Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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Skilbeck H.W., Miller G.T., Hodgen A.N., Stuckey M.S.
A serological survey of leptospirosis in Gippsland dairy farmers; Leptospirosis in Western Australia, 1983-1984
Article 1 reports on the results of serological testing of 1074 farmers and dairy workers without clinical symptoms of leptospirosis. High rates of positive serological reactions were noted against certain Leptospira interrogans serogroups (particularly, against serovar Hebdomadis). The milking of dairy cows was a major risk factor in the development of positive reactions. Article 2 reports on the presence of leptospiral antibodies (with or without attending clinical symptoms) among farmers and meatworkers in the State of Western Australia.
Medical Journal of Australia, 26 May 1986, Vol.144, No.11, p.565-569. 16 ref.
Report of the Federal Government on the state of accidents and their prevention in the Federal Republic of Germany (1985 report)
Bericht der Bundesregierung über den Stand der Unfallverhütung und das Unfallgeschehen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Unfallverhütungsbericht 1985 [in German]
Overview of the situation in 1985 (number of workers and accidents, cost of insurance in comparison with 1984). Data for various time periods (back to 1949 in some cases) are presented in graphs and statistical tables: declared occupational accidents and diseases; fatal accidents and diseases; commuting accidents; rates of accidents and diseases by branch of industry; rates of declared and compensated diseases by group of worker and by disease. Skin diseases were most frequent, with 11,602 reported cases, followed by noise-induced hearing loss (8,828 cases), infectious diseases (3,286 cases) and silicosis (3,258 cases). A review of the organisation and activity of the mutual accident insurance associations and a list of occupational safety and health regulations are also presented.
Drucksache 10/6690, Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Sozialordnung, Postfach, 5300 Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany, 5 Dec. 1986. Illus. 116p.
Kruschwitz S., Izmerov N.F.
Industrial hygiene and the working woman
Arbeitshygiene der berufstätigen Frau [in German]
Collection of articles by 60 German and Russian authors. Principal themes: the position of women in society; occupations, working hours and leisure time; the health of the working woman; effect of harmful workplace factors on women, especially during pregnancy, and preventive measures; medical monitoring and treatment of the working woman.
VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Villengang 2, 6900 Jena, German Democratic Republic, 1986. 297p. Illus. 124 ref. Price: M.62.00.
Helmick C.G., Webb P.A., Scribner C.L., Krebs J.W., McCormick J.B.
No evidence for increased risk of Lassa fever infection in hospital staff
A prospective serological study of staff from 3 Sierra Leone hospitals in an area where Lassa fever is endemic, revealed that there was no increased risk of contracting the disease among any groups of hospital personnel. These findings support the proposal that patients with Lassa fever need not be confined to isolators in order to prevent infecting the staff.
Lancet, 22 Nov. 1986, Vol.2, No.8517, p.1202-1204. Illus. 20 ref.
Morton S., Bartlett C.L.R., Bibby L.F., Hutchinson D.N., Dyer J.V., Dennis P.J.
Outbreak of legionnaires' disease from a cooling water system in a power station
Report on an outbreak of legionnaires' disease among workers in a power station under construction (6 cases of pneumonia, 10 out of a sample of 92 men having antibodies to Legionella pneumophila). The infection seems to have been due to the airborne spread of organisms from the water systems of cooling towers at the site. No cases of legionella infection have occurred on the site since the introduction of control measures (cleaning and treatment of the cooling towers).
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1986, Vol.43, No.9, p.630-635. Illus. 14 ref.
Shi Z., Lei P.
Short case reports of mycoses due to infection by moulds or due to allergic reactions to moulds, from various occupational groups in China: animal handlers, silkreeling workers, a carpenter, farmers, a dynamite worker, blanket makers, workers producing ATP and workers producing complex esterases.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1986, Vol.43, No.7, p.500-501. 3 ref.
Steinbuch M., Gaeuman J.V.
Risk of hepatitis B in hospital personnel
Epidemiologic study involving 1,323 employees of Ohio State University Hospital, in the USA. 105 employees with present or past evidence of hepatitis B virus infection were identified. Statistical analysis indicated that nonwhites, males, discontinuity of employment, and frequency of contact with blood products constituted the most important risk factors in acquiring hepatitis B virus infections.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1986, Vol.28, No.4, p.276-281. 21 ref.
Tuberculosis among migrant farm workers - Virginia
A lead from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report from the Centers for Disease Control (Atlanta, USA). The prevalence rates of tuberculosis among these workers are 10-20 times higher than the national incidence rate in the USA, and are suggested to be due to the crowded living conditions shared only by adult migrant farm workers.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22/29 Aug. 1986, Vol.256, No.8, p.977-981. 6 ref.
Nixon A.D., Law R., Officer J.A., Cleland J.F., Goldwater P.N.
