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Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entries found

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1999

CIS 00-251 de la Hoz García C., Otones Pérez J.J., Paredes Palomo L.E.
Model for the evaluation of biological hazards in medical centres
Modelo de evaluación de riesgos biológicos en centros sanitarios [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; hazard evaluation; health services; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; laboratories; legislation; risk factors.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.74, p.3-8. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 00-78 Cartier B., Jost M., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Vaccination of health care personnel
Impfungen des Personals im Gesundheitswesen [in German]
Vaccination du personnel de santé [in French]
Information booklet on preventive vaccination of health care personnel. Contents: vaccination as an effective preventive method against infectious diseases; principles of personnel vaccination; vaccination against hepatitis B; other vaccination (hepatitis A, measles/mumps/rubella, chickenpox, tetanus/diphtheria, poliomyelitis); responsibilities of employers and workers.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Mar. 1999. 11p. Illus.

CIS 99-2068 Warwick R.
Good practice in incident reporting: It's in the blood
The U.K. National Blood Service (NBS) which collects, processes, tests and dispatches blood and blood products is required by law to have high standards and to follow "quality" principles. The activities of the NBS are outlined, and the integration of accident and near-miss reporting into the "quality" system principles is described. Topics: biological hazards; blood; health services; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious hepatitis; information of personnel; injection injuries; legal aspects; notification of occupational accidents; plant safety and health organization.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 1999, Vol.17, No.4, p.24-26. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 99-1684 Salazar G.J., DeJohn C.A., Hansrote R., Key O.R.
A bloodborne pathogen program in civilian aircraft accident investigation
Problems associated with the implementation of OSHA regulations concerning protection against exposure to bloodborne pathogens (BBP) during investigation of aircraft accidents are discussed. The regulations present significant challenges in terms of implementing a programme which was primarily envisioned to affect personnel in traditional healthcare delivery facilities. Unanticipated issues include heat related conditions, performance of physically demanding work in cumbersome gear and biohazard trash disposal from remote sites. The Federal Aviation Administration, in close cooperation with other Federal agencies, developed a training and administrative programme to meet the requirements of the OSHA BBP rule as it relates to the unique environment of an aircraft accident site. The programme has been implemented and successfully tested under actual field conditions at several major aviation accidents that have occurred recently. Topics: accident investigation; air transport; biological hazards; disposal of harmful waste; infection control; infectious hepatitis; legislation; occupational accidents; personal protective equipment; USA.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.70, No.2, p.146-152. 11 ref.

CIS 99-1536 Veale D.
Health risks when working in and around water
Topics: agriculture; allergies; biological hazards; chemical hazards; conjunctivitis; diving; dock work; fishing; gastrointestinal diseases; hazard evaluation; health hazards; hepatitis; legislation; leptospirosis; particulate radiation; poliomyelitis; sewage; shipbuilding industry; sports and recreation; swimming pools; United Kingdom; water transport; water.
Croner's Occupational Hygiene Magazine, Dec.-Jan. 1998/1999, No.13, p.11-16. 5 ref.

1998

CIS 00-1760 Brunet C.
Monkey alert
Alerte aux macaques [in French]
Topics: experimental animals; fatalities; handling of animals; primates; virus diseases; zoonoses.
Travail et santé, Sep. 1998, Vol.14, No.3, p.38-40, 42. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1761 Yana-Victor V., Auter A.F., Abiteboul D., Touati M.A., Sogni P., Conso F.
Fitness for work and health care workers who are chronic carriers of hepatitis virus B and/or C
Aptitude et soignants porteurs chroniques de virus de l'hépatite B et/ou C [in French]
Topics: chronic diseases; contagion; determination in blood; health care personnel; hepatitis; hospitals; infectious hepatitis; job-exposure relation; work aptitude; work organization.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, July 1998, Vol.59, No.4, p.231-235. 11 ref.

