift workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.63, No.11, p.773-775. 12 ref.

CIS 08-13 Leiva D., Panigadi C., Limonti G.
Guide to safe maintenance and cleaning work
Guía para el trabajo seguro en maestranza [in Spanish]
Aimed at workers carrying out maintenance an cleaning tasks, this guide presents a number of practical occupational safety and health recommendations grouped under three headings: hygiene and safety aspects; health hazards; legislation, procedures for the notification of accidents and labour-management agreements.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2006. 50p. Illus.

CIS 08-139 Burrow J.G., McLarnon N.A.
World at work: Evidence based risk management of nail dust in chiropodists and podiatrists
This review article discusses the risks to chiropodists from occupational exposures when filing or drilling toenails. Nail dust particle dimensions are of the order of one micron, suggesting the possibility of deposition in the alveoli and bronchioles. There also exists a risk of exposures to aerosols of blood and body fluids, with the transmission of HIV and hepatitis B. Exposures can be controlled by local exhaust ventilation, drill maintenance, improved drilling techniques and personal protective equipment (eye protection, masks).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.713-716. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 07-1480 OSHA guidance update on protecting employees from avian flu (avian influenza) viruses
Orientación actualizada de OSHA acerca de cómo proteger a los empleados contra los virus de la gripe aviar (influenza aviar) [in Spanish]
This health protection guide is aimed at employers whose employees may be exposed to avian influenza (AI) viruses. It contains guidance for poultry employees, animal handlers other than poultry employees, laboratory employees, healthcare workers who treat patients with known or suspected AI, food handlers, airport personnel exposed to passengers suspected of being AI-infected, travelers on temporary work assignment abroad, United States employees stationed abroad and other employee groups that may be at risk. It discusses modes of infection, infection control measures, use of personal protective equipment, vaccination, antiviral drugs and medical supervision of exposed personnel. Appendices provide technical information about AI viruses and, in particular, about H5N1, an AI virus currently circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa that rarely causes disease in humans but when it does, the case fatality rate is high.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 71p. 55 ref. [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 07-1479 Sulsky S.I., Birk T., Cohen L.C., Luippold R.S., Heidenreich M.J., Nunes A.
Effectiveness of measures to prevent needlestick injuries among employees in health professions
Wirksamkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit präventiver Maßnahmen zur Vermeidung von Nadelstichverletzungen bei Beschäftigten in Gesundheitsberufen [in German]
The pathogens of greatest concern that may be transmitted by a needlestick injury (NSI) are hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. The objective of this literature survey was to critically review and summarize the published literature on NSI, with the main focus on studies evaluating the effectiveness and cost aspects of the implementation of safer devices in hospitals. More than 2300 publications were identified, among which 61 met the quality and inclusion criteria. Nurses and physicians were the most likely to report NSI and NSI were most likely to occur in patient and operating rooms. However, widespread underreporting makes it impossible to accurately estimate the risks. Engineering controls, especially the introduction of safety-designed devices, were found to be effective in reducing the number of reported NSI. Other findings are discussed.
Hauptverband der Gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (Hvbg), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Mar. 2006. 122p. 104 ref. [in German] [in English]