Simple device to prevent accidental needle-prick injuries
Use of a needle guide, consisting of a plastic shield with a central hole into which the covered needle is placed, led to a 79% reduction in needle pricks suffered by phlebotomists working at a medical laboratory in New Zealand. A reduction in needle pricks results in lowered exposure risk to hepatitis B and to AIDS.
Lancet, 19 Apr. 1986, Vol.1, No.8486, p.888-889. Illus. 5 ref.
Singgih S.I.R., Lantinga H., Nater J.P., Woest T.E., Kruyt-Gaspersz J.A.
Occupational hand dermatoses in hospital cleaning personnel
Hospital cleaning personnel were examined for occupational dermatoses; 356 persons were included in the study. Their ages were 20-63 years with a mean of 40.1 years. The period prevalence rate of moderate and severe eczema was 12% (10% in men and 19% in women). In 88%, the eczema was of a duration longer than 2 years. Positive patch tests were found in 10% of men and 53% of women with eczema. The main allergens were nickel, cobalt, chromate and rubber chemicals. Positive tests to cleaning agents were rare. One case of contact allergy to sodium dichloroisocyanurate and one to Lysol were diagnosed. Irritant factors played a major role in most cases (92%). Fungus infection as a cause or complication in hand eczema should not be left out of consideration: in 2 persons, a mycosis of hands and/or fingernails was diagnosed.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1986, Vol.14, No.1, p.14-19. 11 ref.
Breuer B., Friedman S.M., Millner E.S., Kane M.A., Snyder R.A., Maynard J.E.
Transmission of hepatitis B virus to classroom contacts of mentally retarded carriers
The risk of the spread of hepatitis B virus infection from deinstitutionalised, mentally retarded carriers to pupil and staff school contacts in the New York City public school system was measured serologically in a 3-phase study from 1978 to 1982. In the third phase, undertaken in 1982, blood samples were drawn and questionnaires were completed on students and staff tested in either of the first 2 phases and on comparison groups with intermediate and no known school exposure to deinstitutionalised carriers. Logistic regression analyses revealed that staff and pupils with a history of classroom exposure to a hepatitis B virus carrier had significantly increased prevalences of hepatitis B virus infection (13.4%, odds ratio = 1.9; 9.3%, odds ratio = 2.5, respectively). Similarly, yearly seroconversion rates of 1.3% and 0.67% indicate that staff and, to a lesser extent, pupils are at increased risk of infection.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Dec. 1985, Vol.254, No.22, p.3190-3195. 13 ref.
Blasco J.M., Marín C.M.
Brucellosis - Study of a plan for elimination in ruminants
Brucelosis - Estudio de un plan de erradicación en rumiantes [in Spanish]
The incidence of brucellosis in humans is directly associated with its existence in animals, particularly cows, sheep and goats. Prophylaxis is carried out in Spain by vaccinating female animals bred for reproduction with B-19 or Rev 1 vaccine. This system is slow and expensive and its applicability in Spain in the case of small ruminants is doubtful. The authors of this article propose massive vaccination of adult cattle in areas with a high risk of contagion using reduced doses (5 x 108) of B-19 vaccine. In animals bred for reproduction, vaccination should be continued using standard doses. For sheep and goats massive vaccination with live vaccine Rev 1 (5 x 108 doses) is proposed. Standard vaccination with Rev 1 should be continued and even extended to 3 to 5 months old males bred for reproduction.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 1985, Vol.5, No.19, p.3-10. Illus. 28 ref.
Jiménez Barca M.A., Juan Sanz M.J.
Brucelosis/Brucelosis [in Spanish]
The first part of this article is a review of the causes, pathology, epidemiology and socio-economical aspects of this contagious bacterial disease transferred from domestic animals or animal products to man. The second part is a presentation of an epidemiologic study of 651 cases of brucellosis from 1978 to 1982 in the province of Soria, Spain. The number of cases increased considerably during the period but this could be due to better diagnostic methods and greater awareness and knowledge concerning the disease and its symptoms. The disease affected more men (73.57%) than women, and preferentially young adults. In 44.76% of the cases the disease was transmitted directly from animals and in 12.06% of the cases through food.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1985, Vol.32, No.126, p.3-15. Illus. 9 ref.
Ordinance No.23 on the notification and registration of occupational diseases and the records to be kept of such diseases [Bulgaria]
Naredba No.23 za săobštavaneto, registriraneto i otčitaneto na profesionalnite zaboljavanija [in Bulgarian]
This ordinance, which replaces Ordinance No.042 of 1971, lays down requirements for the recording and routing of information on occupational diseases (special provisions for pneumoconiosis, infectious diseases and fatalities), for the confirmation of the occupational nature of the reported cases and for the dispensary care of confirmed victims of occupational diseases.
Dăržaven vestnik, 18 Jan. 1985, No.5, p.38-39.
Smulders P.G.W., Bragt P.C., Van der Grinten M.P., Oversloot J.S.
