Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entries found
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Alonso Espadalé R.M., Martí Solé M.C.
Active immunization: A means of prevention
La inmunización activa: una herramienta de prevención [in Spanish]
Topics: brucellosis; data sheet; echinococcosis; immunization; infection control; legal aspects; leptospirosis; rabies; Spain; tuberculosis; typhus; vaccination.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 4p. 9 ref.
Fontana L., Rebora M., Lai P., Pezzano D., Poli A.
Reflections on hepatitis B vaccination of health care workers
Considerazioni sulla vaccinazione anti-epatite B nei dipendenti ospedalieri [in Italian]
Topics: health care personnel; infectious hepatitis; Italy; prophylaxis; vaccination.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, July-Sep. 1995, Vol.11, No.3, p.105-111. 38 ref.
Protection of workers from hepatitis B in the workplace
Protection des travailleurs contre l'hépatite B sur les lieux de travail [in French]
Topics: Canada; contagion; data sheet; disinfection of equipment; high-risk groups; infection control; infectious hepatitis; legislation; vaccination.
Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, 1995. 6p.
Occupational exposure to hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus: A comparative risk analysis
Data on the probability of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B and subsequent seroconversion are reviewed. Mortality and morbidity rates associated with both viruses in health care workers are also examined. A model for the analysis of occupational risk for HIV and hepatitis B is presented and shows that quality-adjusted loss in life expectancy is greater after percutaneous exposure to a patient seropositive for hepatitis B than after exposure to a patient with symptomatic HIV infection.
American Journal of Infection Control, Oct. 1995, Vol.23, No.5, p.286-289. 20 ref.
Petrosillo N., et al.
The risks of occupational exposure and infection by human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in the dialysis setting
A survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was carried out among 1002 patients in nine dialysis units. A subsequent 1-year surveillance study of percutaneous injuries and skin and mucous membrane contaminations was carried out among 527 health care workers in the same units. The risk of acquiring infection was calculated to be 4000 and 8000 times lower for HIV than for hepatitis B and C, respectively. Compliance with universal precautions and improvements in the design of needles and dialysis equipment are recommended.
American Journal of Infection Control, Oct. 1995, Vol.23, No.5, p.278-285. 43 ref.
Puro V., Petrosillo N., Ippolito G.
Risk of hepatitis C seroconversion after occupational exposures in health care workers
The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroconversion was studied in health care workers who reported an occupational exposure to blood or other body materials from patients known to be seropositive for HCV. During a two-year period 646 exposure incidents were studied. Four HCV seroconversion were observed after hollow-bore needlestick injuries; no seroconversions occurred after other routes of exposure. Blood-filled needlesticks and patient coinfection with human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) was associated with a higher risk of seroconversion.
American Journal of Infection Control, Oct. 1995, Vol.23, No.5, p.273-277. 24 ref.
Romano C., De Luca G.
Protection of workers exposed to biological agents. Study on the prevention of hepatitis B by means of vaccination in a cohort of such workers. Consideration after a 5-year follow-up
Protezione dei lavoratori dagli agenti biologici. Una esperienza di vaccinoprofilassi contro l'epatite B in una popolazione di professionalmente esposti a rischio. Considerazioni dopo 5 anni di follow-up [in Italian]
The results are reported of a cohort study conducted for 5 years in 82 workers exposed to biological hazards (manipulation of sera in a pharmaceutical plant). The workers were vaccinated at scheduled intervals (three doses) against hepatitis B. The effectiveness of their immunization was repeatedly checked in subsequent years by means of an anti-HBs titre assay. In 96.3% of the subjects the result of the assay was positive (HBsAb >10mUI/mL serum level, i.e. the generally accepted cut-off value for a specific positive response). Only three subjects (3.66%) showed no response. To protect these workers, a further administration of vaccine is proposed by some experts. Booster doses 1-2 months after the third dose of vaccine are suggested for workers with anti-HB titres below 10mUI/mL, in order to prolong their immunity against HBV. Repeated serum controls are recommended for all workers every 4-5 years.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.17-21. 20 ref.
Ficarra M.G., Deli G., Di Liso G., Berloco F., Rizzelli R.