CIS 07-1262 Occupational safety and health statistics bulletin
Zhiye anquan ji jiankang tongji shuzi jianbao [in Chinese]
The statistics in this bulletin provide information and analysis on work-related accidents and confirmed cases of occupational disease in Hong Kong during the year 2005, with breakdowns by economic sectors and trends from 1996 to 2005. In 2005, the number of occupational injuries in all workplaces stood at 44,267, a slight increase of 0.5% over 2004, while the injury rate per 1000 employees decreased slightly from 18.1 to 17.8 or 1.7%. Of the 29 fatalities, 25 concerned the construction industry. The total number of occupational diseases in 2005 was 256, a level comparable to that of 2004. They primarily consisted of upper extremity disorders, silicosis and hearing loss, as well as tuberculosis among health care workers.
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics Bulletin, July 2006, No.6, p.1-8 (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 07-1071 Patel D., Easmon C., Seed P., Dow C., Snashall D.
Morbidity in expatriates - A prospective cohort study
This study was performed to assess the incidence of health events in an expatriate group and to evaluate factors affecting this incidence. A cohort of 2020 Foreign and Commonwealth Office staff and partners living abroad were followed-up over one year. Data were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire and subjected to statistical evaluation. The incidence of health events was 21%. Trauma (incidence 5%), musculoskeletal disorders (incidence 4%) and infectious disease (incidence 3%) were the principal causes of morbidity. The incidence of psychological disorders was low (1%). Employees were at increased risk of morbidity compared to partners, with a higher incidence of health events (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.4) and psychological disorders (IRR 5.9). Moreover, unaccompanied employees were at increased risk of health events (IRR 1.3), and of traumatic injury (IRR 2.3) compared to accompanied employees.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.56, p.345-352. 24 ref.

CIS 07-1207 Muñoz Donzel N., Megias Guijo M., Moreno Toval E.
Occupational accidents resulting from exposure to the bacterium Legionella pneumophila
Accidentes de trabajo derivados de la exposición a la bacteria Legionella pneumophila [in Spanish]
Legionellosis is a disease that can be acquired in occupational settings and which consists of two clinical forms, Pontiac fever and legionnaire's disease. This article comments on two Spanish court rulings in cases of accidental occupational exposure to Legionella pneumophila with fatal outcomes.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2006, No.40, p.24-28. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 07-957 Ferreira M.
Vaccination in the workplace
Les vaccinations en milieu de travail [in French]
The prevention of biological hazards in the workplace is required by French labour laws. Depending on the hazards identified, preventive measures may include personal and collective protection (hygiene measures, technical measures, personal protective equipment), as well as vaccination. This article summarizes French regulations concerning vaccination in the workplace. Vaccination against hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza and polio are mandatory for persons working in health care, while immunization against typhoid is required for persons working in medical laboratories.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2006, No.668, p.47-49. Illus. 2 ref.$file/TS668page47.pdf?openelement [in French]

CIS 07-960 A hantavirus exposure control program for employers and workers
Hantavirus infection is caused by a virus found in some field rodents in Canada and the United States. It is rarely transmitted to humans, but when it is, it can cause severe illness, even death. This booklet is intended for employers and workers who may come into contact with rodents or rodent droppings while at work, primarily in rural areas. Contents: definition of hantavirus, the diseases it causes, how it is transmitted and where it is most likely to be encountered; responsibilities of employers; exposure control plan; respiratory protection; good work practices.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. iii, 17p. [in English]

CIS 07-959 Biological hazards in the workplace
Les risques biologiques au travail [in French]
Many enterprises are concerned by biological hazards. The concept of "transmission chain" is a guiding principle that can help evaluate these hazards. Prevention consists of breaking at least one link in this chain. The concept is presented in the form of illustrations.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, May 2006. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed988.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-824 De Clerck L.
Cut for the job
Taillé pour l'emploi [in French]
This article describes a hazard evaluation exercise carried out in a Belgian hairdressing school with 430 students. Topics addressed: compliance with safety and health regulations; analysis of the hazards (physical workload, irritation and allergy, noise, legionellosis); preventive measures.
Prevent Focus, Sep. 2006, No.7, p.12-14. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 07-722 Risk of biological accidents among workers of a health administration region
Riesgo biológico accidental entre trabajadores de un área sanitaria [in Spanish]
This article presents the findings of a survey carried out between 1999 and 2003 in the Spanish health administration region of Puertollano on the incidence of biological accidents. It involved 742 workers (533 women and 209 men). 188 cases of accidental exposure to biological agents were notified during the study period, corresponding to a rate of 5.1 cases per 100 workers. Accidental exposure was the most frequent among nursing staff. Findings are discussed.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 3rd Quarter 2006, Vol.13, No.49, p.13-16. Illus.

