Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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- Bacterial and parasitic diseases
Mycoses à Candida. [in French]
Report of papers read at the 2nd Meeting on Microbial Immunoallergology at the Institut Pasteur Hospital (Paris, 13 Mar. 1976): biology of Candida (mycology and physiopathology); antigens - application to humoral immunity studies and immunological diagnosis; RAST test with protein and polysaccaride antigens and washed cells; phagocitosis and Candida; immunological and serological activity of the metabolic antigens of C. albicans; clinical aspects of C. albicans allergy; pulmonary infiltrates with severe eosinophilia associated with bronchial candidosis; asthmatic manifestations probably associated with inhalation allergy to powdered C. tropicalis; recent acquisitions and future perspectives in treatment of Candida-induced disease.
Revue française d'allergologie et d'immunologie clinique, 1976, Vol.16, No.5, p.233-295. Illus. 170 ref.
Lecture notes on occupational medicine.
This book is intended for medical students. Contents: effects of occupation on health (mortality, morbidity, sickness absence); industrial poisons (separate sections on numerous metals, carbon compounds and gases); occupational lung diseases; skin diseases; cancer; physical hazards (decompression, pressure, heat, eye hazards, ionising radiation, microwaves, lasers, noise, vibration); infection diseases, accidents and trauma; control of occupational hazards, with emphasis on physical and biological monitoring; threshold limit values, list of prescribed diseases, with details of occupations responsible. Index.
Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd, Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 0EL, United Kingdom, 1976. 288p. Illus. Price: £3.75.
De Wailly J.
Occupational diseases of veterinarians
Pathologie professionnelle des vétérinaires. [in French]
This MD thesis provides an overview of the occupational disease hazards in this profession: risk of infection, parasitic diseases, traumatic injury, allergic reactions to chemicals or animal substances. The incidence of these hazards is higher in rural veterinary practice, particularly during calving, foaling, lambing, etc. and in laboratory work. The question of compensation and social security aspects are considered.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Broussais - Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France, 1976. 70p. 25 ref.
Brucellosis in veterinary surgeons in Wales.
Brucellosis in humans is primarily an occupational disease, and veterinary surgeons are among those especially at risk. Disposable shoulder length gloves are often refused because they are liable to tear, and they impair the sense of touch. Vaccination of immature animals is claimed to be effective. Procedure and results of a brucellosis survey in 105 veterinary surgeons in Wales are detailed: symptoms and diagnosis, complication by epididymo-orchitis or splenomegaly, rash, accidental self-inoculation with Brucella vaccines, antibody tests, liver biopsy. Some cases are described. The suggestion that IgG antibodies are present only during active infection was not confirmed. Brucellosis is wrongly diagnosed if there is undue reliance on laboratory tests. Protection by gloves and washing with bactericidal agents are not considered effective, and brucellosis will remain a hazard until eradication is achieved.
Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, July 1976, Vol.10, No.4, p.351-362. Illus. 29 ref.
Tuberculosis in occupations associated with food for human consumption (regional investigation)
La tuberculose dans les professions touchant à l'alimentation de l'homme (enquête régionale). [in French]
This MD thesis, which takes stock of the present situation concerning tuberculosis, from the medical point of view and as regards French law, reports on 70 cases of tuberculosis among workers in the food preparation and retail trade, where there is a high rate of contagion and contamination hazard (10.8% of active tuberculosis cases). Individual case studies are followed by analysis of the results by age, occupational sector, vaccination, occupational medical examinations, screening, associated disease, presence of Koch bacillus, treatment, family and work background, probable source of contamination, influence of the disease on patient's working life, rehabilitation, and reinstatement in previous employment or not. The high incidence of tuberculosis in the food preparation and food retail trades is apparently linked not so much to handling food products as to close contact with the general public, very tiring conditions of work, and the small size of the undertakings concerned, giving rise to inadequate medical supervision. The owners of these undertakings seem to form the most vulnerable group.
Université de Bordeaux II, Unité d'enseignement et de recherche des sciences médicales, Bordeaux, France, 1976. 176p. 53 ref.
Sarosi G.A., Serstock D.S.
Isolation of blastomyces dermatitidis from pigeon manure.
Case report of a horticulturist with acute progressive blastomycosis. 6 weeks earlier he had used a load of pigeon manure, which was found to contain large numbers of the characteristic yeast forms of Blastomyces dermatitidis. It was possible to cultivate the fungus from the material. Future investigations of human blastomycosis should concentrate on soil enriched with bird droppings.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Dec. 1976, Vol.114, No.6, p.1179-1183. Illus. 7 ref.
Cohen S.R., Butler G.J., Shmunes E., Holmes A.W.
Hepatitis among plasma fractionation workers - An industry-wide study.
This questionnaire and field study covered 14 plasma-processing plants. Inspection revealed many instances of employee-product contact throughout the process (reception, pooling, centrifugation, leophilisation, recovery of the powder (harvesting), filtration, bottling). Awareness of the hazards was very poor. Epidemiological data on 86 clinical cases of viral hepatitis are given and discussed. Plasma fractionation is a high-risk vocation, and several questions as to protection remain unanswered.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1976, Vol.18, No.10, p.685-689. 17 ref.
Good work practices for tannery workers.
This little, well-illustrated booklet is addressed to workers in an industry where the accident and illness rate is 5 times the average for all other industries. Contents: noise (earmuffs and earplugs); eye protection; dermatitis; anthrax; chemicals; inhalation of toxic materials; ventilation and respirators; machinery guarding; working and walking surfaces; fire prevention.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-157, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 22p. Illus.