Prevention of infection in dentistry and dental staff habits: Results of a field survey
Prevenzione delle infezioni e comportamenti del personale in odontoiatria: risultati di un'indagine sul campo [in Italian]
This study is based on a questionnaire self administered by dental professionals in order to assess their knowledge of the risks of catching an infectious disease and of preventive measures to be adopted in the work place. Only 47% of the interviewed staff claimed to have a good knowledge of AIDS; while 46% considered their knowledge to be barely sufficient. About 1/4 of the subjects thought it was understandable that some health workers could decline to treat HIV-positive patients. Utilization of protective devices (gloves, masks, goggles) was satisfactory. However, a significant number of these workers had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Basic rules of hygiene were observed by a limited number of nurses (only 7% of them washed their hands after each single treatment). A low percentage of workers used an antibacterial preparation after washing their hands. The importance of adequate health training for all health staff is stressed.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.1-6. 7 ref.
Milton D.K., Amsel J., Reed C.E., Enright P.L., Brown L.R., Aughenbaugh G.L., Morey P.R.
Cross-sectional follow-up of a flu-like respiratory illness among fiberglass manufacturing employees - Endotoxin exposure associated with two distinct sequelae
Employees at a glass fibre manufacturing plant experienced sporadic flu-like symptoms following exposure to a recirculated washwater mist containing high concentrations of gram-negative bacteria and endotoxins. Among 20 subjects reporting a history of severe flu-like episodes, diffusion capacity was significantly lower than for other workers; the illness was more common among workers with intermittent exposure (19 cases) rather than daily exposure (1 case). Asthma was prevalent in the study population, particularly among employees with daily rather than intermittent exposure. Endotoxin exposure was associated with two distinct sequelae depending on the temporal pattern of exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.469-488. 60 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Categorisation of biological agents according to hazard and containment categories
The new edition of this guide (see CIS 91-1019 for previous edition) reflects the need to implement two European Community Directives concerning biological agents (90/679/EEC and 93/88/EEC). Contents: background information on the categorization of biological agents; guidance list of bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi in four hazard groups; guidance on the selection of appropriate containment measures; requirements for each of four levels of containment for laboratories and for work with experimental animals inoculated with biological agents. Appendices provide further guidance on the control of specific biological agents. Includes an Approved List of biological agents. Sections of the guide having legal status are highlighted.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 4th ed., 1995. viii, 152p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
Characteristics of blood-containing aerosols generated by common powered dental instruments
Aerosols generated in the mouths of dental patients were simulated in the laboratory by applying powered dental instruments to whole blood. Rates of production, particle size distribution, persistence, and blood content of the aerosols were measured. All the recovered particles could contain the 0.042µm hepatitis B virus and could be inhaled; many could be retained in the human respiratory system. Of the 0.06 to 2.5µm particles, 15-83% passed through the filter media of nine makes of protective surgical masks used by dentists. Findings lend support to the hypothesis of an airborne route for the hepatitis B infections reported for dental professionals.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1995, Vol.56, No.7, p.670-676. Illus. 26 ref.
Warts in aquarium industry workers
Case studies of two marine aquarium shop workers with common warts on the hands are described. Both workers handled aquarium gravel and sharp-edged coral skeletons, and the hands were frequently wet with cuts and abrasions. Possible causes of the warts in these workers and workers in other industries are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1995, Vol.33, No.5, p.348-349. Illus. 10 ref.
Improving working conditions - Workplace AIDS policies
Pour une amélioration des conditions de travail - Une politique-SIDA dans l'entreprise [in French]
Main issues dealt with in this review of current knowledge on workplace AIDS and on the relevance of the implementation of an AIDS policy in companies: Should a company institute an AIDS policy? Do carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) threaten the health of their colleagues, customers or that of their own? Disclosure of the serological status of workers has serious socio-economic consequences. Is it possible to prevent involuntary unemployment of HIV-infected workers or to workers having AIDS who otherwise accomplish their duties? What are the essential elements of a workplace AIDS policy? What are the ethical issues to be considered in developing an AIDS policy?
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.359-368. Illus. 60 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Infectious disease control
These 11 fact sheets describe safe work practices for the control of infectious diseases in a variety of occupations: accident and emergency departments; anaesthetic procedures; clinical laboratories; contract cleaners; dentistry; emergency response workers; midwifery services and obstetric procedures; operating theatres; police; post-mortem procedures; prison officers. They should be read in conjunction with the National Code of Practice for Health Care Workers and Other People at Risk of the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B in the Workplace.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, no date. 11 leaflets (48p.).
