Bacterial and parasitic diseases - 1,362 entries found
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Compensable occupational diseases - Aetiology, prevention, therapy: Introduction to their study and treatment
Die entschädigungspflichtigen Berufskrankheiten - Genese, Prävention, Therapie. Einführung für Studium und Praxis [in German]
Manual on occupational diseases, aimed primarily at occupational physicians. Contents: survey of relevant legislation in Germany; lists of occupational diseases and criteria for their diagnosis, diseases caused by chemical agents (metals, asphyxiants, solvents, pesticides etc.); diseases caused by physical agents (musculoskeletal disorders, pressurized atmosphere, noise, radiation); infectious and parasitic diseases; diseases of the respiratory system (inorganic and organic dusts); obstructive disorders; skin diseases; miners' nystagmus.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co.KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 1995. xxiv, 263p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 78.00 (in Switzerland).
Milton D.K., Amsel J., Reed C.E., Enright P.L., Brown L.R., Aughenbaugh G.L., Morey P.R.
Cross-sectional follow-up of a flu-like respiratory illness among fiberglass manufacturing employees - Endotoxin exposure associated with two distinct sequelae
Employees at a glass fibre manufacturing plant experienced sporadic flu-like symptoms following exposure to a recirculated washwater mist containing high concentrations of gram-negative bacteria and endotoxins. Among 20 subjects reporting a history of severe flu-like episodes, diffusion capacity was significantly lower than for other workers; the illness was more common among workers with intermittent exposure (19 cases) rather than daily exposure (1 case). Asthma was prevalent in the study population, particularly among employees with daily rather than intermittent exposure. Endotoxin exposure was associated with two distinct sequelae depending on the temporal pattern of exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.469-488. 60 ref.
Goldsmith D.F., Beaumont J.J., Morrin L.A., Schenker M.B.
Respiratory cancer and other chronic disease mortality among silicotics in California
Mortality risks were estimated for 590 silicotics claiming workers' compensation claims in California from 1946 to 1975. Findings confirmed that these claimants had an elevated risk for all causes of death, and for tuberculosis, non-malignant respiratory diseases, cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung and malignancies of the large intestine. Mortality from heart diseases and cancers of the prostrate and lymphatic system was low. Data are tabulated for four industries: construction, mining and quarrying, metallurgy and foundries, and utilities and transportation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.459-467. 23 ref.
Ministère du Travail (France)
Circular DEPSE/SDTE/C 95-7011-DRT No.95-6 of 8 March 1995 concerning the medical surveillance of workers involved in the handling of food products of animal origin [France]
Circulaire DEPSE/SDTE/C 95-7011-DRT n°95-6 du 8 mars 1995 relative à la surveillance médicale des salariés procédant à la manipulation des denrées animales et d'origine animale [France] [in French]
This circular applies to workers who handle, in their normal work, food and food products of animal origin (meat, seafood, milk, eggs etc.). Such workers must observe very high standards of personal hygiene and must wear very clean clothing. In addition, they must possess a medical certificate stating either that there is no health reason to prevent them from working in such establishments or that they do not have certain diseases, and are not carriers of certain microorganisms or parasites.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.61, p.65-66.
Alquier-Bouffard E., Lagisquet C., Jakubiec H.