Goubran G.F., Cullens H., Zuckerman A.J., Eddleston A.L.W.F., Williams R.
Hepatitis B virus infection in dental surgical practice.
61 dental surgeons were interviewed. 6 had a history of hepatitis. The results of serological studies are given and discussed. Dental surgeons may be more at risk from hepatitis B infection than the general population: use of sharp instruments in a field contamined with saliva and possibly blood, potentially infectious aerosol projected by ultrasonic rotary instruments and air and water sprays. While hospital dental surgeons may be particularly vulnerable, they can take appropriate precautions if the HBsAg status of the patients is known. In the present study the infection rate in hospital dentists was low. Measures recommended: medical history, emphasising hepatitis, blood transfusion or drug abuse; referral of suspected cases for blood testing; use of mask and gloves when treating HBsAg-positive patients; injection of hepatitis B immunoglobulin if the skin is punctured and contaminated with potentially HBsAg-positive material.
British Medical Journal, 4 Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.6035, p.559-560. 14 ref.
Spinnarke J., Schork G.
Occupational safety law
Arbeitssicherheitsrecht (ASiR) [in German]
Edited by a team led by the deputy directors of 2 industrial mutual accident insurance associations (Berufsgenossenschaften), this loose-leaf compendium gives the text of the Federal German Act of 1973 concerning plant physicians, safety engineers and other occupational safety specialists (CIS 74-1166) (short title: Occupational Safety Act), with a detailed commentary. A very large part groups together all the most important statutory instruments enacted in the Fed.Rep. of Germany concerning occupational safety and health, under the following headings: acetylene, machinery, preventive medical examinations, workplace conditions, passenger and goods lifts, outdoor work in inclement weather, occupational diseases, plant physicians, medical services, lead, inflammable liquids, steam boilers, pressure vessels, compressed gas, work in compressed air, electrical installations, dangerous substances, refrigerating plant, paints and varnishes, noise, lasers, ladders, TLVs, radiation, seafarers, infectious diseases, safety specialists, dust, vinyl chloride.
Published by C.F. Müller Juristischer Verlag, Akademiestrasse 6, 6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1976. 944p.
Relation of e antigen to infectivity of HBsAg-positive inoculations among medical personnel.
Accidental inoculation of blood containing hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) resulted in hepatitis B or an anti-HBs response in 60% of cases when e antigen was present, as against 31% when it was not. A soluble protein identified by Magnium and Espmark in sera containing HBsAg, e antigen appears to be a marker of infectivity in maternal-foetal transmission of hepatitis B. The high prevalence of e antigen in patients on renal dialysis units where staff acquired hepatitis B most frequently suggests a comparable association. e antigen was detected in 74% of inocula from chronic renal dialysis and transplantation units, compared with 28% from other services, and the incidence of hepatitis B varied accordingly (22% and 6%, respectively). The validity of linking e antigen with infectivity is briefly discussed.
Lancet, 4 Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.7984, p.492-494. 12 ref.
Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l'agriculture), Paris.
Decree No.76-74 of 15 January 1976 to revise and supplement the tables of agricultural occupational diseases annexed to Decree No.55-806 of 17 June 1955, as amended
Décret n°76-74 du 15 janvier 1976 revisant et complétant les tableaux des maladies professionnelles agricoles annexés au décret n°55-806 du 17 juin 1955 modifié. [in French]
This decree adds the following new tables (34 to 42) to the tables of statutory occupational diseases in agriculture listed in the French Labour Code: ulcerations caused by chromic acid, alkaline chromates and dichromates; diseases due to tar, pitch and anthracene oils; diseases due to tropical woods; diseases due to epoxy resins; poliomyelitis; hygroma (beat knee); CO poisoning; hexane poisoning; diseases due to cadmium; diseases due to organic isocyanates. The following tables are amended: 4 (anthrax), 5 (leptospirosis), 7 (tularaemia), 8 (carbon disulfide poisoning), 9 (carbon tetrachloride poisoning), 11 (diseases due to various organic phosphorus compounds), 12 (mercury poisoning), 13 (poisoning due to nitrophenols), 15 (skin mycoses), 16 (tuberculosis), 18 (lead poisoning), 19 (benzene poisoning), 20 (health damage due to ionising radiations), 21 (poisoning due to halogenated acyclic hydrocarbons), 22 (silicosis), 23 (methyl bromide poisoning), 25 (dermatitis due to lubricants), 28 (health damage due to formic acid), 29 (vibration-induced osteoarticular disorders).
Journal officiel de la République française, 26-27 Jan. 1976, Vol.108, No.22, p.682-690.
Occupational medicine information sheets
Feuillets de médecine du travail. [in French]
Collection of information sheets, perforated for separate filing, each sheet devoted to some specific subject in the fields of occupational pathology, ergonomics, occupational safety and health, etc. Published in the form of separate parts issued regularly, each part containing several information sheets, this publication is intended mainly for students and practitioners in the field of occupational medicine. The issues numbered 5 to 8 inclusive are devoted to: occupational disease due to carbon disulfide and formol; rubber industry occupational hazards; occupational safety and health in mines; elements of occupational psycho-sociology; employment of women; asbestosis; poisoning due to organic lead compounds; occupational safety and health in shipbuilding, dockwork, milk and milk products industries, oils for cooking and human consumption; spray painting; International Labour Organisation (reference to the CIS); occupationally-induced parasite diseases, hepatonephritis, hepatitis, kidney disease, mouth and dental diseases; poisoning due to manganese, fluorine, chromium, zinc, nickel, coalminers' silicosis and pneumoconiosis; ionising radiations; pharmaceutical industry; steel industry.