New epidemics in occupational health. Which ones and how to identify them
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). It discusses the increasing complexity of "new" epidemics in the work environment, often of a multi-exposure and multi-outcome nature. The epidemics are often due to changes in the nature of the workplace or in the working population. Epidemiology as a science must also keep pace with growing demands from society (privacy protection, decentralization etc.). Some new epidemics specifically mentioned are: Hanta virus infections, sudden deaths, musculoskeletal overuse syndromes, multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome, health problems due to exposure to electric and magnetic fields, psychological disorders (connected with VDU or other computer work). Ways to identify new epidemics are listed.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.139-151. Illus. 45 ref.
Schlosser O., Roudot-Thoraval F.
Occupational exposure to sewage and hepatitis A risk
Exposition professionnelle aux eaux usées et risque d'hépatite virale A [in French]
The availability of a first hepatitis A vaccine in 1992 raised the issue of its use among sewage workers. A cross-sectional study was made to estimate the occupational hazard of hepatitis A comparing the prevalence of antibodies to the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in 110 workers exposed to sewage with the prevalence in 110 non-exposed controls from the same firm, matched for age and educational level. History of jaundice, travelling in endemic areas and duration of occupational exposure were noted. The seroprevalence of HAV antibodies was 52.7% globally, significantly higher in exposed workers (60.9%) than in controls (44.5%) (p<0.02). This seroprevalence increased with age, and was related to educational level in each group. These results emphasize the role of occupational exposure to sewage in HAV infection. The vaccination of exposed workers is to be recommended because of the frequency of the symptomatic form of hepatitis A in adults, sometimes of considerable severity.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.1, p.23-27. Illus. 23 ref.
Harrison J., Jones C.E.
Human parvovirus B19 infection in healthcare workers
The occurrence of human parvovirus B19 infection in seven hospital health care workers is reported. The clinical presentation mimicked that of rubella and the diagnosis was made by the detection of human parvovirus B19 IgM antibody in blood samples taken from the affected workers. The importance of accurate diagnosis of B19 infection is discussed since this virus has been implicated in causing or exacerbating a variety of medical conditions. The need to make health care workers aware of the importance of this infection is stressed.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1995, Vol.45, No.2, p.93-96. 25 ref.
A code of practice for hepatitis B and HIV/AIDS in the workplace
Topics: Australia; directive; disposal of harmful waste; high-risk groups; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious hepatitis; vaccination; Western Australia.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, Feb. 1994. 20p. Illus. Price: AUD 3.00.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Hepatitis viruses
This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France 8-15 June 1993. Overall evaluation: chronic infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus is carcinogenic to humans; infection with hepatitis D virus is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. Topics: animal experiments; carcinogenic effects; contagion; criteria document; human experiments; IARC; infectious hepatitis; literature survey; liver cancer; race-linked differences; viruses; WHO.
IARC Press, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1994. 286p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 65.00.
Hepatitis B as an occupational hazard
Report on hepatitis B as an occupational hazard published by the WHO as part of the workplan of its Regional Office for Europe to achieve Target 25 in the health for all (HFA) strategy (see definition in document). Main contents: hepatitis B - the disease (epidemiology, clinical course; stability and decontamination of the virus); occupational risk; prevention of occupationally-acquired hepatitis B (defining occupational risk, universal precautions, using hepatitis B vaccine in workers at risk; screening; prevention of hepatitis B in self-employed workers; post-exposure prophylaxis; other occupational hazards; cost effectiveness and cost benefit of vaccination of at-risk workers); implementation of successful hepatitis-B prevention programmes in the workplace; current policies for the protection of workers; annexes (status of hepatitis B vaccination in WHO European Member States; the viral hepatitis prevention board; useful names and addresses); glossary.
Occupational Health Programme, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Scherfigvej 8, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark, 1994. 64p. 62 ref.
Conditions of work of nursing personnel
Arbeitsbedingte Belastungen des Pflegepersonals [in German]
Survey of the physical and mental requirements placed on nursing personnel as well as on the diseases and psychological effects their work may cause. Personnel caring for the elderly, sick children and adults have to lift and carry heavy loads, work in a bending posture and may be exposed to disinfectants, anaesthetics, cytostatic drugs, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, moulds and protozoa. The frequency rates of job-related accidents, spinal and skin diseases, infectious diseases such as hepatitis, AIDS, tuberculosis and cancer, are presented.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 3, 86899 Landsberg, Germany, 1994. 120p. Illus. 299 ref. Price: DEM 42.00.
