Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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Kligman E.W., Peate W.F., Cordes D.H.
Occupational infections in farm workers
This paper deals with occupational infections which can cause disease and disability in agricultural workers. Prevention and control methods discussed include: personal protective equipment; educational efforts; workplace revisions and engineering controls; animal control measures, such as vaccines and antibiotics. To the physician treating a farmer with various symptoms the paper offers checklists of questions concerning work activities, exposures, and medical history. The symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatment, and prevention and control of the 11 most common agricultural infections are presented: anthrax; ascariasis; brucellosis; viral encephalitis; leptospirosis; Q fever; rabies; Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever; staphylococcal infections; tetanus; tularaemia.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.429-446. 18 ref.
Schenker M., Ferguson T., Gamsky T.
Respiratory risks associated with agriculture
This literature survey focuses on epidemiological evidence of respiratory disease among agricultural workers. Agricultural processes and the farm environment generate dusts, moulds, pollens, toxins, and gases that are potential respiratory irritants or health risks. Acquired sensitivity results in allergic reactions, with symptoms such as cough, dyspnoea, fever, malaise, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Respiratory disease can become disabling and can lead to asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. Further studies are suggested.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.415-428. 78 ref.
Fanning A., Edwards S.
Mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings in contact with elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta, Canada
Following an epizootic of M. bovis infection in domesticated elk, in Alberta, Canada, 466 human contacts of elk herds were identified, of whom 394 were assessed. Of 81 contacts whom were tuberculin skin-test positive, 50 had been in contact with culture-positive animals. The mode of transmission of M. bovis from these farm animals to man is likely to be aerosolisation of infected particles. Because of the apparent susceptibility of farmed Cervidae (deer) to M. bovis infection, and the evidence of spread to man, control measures to prevent human infection should be developed.
Lancet, 16 Nov. 1991, Vol.338, No.8777, p.1253-1255. 8 ref.
Nagafuchi S., Kashiwagi S., Okada K., Anzai K., Nakamura M., Nishimura Y., Sasazuki T., Niho Y.
Reversal of non-responders and post-exposure prophylaxis by intradermal hepatitis B vaccination in Japanese medical personnel
Thirty-one Japanese non-responders to subcutaneous hepatitis B vaccination and 15 medical personnel who were accidentally exposed to specimens positive for hepatitis B e antigen and were given hepatitis B immunoglobin were intradermally immunised with hepatitis B vaccine every 2 weeks until delayed type hypersensitivity skin reaction to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) became positive. One year later, 74% of the non-responders still had sufficiently high levels of anti-HBsAg, while for the exposed personnel protection was 100%. Intradermal hepatitis B vaccination is therefore seen to be useful in reversing non-responsiveness to hepatitis B surface antigen and for prophylaxis after exposure.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22/29 May 1991, Vol.265, No.20, p.2679-2683. Illus. 37 ref.
Beck-Sagué C.M., Jarvis W.R., Fruehling J.A., Ott C.E., Higgins M.T., Bates F.L.
Universal precautions and mortuary practitioners: Influence on practices and risk of occupationally acquired infection
Embalming, the most common funeral practice in North America, may expose the embalmer to infectious diseases and blood. 860 morticians in the US and Canada were surveyed in 1988 to estimate the incidence of self-reported occupational contact with blood and infectious disease, assess morticians' knowledge of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), determine their adherence to universal precautions, and identify predictors of practices designed to reduce risk of occupational exposure to infections. Of 539 (63%) respondents, 212 (39%) reported needle-stick injuries in the past 12 months, and 15 (3%) reported percutaneous exposures to HIV-contaminated blood. Those rating the risk of occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection as very high or high (194/539 [36%]) were more likely to decline funerals of bodies with antemortem diagnosis of AIDS (59/194 [30%]) and/or to charge more for such funerals (133/194 [69%]) than those who rated the risk as low to moderate (31/345 [9%], 174/345 [51%]).
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1991, Vol.33, No.8, p.874-878. Illus. 22 ref.
Harris A.A., Daly-Gawenda D., Hudson E.K.