Ministère du Travail (France)
International business trips. Risk analysis and prevention activity in an occupational health department: Investigations of employees of an oil company travelling abroad
Déplacements professionnels internationaux. Analyse des risques, actions de prévention dans un service de médecine du travail - Enquêtes dans une société pétrolière auprès de salariés se déplaçant à l'étranger [in French]
Two articles on the safety and health problems of expatriate staff. The first article deals with risk analysis (occupations and different types of business trips, lack of suitability to lead a "travelling life", health hazards); preventive action by the occupational health department of a large French oil company (in particular, primary prevention: vaccination, pre-travel advice, information, health education). The second article is a report on an investigation conducted by the occupational health department of the same company. In annex: text of two questionnaire surveys on the evaluation of the anti-malaria information campaign conducted by the company (1: retention of advice, aimed at all staff members liable to be sent on mission; 2: evaluation of the respect and impact of anti-malaria preventive action and of possible malaria-related health effects, aimed at all staff members who had actually gone on mission).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.61, p.7-15. 14 ref. (2nd article: p.17-24)
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Categorisation of biological agents according to hazard and containment categories
The new edition of this guide (see CIS 91-1019 for previous edition) reflects the need to implement two European Community Directives concerning biological agents (90/679/EEC and 93/88/EEC). Contents: background information on the categorization of biological agents; guidance list of bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi in four hazard groups; guidance on the selection of appropriate containment measures; requirements for each of four levels of containment for laboratories and for work with experimental animals inoculated with biological agents. Appendices provide further guidance on the control of specific biological agents. Includes an Approved List of biological agents. Sections of the guide having legal status are highlighted.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 4th ed., 1995. viii, 152p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Marine medical research collection: Extracts from the Japanese Journals of Maritime Medicine
Translation from the Japanese of 134 research papers published during the period 1958-1994. The papers are classified according to the following topics: introduction to marine medicine; studies of the effects on the health of seamen of living on a ship; statistical studies of illnesses, injuries and accidents of seamen; studies on the health conditions of seamen's insurance pensioners; studies on medical counsel for ships at sea; studies on the care of sick and injured seamen at sea; studies of infectious diseases in seamen; studies of various issues related to illnesses, injuries and accidents among seamen; clinical studies of adult diseases among seamen; studies on the health care of seamen. In annex: future maritime medicine research topics.
SEMPOS (The Seamen's Insurance Foundation), 5-6 Shibuya 1-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan, 1995. xvi, 744p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Characteristics of blood-containing aerosols generated by common powered dental instruments
Aerosols generated in the mouths of dental patients were simulated in the laboratory by applying powered dental instruments to whole blood. Rates of production, particle size distribution, persistence, and blood content of the aerosols were measured. All the recovered particles could contain the 0.042µm hepatitis B virus and could be inhaled; many could be retained in the human respiratory system. Of the 0.06 to 2.5µm particles, 15-83% passed through the filter media of nine makes of protective surgical masks used by dentists. Findings lend support to the hypothesis of an airborne route for the hepatitis B infections reported for dental professionals.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1995, Vol.56, No.7, p.670-676. Illus. 26 ref.
Warts in aquarium industry workers
Case studies of two marine aquarium shop workers with common warts on the hands are described. Both workers handled aquarium gravel and sharp-edged coral skeletons, and the hands were frequently wet with cuts and abrasions. Possible causes of the warts in these workers and workers in other industries are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.348-349. Illus. 10 ref.
HIV and AIDS in health care
Training booklet on the prevention of HIV infection among health-care staff: symptoms and results of HIV infection; transmission of HIV; precautions for health-care and laboratory personnel; protective measures for post-mortem work. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###
Respiratory protection and the risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
Several types of respirator were compared with respect to efficacy against penetration of infectious droplet nuclei capable of carrying Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. Powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) with elastomeric halfmask facepieces and high efficiency (HEPA) filters provided substantially better protection than did surgical masks and disposable dust/mist particulate respirators. This greater protection is related to the PAPR's relatively high filtration efficiency and the low degree of facial leakage. When droplet nuclei source control is inadequate, healthcare workers may need to wear highly protective respirators for protection against tuberculosis infection.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.317-333. 38 ref.
Herington T.N., Morse L.H.
Occupational injuries - Evaluation, management and prevention
Contents of this manual includes: epidemiology of work injury; occupational health care and workers' compensation; operation of an occupational health clinic; administrative aspects; legal and ethical issues in occupational medicine; management of disorders of the hand, shoulder, elbow, neck, spine, knee, foot, brain, eyes and skin; management of burns, respiratory injuries, and chest and abdominal pain; patient management; pain management; injuries related to repetitive motion, chemical exposures, temperature, noise, vibration, radiation, electricity and lightning; building-related and infectious disorders; injuries to divers and compressed air workers; psychiatric issues; resources for the physician treating injured workers; personal protective equipment; ergonomics; vocational rehabilitation; drug testing.
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1995. xxi, 579p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 61.00.
Bartelink A.K.M., van Kregten E.