About Hepatitis B
Training booklet on the dangers of exposure to hepatitis B virus: transmission of hepatitis B; dangers of exposure (particularly in the health-care environment); symptoms; protective measures at work; protection during routine procedures; what to do in the case of an accident; vaccination. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###
Tesch D., Heupel P., Marian B., Schröter W., Schwarz K.H.
Investigation of the health risk involved in cleaning work
Untersuchung tätigkeitsspezifischer Gesundheitsrisiken im Reinigungsgewerbe [in German]
Statistical data on the types of accidents and occupational diseases among cleaning personnel were evaluated to determine the accident and health risks of this trade. In addition, data from periodic medical examinations by industrial physicians and a questionnaire survey of 645 cleaners were used. All cleaners, including bottle washers and metal cleaners, were included in the study. The most frequent causes of accidents were slipping, falls on the level and among glass and window cleaners falls from heights. Among occupational diseases skin diseases, mainly skin allergies and eczema, were most frequent. Infectious diseases, mostly hepatitis B, ranked second in frequency.
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaften, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1994. iii, 115p. Illus. 81 ref.
57th National Congress: Surveillance and monitoring in occupational medicine and industrial hygiene - II. Papers: A. Past experience and recommendations for health surveillance
57° Congresso Nazionale: Sorveglianza e vigilanza in medicina del lavoro e igiene industriale - II: Comunicazioni: A. Esperienze e proposte di sorveglianza sanitaria [in Italian]
This complete number of the periodical is devoted to the papers presented at a conference on health surveillance at the workplace, held at Fiuggi Fonte, Italy, 27-29 Oct. 1994. Among the topics covered: recent legislative developments in Italy; health surveillance of special groups of workers (minors and apprentices, university workers, police officers, in the oil seed processing industry, asbestos-exposed workers, mercury-exposed workers); comparison of ILO radiography, high-resolution computed tomography and lung diffusing capacity for CO in tunnelling workers; assessment of minimal asbestosis; respiratory function and/or lung diseases in occupational contexts (industrial pollution, routine health control, chromium exposure, in firemen); follow-up studies (lead-exposed workers, hearing loss in police officers, hearing loss in workers exposed to known levels of noise); thyroid function in lead-exposed workers; biological monitoring of workers exposed to diesel fumes; hepatitis B and C in hospital workers; liver damage in shoe repairers; lymphocyte distribution in plastic manufacturing workers; dermatitis in contact-lens manufacturing workers; anti-tumour immunological surveillance in workers exposed to ionizing radiation; new method for the classification of audiogrammes; audiologic screening of metallurgical workers.
Archivio di Scienze del Lavoro, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.X, No.2, p.119-260 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Danenberg H.D., Shoval D.
Risk of viral hepatitis C infection among medical personnel
Hasikun lahadbaqa bedaleqet kaved negifit C (HVC) beqerev haosqim berefua [in Hebrew]
A review. The risk of HCV infection among medical personnel and the consequences of such infection seem to be less severe than for HBV infection. In Israel, at least 0.5% of the sick population carry the hepatitis C virus in their blood; the development of a kit for the identification of HCV in blood makes it easier to identify such carriers.
Harefuah, 1994, Vol.127, No.12, p.533-536. 44 ref.
Blood-borne diseases in the workplace - Pocket guide
Contents of this guide: causes and nature of blood-borne diseases (hepatitis, AIDS); risk factors (causes of infection in the workplace, workers at risk); precautions (personal protective equipment, safe work practices); vaccination, immunization and blood tests; emergency procedures; disposal and disinfection of equipment; legal protection.
Genium Publishing Corporation, 1 Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, Sep. 1994. 47p. Illus. 21 ref. Available from: H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom. Price: GBP 5.00.
Jacques P., Moens G., Van Damme P., Goubau P., Vranckx R., Steeno J., Muylle L., Desmyter J.
Increased risk for hepatitis A among female day nursery workers in Belgium
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.5, p.259-261. 17 ref. ###
Warts in butchers - A cause for concern?
Warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are common on the hands of workers in the meat industry; one particular viral type, HPV7, predominates. Studies have found no relation between the excess prevalence of warts among these workers and a number of factors and it was concluded that some constituent of meat may enhance the effect of HPV7. Other studies have indicated a relation between butchers' warts and an apparent increase in the occurrence of lung cancer found in those who handle fresh rather than chilled meat. Further clarification of these studies is required.
Lancet, 7 May 1994, Vol.343, No.8906, p.1114. 8 ref.
Wild C.P., Anwar W.A., Lehtinen S.
Mycotoxins as mutagens and carcinogens: Possibilities for disease prevention
Proceedings of an African regional conference on the prevention of diseases due to mycotoxins held on 23-26 January 1993 in Cairo, Egypt. Contents: mycotoxins as mutagens and carcinogens; environmental toxicology of microbial carcinogens; fumonisins produced by Fusarium monoliforme in maize, food-borne carcinogens of pan-African importance; health hazards associated with the consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated food in Sudan; mycotoxin research in Nigeria; aflatoxin as a human hepatocarcinogen and the possible interaction with hepatitis B virus; toxicological significance of mixtures of fungal toxins in food; monitoring and control strategies for mycotoxins; decontamination and detoxification of aflatoxins; aflatoxins and human disease epidemiological issues.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 1993, Vol.3, Suppl.2, p.1-60 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Fraser V., Spitznagel E., Medoff G., Dunagan W.C.
Results of a rubella screening program for hospital employees - A five-year review (1986-1990)
A US hospital employee health service rubella screening programme was evaluated over a five-year period from 1986-1990. A total of 6,115 new employees were screened for evidence of rubella immunity. Rubella serology was performed on 5,893 (96.4%) of the screened employees, while 222 (3.6%) had documentation of prior rubella vaccination or rubella infection. The absence of immunity was identified in 325 employees or 5.3% of all those screened. Logistical regression analysis demonstrated that five-year birth cohorts correlated significantly with serological status. Employees born in 1960-1964 were least likely to be seronegative, and employees born in 1970 or later were most likely to be seronegative. This study demonstrates a lower seronegativity rate than did previous studies. It identifies groups of employees likely to escape rubella screening and low vaccination rates. The increasing seronegativity among those born after 1964 correlates with increasing rates of rubella in the US.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Nov. 1993, Vol.138, No.9, p.756-764. Illus. 21 ref.
Yassi A., McGill M., Holton D., Nicolle L.
Morbidity, cost and role of health care worker transmission in an influenza outbreak in a tertiary care hospital
An influenza A outbreak involving 37% of health care workers and 47% of geriatric patients on a ward in a tertiary care hospital was reviewed. The majority of health-care workers became ill prior to detecting the first patient case of influenza, suggesting that nosocomial spread from staff to patients may have occurred. Only 13.7% of the staff and 5.9% of patients had been vaccinated prior to the outbreak. It is suggested that much of the morbidity and costs resulting from this outbreak could have been avoided by increased immunization of staff and patients.
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jan.-Feb. 1993, Vol.4, No.1, p.52-56. 19 ref.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B and the workplace
These two consensus statements provide advice on education and policies regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B in the workplace. The code of practice provides guidelines for health care workers and others at risk of the transmission of these diseases. Contents: definitions; employee consultation; mode of transmission of HIV and hepatitis B; control program for the prevention of transmission; risk identification and assessment; risk control (engineering controls, safe work practices, information and training, personal protective equipment); monitoring and evaluation; provision of first aid; management of employee exposures to blood or body fluids.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Nov. 1993. vii, 65p. 71 ref.
Adler S.P., Manganello A.M.A., Koch W.C., Hempfling S.H., Best A.M.
Risk of human parvovirus B19 infections among school and hospital employees during endemic periods
Risk factors for human parvovirus B19 infections for hospital and school employees were identified during an endemic period. By serological testing, 2,730 employees of 135 schools in three school systems and 751 employees of a hospital were monitored. Of these, 60% were initially seropositive. After adjusting for age, race, and gender, risk factors for seropositivity were contact with children aged five to 18 years at home (odds ratio [OR]=1.2), at work (OR=1.2), and employment in elementary schools in school system 2 (OR=1.4). Over 42 months, one of 198 susceptible hospital employees seroconverted compared to 62 of 927 school employees. Four factors associated with seroconversion were employment at elementary schools in system 2, contact with children aged five to 11 years at home or with children aged five to 18 years at work, and aged under 30 years. Those in daily contact with school-age children had a five-fold increased occupational risk for B19 infection.