Editions Maloine, Paris, France 1974-1976, Nos. 5,6,7 and 8, 77, 73, 79 and 68p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: FF.28.00 each.
Maupas P., Goudeau A., Coursaget P., Drucker J., Bagros P.
Immunisation against hepatitis B in man.
An inactivated vaccine against hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) was administered to 96 people at a hospital in Tours (France). Results in 46 of them (mainly members of the ward staff or relatives of dialysis patients) are reported. A positive response - production of anti-HBs antibodies - was elicited in 35. The vaccine appears to protect against hepatitis B. A general outline of some of the difficulties encountered in developing a vaccine are published in the same issue of Lancet (Zuckerman A.J., p.1396-1397, 20 ref.), together with a general commentary of the question (p.1391).
Lancet, 26 June 1976, Vol.1, No.7974, p.1367-1370. 24 ref.
Smith T.F., Burgert E.O., Dowdle W.R., Noble G.R., Campbell R.J., Van Scoy R.E.
Isolation of swine influenza virus from autopsy lung tissue of man
Case report of a boy who until 5 days before his death from respiratory failure due to Hodgkin's disease had worked on a farm where swine were raised. Swine influenza virus was isolated from lung specimens at autopsy. The possibility that both the Hodgkin's disease, and the chemotherapy for it, had modified his resistance to infection by impairing immunological responses is discussed.
New England Journal of Medicine, 25 Mar. 1976, Vol.294, No.13, p.708-710. Illus. 15 ref.
Harrington J.M., Shannon H.S.
Incidence of tuberculosis, hepatitis, brucellosis, and shigellosis in British medical laboratory workers.
A retrospective questionnaire survey of 21,000 medical laboratory workers in England and Wales in 1971, and of 3,000 in Scotland in 1973, showed: 21 new cases of tuberculosis (5 times the rate in the general population), 38 cases of hepatitis, 45 cases of shigellosis (microbiology staff were twice as vulnerable as that of other pathology divisions), and one case of brucellosis. Tuberculosis definitely, and hepatitis and shigellosis possible, are still occupational hazards of British medical laboratory workers.
British Medical Journal, 27 Mar. 1976, Vol.1, no.6012, p.759-762. 19 ref.
Pathologie rurale. [in French]
Review of the various health hazards commonly encountered in the rural milieu: a) poisoning due to the natural environment (animals and plants), or to the use of products such as fertilisers and pesticides, or due to other factors (carbon monoxide, lubricants, solvents, etc.); b) disease due to infection by parasites or pathogenic agents, with increased incidence due to modern farming methods (zoonoses, tetanus, anthrax, rabies, etc.); c) pathology of accidents (due to a wide variety of causes: animals, use of machinery, etc.); d) physiopathology and pathology linked to mechanisation (tractors, use of aircraft in agriculture etc.); e) pathology linked to various factors (bad weather, dust, noise and vibrations, bad posture, eating habits, fatigue, etc.). For each pathological cause the appropriate preventive measures and the essential statutory provisions which apply are indicated. List of French bodies concerned with occupational safety and health in rural occupations. List of relevant French regulations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Pathologie professionnelle, Fascicule 16538 A 10, 2-1976. 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France. 16p. 17 ref.
Jindřichová J., Kramářová K., Jíra J., Šimko A.
Contribution to the recognition of toxoplasmosis as an occupational disease
Příspěvek k poznání profesionality toxoplazmózy [in Czech]
The authors carried out skin tests with toxoplasmin in 1,027 subjects. In the group of persons occupationally in contact with animals (work in abattoirs, pig farms, handling laboratory animals) they observed 60.8% of positive reactions, whereas in the control group (electric power station employees, schoolchildren, etc.) only 35.6% were positive. Positive reactions were significantly higher among rural than among urban populations. Within the control group, a significant statistical difference was observed between cat owners and others who had no contact with cats. This difference was particularly marked in the lowest age bracket (14-19 years) where 39.4% of positive reactions were observed in cat owners, compared to only 16.1% in the controls.
Pracovní lékařství, Nov. 1975, Vol.27, No.10, p.336-340. Illus. 42 ref.
Mosley J.W., Edwards V.M., Casey G., Redeker A.G., White E.
Hepatitis B virus infection in dentists.
Of 1,245 dentists, 0.9% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, and 12.7% were antibody positive. The frequency of evidence for infection increased with increasing years of professional experience. Dentists appear to have a risk of hepatitis B virus infection about 2-3 times that of the general population. Frequencies did not vary with geographic region in the USA, nor with size of community.
New England Journal of Medicine, 9 Oct. 1975, Vol.293, No.15, p.729-734. 28 ref.
Carbonnelle B., Carbonnelle P., Fruchart A., Dugimont J.C., Tison F.