Streptococcus suis as threat to pig-farmers and abattoir workers
This communication briefly reports two cases of septic shock following infection with Streptococcus suis in man: an abattoir worker who died following the infection, and a pig farmer who suffered multiple organ failure and recovered after intensive therapy. Human beings usually develop meningitis following S. suis infection. Septic shock is rare but commonly fatal; early recognition in pig farmers and abattoir workers is essential.
Lancet, 23/30 Dec. 1995, Vol.346, No.8991/8992, p.1707. 4 ref.
Matysiak-Budnik T., Briet F., Heyman M., Mégraud F.
Laboratory-acquired Helicobacter pylori infection
This brief communication describes a case of accidental ingestion of Helicobacter pylori in the laboratory. Symptoms included severe epigastric cramp, nausea and epigastric fullness, followed by heartburn, nausea and upper abdominal pain. The patient was successfully treated; immunological response developed three months after treatment, and was weak. The case provides some insight into the clinical course of H pylori infection.
Lancet, 2 Dec. 1995, Vol.346, No.8988, p.1489-1490. 4 ref.
Improving working conditions - Workplace AIDS policies
Pour une amélioration des conditions de travail - Une politique-SIDA dans l'entreprise [in French]
Main issues dealt with in this review of current knowledge on workplace AIDS and on the relevance of the implementation of an AIDS policy in companies: Should a company institute an AIDS policy? Do carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) threaten the health of their colleagues, customers or that of their own? Disclosure of the serological status of workers has serious socio-economic consequences. Is it possible to prevent involuntary unemployment of HIV-infected workers or to workers having AIDS who otherwise accomplish their duties? What are the essential elements of a workplace AIDS policy? What are the ethical issues to be considered in developing an AIDS policy?
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.359-368. Illus. 60 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Infectious disease control
These 11 fact sheets describe safe work practices for the control of infectious diseases in a variety of occupations: accident and emergency departments; anaesthetic procedures; clinical laboratories; contract cleaners; dentistry; emergency response workers; midwifery services and obstetric procedures; operating theatres; police; post-mortem procedures; prison officers. They should be read in conjunction with the National Code of Practice for Health Care Workers and Other People at Risk of the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B in the Workplace.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, no date. 11 leaflets (48p.).
Hayes M., Williams F.J.
Toxoplasmosis - whose responsibility?
Safety and Health Practitioner, Feb. 1995, Vol.13, No.2, p.20-25. Illus. 20 ref. ###
Peerbooms P.G.H., van Doornum G.J.J., van Deutekom H., Coutinho R.A., van Soolingen D.
Brief reports are presented of two cases of occupationally-acquired tuberculosis in technicians working in the myobacterial room of a laboratory in the Netherlands. Following the infections, safety regulations were reviewed and action taken to ensure compliance with safety guidelines. In particular, all equipment not needed for myobacterial cultures was removed from the room and entrance was restricted to staff working in the myobacterial department.
Lancet, 20 May 1995, Vol.345, No.8960, p.1311-1312. 4 ref.
New epidemics in occupational health. Which ones and how to identify them
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). It discusses the increasing complexity of "new" epidemics in the work environment, often of a multi-exposure and multi-outcome nature. The epidemics are often due to changes in the nature of the workplace or in the working population. Epidemiology as a science must also keep pace with growing demands from society (privacy protection, decentralization etc.). Some new epidemics specifically mentioned are: Hanta virus infections, sudden deaths, musculoskeletal overuse syndromes, multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, health problems due to exposure to electric and magnetic fields, psychological disorders (connected with VDU or other computer work). Ways to identify new epidemics are listed.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.139-151. Illus. 45 ref.
Schlosser O., Roudot-Thoraval F.
Occupational exposure to sewage and hepatitis A risk
Exposition professionnelle aux eaux usées et risque d'hépatite virale A [in French]
The availability of a first hepatitis A vaccine in 1992 raised the issue of its use among sewage workers. A cross-sectional study was made to estimate the occupational hazard of hepatitis A comparing the prevalence of antibodies to the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in 110 workers exposed to sewage with the prevalence in 110 non-exposed controls from the same firm, matched for age and educational level. History of jaundice, travelling in endemic areas and duration of occupational exposure were noted. The seroprevalence of HAV antibodies was 52.7% globally, significantly higher in exposed workers (60.9%) than in controls (44.5%) (p<0.02). This seroprevalence increased with age, and was related to educational level in each group. These results emphasize the role of occupational exposure to sewage in HAV infection. The vaccination of exposed workers is to be recommended because of the frequency of the symptomatic form of hepatitis A in adults, sometimes of considerable severity.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.23-27. Illus. 23 ref.