Vaccine choice and program participation rates when two hepatitis B vaccines are offered
Participation rates of health care workers in voluntary free hepatitis B virus immunisation programmes are 35% to 40%. University teaching hospital employees at risk for hepatitis B virus and presenting for immunisation were surveyed as to vaccine preference. Both plasma-derived and recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccines were available. During a 10-month period, 173 health care workers enrolled in the study. One hundred seventeen received recombinant vaccine, and 56 received plasma-derived vaccine; 66 were immunised post-exposure. Concern of a relationship of human immunodeficiency virus to hepatitis B virus plasma-derived vaccine was acknowledged by a small number of health care workers as important in vaccine selection. Recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccine rapidly and substantially supplanted plasma-derived vaccine but did not increase programme participation. It is suspected that mandatory immunisation or proof of immunity will be necessary if hepatitis B virus protection rates in health care workers are to improve.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1991, Vol.33, No.7, p.804-807. 13 ref.
Richter D., Jacobs J.
Work injuries and exposures in children and young adults: Review and recommendations for action
Child labour is endemic in poor countries but also occurs in affluent countries. Little information has been available on injuries, disease, and effects on growth and development in the tens of millions of children at risk. Preventive and control measures are eliminating the gross abuses, tracing and banning hazardous exposures to toxic agents, eliminating risks of injuries and ergonomic strain, providing health services for working children through the primary health care network, and developing international fail-safe design standards for tools and work systems, if these children must work. There is a need to train public health professionals, paediatricians, and maternal and child health care personnel in carrying out simple descriptive epidemiological studies and setting up interventive programmes. Eliminating the worst conditions and controlling hazards where there is no imminent alternative to child labour are suggested as the basis for protecting children who are forced to work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1991, Vol.19, No.6, p.747-769. 44 ref. Appendices.
Ministère des affaires sociales et de la solidarité
Act of 18 January 1991 and Orders of 6 February and 15 March 1991: Vaccination. Compulsory vaccinations. Conditions of immunisation [France]
Loi n°91-73 du 18 janvier 1991 et arrêtés du 6 février et du 15 mars 1991: Vaccination - Obligations. Conditions d'immunisation [France] [in French]
All persons exposed as a result of their professional activity in a public or private health care or medical prevention establishment to the risk of contamination as well as all medical students must be immunised against hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis. Employees of biomedical analysis laboratories must also be vaccinated against typhoid fever. The cost of vaccination must be borne by the employer or the educational establishment concerned. The Order of 6 February 1991 lays down the conditions of immunisation of persons covered by article L.10 of the Public Health Code. The Order of 15 March 1991 provides a list of public or private health care or public health establishments in which exposed personnel must be vaccinated. Act No.91-73 was published in the Journal officiel of 20.01.1991. Decrees of 6 Feb. 1991 and 15 March 1991 were published in the Journal officiel of 21 Feb. 1991 and 3 April 1991, respectively.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st Quarter 1991, No.143, Note No.1833-143-91, p.291 and 292.
Health and Safety Executive
The control of legionellosis including legionnaires' disease
This guidance note replaces Guidance Note EH 48, Legionnaires' Disease (see CIS 88-667), published in 1987 and takes account of progress in research into the disease and its causes. Contents: microbiology of legionella bacteria; medical aspects of the disease; sampling for legionella; legislation; identification and assessment of risk; drawing up and applying precautions; management and the responsibilities and competence of personnel; record keeping; responsibilities of manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers; risks and precautions for hot and cold water services, air conditioning and industrial cooling systems, spas and whirlpool baths, humidifiers and air washers; protection of personnel; action in the event of an outbreak.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 20p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 2.75.
Health and Safety Commission
The prevention or control of legionellosis (including legionnaires' disease): Approved Code of Practice
This Approved Code of Practice gives practical guidance on the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (see CIS 74-2099) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1988 (CIS 89-1092) with regard to the risk of legionellosis. It does not address the technical aspects of controlling the risk. Contents: definition and sources of legionellosis; identification and assessment of risk; preventing or minimising the risk from exposure to legionella; management and the selection, training and competence of personnel; record keeping; responsibilities of designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. iv, 7p.. Price: GBP 2.25.
AIDS and health care workers
Discussion of the risk of HIV infection through needlestick injury and of the risk faced by patients of being infected by HIV positive practitioners.
Occupational Health, Aug. 1991, Vol.43, No.8, p.243-245. 7 ref.
Mauskopf J.A., Bradley C.J., French M.T.