Epidemiology and prevention of tuberculous contamination in bacteriological laboratories - Results of studies carried out in 23 laboratories
Epidémiologie et prévention des contaminations tuberculeuses dans les laboratoires de bactériologie - Résultats d'une enquête affectuée dans 23 laboratoires. [in French]
This survey covering the period 1967-1972 brought to light 20 cases of tuberculosis among 74 laboratory technicians exclusively engaged in screening tests for TB bacillus, and 29 cases among the total of 379 technicians employed in the 23 laboratories covered by the survey. Analysis of the possible sources of contamination led the authors to suspect the following as being the principal sources of contamination: handling of biological material by pipette and mouth, and various techniques giving rise to the formation of aerosols (Pasteur pipettes, centrifugal machines, crushing and homogenising equipment, etc.). Technical preventive measures: isolation and investigation of mycobacteria in a special room which is disinfected every evening and provided with easily cleaned equipment; daily emission of a disinfecting mist; use of laminar flow enclosures. The efficacy of these methods has been demonstrated by 31/2 years' experience.
Revue d'épidémiologie, médecine sociale et santé publique, Oct.-Dec. 1975, Vol.23, No.7-8, p.417-428. 17 ref.
Morgan W.K.C., Seaton A., Burrell R., Lapp N.L., Seal R.M.E., Wagner J.C.
Occupational lung diseases.
Intended for the practising physician, this book takes stock of lung disease as it has become modified by the evolution of industrial processes and hygiene. Contents: brief introduction on historical and legal aspects of occupational disease; pulmonary physiology; deposition and clearance of dust from the lungs; epidemiology; pathological reactions to dust; immunology; silicosis; silicate pneumoconioses; asbestosis; coalworkers' pneumoconiosis; other pneumoconioses; occupational asthma; industrial bronchitis; byssinosis and related conditions; allergic alveolitis; toxic gases and fumes; infectious diseases; occupational pulmonary neoplasms. Alphabetical subject index.
Published by W.B. Saunders Company, West Washington Square, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19105, USA, and 12 Dyott Street, London WC1A 1DB, United Kingdom, 1975. 391p. Illus. 893 ref. Price: £.12.00.
Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l'agriculture), Paris.
Decree No.75-863 of 8 September 1975 to revise and add to the schedule of agricultural occupational diseases in the schedule to Decree No.55-806 of 17 June 1955, as amended
Décret n°75-863 du 8 septembre 1975 révisant et complétant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles agricoles annexés au décret n°55-806 du 17 juin 1955 modifié. [in French]
The following diseases are added: rabies of occupational origin, diseases caused by poisoning due to pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate and "sodium laurylpentachlorophenate", diseases due to inhalation of dust in aviaries and poultry farms, and virus hepatitis of occupational origin. Amendments to the original decree concern occupational tetanus, occupational brucellosis and diseases due to cement (ulcerations and other skin disorders, blepharitis, conjunctivitis).
Journal officiel de la République française, 20 Sep. 1975, Vol.107, No.219, p.9715-9717.
Lévy A., Jourdan R., Mouret A., Malby M.R.
Occupational viral hepatitis - An acute problem of hospital hygiene
L'hépatite virale professionnelle - Problème aigu d'hygiène hospitalière. [in French]
Statistical data illustrating the magnitude of this problem. Hazards presented by healthy chronic virus carriers, who are more numerous in the hospital environment than in the general population. Economic data (in France, viral hepatitis accounts for 11.6% of occupational diseases). Epidemiological analysis of occupational viral hepatitis at the university hospital of Montpellier, France. Prevention: technical aspects (routine screening for HB antigen, isolation of antigen carriers, observance of hygiene rules); educational aspects (information and education of personnel, teaching of strict rules of hygiene and disinfection); administrative aspects (diagnostic criteria, obligatory notification).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep.1975, Vol.36, No.9, p.465-475. 16 ref.
Thomson S., Inwood M.J.
Laboratory-acquired hepatitis B.
Letter to the editor proposing a method to overcome the high risk of hepatitis when Coombs test material is transferred from test tubes to slides for microscopic reading. An inversion microscope equipped with a viewing holder for 10x75mm tubes is used, allowing agglutination patterns to be directly assessed in the tube, so avoiding transfer of hazardous material. Visual assessment is considered as accurate as the traditional slide and pipette method, and the cost of the microscope is quickly recovered in savings due to the fact that additional slides and pipettes are not required.
Lancet, 28 Feb. 1976, Vol.1, No.7957, p.489.
Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (Ministero del lavoro e della previdenza sociale) and Ministry of Health (Ministero della sanità), Roma.
Decree of the President of the Republic, No.482, dated 9 June 1975: Amendments and additions to the tables of occupational diseases in industry and agriculture - Schedules 4 and 5 to the Decree of the President of the Republic, No.1124, of 30 June 1965
Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 9 giugno 1975, n.482. Modificazioni e integrazioni alle tabelle delle malattie professionali nell'industria e nell'agricoltura, allegati numeri 4 e 5 al decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 30 giugno 1965, n.1124 [in Italian]
The amended schedules issued by this Decree list 40 occupational diseases in industry (mainly intoxications, and also diseases due to noise and vibration, work in compressed air, etc. and pneumoconioses) and in 21 agricultural occupations (ankylostomiasis, diseases due to use of pesticides and other chemical agents, farmer's lung and similar respiratory diseases due to dust, mycoses, etc.), indicating opposite each disease the operations or processes giving rise to the disease and the periods of liability for compensation. Entry into force: 9 Oct. 1975.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 9 Oct. 1975, Vol.116, No.269, p.7139-7143.
Durfee P.T., Pullen M.M., Currier R.W., Parker R.L.
Human psittacosis associated with commercial processing of turkeys.