Work situations and occupational health in hospitals
Arbeidssituaties en bedrijfsgezondheidszorg in ziekenhuizen [in Dutch]
Contents of this literature survey: hospitals and their personnel; work situation and crucial points (specific task problems, working hours, personnel shortage, contacts with patients); negative effects of certain work situations (stress and burnout, dissatisfaction); sickness absenteeism, occupational diseases and accidents; harmful factors (chemical and pharmaceutical products, genotoxic and hepatotoxic effects, anaesthetics, dermatological effects, infection hazards, electromagnetic and ionising radiations, radiation protection); microclimatic conditions, vibration, noise, lighting, ergonomic questions; health protection for hospital personnel (occupational physicians in hospitals, medical supervision of personnel). Detailed conclusions and recommendations.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Balen van Andelplein 2, 2273 KH Voorburg, Netherlands, Oct. 1985. 204p. 350 ref.
Døssing M., Skinhøj P.
Occupational liver injury - Present state of knowledge and future perspective
Epidemiological studies using immunological methods have mapped the occurrence of hepatitis B among health-care personnel and thereby made rational, effective preventive precautions possible, and hepatitis B vaccine has offered further improvements. However, in the field of chemically-induced occupational liver damage, only a few of the thousands of industrial chemicals have been sufficiently tested for hepatotoxicity and the list of suspected and confirmed hepatotoxic agents is still growing. The example of vinyl chloride-induced liver disease among plastics workers calls for intensified activities in the field of occupational toxicology. However, the clinical, biochemical, and morphological features of liver disease are often vague and unspecific. A non-invasive, convenient quantitative liver function test is needed. Circumstantial evidence and a few epidemiological studies suggest that so-called cryptogenic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, may be caused by occupational exposure to chemicals.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.56, No.1, p.1-21. 164 ref.
International Labour Office, Geneva
Vth International Pneumoconiosis Conference 1978
Vème Conférence internationale sur les pneumoconioses, 1978 [in French]
Proceedings of the Vth Conference on occupational lung diseases, organised in 1978 in Caracas, Venezuela, by the International Labour Office in co-operation with a number of national institutions and agencies. The papers and reports, reproduced in their original languages, deal with: epidemiological aspects, coalworkers pneumoconiosis, silicosis, pneumoconioses of different origin, aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology and pathology of asbestosis, pulmonary function in pneumoconiosis, biological and functional tests, dust measurement, dust control, medical treatment.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 1014p. Illus. Bibl.
Hubačová L., Borský I., Strelka F.
Morbidity of female health-care workers according to their work category
Chorobnos@t6 zdravotníckych pracovníčok v súvislosti s ich pracovným zaradením [in Slovak]
Morbidity of 1,183 health-care personnel in two city hospitals was monitored for 1 year. Most frequent were: respiratory illness (22.4%), musculoskeletal disorders (20.2%), urogenital disorders (14.1%), digestive tract disorders (10.2%), diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissues (7.1%). In comparison with sick leave of employed women in the city as a whole, nurses suffered from a higher incidence of musculoskeletal, urogential, dermatological and circulatory disorders and of infectious hepatitis. Measures for improvement are recommended.
Pracovní lékařství, 1985, Vol.37, No.1, p.16-19. Illus. 25 ref.
Mateu Martínez E.
Prevention of mycoses and other infectious diseases in toilets, showers and dressing rooms in the workplace
Profilaxis de micosis y otras enfermedades infecciosas, en aseos, duchas y vestuarios de colectividades laborales [in Spanish]
A survey of methods for the prevention of mycoses and bacterial or viral infections in communal rooms (toilets, showers, dressing rooms) in the workplace: cleaning and disinfection of surfaces; disinfection of the air; elimination of insects and rodents; body hygiene.
Prevención, July-Sep. 1985, No.93, p.17-20. Illus.
Summary: Recommendation for preventing transmission of infection with HTLV-III/LAV in the workplace
This two-part recommendation was published as part of the Morbidity and Mortality Report of the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta (Georgia, USA). The recommendations deal with preventive measures against acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace. The primary group at risk is that of health workers, and the preventive measures similar to those employed against hepatitis B infection (careful handling of sharp objects likely to be contaminated, wearing of gloves and other protective equipment when the possibility of exposure to blood and other body fluids exists, minimising the need for emergency mouth-to-mouth resuscitation). Particular problems discussed: precautions for health care workers involved in home care, precautions during emergency health care, management of parenteral and mucous membrane exposure, serologic testing of patients, precautions against transmission of virus from health care workers to patients, appropriate sterilisation measures. There are also comments on possible dangers to other workers (personal services - hairdressers, cosmetologists etc; food service workers). No known risk of AIDS infection exists in other work settings, and fear of working with people infected by the virus is unwarranted.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 6 Dec. 1985, Vol.254, No.21, p.3023-3026; 13 Dec. 1985, No.22, p.3162-3167. 26 ref.