Ministère des Affaires sociales, de la Santé et de la Ville
Decree No.95-52 of 12 Jan. 1995. Schedules of prescribed occupational diseases. Modifications and additions [France]
Décret n°95-52 du 12 janv. 1995. Tableaux de maladies professionnelles - Modifications et adjonctions [France] [in French]
Decree No.95-52 makes the following changes in the French schedules of prescribed occupational diseases: Extension of the limitative list of jobs likely to cause disease in table No.42: "Noise-induced hearing loss"; Creation of new schedules: No.92 "Occupational infections with Streptococcus suis"; No.93 "Chronic lesions of the front segment of the eye caused by exposure to airborne particles in underground coal mines".
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, Note No.1985-158-95, p.101-102. 28 ref. Also in: Journal officiel, 18 Jan. 1995.
Health and Safety Commission
The prevention or control of legionellosis (including legionnaires' disease) - Approved Code of Practice
This Approved Code of Practice gives practical guidance on certain sections of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 (CIS 74-2099) and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH) (CIS 95-19) as regards risks from legionellosis. It does not address technical aspects of controlling the risk. Contents: definition of legionellosis and sources of the bacteria; identification and assessment of risk; preventing or minimizing the risk of exposure to legionella; management and the selection, training and competence of personnel; record keeping; responsibilities of designers, manufacturers, importers, suppliers and installers. Replaces previous edition (CIS 91-2074).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 7p. Price: GBP 4.75.
Health and Safety Executive
COSHH 1994: Approved Codes of Practice. A money-saver's guide - The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994
This booklet briefly describes changes made to various Approved Codes of Practice (ACOP) related to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH) (see CIS 95-19). The General and Carcinogens ACOPS have been updated and now include a new ACOP on biological agents. A list of amendments to the existing ACOPs on vinyl chloride, pottery production, legionellosis and pesticides for non-agricultural purposes is included.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1995. 11p.
Harrison J., Jones C.E.
Human parvovirus B19 infection in healthcare workers
The occurrence of human parvovirus B19 infection in seven hospital health care workers is reported. The clinical presentation mimicked that of rubella and the diagnosis was made by the detection of human parvovirus B19 IgM antibody in blood samples taken from the affected workers. The importance of accurate diagnosis of B19 infection is discussed since this virus has been implicated in causing or exacerbating a variety of medical conditions. The need to make health care workers aware of the importance of this infection is stressed.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1995, Vol.45, No.2, p.93-96. 25 ref.
Wenger P.N., Otten J., Breeden A., Orfas D., Beck-Sague C.M., Jarvis W.R., Catanzaro A.
Control of nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis among healthcare workers and HIV-infected patients
Control measures were implemented in an HIV hospital ward following an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The measures followed guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and included: stricter application of isolation criteria; increased frequency of tuberculin skin tests for health care workers; maintenance of negative pressure in all isolation rooms; use of a submicron surgical mask for health care workers. Results indicated that the measures were effective in halting the transmission of MDR-TB to health care workers and HIV-infected patients. A commentary (p.204-205) stresses the importance of a broad range of measures for tuberculosis control.
Lancet, 28 Jan. 1995, Vol.345, No.8944, p.235-240 + 204-205. 23 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Schistosomes, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 7-14 June 1994, concerning the cancer risks of helminths (parasitic worms), schistosoma and Heliobacter pylori. Of the seven agents reviewed, three were rated 1 (carcinogenic to humans), one was rated 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), one was rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and two were classified 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). For each agent, the following aspects are covered: exposure data; studies of cancer in humans; studies of cancer in experimental animals; other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary of reported data and evaluation.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1994. 270p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 70.00.