After an introduction tracing the incidence of psittacosis epidemics in the USA, this report describes investigations of a series of such epidemics at turkey-processing plants, mainly in Texas, in May-Aug. 1974, involving 114 workers. The incidence in 80 workers at 3 plants is classified by occupation: the attack rate was directly related to exposure to the viscera and faeces of infected turkeys. Workers exposed to live birds did not fall ill. Serological studies suggested that non-clinical psittacosis may be relatively common in persons associated with turkeys. Control measures included screening turkey flocks before slaughter and treatment of infected birds.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1 Nov. 1975, Vol.167, No.9, p.804-808. Illus. 11 ref.
Recognised occupational diseases and poisoning cases in Czechoslovakia in 1973
Nemoci z povolání a profesionální otravy uznané v Československu v roce 1973 [in Czech]
In Czechoslovakia in 1973 a total of 4,869 cases of disease (about the same level as in previous years) were recognised as being of occupational origin. This figure could be rounded out by 99 cases of health damage where it was impossible to determine precisely whether the damage was related to occupation or to working environment. An analysis of these statistics is presented. As regards incidence, the most numerous were occupational infections (1,667 cases), then dermatitis of various types (1,296), and dust-induced pulmonary fibrosis (798 cases).
Pracovní lékařství, Apr. 1975, Vol.27, No.4, p.121-126.
Keen R.C., Mumford C.J.
A preliminary study of hazards to toxic waste disposal operators on ten landfill sites in Britain.
Introductory general analysis: 70% of toxic waste is disposed of on sites operated by the waste producer, 5% is dealt with by local authorities, and 25% by contractors; the extent of the hazards involved in the United Kingdom is estimated; list of materials for which notification was made; facilities at typical sites; review of potential operator hazards (chemical, physical, mechanical, infective). The report itself deals with site conditions (measurement of noise, gases and vapours, and general atmosphere); results of sampling of materials; summary of interviews with 25 workers (protection provided; accounts of incidents involving hazadous situations or irresponsible conduct). Preliminary conclusions are drawn, and recommendations for measures at official and operation levels made.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1975, Vol.18, No.3, p.213-228. Illus. 21 ref.
The practice of occupational medicine
L'exercice de la médecine du travail. [in French]
This volume, the work of 37 contributing specialists, takes stock of the present situation of occupational medicine and examines present-day problems in this field. It considers in Part 1 the status of the plant physician (background, professional ethics, conditions to be fulfilled before being permitted to practice, training), reviews in Part 2 his functions (conducting examinations of various kinds, inspecting workplaces, problems of handicapped persons) and analyses in Part 3 the tasks he has to perform in various branches of activity (iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, building and civil engineering, transport, electrical engineering, hospitals, etc.) outlining their main features and the risks involved. Occupational diseases are examined in Part 4 (toxicology, dermatitis, allergies, ear, nose, throat and eye diseases, pneumoconiosis, poisonous substances encountered in industry, etc.), their medical and technical prevention. A chapter is devoted to industrial hygiene (dust control, toxic gases and vapours; U.S. and Soviet TLVs). Parts 5 and 6: importance of other branches of science dealing with human beings (ergonomics, sociology, etc.) in occupational medicine and future of occupational medicine. Texts of French legislation on the subject and official tables of occupational diseases are appended. Index.
Editions Flammarion, 20 rue de Vaugirard, 75006 Paris, France, 1975. 627p. Illus. 110 ref. Price: FF.245.00.
Grady D.F., Lee V.A.
Hepatitis B immune globulin - Prevention of hepatitis from accidental exposure among medical personnel.
Less than 1% of medical workers who were anti-HBs-positive developed hepatitis, against 11% of anti-HBs-negative subjects. Trials were performed with immune-serum globulin preparations of varying titres. The incidence of hepatitis in groups passively immunised with globulin having a titre of 1:50, 1:5,000 and 1:500,000, respectively, was 7, 5, and 2%. The significantly lower incidence in the last group (p<0.25) was offset by additional cases found at follow-up after 9 months. Various psssible explanations of this delayed onset are put forward.
New England Journal of Medicine, 20 Nov. 1975, Vol.293, No.21, p.1067-1070. Illus. 8 ref.
Hepatitis B - Risk of infection from antigen-positive medical personnel and patients.
The greater the physical contact between medical personnel and patients, the frequency of antigenaemia among patients, the number of blood transfusions given, and the number of blood specimens handled, the higher will be the attack rate for hepatitis among medical personnel. The extent of the risk for health-care personnel can ony be defined by testing for hepatitis antigen and antibody on a voluntary basis. However, caution must be exercised in recommending job changes to personnel found repeatedly to be chronic asymptomatic antigen carriers. Antigen positivity is not necessarily life-long.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 1975, Vol.233, No.10, p.1061-1062. 14 ref.
Kos J.B., Kos D.
Epidemiological and clinical aspects of leptospirosis
Niektóre aspekty epidemiologiczne i kliniczne leptospiroz [in Polish]
An analysis of 20 patients (1961-70) with leptospirosis showed that lack of observation of principles of hygiene was the principal cause of infection during contact with soil containing animal faeces. In only 1 of the 20 patients was the disease diagnosed correctly in its initial phases because of the variety and variability of clinical manifestations. There appears to be no connection between occurrence of pathological manifestations and the serotype of leptospira causing the disease. Cerebrospinal meningitis is frequently involved in the disease. Abstracts in English and Russian are appended.
Medycyna Wiejska, 1975, Vol.10, No.1-2, p.61-70. 8 ref.