CIS 00-1457 The risk of infection
Le risque infectieux [in French]
Topics: agriculture; biological hazards; containment; disposal of harmful waste; food industry; France; garbage collectors and related labourers; hospitals; infection control; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; injection injuries; job-exposure relation; legal aspects; microorganisms; safety rules; vaccination.
Santé et Travail, Apr. 1998, No.23, p.23-57. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-868 Miled S., Tigui M., Ammar H., Nouaigui H., Ben Laïba M.
Sero-epidemiologic study of hepatitis B among refuse collection workers of a Tunisian municipality
Etude séro-épidémiologique de l'hépatite virale B chez les agents de la propreté d'une municipalité tunisienne [in French]
Topics: antigens; biological hazards; cross-sectional study; immunity; infection control; infectious hepatitis; needle-stick injuries; questionnaire survey; refuse collection; risk awareness; serological reactions; Tunisia; vaccination.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 1998, No.7, p.28-32. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-256 Constans Aubert A., Alonso Espaladé R.M., Martí Solé M.C.
Sewage treatment plants: Biological hazards
Estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales: riesgo biológico [in Spanish]
Topics: bacteria; biological hazards; data sheet; diphtheria; fungi; infectious hepatitis; influenza; leptospirosis; microorganisms; parasitic diseases; poliomyelitis; sewage treatment; Spain; tetanus; tuberculosis; typhoid fever; vaccination; viruses.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1998. 5p. 16 ref.

CIS 99-2070 Arvanitidou M., Constantinidis T.C., Doutsos J., Mandraveli K., Katsouyannopoulos V.
Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers
In this cross-sectional study the employees of a Greek sewage company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers - HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc - to determine the prevalence of HBV infection, assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, and to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9%, and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. The prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage, with age, and with educational level, but only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection. Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B. Topics: antibodies; cross-sectional study; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; immunization; infectious hepatitis; sanitation services; sewage; vaccination; work in sewers.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1998, Vol.89, No.5, p.437-444. 11 ref.

CIS 99-1886 Baker P., Inskip H., Coggon D.
Health and Safety Executive
Leukaemia in teachers
This review was carried out at the request of the UK Health and Safety Executive. It was stimulated by observations of high mortality from leukaemia and related disorders among teachers in a national analysis of occupational mortality for England and Wales during 1979-80 and 1982-90, and the suggestion of elevated mortality from leukaemia among teaching professionals in a similar analysis for an earlier period. The aim was to assess systematically the epidemiological evidence for an increased incidence of haematopoietic cancer in teachers, and to explore the most likely explanation for the elevation of mortality recorded in the national statistics. Topics: educational institutions; epidemiologic study; haemic and lymphatic diseases; infectious diseases; leukaemia; literature survey; risk factors; teaching; United Kingdom; virus diseases.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. iii, 64p. Illus. 62 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 99-1012 Abecassis J.C., Abiteboul D., Bonnin C., Bouyaux L., Carduner G., Chazal J.P., Forestié-Auter A.F., Garcia E., Hibou C., Lanusse M., Leprince A., Velly P., Vogel B., Vuillerminaz C.
Hygiene and first aid - 2. Recommended health measures for occupational first aid and rescue workers
Hygiène et secourisme - 2. Recommandations d'hygiène pour les sauveteurs secouristes du travail [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; disinfectants; emergency services; face and eye protection; first aid; first-aid equipment; first-aid training; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious hepatitis; javel water; personal hygiene; protective gloves; resuscitation training.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.73, p.13-19. 2 ref.

CIS 99-1011 Forestié-Auter A.F., Paollilo A.G.
Hygiene and first aid - 1. Risk of transmission of infectious diseases from blood or saliva during first-aid operations and training on a mannikin
Hygiène et secourisme - 1. Risques de transmission de maladies infectieuses par voie sanguine et salivaire lors des interventions de secourisme et de l'apprentissage sur mannequin [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; blood; emergency services; expired-air resuscitation; first aid; first-aid equipment; first-aid organization; first-aid training; France; hepatitis; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; information of personnel; personal protective equipment; resuscitation training; saliva; vaccination.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.73, p.7-12. 28 ref.