Journal of Infectious Diseases, Aug. 1993, Vol.168, No.2, p.361-368. Illus. 27 ref.
Frölich J., Zeller I.
Risk of hepatitis A infection among workers of a large sewage plant operating association
Hepatitis-A-Infektionsrisiko bei den Mitarbeitern einer grossen Kläranlagenbetreibergenossenschaft [in German]
Antibodies against hepatitis A infection (anti-HAV) and anti-HAV-IgM were determined in 408 workers exposed to waste water in a sewage treatment plant and in 202 non-exposed workers. None of the workers were anti-HAV-IgM positive. In comparison with the control group, a significantly higher number of sewage plant workers were anti-HAV positive. For exposed workers over 40yrs old an odds ratio of 1.8 was obtained. Hepatitis A immunization is recommended for workers in sewage treatment plants.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Nov. 1993, Vol.28, No.11, p.503-505. Illus. 9 ref.
Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewer maintenance and sewage purification plant workers
Hepatitis-A Infektionsrisiko bei Kanalunterhaltungs- und Kläranlagenarbeitern [in German]
Sanitation workers exposed to sewage were subjected to serological examinations to determine the presence of anti-HAV-IgG. All 15 sewer maintenance workers and all 27 employees of a sewage treatment plant of a German municipality were included. Sewer maintenance workers with more than five years of exposure were found to be HAV-positive while among the group with less than five years seniority, only one was HAV-positive. Of the employees of the sewage treatment plant, all with more than 11 years of exposure were HAV-positive and all those with less than five years seniority were HAV-negative.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1993, Vol.28, No.7, p.305-307. Illus. 7 ref.
Cristofolini A., Bassetti D., Schallenberg G.
Zoonoses transmitted by ticks (tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis): Preliminary results
Le zoonosi trasmesse da zecche nei lavoratori forestali (tick-borne encephalitis e Lyme Borreliosis): Risultati preliminari [in Italian]
To investigate the diffusion of infections transmitted by ticks (Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and Lyme borreliosis) in forest workers, a serological investigation was carried out in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy) on the sera of 465 subjects at potential risk (foresters, hunters, woodcutters, gamekeepers). Antibodies for TBE virus were found in five subjects working in the same area, and antibodies for Borrelia burgdorferi were found in 15 subjects. All three clinical cases of TBE identified reported that they had been bitten by ticks in the same geographical area. The presence of specific antibodies for TBE virus was tested on the sera of animals grazing in several areas: four positive cases were observed in the same area as the human cases reported above.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1993, Vol.84, No.5, p.394-402. 35 ref.
Woodruff B.A., Moyer L.A., O'Rourke K.M., Margolis H.S.
Blood exposure and the risk of hepatitis B virus infection in firefighters
This survey assessed personal and occupational risk factors among uniformed fire department employees by a self-administered questionnaire and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status by serological testing. Overall, 46 of 592 employees had past or current HBV infection. Employees reporting blood contact with skin had been infected more often than employees without this exposure. Prevalence of infection did not differ by age, years on the job, or job duties. The adjusted prevalence of HBV infection among male employees was not significantly different from its prevalence in American men.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.35, No.10, p.1048-1054. 13 ref.
Heinsohn P., Jewett D.L.
Exposure to blood-containing aerosols in the operating room - A preliminary study
A personal sampling study was conducted to assess exposure to blood aerosols in the operating room. The breathing zones of primary and assistant surgeons were monitored with a personal cascade impactor. "Hemastix" were used to assess the haemoglobin content of each particle size fraction. The mucous membrane lining of the upper respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages in the gas-exchange region are likely to be exposed to aerosolized blood in the operating room, as particles less than 3.5µm in diameter were found in 66% of the samples, and particles smaller than 0.52µm were found in 38%.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.446-453. Illus. 13 ref.