Present state of future prospects for wider use of medicinal aerosols for the prevention and treatment of occupational diseases
O sostojanii i perspektivah rasširenija primenenija aėrozolej medikamentov dlja profilaktiki i lečenija professional'nyh zabolevanij [in Russian]
Literature survey concerning the use of medicinal aerosols in the prevention of various diseases (pneumoconiosis, dust-induced bronchitis, toxic or allergic bronchopneumopathy, occupational poisoning by mercury, lead or other toxic substances, occupational dermatitis, burns and cutaneous microtraumatisms). Appropriate action to widen the scope of aerosol treatment.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1975, No.1, p.14-18. 47 ref.
Buchvald J., Klobušický M., Valentová M., Bakyta A.
Analysis of the incidence of mycotic infections of the skin in miners.
Analýza výskytu mykotických infekcií kože pracovníkov v bani [in Slovak]
The results of examinations carried out in 680 lignite miners showed that 52.2% of those examined suffered from intertriginous epidermophytosis, principally caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale. Cases of onychomycosis and moniliasis were rare. Shower-rooms were the main source of infection. Recommended preventive measures: washing floor tiles of shower and changing rooms with boiling water after each shift, and disinfection at least once a day with an antimycotic agent; periodic disinfection inside footwear and drying after each shift; application of antimycotic preparations between the toes after showering.
Bratislavské lekárske listy, Mar. 1975, Vol.63, No.3, p.280-287. 13 ref.
Tuberculin sensitivity in dust-exposed coalminers and non-exposed populations from the Ruhr area - Epidemiological study of the excessive tuberculosis morbidity in miners
Zur Tuberkulinsensitivität von staubbelasteten Kohlenbergarbeitern und von niemals staubexponierten Bevölkerungsgruppen des Ruhrgebiets - Eine epidemiologische Studie zum Verständnis der überdurchschnittlichen Tuberkulosemorbidität unter Bergleuten [in German]
This study comprised nearly 12,000 persons with and without dust exposure. The frequency of tuberculin sensitivity in coalminers of all age groups exposed at an early age rises more quickly than in the general population, presumably on account of simultaneous tuberculosis infection. The high morbidity rate of tuberculosis in miners correlates with the high frequency of tuberculin sensitivity. This is explained by disturbance of the cellular defence reaction against tuberculosis bacteria by the cytotoxic dust. Prophylactic tuberculin tests from the start of mining activity, and prophylactic treatment with tuberculostatics are recommended.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 19 Sep. 1975, Vol.35, No.3-4, p.201-215. Illus. 41 ref.
Occupational health problems of pregnant women.
This report discusses relationships between working conditions (noise and vibration are not included) and pregnancy outcome. Each section contains specific suggestions for future action to safeguard the pregnant worker. After general chapters dealing with statistics, legal aspects, physiology and pathology, the 2nd part is devoted to a description of the research programmes, procedures and resources of the relevant U.S. authorities (especially the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Labor). Conclusions and recommendations. Appendices include: workers' instruction concerning prenatal radiation exposure; basic radiation protection criteria; excerpt from handbook for oil, chemical and atomic workers (by Stone K.); experience with CS2; annotated bibliography of recent foreign articles on exposure to toxic substances in pregnancy; test of the relevant section from the U.S. Federal Register on implementation of the National Council on Radiation Protection recommendations; personal interview and history forms.
Order No.SA-5304-75, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 330 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20201, USA, Apr. 1975. 158p. 85 ref.
Slavík V., Kachlík Z., Zelinková D.
Evaluation of the risk of salmonella and shigella infection in pathological anatomy and forensic medical services
Příspěvek k hodnocení rizika nákazy salmonelami a shigelami v provozu patologickoanatomických a soudně lékařských oddělení [in Czech]
Study of occupational exposure to infection in the medical profession and ancillary medical services. In addition to the risk of tuberculosis and viral hepatitis there is also a salmonellosis and shigellosis hazard. The authors obtained 9 positive cultures from autopsy tissue from the small intestine, colon, gall bladder and spleen of 200 deceased subjects who had shown no symptoms of disease of the digestive tract while alive. Hygienic conditions in dissection rooms are criticised and improvements suggested.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1975, Vol.27, No.1-2, p.32-36. 14 ref.
Farina G., Morselli G., Stangalini A.
Testing 782 employees of a pharmaceutical establishment for Australia antigen
Ricerca dell'antigene Australia in 782 lavoratori di uno stabilimento farmaceutico [in Italian]
Results of serological reactions in 782 workers in the pharmaceutical sector. The radioimmunological method, which was found to be the most sensitive, gave positive reactions in 4.3% of the cases. Those who reacted positively were then subjected to clinical tests and haematological analysis for liver disease. The following practical suggestions are made: periodic examination of all subjects exposed to possible virus contagion; exclusion of workers with positive reactions from industrial processes involving the risk of contagion; prevention of risks of contagion at the workpost or from industrial products.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1975, Vol.6, No.2, p.137-146. 21 ref.
Pietruszynski M., Bossut T.
Regulation safety notices, rules, warnings and signboards
Affiches, consignes, avis et pancartes réglementaires dans le domaine de la sécurité. [in French]
List of the laws and regulations concerning notices, rules, warnings, placards and signboards about occupational safety and health matters, the posting up or distribution of which is compulsory in all establishments to which the French Labour Code applies. This data note is divided into 2 parts: 1. General provisions applying to all establishments; 2. Special regulations concerning particular processes, plant or products. Appendices: extracts from French decrees and orders concerning mandatory notification of certain hazards: building cranes, arsenic, personnel lifts, work in the vicinity of overhead electric lines, benzene hazards, methyl bromide poisoning, anthrax, use of explosives in the building and civil engineering sector, lead poisoning.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1975, No.79, Note No.960-79-75, p.231-260.