CIS 99-1007 Brugha R., Heptonstall J., Farrington P., Andren S., Perry K., Parry J.
Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewage workers
In a study of 241 workers in a large water and sewerage company, frequent occupational exposure to raw sewage was a significant risk factor for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, independently of other known risk factors. Workers who are likely to be at risk of frequent exposure should have their immunity ensured. The salivary assay for IgG and anti-HAV described in the study is highly specific and would be suitable for prevaccination testing of older workers, who are more likely to be immune. Topics: antibodies; biological hazards; cross-sectional study; determination in blood; determination in saliva; infectious hepatitis; non-occupational factors; sewage treatment; vaccination; work in sewers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.55, No.8, p.567-569. 12 ref.

CIS 99-930 Du C.L., Wang J.D.
Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride monomer workers
Based on a search of hospital computer files on labour insurance, occurrence of disease was investigated in 2224 workers with occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). There was a significantly increased risk of admission to hospital for primary liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and other chronic diseases among these workers. Ten out of 11 cases of hepatoma were carriers of the hepatitis B virus. Alternative agents of primary liver cancer were largely ruled out, suggesting that the combination of hepatitis B and VCM exposure may lead to primary liver cancer. Topics: vinyl chloride; chemical industry; cirrhosis; epidemiologic study; infectious hepatitis; liver cancer; morbidity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.55, No.8, p.528-532. 37 ref.

CIS 99-1013
Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens
Working safely with simians: Management of infection risks
Specialist supplement to CIS 97-1356. Topics: biological hazards; experimental animals; infection control; infectious diseases; legislation; rabies; safety guides; United Kingdom; virus diseases; zoonoses.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 24p. 14 ref.

CIS 99-310 Ammon A., Petersen L.
Prevalence of antibodies to HBV and HCV among Berlin dentists and their assistants
HBV- und HCV-Antikörperprävalenz bei Berliner Zahnärzten und ihren Mitarbeitern [in German]
Topics: antibodies; biological hazards; dental services; epidemiologic study; infection control; infectious hepatitis; supply of personal protective equipment; vaccination.
Epidemiologisches Bulletin, 19 June 1998, No.24, p.171-174. 5 ref.

CIS 99-126 Olsen G.W., Burris J.M., Burlew M.M., Steinberg M.E., Patz N.V., Stolzfus J.A., Mandel J. H.
Absenteeism among employees who participated in a workplace influenza immunization program
Topics: age-linked differences; immunization; influenza; programme evaluation; sex-linked differences; sickness absenteeism.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.40, No.4, p.311-316. 9 ref.

1997

CIS 00-1766 Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Actions in cases of accidents involving biological hazards
Actuación frente a un accidente con riesgo biológico [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; brucellosis; data sheet; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious hepatitis; injection injuries; plant safety and health organization; Spain; tetanus; vaccination.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1997. 4p. 5 ref.

CIS 00-867 24th National Congress of Occupational Medicine - Biological agents
Journées nationales de Médecine du Travail - Les agents biologiques [in French]
Topics: autoimmunization; biological hazards; compensation of occupational diseases; conference; hazard evaluation; health care personnel; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; medical prevention; occupational medicine; parasitic diseases; pathogenic bacteria; risk awareness; rubella; Staphylococcus; vaccination; viruses; warts; waste disposal; water treatment; zoonoses.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, July 1997, Vol.58, No.4, p.309-416. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1003 Forestié-Auter A.F., Domart M., Laville M.F., Abiteboul D., Leprince A.
Actions to be taken in the event of an accident involving exposure to blood among health workers
Conduite à tenir en cas d'accident avec exposition au sang chez les professionnels de santé [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; exposure evaluation; first aid; health care personnel; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious hepatitis; injection injuries; medical supervision; prophylaxis; vaccination; virus diseases.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1997, No.69, p.13-17. 15 ref.