Bennett N.M., Carson J.A., Fish B.S., George L.J.W., Puszet P.J., Rankin D.W., Wilkinson P., Norman A.F., Stevens K., Maynard J.H., Menzies J.W.
An assessment of the prevalence of hepatitis B among health care personnel in Victoria
Data for this assessment was collected by means of a questionnaire, a serological survey and a review of notified cases. The only occupational group clearly at risk of acquiring hepatitis B infection is the dental profession (dentists, oral surgeons, dental therapists and nurses). There may also be an added risk for nursing and medical staff in institutions for mentally retarded children. Vaccination programmes for these two groups are recommended in the State of Victora (Australia).
Medical Journal of Australia, 25 Nov. 1985, Vol.143, No.11, p.495-499. 6 ref.
Weiss S.H., Saxinger W.C., Rechtman D., Grieco M.H., Nadler J., Holman S., Ginzburg H.M., Groopman J.E., Goedert J.J., Markham P.D., Gallo R.C., Blattner W.A., Landesman S.
HTLV-III infection among health care workers: Association with needle-stick injuries
Serum samples from 359 hospital workers were tested for the presence of HTLV-III (AIDS) antibodies. Of the 23 subjects who were self-reported members of high-risk groups for AIDS, 6 were seropositive. There was 1 seropositive subject among the 42 workers parenterally exposed to AIDS patients, as well as 1 seropositive subject among the 294 other workers. Two further workers, excluded from the survey because of possible referral bias, were also seropositive. Analysis of the cases shows that HTLV-III infection due to puncture wounds from needles contaminated by use with AIDS patients may be possible. Measures to reduce such exposures are proposed.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 18 Oct. 1985, Vol.254, No.15, p.2089-2093. 45 ref.
Osterholm M.T., Garayalde S.M.
Clinical viral hepatitis B among Minnesota hospital personnel
A 10-year survey of clinical hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among Minnesota hospital personnel showed a drop from an annual incidence of 127 per 100,000 workers in 1975 to 8 per 100,000 workers in 1983. A similar drop was observed among personnel in hospitals with long-term haemodialysis (from 418 to 16 per 100,000). This drop in hepatitis B incidence occurred before the introduction of HBV vaccine and is probably due to improved infection control procedures. Conclusions of the study are (1) that most studies of HBV seroprevalence among hospital workers significantly overestimate the incidence of HBV infections, and (2) that vaccination of hospital employees against HBV, except in employees particularly at risk, would not be cost-effective.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 13 Dec. 1985, Vol.254, No.22, p.3207-3212. Illus. 54 ref.
The social history of occupational health
Papers presented at Portsmouth Polytechnic (United Kingdom), 8-10 July 1983. The growth in public and professional awareness of occupational hazards is reviewed, with detailed descriptions of selected industries and events. Contents: linking self-help and medical science; the social history of occupational medicine and factory health services in the Federal Republic of Germany; from "workmen's diseases" to "occupational diseases"; disease, labour migration and technological change; TNT poisoning and the employment of women workers in the First World War; tuberculosis, silicosis and the slate industry in North Wales, 1927-1939; a patient in need of care (German occupational health statistics); coronary heart disease; the rise and decline of workmen's compensation; what is an accident?; workers' insurance versus protection of the workers; an inspector calls (health and safety at work in inter-war Britain); industrial health and scientific management in an Italian light engineering firm in the Fascist period.
Croom Helm Ltd., Provident House, Burrell Row, Beckenham, Kent BR3 1AT, United Kingdom, 1985. 267p. Illus. Bibl. Price:£17.95.
Dubrisay J., Fages J., Delemotte B.
Occupational health problems in the countryside
Pathologie rurale professionnelle [in French]
Discussion of occupational health problems of agricultural labourers, forestry workers and workers in related industries such as the food industry: occupational accidents; vibration diseases; exposure to harmful chemicals (fertilisers, pesticides, fumes, glues, putties, paints); infections; parasitic diseases; allergies (eczema, allergic respiratory disease). Exposure, contamination, prevention and compensation are discussed for each of these conditions.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, Pathologie professionnelle, 1985. 12p. 46 ref.
Occupational diseases in Spain
Enfermedades profesionales en España [in Spanish]
Review of the occupational disease statistics for part of 1983 and for 1984. A total of 2582 compensation cases were declared (2404 light cases, 177 severe cases and 1 death). Other aspects covered: diseases caused by physical agents (noise, 31 cases; ionising radiation, 20 cases; vibration 43 cases); diseases due to chemicals (248 cases, bringing the total number of comepensation cases to 1115); diseases caused by biological agents (539 cases of brucellosis); systemic diseases (no case of declared occupational cancer); other diseases (1305 cases of dermatitis for 1983).