Bloodborne pathogens in the workplace - Pocket guide
Pocket guide to bloodborne pathogens in the workplace, written for workers. Contents: major types of bloodborne pathogens and their transmission (HIV, hepatitis); exposure control plan (requirements of OSHA's Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens regulation); prevention of exposure (prevention of needlestick injuries, safe transport of biohazardous materials, decontamination of equipment, personal protective equipment, good housekeeping); immunization; emergency and post-exposure procedures; glossary.
Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 63p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders.
Hallauer J., Kane M., McCloy E.
Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board
Eliminating hepatitis B as an occupational hazard
Proceedings of an international conference on hepatitis B as an occupational hazard held in Vienna, Austria, 10-12 March 1993. Papers are presented under the following headings: hepatitis B and occupational risk; prevention of hepatitis B in the workplace (safe work practices, vaccination, education and successful prevention programmes); economic implications of hepatitis B in the workplace; implementation of effective prevention programmes in various countries; current policies and the way forward. Summaries of regional workshops provide information on the current situation in a number of countries.
Medical Imprint, 22 Lancaster Gate, London W2 3LY, United Kingdom, 1993. 114p. Bibl.ref.
Wood R.C., MacDonald K.L., White K.E., Hedberg C.W., Hanson M., Osterholm M.T.
Risk factors for lack of detectable antibody following hepatitis B vaccination of Minnesota health care workers
A total of 595 health care workers who had received hepatitis B vaccine underwent postvaccination testing for hepatitis B antibodies within 6 months of receiving the third dose of vaccine. Five variables were independently associated with a lack of antibodies: vaccine brand, smoking status, sex, age and body mass index. Results indicate that certain populations of health care workers are at increased risk of not responding to hepatitis B vaccination. Further studies evaluating the immunogenicity of currently available hepatitis B vaccines in persons at high risk for primary vaccine failure are needed.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Dec. 1993, Vol.270, No.24, p.2935-2939. Illus. 39 ref.
Roome A.J., Walsh S.J., Cartter M.L., Hadler J.L.
Hepatitis B vaccine responsiveness in Connecticut public safety personnel
A survey was made of levels of hepatitis B antibody present among public safety personnel who had completed vaccination 1 to 6 months earlier. Of 258 individuals tested, 11.9% were found to have no or inadequate levels of antibody. The frequency of inadequate level of antibody increased significantly with age. Smoking, extreme obesity and increasing time interval since completing the vaccine series were also associated with inadequate levels of antibody. It is concluded that routine immunization of public safety personnel should include selective use of postvaccine testing.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 22-29 Dec. 1993, Vol.270, No.24, p.2931-2934. 15 ref.
Starzyński Z., Iżycki J.
Occupational diseases in Poland during the years 1984-1992
An analysis of 86.871 cases of occupational disease in Poland occurring between 1984 and 1992 is presented. Hearing lesions, vocal organ diseases, contagious and invasive diseases, pneumoconioses, dermatoses, vibration syndrome, poisonings and chronic bronchitis were the most common. Among the aetiological factors, noise, industrial dusts, hepatitis virus, chromium and its compounds, lead and its inorganic compounds, carbon disulfide and carbon monoxide were the most important. In addition to statistics concerning the number of occupational disease broken down by sex, age, exposure duration, economic sector and region (voivodeships), statistics are also given on workmen's compensation.
Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.3, p.299-308. 10 ref.
Contents of this manual: the nature and occurrence of laboratory-acquired infections and how they are acquired; classification of microorganisms on the basis of hazard and laboratories on the basis of use; minimizing equipment and technique-related hazards; microbiological safety cabinets; collection, transport and receipt of infectious materials; decontamination; the laboratory worker; instruction in microbiological safety; the safe working environment; risk assessment, safety supervision and emergency contingency plans; precautions against laboratory-acquired hepatitis, AIDS, typhoid fever and tuberculosis; precautions with unconventional agents, parasites in Hazard Group 3, work with mammalian cell or tissue cultures and against infections in the post-mortem room.
Butterworth-Heinemann, Lineacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 3rd edition, 1993. xi, 274p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index Price: GBP 35.00.
Hagberg M., Hofmann F., Stössel U., Westlander G.