CIS 99-313
Instituto Nacional de Salud
Prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection among health care workers in national health service institutions and their affiliates in ten cities of the country [Colombia]
Prevalencia de infección por hepatitis B y C entre trabajadores de la salud de IPS propias y afiliadas al Seguro Social en diez ciudades del país [in Spanish]
Topics: antigens; biological hazards; contagion; cross-sectional study; determination in blood; fluorescent antibody test; frequency rates; health care personnel; health services; hospitals; infection control; infectious hepatitis; length of service; medical supervision; occupation disease relation; vaccination.
Seguro Social, Protección Laboral, Administradora de Riesgos Profesionales, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, May 1997. 52p. 15 ref.

CIS 98-959 Launey A., Abadia G.
Topical zoonoses - XXIVth national symposium of agricultural medicine
Les zoonoses d'actualité - XXIVe Symposium national de médecine agricole en France [in French]
Topics: agriculture; bacterial diseases; conference; contagion; diagnosis; epidemiological aspects; France; infectious diseases; virus diseases; zoonoses.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1997, No.72, p.371-378.

CIS 98-963 Lum D., Mason Z., Meyer-Rochow G., Neveldson G.B., Siriwardena M., Turner P., Firth H.
Needle stick injuries in country general practice
Topics: biological hazards; frequency rates; health care personnel; infection control; infectious hepatitis; New Zealand; questionnaire survey; vaccination.
New Zealand Medical Journal, Apr. 1997, Vol.110, p.122-125. 26 ref.

CIS 98-958 Cardo D.M., Culver D.H., Ciesielski C.A., Srivastava P.U., Marcus R., Abiteboul D., Heptonstall J., Ippolito G., Lot F., McKibben P.S., Bell D.M.
A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure
Topics: zidovudine; case-control study; health care personnel; immunodeficiency syndrome; prophylaxis; risk factors; virus diseases.
New England Journal of Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.337, No.21, p.1485-1490. 26 ref.

CIS 98-975 Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Cartier B., Rüegger M.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in the health care sector
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen im Gesundheitswesen [in German]
Prévention des maladies infectieuses transmises par voie sanguine dans le secteur sanitaire [in French]
Topics: biological hazards; blood; exposure evaluation; hepatitis; hospitals; immunodeficiency syndrome; industrial nurses; industrial nursing services; infection control; infectious diseases; occupational medicine; protective gloves; safety guides; Switzerland; vaccination; virus diseases.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 4th ed. (German), Dec. 1997. 95p. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 98-309 Rabaud C., Guillemin F., Mur J.M., Blech M.F.
Study of the attitude of health care workers facing occupational exposure to blood
Etude du comportement du personnel hospitalier face aux accidents avec exposition au sang [in French]
Topics: behaviour study; France; health care personnel; hospitals; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious hepatitis; injection injuries; nursing personnel; questionnaire survey.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1997, Vol.58, No.6, p.512-521. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 97-2063 Massip P.
Actions to be undertaken by health workers in the event of an accident involving exposure to blood
Conduite à tenir chez un professionnel de la santé en cas d'accident avec exposition au sang [in French]
This article is aimed at health workers potentially exposed to HIV and includes preventive measures and the course of action to follow in the event of accidental exposure to blood. The importance of proper information and first aid, and the effectiveness of prompt chemo-prophylaxy in the event of accidental blood exposure are emphasised. Practical advice is given.
Médecine et travail, Dec. 1997, Vol.174, No.4, p.48-54. Illus.

CIS 97-2050 Eddleston A.L.W.F.
Hepatitis B and health-care workers
This brief communication looks at the transmission of hepatitis B virus from health care workers to patients. A recent report provides convincing evidence of transmission of the virus from a surgeon who was HBsAg positive but HBeAg negative. This suggests that modifications may be needed to existing guidelines which require no change in work practices for health care workers who are HBeAg negative.
Lancet, May 1997, Vol.349, No.9062, p.1339-1340. 6 ref.