Salud y trabajo, July-Aug. 1985, No.50, p.38-43. Illus.
Ndumbe P.M., Cradock-Watson J.E., MacQueen S., Dunn H., Holzel H., André F., Davies E.G., Dudgeon J.A., Levinsky R.J.
Immunisation of nurses with a live varicella vaccine
34 nurses with no history of chickenpox and who were seronegative to varicella zoster virus (VZV) were immunised with a live attenuated varicella vaccine (OKA-RIT strain) and were followed up for up to 3 years. There were no major reactions to the vaccine. After 1 year, 94% of the nurses had antibodies to VZV, but after 3 years only 64% had them. 2 of 13 vaccinated nurses who looked after children with chickenpox became infected, but 1 of them had never seroconverted. 6 out of 7 unvaccinated nurses who were exposed to chickenpox developed the disease. Thus this strain of VZV vaccine is shown to be safe and immunogenic in adults likely to be exposed to chickenpox. These tests also showed that both cell-mediated and antibody tests are needed for long-term assessment of immunity to chickenpox after vaccination.
Lancet, 18 May 1985, Vol.1, No.8434, p.1144-1147. 22 ref.
Employment and conditions of work in health and medical services
Emploi et conditions de travail dans les services médicaux et de santé [in French]
This worldwide survey of working conditions in the health services includes a chapter on the major occupational hazards affecting health care personnel. The following aspects are covered: statistical data for some countries; communicable diseases; tuberculosis; hepatitis; rubella; AIDS; cytomegalovirus infection; chemical hazards (anaesthetic and sterilising agents - particularly ethylene oxide, hexachlorophene and formaldehyde); cytotoxic agents; pharmaceutical drugs and preparations; mercury; allergic disorders (dermatitis and asthma); physical hazards (ionising radiation, noise, high temperatures and exposure to asbestos); ergonomics and manual handling; psychosocial hazards (stress, solitary work, drug abuse and shift work); accidents and injuries; problems of special groups (women, domiciliary health care); problems encountered in practice in the implementation of safety and health measures.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1985. 142p. Bibl. Price: SF.20.00.
Maruna H., Rücker W.
Hepatitis B as an occupational disease in medical and health services
Die Hepatitis-B als Berufskrankenheit im Gesundheitswesen [in German]
This report analyses the results of serological tests involving 12,000 persons employed in public health services in Austria as a whole, and compares these results with data involving 1,900 employees of a large regional hospital. Hepatitis B antigens were found in the blood of 14.4% of the health service workers in Austria as a whole, and in the blood of 13.2% of the workers in the hospital (with particularly high rates in high-risk area: 50% in dialysis services and 20% in laboratory workers). There is further analysis by service, profession, age and length of employment in the field. There was a 45% reduction in the incidence of the disease after a vaccination campaign.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1985. 21p. Illus. 13 ref.
Cookson W.O.C., Musk A.W., Glancy J.J., De Klerk N.H., Yin R., Mele R., Carr N.G., Armstrong B.K., Hobbs M.S.T.
Compensation, radiographic changes, and survival in applicants for asbestosis compensation
The mortality of 354 claimants for compensation for pulmonary asbestosis among former workers at an Australian crocidolite mine and mill was studied. There were 118 deaths up to the end of 1982, giving an SMR for all causes of 2.65. The median time between start of work and claim for compensation was 17 years. The SMR for various diseases of the respiratory system was high: pneumoconiosis (177.2), bronchitis and emphysema (2.6), tuberculosis (44.6), respiratory cancer (1.6). Plain chest radiographs for 238 of the subjects were classified according to ILO criteria. Median survival from claim for compensation was 17 years in subjects with ILO category 1 pneumoconiosis, 12 years in category 2 and 3 years in category 3.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1985, Vol.42, No.7, p.461-468. Illus. 29 ref.
Davies D.H., Hill E.C., Howells C.H.L., Ribeiro C.D.
Legionella pneumophila in coal miners
Legionnaires' disease was diagnosed in 3 coalminers working in the same mine. In subsequent investigations, no trace of Legionella pneumophila was found in water samples from various sites at the colliery, and only 1 of 270 workmates of the victims had a positive Legionella IFA test, suggesting that the source of the infection was not in the colliery.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1985, Vol.42, No.6, p.421-425. Illus. 15 ref.
Guberan E., Raymond L.
Mortality and cancer incidence in the perfumery and flavour industry in Geneva
Mortality study of 1168 workers employed in 3 Geneva (Switzerland) perfume factories for at least 1 year in the period 1899-1964. Among the whole group, only deaths due to tuberculosis were significantly higher than among the general population. Analysis by 4 exposure categories (chemical process workers, compounders and associated workers, maintenance workers potentially exposed to harmful chemicals, chemical research workers) showed a significant excess of deaths from heart disease among compounders. 2 deaths from aplastic anaemia occurred among chemical process workers exposed to benzene. Cancer incidence was not related to this kind of work. Significant increases in mortality from various causes below the age of 70 were noted, but these were not thought to be related to an occupational factor.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1985, Vol.42, No.4, p.240-245. 7 ref.