CIS 07-717 Champagne D.
Avian flu - Concerns for enterprises and their employees
Grippe aviaire - Préoccupations pour les entreprises et leur personnel [in French]
This article reviews the actions that need to be undertaken within the enterprise to ensure a state of preparedness against avian flu. Contents: definition of avian flu; possible consequences of a pandemic; measures to be undertaken within the enterprise in the event of a pandemic of avian influenza.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2006, Vol.22, No.3, p.32-34. 6 ref.

CIS 07-725 Recommendations for protecting laboratory, field, and clinical workers from West Nile virus exposure
The West Nile Virus (WNV) is most often spread to humans from the bite of an infected mosquito. However, the virus can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals, their blood or their tissues. Thus laboratory, field, and clinical workers who handle tissues or fluids infected with WNV are at risk of exposure. These workers include laboratory technicians, pathologists, researchers, veterinarians and their staff, forest wardens, entomologists, ornithologists, wildlife biologists, zoo workers, health care workers, emergency personnel and others in related occupations. Aimed at these occupations, this booklet includes frequently-asked questions, and recommendations for employers and employees.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug. 2006. 9p. Illus. 5 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-463 Shah S.F., Bener A., Al-Kaabi S., Al Khal A.L., Samson S.
The epidemiology of needle stick injuries among health care workers in a newly developed country
The main objective of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of needle-stick injuries (NSI) occurring during 2001 among health care workers (HCWs) of a hospital group in Qatar. Of the 1274 HCWs who were approached to participate in this study, 1022 workers responded to a questionnaire that included variables on age, socio-demographic data and immunization history (response rate 80.2%). Findings are discussed. The study revealed a NSI prevalence of 21%, with the risk of blood borne virus transmission.
Safety Science, June 2006, Vol.44, No.5, p.387-394. 25 ref.

CIS 07-353 Jackson C.A., Wilson D.A.
World at work: Hospital pharmacy clean-rooms
This review article discusses the potential hazards of working in hospital pharmacy clean rooms and the corresponding protective measures. Contents: tasks of the job; hazards of the job (toxicological and musculoskeletal hazards, heat stress, dehydration and urinary tract infections, social isolation, shift work); preventive measures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.63, No.1, p.68-70. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 07-315 Le Bâcle C., Ducovel-Pame N., Durand E.
Avian influenza, avian flu and threat of pandemic: A new occupational health challenge
Influenza aviaire, grippe aviaire et menace de pandémie: un nouvel enjeu en santé du travail [in French]
This medical and technical review article presents the current situation with respect to influenza viruses, avian influenza, seasonal influenza, avian flu in humans and the risk of a flu pandemic. It also discusses the issue of the risk of avian flu among exposed health care professionals. Preventive measures to be implemented in specific situations are presented. An appendix summarizes the main recommendations for hospitals issued by the French ministry of health.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.139-168. Illus. 56 ref.$File/TC107.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-313 Biardeau B.
Avian flu - What needs to be known today, what to tell patients, what needs to be done without further delay
Grippe aviaire - Que savoir aujourd'hui, que dire aux patients, que faire dès maintenant? [in French]
Review of a colloquium on avian flu held in Paris, France, on 16 March 2006. Among the topics presented: preparing for a pandemic; French prevention plan (stocks and distribution of masks, antiviral drugs and vaccines); management of the various phases (before and during a pandemic); informing the general population; role of general practitioners. An appendix includes extracts from the French governmental plan.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.2, p.193-203.