Benefit-cost analysis of hepatitis B vaccine programs for occupationally exposed workers
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration of the US proposed a vaccination programme for workers exposed to the hepatitis B virus 12 or more times per year. A benefit-cost analysis was performed of the proposed regulation and of an expanded rule that covers all at-risk workers, regardless of the number of exposures. The annualised cost of the proposed vaccination programme is estimated at USD 60.4 million. The financial benefit of the programme was estimated using two methods. The first estimates the avoided cost of medical care, prophylaxis, and lost productivity at USD 124 million annually. The second approach includes the value of avoided pain and suffering from hepatitis B, thus increasing the total dollar benefit to USD 679 million. Although both methods indicate that benefits are greater than programme costs, the valuation of avoided pain and suffering substantially increases net benefits. Furthermore, provision of the vaccine to all exposed workers is cost-effective if one or more cases of hepatitis B are avoided per 6500 workers annually.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.691-698. 12 ref.
Aspects of occupational health in the sugar cane industry
Workers in developing countries face as many, if not more, work-related health problems as their counterparts in industrialised nations. This paper concentrates on occupational health problems in the sugar industry, which exists in 40 countries, mostly in the Third World. Sugar cane workers have a high level of occupational accidents and are exposed to the high toxicity of pesticides. They may also have an increased risk of lung cancer, possibly mesothelioma. Bagassosis is also a problem specific to the industry as it may follow exposure to bagasse (a by-product of sugar cane). The workers may also be affected by chronic infections which reduce their productivity. The legal framework for their protection is often inadequate. In conclusion, areas of future research are suggested.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1991, Vol.41, No.3, p.133-136. 40 ref.
Gauch R.R., Feeney K.B., Brown J.W.
Attitudes and behaviors of medical technologists as a result of AIDS
To determine the influence of AIDS on the attitudes and behaviours of medical technologists, a survey was taken which shows that one quarter are considering leaving the profession. Individuals who plan to stay in the profession are less fearful of AIDS, more satisfied with the policies their organisations have established regarding the disease, and less willing to associate a declining employment situation with it. Improvement in safe laboratory practices is present in both groups, but the individuals considering a move out of the field exhibit the largest change. A surprising result is that fear of AIDS is not related to or only weakly associated with traditional demographic and occupational variables, suggesting that other more complex factors are influencing the views and work habits of medical technologists as a result of AIDS.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan.1991, Vol.33, No.1, p.74-79. 18 ref.
An introduction to legionella and legionnaires' disease
An overview of the basic principles of legionella and Legionnaires' Disease. Topics covered: first outbreak of the disease and identification of the bacterium; types of infection; distribution of legionella in the environment and its association with other organisms; taxonomy; methods for isolation and identification; transmission of disease; water quality in building services and preventive measures for the control of legionella; legal obligations.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Jan. 1991, Vol.9, No.1, p.18-22. Illus.
Recent developments in occupational medicine
Course material (most of it reproducing articles from scientific periodicals) for a 1-day seminar for occupational physicians, held in Seattle (WA, USA) on 1 Mar. 1991. Subjects covered (among others): clinical ecology; a prospective clinical and virologic study of chronic fatigue; nystatin therapy for the candidiasis hypersensitivity syndrome; study of fibromyalgia; recent trends in occupational diseases (classified by type of disorder); some new problems (dioxin, VDTs, sick-building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities); respiratory diseases in agriculture; occupational and environmental factors associated with Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease; detection of occupational liver disease; prevention and surveillance of occupational respiratory diseases.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, SC-34, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, 1991. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Research in occupational health: the UK National Health Service
This article discusses the scope of research to be carried out in the UK National Health Service which, if allied to occupational health practice, might have important direct or indirect benefits for patient care. General research topics that await further study include: health inequalities amongst health care workers, job stress, back problems, pregnancy, and infection risks from blood. Topical specific hazards include gluteraldehyde, cytotoxic drugs, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and implications of new technology in surgery. The co-ordination of databases across different district health authorities would be very useful for epidemiological research, the delivery of OSH services and the development of vaccination strategies.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1991, Vol.41, No.1, p.7-9. 11 ref.
Sick building syndrome
In connection with the recent establishment of a global alarm system by WHO concerning the mysterious occurrences of respiratory illnesses inside office buildings, known jointly as sick building syndrome, this article discusses this health problem and makes some recommendations for its prevention.
Safety Review (Electricity Association), 1991, Vol.49, p.15-17. Illus.