Zourbas J., Le Hesran J.
Sero-epidemiologic study of hepatitis B markers among dental surgeons in the Department of Ille-et-Vilaine (France)
Etude séro-épidémiologique des marqueurs de l'hépatite B chez des chirurgiens-dentistes d'Ille-et-Vilaine [in French]
Epidemiologic study of hepatitis B infection in dentists. Among 163 dentists surveyed, 17 had virus B markers (3 of whom had hepatitis during their professional life). Preventive methods are described: non-specific (disinfection of professional equipment, identification of hepatitis B virus carriers, personal protection) and specific (vaccination).
La Presse médicale, 1985, Vol.14, No.17, p.959-962. 18 ref.
Saraux J.L., Buffet C., Etienne J.P.
Viral hepatitis B in health workers
Hépatite virale B chez le personnel de santé [in French]
Study of the incidence and prevalence of clinical hepatitis B and of its markers according to professional category and hospital department. Survey of factors influencing the transmission of virus B: contact with blood derivatives, accidental injection by dirty needles, frequent contacts with patients, length of occupational exposure, age, size of locality. Study of virus transmission to patients in contact with carriers among the health staff. Conclusions in favour of vaccination against virus B as soon as possible, starting with the most exposed workers, and preferably before or at the beginning of employment.
La Presse médicale, 1985, vol.14, n°17, p.971-975. 25 ref.
Ager B.P., Tickner J.A.
The control of microorganisms responsible for Legionnaires' disease and humidifier fever
The incidence of these illnesses is reviewed and the circumstances in which the causal organisms can develop are described. Basic information on building services systems (humidifiers, cooling towers and evaporative condensers) is given and possible means of airborne transmission of microorganisms are considered. Preventive measures include regular maintenance (cleaning of water reservoirs and inspection of filters, biocidal water treatment).
Science Reviews Ltd., Northern Office, 28 High Ash Drive, Leeds LS17 8RA, United Kingdom, 1985. 36p. Illus. 41 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Health Services Advisory Committee
Safety in health service laboratories: Hepatitis B
This guidance note is intended to minimise the risk of infection from specimens potentially infected with hepatitis B. It covers: potential sources of infection (clinical material in general, but particularly blood; airborne sources); precautions (training of staff who collect blood, vaccination, use of automated equipment, eye protection, labelling of specimens, transport and postage of specimens, reception of specimens, testing for hepatitis B antigens or antibodies). Principles for general laboratory work on potentially infectious specimens are outlined, and recommended disinfectants (hypochlorites or aldehydes) are listed with the appropriate concentrations.
HM Stationery Office, 49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6HB, United Kingdom, 1985. 8p. Price: £2.00.
Guidance on the protection against infectious liver disease for police, prison and customs personnel and for inspection personnel
Vejledning om beskyttelse mod smitsom leverbetændelse for politi-, fængsels- og toldpersonale samt visitationspersonale [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on how to avoid infection from hepatitis: description of the disease and its transmission, general precautions, examination rooms, cells, equipment of patrol vehicles, cleaning of premises and vehicles, infection control instructions in case of an accident where there is risk of contagion. A list of relevant Danish directives is appended.
Branchesikkerhedsrådet for service- og tjenesteydelser, Arbejdsgiversekretariatet, Rosenørns Allé 1, 1970 Fredriksberg C, Denmark, 1984. 6p. 7 ref.
Hisashige A., Ohara H., Kume Y., Yamamoto M., Nakao S.
Analysis of mortality patterns in an area supplying tunnel workers away from home. Part 2. Mortality patterns among tunnel workers
Continuation of a study abstracted under CIS 84-1376. Death certificates of 418 men who died after the age of 30 in 1977 in the southern part of Oita Prefecture were examined. Career and life histories of 356 of the subjects were obtained by interviewing family members. The proportion of migrant tunel workers in the sample (73/356) was comparable to that in the population of the region as a whole, and the rate of pneumoconiosis showed that many affected tunnel workers returned home before dying. Excess deaths due to infective and parasitic diseases, tuberculosis and silicotuberculosis were found in the tunnel workers. The mean age at death was lower for the tunnel workers than for the others in the sample and for all Japanese males. A dose-response relation was observed between the proportional mortality ratio for silicotuberculosis in the tunnel workers and the duration of their tunnel work.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1984, Vol.26, No.1, p.45-52. Illus. 45 ref.
Blomquist G., Ström G.