Occupational health for health care workers
This university-level textbook presents a state of the art review of occupational health problems among health care workers. Contents: general aspects; working conditions and health hazards of health care workers; infectious diseases and hygiene; epidemiology and prevention of viral hepatitis and other infectious diseases; chemical hazards as an occupational risk for health care workers; epidemiology and prevention of musculoskeletal accidents and diseases; dermatoses; psychological aspects of work in the health care professions.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-str. 3, 86899 Landsberg, Germany, 1993. xvii, 420p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Watch out for tick bites
Vorsicht bei Zeckenstich [in German]
Attenzione alle punture di zecche [in Italian]
Attention aux piqűres de tiques [in French]
Booklet to make workers aware of the hazards of tick bites. Aspects covered: the dangers, who is at risk, the season when bites can be expected in Europe, spring and summer meningo-encephalitis, what to do in case of a bite, preventing measures.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, July 1993. 7p. Illus.
Kudesia G., Briggs D., Donaldson M., Woolrich M., Raper J.
Hepatitis B prevalence in local authority employees
Prevalence of hepatitis B infection was determined in 420 employees from three local authorities by testing for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Five (1.2 per cent) were positive: this included a hepatitis BsAg carrier, three with antibody to hepatitis BsAg (anti-HBs) and one who had only anti-HBc. The prevalence of hepatitis B was not significantly different (P>0.05) from a control group of blood donors. However, four out of five anti-HBc positive individuals worked with mentally or physically handicapped individuals or those discharged into the community after long-term institutionalised care.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.129-131. 8 ref.
Williams N.R., Cooper B.M.
Counselling of workers handling vaccinia virus
Vaccination with smallpox vaccine for workers handling vaccinia virus was universally recommended in the United Kingdom until 1990. Since 1990, occupational physicians and other doctors acting as supervisory medical officers have been advised to consider the need for vaccination on a case-by-case basis taking into account factors such as the virulence of the organism and the nature of the proposed work. This paper describes the practice in one organisation for the counselling of prospective vaccinia workers and covers the hazards and risks of the work, the main control measures and the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.43, No.3. p.125-127. 9 ref.
Longbottom H.M., Cox K., Sokas R.K.
Body fluid exposure in an urban tertiary care medical centre
The increasing prevalence of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) and hepatitis B virus has focused attention on the risks that health care workers face when exposed to potentially infective body fluids. This study establishes a profile of 320 parenteral exposure incidents and 47 exposure incidents to mucous membranes or abraded skin, reported in a medical centre between July 1988 and July 1990. It was found that 102 (27.8%) of the incidents involved an HIV-positive patient, that 130 (35.4%) of the reporting employees had completed their hepatitis B vaccination at the time of the incident, and that, although the majority of incidents involved employees with patient contact, service workers also were represented (4.6%, n=17). Factors contributing to incidents included recapping (10.9%, n=40), full needle-boxes (7.6%, n=28), and inappropriate disposal (13.1%, n=48). A health fair featuring walk-in hepatitis B immunisation attracted 260 participants, 90% of whom completed the entire immunisation series. This significantly improved the immunisation rate of employees subsequently reporting body fluid exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.703-710. Illus. 14 ref.
The work environment. Volume 2. Healthcare, laboratories and biosafety
This manual discusses occupational hazards which may be encountered by laboratory or healthcare workers. Contents: laboratory and clinical environments (the laboratory safety standard; working with biohazards; research laboratory ventilation systems); healthcare provider exposures (occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, HBV and HIV; resurgence and control of tuberculosis; occupational health hazards in the dental office); laboratory spills and medical waste disposal; glossary. Appendices include the texts of relevant standards and recommendations.
Lewis Pubishers Inc., 121 South Main Street, Chelsea, Michigan 48118, USA, 1993. xii, 351p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 44.00.
Health and Safety Executive
The occupational zoonoses
Details are given of 17 zoonoses. Information provided includes: name of disease and responsible organism; animals carrying the organism; incidence; hazard to humans; means of transmission; occupations and activities at risk; means of control; clinical diagnosis; immunisation; legislation relating to notification of the disease. An introductory chapter outlines general regulatory requirements for hazard assessment, prevention and control, health surveillance and supply of information to employees. The diseases considered are: anthrax; bovine tuberculosis; brucellosis; cryptosporidiosis; hantavirus disease; hydatid disease (echinococcosis); leptospirosis (Weil's disease and cattle form); Lyme disease; Newcastle disease; orf; ovine chlamydiosis; psittacosis; Q fever; rabies; ringworm; Streptococcosis suis. A list of occupations with associated zoonosis hazards is appended.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. viii, 32p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
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