McKinnon M.D., Insall C., Gooch C.D., Cockcroft A.
Knowledge and attitude of health care workers about AIDS and HIV infection before and after distribution of an education booklet
Hospital workers (509) in a health authority were surveyed, and asked if they were in contact with HIV positive or AIDS patients, about their perception of risk and their knowledge about attitudes towards HIV and AIDS problems at work. Following the first survey, an information booklet was distributed to all health authority staff and after distribution, 232 staff were surveyed again. In this group (the follow-up group), there was a reduction in perceived risk, and improvement in the level of knowledge and in attitudes, and a reduction in the desire for further information. The group who initially had the least level of knowledge and most unfavourable attitudes (non-clinical workers) were the group who improved most.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Spring 1990, Vol.40, No.1, p.15-18. 24 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
National consensus statement on hepatitis B and the workplace
This document provides guidance on workplace policies for the prevention of hepatitis B infection in the workplace. Contents: background information on means of transmission of hepatitis B infections and groups of workers at risk; policy principles for infection control; policy development and implementation; workplace procedures; first aid and disinfection.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1990. 8p. 4 ref.
Choc de Zanalda B., Manterola A.C., Díaz Lestrem M., Frider B., Zocchi G.A., Fainboim H., Clua G.I., Amor E.
Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in Buenos Aires hospital personnel
Prevalencia del anticuerpo contra el antígeno central del virus de la hepatitis B (anti-HBc) en personal hospitalario de Buenos Aires [in Spanish]
A group of 1,479 employees in various hospitals in Buenos Aires (Argentina) were tested for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, in order to identify those who should be vaccinated against this disease. 85.5% of them were working in services where the risk of infection was high. The results showed that 85.0% of the individuals did not have anti-HBc and thus were considered candidates for vaccination. The antibody was present in 15.0% of the workers. The prevalence of anti-HBc increased with age and with length of service, and it was greater in laboratory technicians, nurses and those in high-risk services. A total of 23 carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (AgHBs) were identified. It is argued that the high prevalence of anti-HBc in laboratory technicians, nurses and nurses' aides might justify their systematic vaccination. Summary in English.
Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Jan. 1990, Vol.108, No.1, p.16-26. 34 ref.
Abiteboul B., Gouaille B., Proteau J.
Prevention of hepatitis B in public hospitals in Paris - Results of 7 years of vaccination by occupational physicians
Prévention de l'hépatite virale B à l'Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris - Bilan de 7 ans de vaccination par les médecins du travail [in French]
The results of a questionnaire survey addressed to all occupational health departments of the Paris Public Health Department seven years after the beginning of a vaccination campaign against hepatitis B showed a significantly positive outcome. On 15 February 1989, in 32 of the 45 departments questioned, 45% of the personnel at risk (14,528/32,034) were either completely vaccinated (32%) or in the course of being vaccinated (13%). Vaccination protection varied greatly from hospital to hospital, between departments, and between professional categories. The number of cases of occupational viral hepatitis dropped from 222 in 1980 to 37 in 1988, of which only 16 were hepatitis B.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1990, Vol.51, No.6, p.405-412. Illus. 22 ref.
Jörbeck H., Skoglund G., Bäckström B., Persson M., Hallqvist J.
Blood contact incidents among health care personnel
Incidenter med blodkontakt bland sjukvårdspersonal [in Swedish]
Among some 2,000 persons in 37 departments of five hospitals in the region of Stockholm, Sweden, there were 465 reported cases of blood contact: 65 cases of contact with puncture wounds or cuts ('injection' cases), 57 with mucous membranes or injured skin and 343 with intact skin. Midwives had the highest frequency of incidents (389 per 100 persons), followed by physicians with 217 and nurses with 146 (laboratory and dental personnel were also included in the study). Injection cases were most frequent for the physicians (34/100 persons), followed by the nurses (27) and midwives (24). A follow-up study of 522 of the initial group showed that incidents were under-reported. Interviews with representative subjects gave details on the circumstances of the incidents.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1 Aug. 1990. 49p. Illus. 20 ref.
Sick Building Syndrome: Causes, effects and control
Contents of this manual on the Sick Building Syndrome: survey of the problem; symptoms and illnesses associated with the condition; Legionnaires' disease; causes the syndrome (airborne pollutants, air conditioning systems, air quality and thermal confort, stress); investigation, remedies and prevention. In annex: sample questionnaires for a survey of the office work environment and for building inspection; cleaning, maintenance and design of air-conditioning systems; sick building syndrome and the law (in the UK); resources and contact addresses.