Partition of fungal spores in polymeric two-phase systems
Fördelning av mögelsvampskonidier i polymera tvåfassystem [in Swedish]
Analysis of mould spores is essential in the investigation of health problems caused by fungi. A new method for this analysis is presented in this paper. It is based on the use of aqueous polymer two-phase systems. Spores distribute in the system according to their size and surface characteristics. Distribution is influenced by the choice of cultivation medium but is independent of spore age. It was possible to separate spores of different genera, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucorales, from one another. The separation of species within the respective genera was also possible.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 31p. Illus. 15 ref.
Atanasov S., Marčev A.
Fishing region as a factor affecting skin diseases among sailors of the deep-sea fishing fleet
Rajonat na ribolov kato faktor, vlijaešč varhu kožnite zaboljavanija na morjacite ot okeanskija riboloven flot [in Bulgarian]
Skin morbidity was studied among 970 sailors of the Bulgarian ocean fishing fleet. The observed high morbidity can be attributed to occupational factors on board and ashore. Dermatomycoses were the predominant complaint (affecting 26.5% of the subjects), followed by dermatitis and eczemas (19.5%) and pyoderma. The highest morbidity rate (139%) occurred in the north-west Atlantic region, which was followed by the central West African Atlantic region (52.4%) and the south-east Atlantic region (38.3%).
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1984, Vol.27, No.2, p.122-129. Illus 10 ref.
Manual of accident prevention in livestock raising
Manual de prevenção de acidentes na pecuária [in Portuguese]
This illustrated manual, written in simple language, is aimed at workers directly working with farm animals (mainly, cattle and horses) in Brazil. Chapter 2 covers the main sources of risk: accidents during the handling of animals; diseases transmitted by animals (brucellosis, foot and mouth disease, anthrax, tuberculosis, rabies, leptospirosis, hydatid disease (echinococcosis), cysticercosis, tetanus); risks associated with the administration of drugs and vaccines to animals; inadequate buildings used for animal housing; exposure to animal excrement; exposure to dangerous chemicals; hand tools; machinery and equipment; electricity; horse- and ox-drawn transportation. Chapter 3 covers general and specific first-aid measures: artificial respiration; cardiac arrest; injuries; fracture; burns; poisoning (tables present symptoms and treatment connected with commonly used pesticides and herbicides, and with commonly ocurring poisonous plants); stings and bites by poisonous animals (spiders, bees, wasps, snakes); transport of the injured. Chapter 4 covers the accident insurance coverage of rural workers in Brazil.
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1984. 73p. Illus. 36 ref.
Course for safety supervisors
Curso de supervisores de segurança do trabalho [in Portuguese]
This manual for a course on OSH, written for the instruction of Brazilian safety offices, is an update of the manual abstracted as CIS 84-1157. Aspects covered: Introduction to OSH; standardisation and legislation; introduction to mechanical drawing; basics of occupational safety (design and layout of plants, colours and safety signs, transportation, storage, materials handling, laboratory safety, hand and electric tools, machine guarding, engines, pressure vessels, welding and cutting, electricity, construction, commuting accidents, home safety, rural safety, personal protection); occupational diseases (physical, chemical and biological agents); occupational hygiene (physical and chemical hazards); occupational psychology; ventilation; environnental hygiene; fire safety; statistical methods; OSH services in the enterprise; first aid.
Fundacentro, Fundação Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Segurança e Medicina do Trabalho, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 Sã0 Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1984, 3 vol; 1021p. Illus. Bibl.
Jílek D., Richter J., Haasová L., Švejda J.
Monitoring antibody activity with the ENC-HEM Sevac set in the staff of infectious disease departments in North Bohemia
Sledování protilátkové aktivity s použitím soupravy ENC-HEM Sevac u pracovníků infekčních oddělení v Severočeském kraji [in Czech]
Antibodies against basic encephalitogenic protein, determined with the ENC-HEM Sevac hemagglutination set, were found in 50% (10 of 20 examined) of workers with antirabies vaccine. In one worker with a high titre of encephalitogenic antibodies, specific antirabies antibodies in low tire were detected. The findings indicate possible immunological response to the antigen in the work environment.
Časopis lékařů českých, 1984, Vol.123, No.38/39, p.1195-1197. Illus. 8 ref.
Farník J., Slováček R., Topolčan O., Karlíček V., Vilím V.
Risk of infection with viral hepatitis in pediatric workers
Riziko infekce virovou hepatitidou u zaměstnanců v pediatrii [in Czech]
The serum of 61 nurses who had worked only in children's hospitals was examined radioimmunologically for the presence of hepatitis B antigens (HBsAg) and antibodies. The number of persons with antibodies increases with the length of employment and is considerably higher than in women of the same age in the normal population. The higher number of HBsAg-negative cases of viral hepatitis in pediatric workers in comparison with other health workers indicates the increased risk of infection with hepatitis A.
Československá pediatrie, 1984, Vol.39, No.2, p.99-100. Illus. 5 ref.