CIS 07-340 The ABC of occupational safety and health
Abécédaire de la prévention [in French]
This whole issue contains summaries of 66 occupational safety and health topics applicable to the construction industry, arranged in alphabetical order. Topics include harmful substances (asbestos, lead, wood dust), equipment (elevating trucks, scaffolds, ladders, hand tools), diseases (occupational cancers, musculoskeletal diseases, avian flu) as well as a variety of topics relating to hazards, prevention, regulations and work organization.
Prévention BTP, July - Aug. 2006, No.87, p.3-66 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-216 Avian influenza, including influenza A (H5N1), in humans: WHO interim infection control guideline for health care facilities
This publication provides guidance on the prevention of infections among health care personnel in contact with patients who are suspected or confirmed bearers of the avian flu virus. It is aimed at health specialists and all persons in governments and administrations faced with the avian flu problem. It consists of three parts. The first part summarizes WHO recommendations with respect to infection prevention and personal protective equipment and the second part details the precautions to be taken to prevent infections. Appendices include general information on avian flu, its routes of transmission, respiratory protection, confinement units, the use of disinfectants and prophylaxis.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, updated Apr. 2006. PDF document. iii, 54p. Illus. 67 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1475 Avian influenza information for bird owners
This Internet document provides guidance for poultry producers and bird keepers on measures for the prevention of an outbreak of avian influenza.
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia, 2006. Internet document, 2p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1474
Department of Health and Ageing
The Australian health management plan for pandemic influenza
The Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza is divided into four parts: background information on the nature of influenza and pandemics; what the Commonwealth Government is doing to prepare for a possible pandemic from a health perspective; how a pandemic might play out and the actions that would be needed to respond to it; and practical information about what groups and individuals can do to prepare for a pandemic, to manage during it, and to recover from it.
National Mailing and Marketing, P.O.Box 7077, Canberra Mailing Centre, ACT 2610, Australia, 2006. 64p. [in English]

CIS 06-1473 Work-related infectious and parasitic diseases [in] Australia
This report provides a literature-based review of epidemiological studies on work-related infectious and parasitic diseases, including coverage of the magnitude and severity, causes, affected occupational groups and possible prevention approaches, with specific focus on Australia.
Australian Safety and Compensation Council,, 2006. viii, 16p. 110 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1472 Brasseur G.
Flu - Preparing for a pandemic
Grippe - Préparer l'épreuve d'une pandémie [in French]
Since the emergence of the highly-infectious H5N1 bird flu virus at the end of 2003, 150 million poultry and other birds died or were intentionally eliminated in Asia. Hundreds of thousands or possibly millions of humans were infected, among whom approximately a hundred died. Fortunately, the transmission to humans is rare, but a pandemic remains possible. Contents of this special feature on the precautions to be taken against a possible pandemic: description of the bird flu pandemic threat; types of flu viruses; collective and personal protective measures following suspected contamination on a farm; medical prevention; setting-up an emergency plan; precautions to be taken when handling dead birds.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2006, No.661, p.23-32. Illus. 4 ref.$file/ts661page23.pdf?openelement [in French]

CIS 06-1400 Maroni M., Fanetti A.C.
Liver function assessment in workers exposed to vinyl chloride
A medical examination including liver function tests (LFTs) and liver ultrasonography was carried out in a group of 757 workers with long-standing service in the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in four production plants in Italy. Cumulative and maximum VCM exposures were calculated. Possible histories of viral hepatitis and alcohol intake habits of subjects were carefully investigated. Regression analysis explored the association between abnormal LFTs and a group of possible determinants. Results indicate that liver function assessment only (including LFTs) is not able to detect VCM-induced liver damage, but reveals alterations due to non-occupational factors, such as dietary and/or metabolic dysfunctions. The LFTs are however of importance in detecting conditions that indicate the need to avoid VCM exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.79, No.1, p.57-65. 17 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1234 Hernández Calleja A.
Precautions for infection control in health care settings
Precauciones para el control de las infecciones en centros sanitarios [in Spanish]
This information note focuses on the use of isolation for preventing the spread of infectious diseases in health care settings. Contents: means of transmission of infectious diseases; historical development of isolation procedures; universal precautions; precautions during isolation (standard precautions, avoiding disease transmission by air, by droplets or by direct contact).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 8p. Illus. 6 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1232 Hernández Calleja A.
Legionellosis: Revised regulations. (II) Specific measures
Legionelosis: revisión de las normas reglamentarias (II). Medidas específicas [in Spanish]
This information note provides guidance on the maintenance of specific water installations for the prevention and control of Legionellosis. These include hot water and drinking water installations, cooling towers and evaporative condensers, hydromassage baths and pools. See NTP 690 (CIS 06-1231) for more general control measures.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 4p. [in Spanish]