Desoille H., Scherrer J., Truhaut R.
Manual of occupational medicine
Précis de médecine du travail. [in French]
The first section of this volume, in which 68 specialists collaborated, is devoted to in-plant occupational safety and health, plant medical services, physiological organisation of work (ventilation, temperature and noise environment, lighting, physical workload, etc.). A section follows on the documentation, information sources and links with other services and institutions which the plant physician can use. Analysis of the French Labour Code. Chemical hazards are reviewed (TLVs), and hazards from physical agents, contagion and parasites. Pollution of the working environment. The various occupational diseases are then reviewed by system (lung, mouth, malignant tumours, skin diseases, endocrine system, etc.), and by occupational sector (food, building and civil engineering, leather and hides, detergents, petroleum, etc.). Special problems are considered in the last part (migrant workers, left-handed workers, diabetics, mentally handicapped, workers with rheumatism, etc.). Alphabetical subjet index.
Editions Masson, 120 boulevard Saint-Germain, 75006 Paris, France, 1975. 972p. Illus. Price: FF.216.00.
Rudolph J., Codino R.S.
Environmental hazards of hepatitis.
The ways in which medical and paramedical personnel may contract viral hepatitis are briefly described. Accidental puncture and non-parenteral spread, during blood handling, are the predominant modes of transmission of the disease. Health-care facilities handling blood should develop precautions and enforce internal regulations to minimise human exposure to the infective antigen. Detailed laboratory safety guidelines cover sample collection, handling materials in the laboratory, disposal of contamination, accidents, and general hygiene precautions.
Journal of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1975, Vol.37, No.4, p.359-362. 23 ref.
Barrière H., Litoux P., Morin O., Géraut C.
Suppurative trychophytoses of animal origin - A review of 38 recent cases
Les trichophyties suppurées d'origine animale - A propos de 38 observations récentes. [in French]
Analysis of 38 cases of tinea capitis (kerion) and barbae (sycosis) collected in a rural area, of occupational (farmers or workers in contact with animals) or other origin, and the results of an epidemiological study undertaken with the aid of veterinary surgeons of the infested region, showed an increasing incidence of the animal infection (calves) favoured by changes in animal husbandry methods. Report on the clinical, parasitological, immunological, therapeutic and occupational study of this condition, which is almost always associated with infestation of the body and head hair by various species of Trichophyton.
Semaine des hôpitaux, 1975, Vol.51, No.8, p.539-548. Illus.
Occupational medicine information sheets
Feuillets de médecine du travail. [in French]
Collection of information sheets, perforated for separate filing, each sheet devoted to some specific subject in the fields of occupational pathology, ergonomics, occupational safety and health, etc. Published in the form of separate parts issued regularly, each part containing several information sheets, this publication is intended mainly for students and practitioners in the field of occupational medicine. The first 4 issues (Nos. 1 to 4) are devoted, inter alia, to the following subjects: 1) occupational dermatoses; occupational safety and health and occupational medicine in the chemical industries; coal by-products industry; toxicology and occupational health in the plastics industry; soaps and detergents; occupational pathology in the artificial and synthetic textile industry; official lists of occupational diseases with statutory compensation; 2) physiology and occupational pathology of the cardio-vascular system; functional tests for assessment of working capacity; mental health and occupational medicine; 3) occupationally-induced haemopathy; workpost studies; air conditioning; 4) occupational hazards, safety and health aspects of work in the petroleum industry; occupational safety and health regulations for agriculture; rickettsiosis; brucellosis; leptospirosis; horticulture and forestry; occupational diseases in hospital staff.
Editions Maloine, Paris, France, 1974, Nos. 1,2,3 and 4, 86, 71, 82 and 72p. Illus. Price: FF.28.00 each.
National Occupational Safety and Health Programme (Plan nacional de higiene y seguridad en el trabajo), Madrid.
Safety in industrial abattoirs
La seguridad en los mataderos industriales [in Spanish]
This data sheet gives advice on safe working methods in large industrial abattoirs, indicating hazards and preventive measures at each stage of the slaughtering and dressing process: driving of cattle from the pens (injury from horns or pointed objects); stunning (hazards from use of bolt or spike); slaughtering (automatic pistol, humane killer, electrical hazards when using an electrolethaler); bleeding-out; deboning, removal of hair, skinning (injury from knives, electrocution from electric bone saws); scalding (burns); wearing of eye protectors, gloves, metal mesh aprons, etc.; extraction of intestines; zoonosis hazards (anthrax, brucellosis, tetanus, bovine TB, erysipeloid, foot-and-mouth disease). Other aspects covered: adequate lighting; slippery floors, safety footwear; refrigerating plant.
I.T.B./364.74 D-2-74 Centro Nacional de Información y Documentación, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, Instituto Territorial, Barcelona, Spain, 1974. 20p. Illus.
Čajka N.A., Jakovskaja M.E.
Occupational fungal allergy and ways to detect it.