London Hazards Centre, 3rd Floor, Headland House, 308 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8DS, United Kingdom, June 1990. 94p. Illus. 64 ref. Index. Price: GBP 4.50.
Abiteboul D., Fourrier A., Bouvet E.
Risk of exposure to blood by health care personnel. Setting up of an active supervision system: Presentation of the network and preliminary results
Risque d'exposition au sang pour le personnel soignant. Mise en place d'une surveillance active: présentation du réseau et résultats préliminaires [in French]
In 1989, a 3-month prospective study was carried out in 12 French hospitals at the initiative of the Department of Health. Accidental exposures to blood among health care personnel were described and their monthly incidence was estimated. This first study phase has shown the need for a more elaborate system of supervision and evaluation, enabling us to have a better idea of the frequency of incidents, the health care procedures and materials contributing to them, and the application of preventive measures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.421-426. Illus. 9 ref.
Fatras J.Y., Bajos N., Leprince A., Charrel M., Grizeau D.
Industrial physicians and the prevention of AIDS
Les médecins du travail et la prévention du SIDA [in French]
This report presents the results of an investigation carried out among industrial physicians concerning the fight against AIDS conducted by the public authorities and associations in France. The aim of this study is to record and describe the educational activities already carried out by industrial physicians, and to get to know their requirements and their specific needs for information, support and training in this area in order to propose means of follow-up and of improving preventive measures at work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.407-420. Illus.
Handling of vaccine virus. Is it necessary to immunise the laboratory personnel concerned?
Manipulation du virus de la vaccine. Faut-il immuniser les personnels de laboratoire concernés? [in French]
Numerous investigations on vaccines currently use the cowpox virus as a recombination vector. The risk of accidental contamination during the handling of this virus has raised the question of the advantage of immunisation by Jennerian vaccination of the laboratory personnel concerned. This medico-technical information note sets out the conclusions presented by the official authorities to industrial physicians in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.389-390.
Altmeyer N., Abadia G., Schmitt S., Leprince A.
Microbiological risks and work in waste water purification plants
Risques microbiologiques et travail dans les stations d'épuration des eaux usées [in French]
The risk of infection with work in water purification plants (biological treatment) is the subject of numerous investigations. While the theoretical risk may be disturbing, the actual risk may be less clear, as shown by this literature survey, based on observations made by a group of industrial physicians. The principles of waste water treatment are first explained, followed by a description of the microbiological risks in biological-treatment purification plants: theoretical risks, routes of contamination, actual risks (digestive, respiratory and skin diseases, leptospirosis, sewer workers' syndrome). A summary of the data collected is presented, along with preventive measures concerning all types of risks found in purification plants. An annex shows a medical follow-up sheet.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.373-388. Illus. 100 ref.
Vaccinations at work. Regulations and responsibilities of the various people concerned [France]
Vaccinations en milieu de travail. Réglementation et obligation des différents acteurs [France] [in French]
In certain occupations some vaccinations are compulsory and others are recommended. Outside of these occupations, some vaccinations may be practical for the prevention of a particular occupational risk. Various compulsory and recommended vaccinations in France are presented, along with vaccinations under international regulations and requirements for vaccination at work. The responsibilities of the various people involved (employees, employers, industrial physicians) are explained and examples are given of how this responsibility may be assigned in two particular situations: contamination of a non-immunised individual and accidents with vaccines.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1990, No.44, p.367-371. Illus. 23 ref.
Lyme-Borreliose [in German]
Aspects covered in this illustrated booklet: typical skin rash due to a tick's bite; how to remove the tick and its jaws from the skin; rules to apply in infested areas.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1990. 3p. Illus.
Alter M.J., Hadler S.C., Margolis H.S., Alexander W.J., Hu P.Y., Judson F.N., Mares A., Miller J.K., Moyer L.A.
The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States: Need for alternative vaccination strategies
A programme of intensive surveillance for acute viral hepatitis was carried out from 1981 through 1988 in 4 "sentinel counties" in the USA. The overall incidence of hepatitis B remained relatively constant throughout the study period, although disease transmission patterns changed significantly. There was a significant decline in the numbers of health care workers (75%) reported with hepatitis B, probably as a direct result of immunisation with hepatitis B vaccine and wider implementation of universal blood precautions.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2 Mar. 1990, Vol.263, No.9, p.1218-1222. 22 ref.