CIS 06-1231 Hernández Calleja A.
Legionellosis: Revised regulations. (I) General issues
Legionelosis: revision de las normas reglamentarias (I). Aspectos generales [in Spanish]
This information note reviews methods for the prevention and control of Legionellosis in water supply installations taking into account recent changes in legal and technical standards. See NTP 691 (CIS 06-1232) for more specific details on preventive measures for installations known to be most frequently associated with the spread of Legionella.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 7p. Illus. 24 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 07-1210 Yassi A., Moore D., FitzGerald J.M., Bigelow P., Hon C.Y., Bryce E.
Research gaps in protecting healthcare workers from SARS and other respiratory pathogens: An interdisciplinary, multi-stakeholder, evidence-based approach
The objective of this literature survey was to identify priorities for further research in protecting healthcare workers from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and other respiratory pathogens. Factors examined included the basic science of infectious bioaerosols and the efficacy of facial protective equipment, as well as the organizational, environmental and individual factors that influence the success of infection control and occupational health programmes. Focus groups were also held with health care workers in Toronto, Canada. Critical gaps in knowledge were identified and prioritized. Highest priority was given to organizational factors that create a climate of safety. Other priority areas included practical measures to control bioaerosols at the source.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.47, No.1, p.41-50. Illus. 57 ref.

CIS 07-765 Takala J.
Global estimates of traditional occupational risks
This study used employment figures, reported fatal accident rates and mortality data on various diseases and injuries together with literature data to compute the rates of occupational accidents and diseases for several countries worldwide. It was estimated that an average of 2.2 million fatalities due to work-related factors occurred worldwide annually. The most significant problems identified were work-related cancer (in particular in industrialized countries), occupational accidents (in rapidly industrializing countries), work-related cardiovascular diseases, work-related communicable diseases (in tropical developing countries) and work-related lung diseases in countries where mining is a major activity. It is estimated that 270 million nonfatal occupational accidents and 160 million work-related diseases occur worldwide every year.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2005, Supl.No.1, p.62-67. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 07-723 Mitchell C.S., Gershon R.R.M., Lears M.K., Vlahov D., Felknor S., Lubelczyk R.A., Sherman M.F., Comstock G.W.
Risk of tuberculosis in correctional healthcare workers
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for occupational infection with tuberculosis among healthcare workers employed in correctional facilities. It involved a self-administered survey, a clinical interview and tuberculin skin testing. The overall tuberculin skin test point prevalence rate was 17.7%, the reactivity rate was 2.2%, and the annual incidence was 1.3%. After controlling for bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination, only origin of birth remained significantly associated with prevalence of tuberculosis infection. Although the prevalence of tuberculin reactivity was high in this population, the risk factors were predominantly demographic rather than occupational. Nevertheless, continued vigilance to control occupational exposure to this and other respiratory pathogens is warranted, given the potential for future outbreaks of tuberculosis, as well as other known and emerging airborne pathogens.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2005, Vol.47, No.6, p.580-586. 33 ref.