A code of practice for hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS in the workplace
Topics: Australia; directive; disposal of harmful waste; high-risk groups; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious hepatitis; vaccination; Western Australia.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, Feb. 1994. 20p. Illus. Price: AUD 3.00.
Order of 18 July 1994 establishing the list of pathogenic biological agents [France]
Arrêté du 18 juil. 1994 fixant la liste des agents biologiques pathogènes [France] [in French]
Amended by Order of 17 Apr. 1997 (CIS 99-31). Topics: biological hazards; classification; France; fungi; law; list; microorganisms; parasitic diseases; pathogenic bacteria; viruses.
Journal officiel de la République française, 30 July 1994, p.11078-11081.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Hepatitis viruses
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France 8-15 June 1993. Overall evaluation: chronic infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus is carcinogenic to humans; infection with hepatitis D virus is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. Topics: animal experiments; carcinogenic effects; contagion; criteria document; human experiments; IARC; infectious hepatitis; literature survey; liver cancer; race-linked differences; viruses; WHO.
IARC Press, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1994. 286p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 65.00.
Decree No.1832 of 1994 concerning the adoption of the list of occupational diseases [Colombia]
Decreto nº1832 de 1994 por el cual se adopta la Tabla de Enfermedades Profesionales [Colombia] [in Spanish]
Topics: arsenic and compounds; asbestosis; asthma; bagasse; baritosis; berylliosis; byssinosis; cancer; chemical hazards; chlorine and compounds; Colombia; compensation of occupational diseases; cramps; deafness; falls of persons; fluorine and compounds; infectious diseases; infrared radiation; law; lead poisoning; lighting; mercury poisoning; non-ionizing radiation; nystagmus; occupational diseases; parasitic diseases; phosphorus and compounds; radiation disease; schedule of occupational diseases; siderosis; silicosis; talc pneumoconiosis; tobaccosis; ultraviolet radiation; vanadium and compounds; vibration disease; work at high temperature.
In: Legislación del sistema general de riesgos profesionales, Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Santafé de Bogota, D.C, Colombia, 1995, p.63-65.
Hepatitis B as an occupational hazard
Report on hepatitis B as an occupational hazard published by the WHO as part of the workplan of its Regional Office for Europe to achieve Target 25 in the health for all (HFA) strategy (see definition in document). Main contents: hepatitis B - the disease (epidemiology, clinical course; stability and decontamination of the virus); occupational risk; prevention of occupationally-acquired hepatitis B (defining occupational risk, universal precautions, using hepatitis B vaccine in workers at risk; screening; prevention of hepatitis B in self-employed workers; post-exposure prophylaxis; other occupational hazards; cost effectiveness and cost benefit of vaccination of at-risk workers); implementation of successful hepatitis-B prevention programmes in the workplace; current policies for the protection of workers; annexes (status of hepatitis B vaccination in WHO European Member States; the viral hepatitis prevention board; useful names and addresses); glossary.
Occupational Health Programme, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigvej 8, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark, 1994. 64p. 62 ref.
Training booklet aimed at workers. Contents: general information on tuberculosis (TB); infection sources (including at the workplace); latent and active TB; diagnosis; drug-resistant TB; people at risk; TB and immunocompromised people. Quiz for testing whether readers have understood the message.
Coastal Video Communications Corp., 3083 Brickhouse Court, Virginia Beach, VA 23452, USA, 1994. 16p. Illus.
Conditions of work of nursing personnel
Arbeitsbedingte Belastungen des Pflegepersonals [in German]
Survey of the physical and mental requirements placed on nursing personnel as well as on the diseases and psychological effects their work may cause. Personnel caring for the elderly, sick children and adults have to lift and carry heavy loads, work in a bending posture and may be exposed to disinfectants, anaesthetics, cytostatic drugs, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, moulds and protozoa. The frequency rates of job-related accidents, spinal and skin diseases, infectious diseases such as hepatitis, AIDS, tuberculosis and cancer, are presented.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 3, 86899 Landsberg, Germany, 1994. 120p. Illus. 299 ref. Price: DEM 42.00.