Occupational medicine in Cameroon - Problems associated with workmen's compensation
Médecine du travail au Cameroun - Problèmes de réparation des préjudices corporels [in French]
Contents of this book on problems associated with workmen's compensation in Cameroon: I - Historical survey. II - Problems respecting compensation of occupational accidents and diseases. III - Future of occupational medicine and accident prevention in Cameroon. Appendix: Main OSH laws: Law of 13 July 1977 concerning compensation for and prevention of industrial accidents and occupational diseases, including the schedule of occupational diseases (see CIS 79-2096); Law of 18 Nov. 1968 pertaining to the organisation of the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases and comments on Law of 23 Dec. 1982 pertaining to OSH committees.
Editions Sopecam, BP 1218, Yaoundé, Cameroon, 1990. 248p. Illus. 50 ref.
Colds and flu - Can they affect workplace safety?
The current experimental knowledge on the implications of influenza and common cold virus on workplace safety is summarised. Results of a study carried out at the Common Cold Unit of the British Medical Research Council in Salisbury showed that colds and influenza may both impair performance efficiency, although the nature of the effects depends on the virus and type of activity being performed. Other studies included the effects of therapeutic drugs on performance efficiency and the effects of respiratory illnesses on memory and cognition.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Mar. 1990, Vol.8, No.3, p.20-22. 10 ref.
This textbook provides a complete guide to common occupational injuries and illnesses, their diagnosis and treatment, and preventive and remedial measures in the workplace. It is a comprehensive resource for health care professionals in all specialities dealing with the complexities of occupational medicine. Its broad coverage and emphasis on fundamental concepts also make it an ideal text for students and residents.
Prentice-Hall International Inc., 66 Wood Lane End, Hemel Hempstead HP2 4RG, United Kingdom, 1990. xiii, 594p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Appendix. Index. Price: USD 43.15.
Chriske H.W., Abdo R., Richrath R., Braumann S.
Hepatitis B infection hazard among sewer and sewage plant workers
Hepatitis-B-Infektionsgefährdung bei Kanal- und Klärwerksarbeitern [in German]
A higher number of persons (24) with hepatitis B virus infection was found among 93 sewer maintenance workers than among hospital personnel. Of 84 workers in sewage treatment plants 11 were found to be infected. The high infection rate among sewer maintenance workers is blamed on contact with infectious waste water and sewage sludge and on the high rate of hand injuries. It is recommended to duly inform this specific category of workers of the hazards they have to face and to offer them hepatitis B vaccination.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Oct. 1990, Vol.25, No.10, p.475-477. 7 ref.
Occupational infection among anaesthetists
Short review of the risks for anaesthetists of exposure to blood and body fluids carrying infectious organisms, in particular hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The fact that anaesthetists have more HBV markers than the general population suggests that occupational infection does occur. Immunisation against hepatitis B gives a high level of protection. Although there have been no fully documented cases of accidental HIV infection among anaesthetists, such incidents have been reported in other health care workers. There is no protective vaccine against HIV and the wearing of gloves is advised as a minimum protective measure.
Lancet, 3 Nov. 1990, Vol.336, No.8723, p.1103. 17 ref.
Law No.135 of 5 June 1990. Urgent action plan for the prevention of and the fight against AIDS; Decree of 28 Sep. 1990 on standards of protection against occupational-related infection by HIV in public and private health-care and relief establishments [Italy]
Legge 5 giugno 1990, n.135. Programma di interventi urgenti per la prevenzione e la lotta contro l'AIDS; Decreto 28 set. 1990 - Norme di protezione dal contagio professionale da HIV nelle strutture sanitarie ed assistenziali pubbliche e private [in Italian]
The Law is concerned essentially with the preparation of a national plan of action to deal with the growing menace of AIDS. It includes provisions dealing with the prevention of AIDS contamination in the workplace and with the prohibition of AIDS testing of potential employees. The Decree deals with the specific problems of health-care providers: general safety precautions (elimination of needles and other sharp objects); special categories of workers (dental personnel, people performing autopsies, laboratory workers, first aid and ambulance personnel); responsibilities of employers and workers.