CIS 07-572 Turner S., Lines S., Chen Y., Hussey L., Agius R.
Work-related infectious disease reported to the Occupational Disease Intelligence Network and the Health and Occupation Reporting Network in the UK (2000-2003)
The objective of this study was to examine the reporting of infectious diseases by physicians participating in schemes for collecting data on occupational ill-health in the United Kingdom. Cases of infectious disease reported to the Occupational Disease Intelligence Network (ODIN) and The Health and Occupation Reporting network (THOR) from 2000 to 2003 were analysed by reporting patterns, diagnosis, single case or outbreak reporting and industry. The total number of cases of infectious disease reported to ODIN and THOR from 2000 to 2003 was 5606. 74.9% cases were diarrhoeal disease and 11.1% were scabies. The most frequently-reported sectors were social care (39.5%) and health (29.4%) while the manufacture of chemicals contributed 4.3% overall. Despite limitations related to underreporting, these schemes provide data that may be used to look at patterns of case reporting for occupational ill-health, including infectious disease.
Occupational Medicine, June 2005, Vol.55, No.4, p.275-281. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 07-570 Chen Y., Turner S., McNamee R., Ramsay C.N., Agius R.M.
The reported incidence of work-related ill health in Scotland (2002-2003)
The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of work-related ill health in Scotland in 2002-2003 using data supplied by physicians participating in a UK wide reporting scheme. During this period, there were 4043 estimated cases of work-related ill health in Scotland. Mental ill-health was most frequently reported (41%); followed by musculoskeletal disorders (31%), skin disorders (16%), respiratory diseases (10%), hearing disorders (2%) and infection (1%). The average annual incidence rate per 100,000 employees for all work-related ill-health was 86.0. The highest rate for mental ill-health was found for employees in public administration and defence (76.7 per 100,000), and health and social work (72.3 per 100,000). The construction industry had the highest rate of musculoskeletal disorders (41.6 per 100,000), while hairdressers appeared at most risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis (86.4 per 100,000).
Occupational Medicine, June 2005, Vol.55, No.4, p.252-261. 32 ref.

CIS 07-721 Dounias G., Kypraiou E., Rachiotis G., Tsovili E., Kostopoulos S.
Prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in municipal solid waste workers in Keratsini (Greece)
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers among municipal solid waste workers. Participants consisted of 166 workers in Keratsini, Greece. Evaluations included the prevalence of biological markers of HBV infection (HbsAg, anti-Hbc, anti-Hbs) and their association with exposure to waste and various socio-demographic factors. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of anti-Hbc positivity between exposed and non-exposed employees to waste. Older employees had a significantly higher prevalence of anti-Hbc positivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposure to waste and age were independently associated with the anti-Hbc positivity. It is concluded that occupational exposure to waste is possibly associated with the acquisition of HBV infection. Immunization of these workers should be considered to reduce the risk of HBV infection.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.60-63. 22 ref.

CIS 07-716 Lenz M., Groneberg D.A., Schäcke G.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome - SARS - in occupational and environmental medicine
Schweres akutes respiratorisches Syndrom - SARS - in der Arbeits- und Umweltmedizin [in German]
This article presents the chronology of the SARS epidemic and sums up current understanding concerning this disease (diagnosis, treatment and prevention). It covers more specifically the aspects related to occupational medicine. Results of studies on the rate of infection among health care personnel who cared for SARS patients are presented. Persons working in research laboratories handling the SARS coronavirus are also at an increased risk, together with airline crews (contamination by passengers) and persons handling livestock (contamination by infected animals).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Aug. 2005, Vol.55, No.8, p.254-262. 61 ref.

CIS 07-33 Joint ILO/WHO guidelines on health services and HIV/AIDS
Mwongozo wa shirika la kazi duniani na shirika la afya duniani [in Swahili]
Youguan aizibing bingdu/aizibing he weisheng fuwu de lianhe daoze [in Chinese]
Chinese and Swahili translations of the document indexed under CIS 06-21. These guidelines aim to promote the sound management of HIV/AIDS in health services. They are intended for governments, employers, workers and others concerned with the delivery of health care. Contents: key principles of the ILO Code of Practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (see CIS 03-444); legal and policy framework; the health sector as a workplace and the recognition of HIV/AIDS as a workplace issue; occupational safety and health management systems (protection against infectious pathogens, safe work practices, monitoring and evaluation); exposure incident management; treatment and support; education and training; research and development. Includes an overview of international programmes and instruments and 12 fact sheets on control measures designed to protect health workers from exposure to HIV and other infectious pathogens.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xiv, 80p. Illus. Bibl. ref.