Innenraumluftbelastungen [in German]
A concept for evaluating the working conditions in offices is presented. The following information is included in the assessment: characteristics of the building such as ventilation, design and maintenance of the air conditioning system, office equipment (e.g. carpeting, furniture and office machines), harmful substances emitted in the offices such as formaldehyde, the design of the workplaces, lighting, noise and microclimate, psychological factors such as time pressure and intensity of work as well as the results of medical examinations.
Sicher ist Sicher, Nov. 1994, Vol.45, No.11, p.574, 576-578. Illus. 21 ref.
Hazards on the conveyor belt. Underestimated and hidden health hazards due to wastes
Gefahr am laufenden Band. Verkannt und verborgen - Gesundheitsgefährdung durch Abfälle [in German]
In spite of the high degree of automation of sorting systems, hand sorting is a necessity in waste recycling plants. First results of measurements of the number concentration of bacteria in the air in workplaces where hand sorting is used yielded up to 7 million bacterial colonies/m3 air. No international or national exposure limits for microorganisms have yet been set. However, Directive 90/679/EEC on the protection of employees from biological agents at work (CIS 91-29) applies to waste recycling plants. This directive requires measures to reduce the risks due to bacteria, moulds, viruses and parasites.
Entsorgungs-Technik, Nov.-Dec. 1994, Vol.6, No.8, p.27-29. Illus.
Occupational lung disorders
Contents of this manual include: morphology of the respiratory tract; lung physiology; deposition and clearance of aerosols; pathogenesis of mineral pneumoconiosis; imaging in occupational lung diseases; epidemiology; chronic bronchitis, airflow obstruction and emphysema; bronchitis, airways obstruction and occupation; pneumoconiosis associated with non-fibrogenic minerals and with coal and other carbonaceous materials; silicosis and related diseases; disorders related to asbestos and to non-asbestos silicates; beryllium disease; non-neoplastic disorders due to metallic, chemical and physical agents; lung cancer; hypersensitivity pneumonia; occupational asthma and byssinosis; infectious diseases and zoonoses; diseases caused by other organic agents; the lungs in aerospace and at high altitude; the lungs and diving.
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1994. xix, 892p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 145.00.
Stalder K., Verkoyen C.
Health hazards in municipal waste disposal
Gesundheitsrisiken bei der Entsorgung kommunaler Abfälle [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on the biological hazards of garbage composting (held in Göttingen, Germany, 28-29 June 1993). Subjects covered: composting methods applied today; emission of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli during garbage composting; viruses such as Herpes simplex and Coxsackie-B in the air of garbage composting plants; emission of moulds and thermophilic actinomycetes by garbage composting plants; frequently occurring fungi in garbage composting plants; health hazards such as infection and sensitization by allergens in garbage composting plants.
Verlag Die Werkstatt, Lotzestrasse 24a, 37083 Göttingen, Germany, Apr. 1994. 217p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 30.00.
About Hepatitis B
Training booklet on the dangers of exposure to hepatitis B virus: transmission of hepatitis B; dangers of exposure (particularly in the health-care environment); symptoms; protective measures at work; protection during routine procedures; what to do in the case of an accident; vaccination. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###
Tuberculosis in office settings: The anxiety and the reality
Using three case studies as examples, the director of a major insurance carrier's employee health service shares his perspective on the importance of the early identification of potential exposures, screening for tuberculosis, and communicating to employees. The director emphasizes that "an appropriate level of vigilance" can prevent or minimize a significant number of workplace exposures.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.741-747. 7 ref.
Melius J., Nagin D.
Future needs: Research, education, and service
Sections on research, education, and service summarize efforts that are needed to control the workplace transmission of TB and measures that can be taken while research is being carried out. Topics include ways to identify infectious patients, techniques for measuring the airborne concentration of TB, and the need for surveillance programmes.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.735-740. 9 ref.
Klitzman S., Kellner P.
Control of tuberculosis in the workplace: Toward an integration of occupational health and public health
Current efforts at and obstacles to forging a link between public health and occupational health in the control of tuberculosis in the USA are discussed. The historical roots of TB in the workplace as well as the current crisis that has resulted from the emergence of both the AIDS and tuberculosis epidemics are traced and the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidelines which embody a comprehensive approach to TB control are detailed.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.723-734. 32 ref.