Gazzetta ufficiale, 8 June 1990, Year 131, No.132, Part I, p.5-14; 8 Oct. 1990, Year 131, No.235, Part I, p.5-11.
Astbury C., Baxter P.J.
Infection risks in hospital staff from blood: hazardous injury rates and acceptance of hepatitis B immunization
A questionnaire survey of 1800 clinical health care staff was undertaken to determine hazardous injury rates and uptake of hepatitis B vaccination. The overall sharps injury rate was 116 injuries per 100 staff per year. Full-time doctors had the highest rates. Surgical procedures were the commonest cause of accidental injury (58 per cent) and 30 per cent of all sharps injuries were attributable to careless handling. Injuries caused by bites and scratches from patients occurred mainly in nurses in psychiatric and geriatric wards (115/100 staff per year). Twenty-four per cent of respondents had received a full course of hepatitis B vaccine and 51 per cent of the remainder were planning to have it. This survey reveals injury rates higher than those observed in previous reports, particularly in doctors, and shows a need for more information and advice about hepatitis B infection and vaccination to be targeted to health care workers at risk.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1990, Vol.40, No.3, p.92-93. 6 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Vaccination of laboratory workers handling vaccinia and related poxviruses infectious for humans
This guidance note presents the statement on vaccination policy given by the Advisory Committees on Dangerous Pathogens and on Genetic Modification: it is recommended that the smallpox vaccine should not generally be given to those who work with vaccinia virus or related poxviruses except in certain circumstances (details of which are given). Brief guidance is given on counselling before vaccination and after exposure, teaching and use of poxviruses, and training of workers handling poxviruses. Appendices provide detailed information on: risk assessment; contra-indications and complications of vaccination; vaccination procedures; hygiene precautions following vaccination; accidental personal contamination with wild-type or recombinant virus; containment of work with vaccinia and other poxviruses; poxviruses infectious for humans.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 16p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.50.
Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Categorisation of pathogens according to hazard and categories of containment
Contents of this guide: introductory comments on assessing the dangers of pathogenic organisms, a review of categorisation, physical containment of work and implementation of preventive measures; categories of pathogens (allocation of pathogens to hazard groups; definition of hazard groups; matching hazard group with containment level; modification to containment; categorisation lists; vaccination; vaccinia immunisation; sources of vaccines and other immunological products); categories of containment (model rules; local adjustments to levels of containment; laboratory and animal room containment levels). Appendices include: recommendations for certain types of virus, the use of Class II microbiological safety cabinets, respiratory protective equipment and training of laboratory personnel.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1990. 68p. 17 ref. Price: 6.00.
League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
Guidelines on AIDS and first aid in the workplace
This booklet presents concise guidelines on the precautions that should be followed in order to protect first-aid workers from contracting HIV infection following the administration of first-aid measures in the workplace. The guidelines contain general information on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and specific information on risks associated with first-aid treatment of injured employees. The book concludes with a consensus statement on AIDS and the workplace, including advice on the development of employment policies.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. iii, 12p. Annex. Price: CHF 4.00; USD 3.20.
Hofmann F., Köster D., Schrenk C., Wehrle G., Berthold H.
Hepatitis A - occupational risk for health service employees?
Die Hepatitis A - Arbeitsmedizinisches Risiko bei Beschäftigten im Gesundheitsdienst? [in German]
Analysis of 13 hepatitis A cases which occurred between 1979 and 1989 among personnel in a hospital in Freiburg, Germany, showed kitchen help to be a source of the disease. As a consequence, 1001 serum samples collected during routine check-up examinations of medical and hospital personnel were tested for anti-HAV. The percentage of anti-HAV positive was significantly higher among kitchen personnel in all age groups than among the general population. Therefore kitchen personnel should be a target of active hepatitis A immunisation.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.2, p.76-79. Illus. 24 ref.
This data sheet is a revision of the 1978 edition (CIS 78-1406). Contents: description of the insects (rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum); disease transmitted to man (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, tularaemia); suggestions for management (insect repellents and vaccines); precautions for employees (appropriate clothing, first aid procedures).
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1990. 4p. Illus.
Chriske H.W., Abdo R., Richrath R., Braumann S.