First Seminar on the Prevention of Occupational Risks in Burkina Faso
Premières journées de réflexion sur la prévention des risques professionnels au Burkina Faso [in French]
Proceedings of a seminar held 27-29 December 1984 in Ouagadougou. General aspects: corporate and invididual participants, programme, membership of committees. Topics of discussion in committees: policies for the prevention of occupational risks, OSH committees, occupational hygiene survey forms, first-aid training in the workplace. Oral presentations: hygienic standards in the workplace, compensation payments for disability suffered in the workplace, the aims of occupational medicine, the fight against tetanus and tuberculosis.
Ecole nationale de la santé publique, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 1984. 82p.
Labor developments in the fishing industry
Proceedings of an international symposium by "le Groupe d'étude des ressources maritimes" and "le Centre d'intervention et de recherche pour l'amélioration des situations de travail" and held at Rimouski, Quebec, 3-4 Nov. 1983. Aspects covered: working conditions for fishermen and processing-plant workers; impact of technological changes on productivity and employment; occupational accidents aboard trawlers and diseases; health problems in processing plants (crab fumes); conditions of work for women.
Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply and Services Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OS9, Canada, 1984. 90p. Illus. Bibl. Price: Can$7.20.
Occupational safety and health and working environment in the food and drink industries
L'hygiène, la sécurité et le milieu de travail dans les industries des produits alimentaires et des boissons [in French]
Background report for the 1st session of the Food and Drink Industries Committee convened by the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland in Aug. 1984. Aspects covered: characteristics of the sector; industrial accidents; occupational diseases (infectious, respiratory, skin disorders, chemical hazards); adverse effects of the physical environment (noise, cold, electricity, ionising and non-ionising radiation); prevention; problems specific to developing countries and small undertakings; the role of governments, employers and workers; medical supervision and personal hygiene.
Report III, Food and Drink Industries Committee of the International Labour Organisation, First session, Genève 1984, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1984. 61p. Bibl. Price: SF.12.50.
Fourth Tripartite Technical Meeting for Mines Other than Coal Mines - Report III: Workers' health in mines other than coal mines. With special reference to the effects of the working environment and technological changes
4e réunion technique tripartite pour les mines autres que les mines de charbon - Rapport III: La santé des travailleurs dans les mines autres que les mines de charbon et, tout particulièrement, les effets du milieu de travail et des changements technologiques [in French]
Aspects covered: I. Effects of technological developments on the working environment: extraction techniques, changes in mining technology, mechanisation, automation, computerisation, ergonomics; II. Health hazards (dust, noise and vibration, ionising radiation, chemical agents, microclimate, infectious and parasitic agents, lighting, psycho-social factors) and preventive measures; III. Occupational diseases, morbidity, absenteeism; IV. Health protection, medical supervision. International cooperation, ILO activity. In the appendix: Convention No.155, Recommendation No.164. The introduction and the main points of discussion of the meeting are available in Spanish.
International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1984. 61p. Price: SF.15.00.
XVIII. National Occupational Medicine Days - Theme No.4
XVIIIes Journées nationales de médecine du travail - Thème n°4 [in French]
This issue contains the reports and papers presented under topic 4 of this meeting (Rennes, France, 29 May-2 June 1984): Occupational medicine in agriculture and the food industry (champagne production, canning, pig abattoirs, butcheries, poultry dressing, brucellosis of animal origin).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.8, p.579-622d.
Dômont A., Venjean J., Raix A., Proteau J.
The hazards of work in sewers: analysis of preventive measures and suggestions for their improvement
Les risques du métier d'égoutier: analyse des mesures actuelles de prévention et propositions d'amélioration de celles-ci [in French]
A survey of the working conditions of sewer workers. Large number of light occupational accidents in France (215 occupational accidents for 800 sewer workers in 1979). Fatal accidents are rare (hydrogen sulfide poisoning, suffocation due to lack of oxygen, drowning). Effective preventive measures are needed against occupational diseases (leptospirosis, tetanus, ankylostomiasis, brucellosis, other infectious and parasitic diseases). Technical preventive measures and safety procedures are enumerated. Suggestions for changes in legislation: stricter controls of the air breathed by sewer workers, better training, improvements in first-aid and protective equipment, compulsory vaccination against tetanus, poliomyelitis and leptospirosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.5, p.363-366.
Mohammed-Brahim B., Mokhtari L., Mokhtari Z.
Intestinal parasite infection among municipal cleaners in the city of Oran (Algeria)
Les parasitoses intestinales chez les travailleurs du service communal de nettoiement de la ville d'Oran [in French]
Comparative study involving 223 exposed workers and 230 controls. Findings: the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection is significantly higher among the exposed group than among the controls; infection is not significantly related to the nature of the work (sewer workers, loaders, sweepers) or to length of service. Infection rate for each parasite is higher among the exposed workers than among the controls.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.4, p.255-257. Illus. 7 ref.
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