Moline J.M., Markowitz S.B.
Medical surveillance for workers exposed to tuberculosis
This detailed discussion of medical surveillance techniques addresses such issues as the administration and interpretation of the tuberculin skin test, the importance of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, preventive therapy with isoniazid, the identification of groups at high risk for TB, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and regulatory requirements for purified protein derivative (PPD) testing, including Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.695-721. 77 ref.
Watson L.H., Rosen J.D.
Educating workers about tuberculosis
Following an outline of the basics of workplace training programmes regarding tuberculosis, the experiences of Hunter College, the New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health, and the New York State Public Employees Federation in developing TB education programmes are described. A resource guide lists agencies and organizations that can be contacted for information on tuberculosis control, educational programmes, and training curricula.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.681-694. 22 ref.
McDiarmid M., Gillen N.A., Hathon L.
Regulatory considerations of occupational tuberculosis control
According to this study, the classic hierarchy of industrial hygiene controls may be successfully used to control TB. Various elements of hygiene control programmes reviewed here include TB exposure control programmes, identification and isolation of patients, respiratory isolation, local source capture ventilation, laboratory procedures, employee surveillance programmes, reporting of occupational illnesses, labelling requirements, and respiratory protection.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.671-679. 25 ref.
Cohen J., Kenny L.
Tuberculosis in the workplace: A labor perspective
It was not until several health care unions petitioned the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for a bloodborne pathogen standard in 1986 that OSHA began to play a major role in regulating the health care industry. The authors examine the Service Employees International Union's current effort to urge OSHA to develop a standard to protect workers from occupational exposure to TB. They also cover ramifications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised guidelines for preventing the transmission of TB in health care settings.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.659-670. 9 ref.
Hodous T.K., Coffey C.C.
The role of respiratory protective devices in the control of tuberculosis
This comprehensive review describes various types of respirators and the major issues in their application to TB control, including the degree of protection they offer and cost. Recent recommendations regarding the use of respiratory protective devices also are discussed.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.631-657. Illus. 83 ref.
Nagin D., Pavelchak N., London M., DePersis R.P., Melius J.
Control of tuberculosis in the workplace: Engineering controls
In this review of engineering controls that can be used to check the spread of tuberculosis in health care settings, types of ventilation and supplements to ventilation such as high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation are addressed. Engineering controls for use during medical procedures that pose an increased risk for transmission of TB are specifically covered.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.609-630. 32 ref.
Epidemiology of tuberculosis among health care workers
Factors such as poor environmental, hygienic, and infection controls responsible for the excessive conversion rates found among health care workers in numerous studies are explored. The role of outbreak investigations, surveillance studies, and current epidemiologic studies in efforts to control the hazard of airborne tuberculosis in the workplace are reviewed.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.589-608. 53 ref.
The relationship between TB and HIV infections
AIDS is widely believed to be the strongest influence on the spread of tuberculosis, one of the most common opportunistic infections in people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. In this chapter, the author details the unique interrelationship between these two widespread infections as well as their epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, prevention, and treatment.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.575-587. 89 ref.
Ford J.G., Felton C.P.
Tuberculosis: Pathogenesis and laboratory diagnosis
Emerging molecular biologic technologies hold the promise of more rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and more definitive epidemiologic linkages of cases of TB. In addition to reviewing the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, this chapter covers a variety of methods for the rapid detection of the disease, including the acid-fast smear, conventional culture, the BACTEC system, immunodiagnostic methods, and DNA-based techniques.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.4, p.561-574. 67 ref.
Murray J.F., Nadel J.A.
Textbook of respiratory medicine
Contents of this manual: scientific principles of respiratory medicine (anatomy and development of the respiratory tract, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, defence mechanisms and immunology); manifestations of respiratory diseases and diagnostic evaluation; types of respiratory diseases, including environmental and occupational disorders (pneumoconiosis, occupational asthma and byssinosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, air pollution, acute pulmonary response to toxic exposures, high altitude, disorders associated with diving, drug-induced pulmonary disease).
Harcourt Brace & Company Ltd, Foots Cray High Street, Sidcup, Kent DA14 5HP, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1994. 2 vols. ci, 2739p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 211.00.
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