Risk of hepatitis A infection among sewage workers
Hepatitis-A-Infektionsgefährdung bei Kanal- und Klärwerksarbeitern [in German]
Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) was studied among 93 sewerage workers and 84 workers in waste water treatment plants in Cologne, Germany. In comparison to the general population of the same age, HAV infection among young sewerage workers was 3-4 times higher. Anti-HAV antibodies were found in 35.7% of 21-30-year-old sewerage workers and in 85% of those aged 50 and above. Of the 84 workers in waste water treatment plants, 47 (56%) showed anti-HAV. Thus, sewerage workers are persons at risk for whom active vaccination should be practised.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.6, p.285-287. Illus. 5 ref.
HIV/AIDS and the workplace: information for health workers and others at risk
This pamphlet provides basic information which employees and employers can use to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the workplace. Contents: HIV infection and the way it spreads; how the infection does not spread; workplace policies concerning the prevention of HIV infection (personnel policies, changes in work practices, education and training, equipment needs, infection control procedures); infection control guidelines (general guidelines, practices which increase the risk of exposure to HIV, work practices); accidents; first aid; disinfection and sterilisation; testing; other information sources.
Worksafe Australia Information Services, GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 1990. 13p.
Hepatitis B - A summary of the occupational health concern
L'hépatite B - Résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [in French]
Hepatitis B is a serious occupational concern for workers who may be exposed to blood or certain body fluids. Topics covered in this document: description of the disease and its effects; transmission of the virus via blood, saliva and other body fluids; occupational groups at risk; recognition and treatment of the disease; prevention of the spread of Hepatitis B in the workplace by infection control and immunisation measures..
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., Mar. 1990. 8p. 11 ref.
Needlestick injuries - A summary of the occupational health concern
Blessures par piqûre d'aiguille - Résumé des risques sur le plan professionnel [in French]
Accidental punctures by contaminated needles can cause injection of hazardous substances, in particular, blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis and AIDS. Needlestick injuries are an occupational hazard for nursing and laboratory staff and for domestic staff encountering needles in waste. Recommended preventive measures include effective training programmes, safe handling and recapping procedures and effective waste disposal systems for used needles.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, Feb. 1990. 11p. 16 ref.
Collins C.H., Grange J.M.
The microbiological hazards of occupations
Topics covered in this book: descriptions of various types of microorganisms and methods of identification; host defence mechanisms, allergies, vaccination and immunisation; sources and routes of occupational infections and descriptions of job-associated diseases; respiratory allergies associated with microorganisms; safe working practices; sterilisation and disinfection of microbiological waste; microbiological monitoring; microbiological hazards of air conditioning, plumbing and humidifying systems; food-borne illnesses; working in controlled or sterile environments; use of microorganisms in industry; hazards and benefits of genetic engineering; personal protection; legal aspects.
Science Reviews Ltd. and H & H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1990. 134p. Illus. 38 ref.
Preventing Legionnaires' disease
Prevention of Legionnaires' disease centres on preventing the inhalation of water aerosols contaminated with the Legionella pneumophila bacteria. In order to prevent growth of the bacteria, water systems capable of generating aerosols when restarted should be derived and kept dry during a period of disuse, and air-cooled chillers should be used in preference to evaporative coding towers. Water supplies should be stored either below 20°C or above 55°C, and care should be taken to prevent stagnation of water. All storage cisterns should be protected against the ingress of plant and animal matter, and only approved fittings and materials should be used. Cleaning and routine maintenance should be scheduled.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Feb. 1990, No.091, p.23-25. 2 ref.
Indoor air quality
Papers presented at the International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, 4-6 Nov. 1987, in Tokyo, Japan. Keynote lectures on passive smoking are followed by presentations grouped under the headings "environmental tobacco smoke measurement", "biological effects associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke", "epidemiology of passive smoking" and "general indoor air pollution".
Springer-Verlag, 17 Tiergartenstrasse, W-6900 Heidelberg 1, Germany, 1990. 529p. Illus. Bibl. Price: DEM 198.00.
Chemistry and specifications of pesticides
Thirteenth Report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. Contents: Development of pesticides for use in public health (the WHO pesticide evaluation scheme, relations with industry, quality control of pesticides); vector control in urban areas; control of household vectors and pests; specifications and test methodology; biological control agents; decontamination of containers; relations with other organisations. Annexes provide recommended changes in existing specifications and methods, recommended specifications for new pesticides and formulations and new methods, and a guideline specification for ultra-low volume liquids.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 77p. Bibl. Price: CHF 9.00.
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