Translation of: Professional'naja gribkovaja allergija i sposoby ee vyjavlenija. Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Moskva, USSR, Mar. 1972, Vol.16, No.3, p.32-35. 14 ref. A brief review of mycosis types, causes and common sites of outbreak is followed by a report of research in a chemical plant producing citric acid by Aspergillus niger fermentation. Serological testing (precipitation, complement fixation, passive haemoagglutination) and allergy testing (intradermal, leucocytolysis, Z.B. ovary reaction) in 102 employees gave frequent positive reactions in surface-fermentation, laboratory and spore-preparation workers. In chemical and deep-fermentation workers with a lower degree of exposure, positive reactions were obtained in isolated cases only. Suitable engineering measures to prevent atmospheric contamination, and the use of respirators in special cases are recommended.
Foreign Technology Division, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. AD-779 119/7WI, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, 22 Apr. 1974. 15p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$3.00/Microfiche US-$1.45.
Meneghini C.L., Lospalluti M., Angelini G.
Cutaneous anthrax: observations in 18 cases.
Short communication about 18 cases of anthrax from rural areas in Italy observed between 1967 and 1971. Most of the patients had occupational contact with infected animals or animal products. Symptoms, swab culture test results and treatment are outlined.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Nov.-Dec. 1974, No.6, p.233-237. Illus. 7 ref.
Occupational diseases and cases of poisoning due to occupation notified for the first time in Czechoslovakia during the period 1968-1972
Nově hlášené nemoci z povolání a profesionální otravy v Československu v letech 1968-1972 [in Czech]
During the period 1968-1972 the number of occupational diseases continued to decrease in Czechoslovakia (the figures for each year were: 5,544, 4,953, 4,796, 5,124 and 4,843 respectively). This trend was noticeable mainly in the number of cases of pneumoconiosis and occupational dermatitis, whereas the number of infectious diseases (especially virus hepatitis) increased in the medical profession and the auxiliary medical staff. The most frequently occurring among the overall total of occupational diseases were skin disorders. The well-known chronic poisonings, especially in their severe and advanced forms, had virtually disappeared. A breakdown of occupational diseases and cases of occupational poisoning by region and by sector of industry is given in tabular form accompanied by observations.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1974, Vol.26, No.8, p.311-320.
Vyskočil J., Lejhancová G., Berka L., Chromá M., Horská H.
On the working conditions and health status of female dairy farm workers
Über die Arbeitsbedingungen und den Gesundheitszustand der Pflegerinnen von Melkkühen [in German]
Results of a study of the working conditions in 18 Czechoslovakian dairy farms and of the health of 133 female dairy farm workers (average age: 45 years; average length of service: 8 years): occupational hygiene in the cow-sheds, measurement of dust and microclimate in summer and winter, clinical and dermatological examinations, occupational skin lesions, psychological examination. In 17% of the workers, candida mycosis and contact eczema were found, and characteristic hand callosities were observed in 57%. Fungi were found in 59% of the sputa and throat-swabs. Other findings: chronic bronchial catarrh, reduced ventilatory capacity, pathogenic microorganisms in the sputum, lumbar spine and joint pains. Prophylactic measures are indicated.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Feb. 1974, Vol.20, No.2, p.97-106. 46 ref.
Šebek Z., Jindřichová J.
Concerning the problem of occupational leptospirosis in Czechoslovakia
K problematice profesionální leptospirózy v ČSSR [in Czech]
Analysis of the statistics of notified cases of leptospirosis held to be of occupational origin in Czechoslovakia (1961-1971). The proportion of cases where there was a finding of occupational origin varied considerably from one region to another (between 2.5 and 41.7%). The authors consider this disparity to be due to insufficient knowledge of certain serotypes of leptospira.
Pracovní lékařství, Apr. 1974, Vol.26, No.4, p.129-133. Illus. 44 ref.
Wende E., Eggeling F.
Occupational disease black spots in the German Federal Republic
Schwerpunkte der Berufskrankheiten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland [in German]
A detailed computer analysis of 40,000 occupational disease reports from the industrial medicine offices of the Länder of the German Federal Republic. The diseases are recorded on a uniform model, independently of their recognition for insurance purposes in the various Länder. A report on a general evaluation (absolute statistics, recognition as occupationally-induced, sex, disease groups, economic sectors, Länder, black spots, corrective measures) is followed by reports on an occupational medicine evaluation (poisoning, health impairment, noise-induced hearing loss, radiation diseases, infections, lung diseases, skin disorders, occupational cancer) and special evaluations (foreign workers, mortality, and morbidity risk by age group, economic sector and profession). Skin diseases, noise-induced lesions and silicosis hold first place with a total of 64%. The programme for the computer processing of the documentation on occupational diseases is described.
Forschungsbericht Nr.123, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Martener Strasse 435, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974. 333p. Illus. Price: DM.19.50.
Elischerová K., Stúpalová S.
Discovery of listeria among occupationally exposed persons
Nálezy listérií u profesionálně exponovaných osob [in Slovak]
The authors isolated Listeria (erysipelothrix) monocytogenes (L.m.) in the faeces, in smears from the upper airways, and on the skin (hands) and workclothes of workers in the meat industry, agricultural workers, and those employed in undertakings where listeriosis-infected animals were to be found. Cultures taken from these smears were positive for L.m., and this was confirmed by findings of higher levels of O,H-agglutinins and complement-binding antibodies in the workers examined, who all appeared to be in good health at the time of the examination. However, closer scrutiny of their history brought to light further evidence of possible infection: influenza-type symptoms, premature births, stillbirths, etc.
Pracovní lékařství, May 1974, Vol.26, No.5, p.175-179. Illus. 25 ref.
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