CIS 06-1303 Hygiene in the galley
Gigiena na kambuze [in Russian]
Kalinisan sa galley [in Tagalog]
Booklet in the form of a comic strip summarizing the importance of hygiene in ship galleys.
International Committee on Seafarers' Welfare (ICSW), Forsyth House, 2nd Floor, 77 Clarendon Road, Watford, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, ca 2005. 12p. Illus. [in English] [in Russian]

CIS 06-1369 Ye X., Wong O., Fu H.
World at work: Health hazards among foot massage workers in China
Reflexology or foot massage is increasingly popular in China. Approximately 90% of foot massage workers in large cities are young women aged between 18 and 25, mostly migrant workers from poor inland regions of the country. This article discusses the occupational safety and health aspects of this occupation. Contents: premises; tasks (soaking, cleaning, massaging); health hazards (infections, hazards from exposure to chemicals used in soaking baths and massage oils, musculoskeletal diseases, psychological hazards); recommendations for improving workers' health protection.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2005, Vol.62, No.12, p.902-904. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 06-1233 Recommendations for protecting outdoor workers from West Nile virus exposure
Outdoor workers are particularly at risk of exposure to the West Nile virus, which is most often spread to humans from the bite of an infected mosquito. This booklet provides guidance on the prevention of exposure to this virus. Contents: introduction (characteristics of West Nile virus); frequently-asked questions; recommendations for employers; recommendations for workers.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 2005. 11p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-853 Genty S., Ralaimazava P., Bouchaud O.
Travelling African migrant workers: Role of occupational physicians
Le migrant africain qui voyage: rôle du médecin du travail [in French]
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyse the prevalence of health problems among African migrant workers returning to France after a visit to their country of origin. Data were collected from three hospitals in the greater Paris region. The initial findings show that although these patients had consulted specialised medical services prior to their departure, they were affected by diarrhoea in proportions that were close to those of other travellers and by malaria in higher proportions than that of the general population, which confirms their vulnerability to these diseases. Occupational physicians should be able to alert these workers to the risks that they face, to advise on measures to take before and during the visit and to treat any potential diseases on their return.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2005, Vol.45, No.4, p.477-483. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 06-850 Guez-Chailloux M., Puymeral P., Le Bâcle C.
Thanatopraxy: State of the practice and occupational hazards
La thanatopraxie: état des pratiques et risques professionnels [in French]
There are approximately 1000 thanatopraxy (embalming) practitioners in France. Exposures vary as a function of the state of the body and the premises in which the treatment takes place. This article provides a review of the profession and identifies occupational hazards. Contents: historical review and current state of the occupation; regulations; occupational tasks and conditions of work; occupational hazards (biological, chemical, organizational and psychosocial hazards); preventive measures (safety training, ventilation, skin and respiratory protection, safe work practices).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.104, p.449-469. 57 ref.$File/TC105.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-844 Enjolras P.
Process-related hazards in the sugar industry
Accidents technologiques dans l'industrie sucrière [in French]
This article describes the hazards that exist at each stage of the sugar beet transformation process. These include fire and explosion hazards, environmental pollution hazards due to the large amounts of effluents discharged, escape of carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide, and proliferation of legionella bacteria in cooling towers. Brief accounts of several accidents occurring in this industry in France since 1982 are included.
Face au risque, Dec. 2005, No.418, p.28-31. Illus.

CIS 06-715 Reid A.J.
Brucellosis - A persistent occupational hazard in Ireland
A cross-sectional study of exposure to B. abortus (brucellosis) was carried out among 375 technical and support staff of the Department of Agriculture in Ireland using the complement fixation technique (CFT). A CFT of <1:8 was accepted as normal, i.e., no evidence of exposure to Brucella abortus. Results were compared with available medical records to differentiate new from old or established cases. The participation rate was 75%. Ten participants tested positive. Veterinarians, laboratory staff, and workers based in meat plants were at increased risk of exposure. 106 previous results were available. Eight of those who tested positive had previously been tested, and of these, four had converted from negative to positive in the intervening five years, a conversion rate of 8/1,000 employees per annum. Results suggest that exposure to B. abortus remains common among at-risk occupational groups in Ireland.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.302-304. 6 ref. [in English]

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