CIS 97-2056 McLean W., et al.
Risk associated with occupational glass injury in bar staff with special consideration of hepatitis B infection
In a survey of 91 bar staff workers, 74% reported hand injuries from broken glassware at work and 55% reported occupational skin contact with body fluids. Tests for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antibody (anti-HBc) showed that these workers were not at increased risk for this infection (anti-HBc prevalence 1.1%). However, this level of injury experience and exposure to body fluids represents a potential risk of infection. Hepatitis B immunization should be considered for these workers.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1997, Vol.47, No.3, p.147-150. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 97-2055 Zuckerman J.N., et al.
Immune response to a new hepatitis B vaccine in healthcare workers who had not responded to standard vaccine: Randomized double blind dose-response study
The immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a new recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was evaluated in a cohort of 100 health care workers in whom currently licensed hepatitis B vaccines had not induced an immune response. 69 subjects seroconverted after a single dose of the new vaccine. After the booster vaccination, one other subject seroconverted, bringing the overall seroconversion rate to 70%. Factors affecting the immune response are discussed along with guidelines for immunization.
British Medical Journal, Feb. 1997, Vol.314, No.7077, p.329-333. 32 ref.

CIS 97-1010 O'Sullivan J.D., et al.
Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses
A case study is presented of a man who developed aseptic meningitic illness shortly after caring for two horses that died from equine morbillivirus (EMV) infection. He also assisted at their necropsies without using a protective mask or gloves. 13 months later, he suffered severe encephalitis, characterized by uncontrolled focal and generalized epileptic activity. He died 14 days after hospitalization. The results of serology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry suggest that EMV was the cause of the encephalitis.
Lancet, 11 Jan. 1997, Vol.349, No.9045, p.93-95. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 97-1032 Gandsman E.J., Aaslestad H.G., Ouimet T.C., Rupp W.D.
Sabia virus incident at Yale University
An incident is described in which a research scientist was exposed to a newly isolated arenavirus, Sabia virus, while purifying the virus from a large volume of tissue culture fluid. The researcher was working in a laboratory which met the standard biosafety requirements. The exposure resulted in development of a Sabia virus infection from which the patient recovered. Following a safety review, a number of new practices and procedures were added to the university's biosafety policy.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1997, Vol.58, No.1, p.51-53. 4 ref.

1996

CIS 99-1355 Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens
Topics: biological hazards; exposure records; housekeeping; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; information of personnel; legislation; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; USA; vaccination; warning notices.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Publications Office, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington D.C. 20210, USA, 1996. 25p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 99-80 Preventing bloodborne disease
Topics: infection control; infectious diseases; personal protective equipment; training material; USA; videotape; virus diseases.
Tel-A-Train, 309 North Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1996. Videotape (length 18min). Price: USD 410.00, employee's guide USD 3.50.

CIS 97-664 Trela C.
Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis by an industrial physician
Pratique de la vaccination contre l'encéphalite japonaise en médecine du travail [in French]
Japanese encephalitis, a disease transmitted by mosquito bite, is endemic in many countries of South-East Asia. The disease may be fatal or have severe neurological after-effects. The vaccine against it has not yet received marketing authorization in France. It is now however possible to obtain temporary authorization from the French Agency for the evaluation of medicinal products. The author, who is an industrial physician practising in France, has thus been able to vaccinate seven workers, who were to work as expatriates in China for a period of several months. The results of an inquiry on the needs of industrial physicians in a French region concerning vaccination against Japanese encephalitis are presented.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.6, p.454-457. 5 ref.

CIS 97-296 Neumann H.D., Rosenlehner R., Wichmann H.E.
Health risks of work in pathology laboratories
Gesundheitsrisiken bei Arbeiten in pathologischen Laboratorien [in German]
A questionnaire survey of the personnel in 3 pathology laboratories was conducted to assess the risk of injuries. In addition the infection risk was determined by studying the records of occupational diseases between 1973 and 1977 and the literature published between 1984 and 1990. Cuts by microtome blades were found to occur frequently and a high infection risk for tuberculosis and hepatitis B was found. An exposure evaluation yielded formaldehyde values which were frequently in excess of the exposure limit in force in Germany.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Mar. 1996, Vol.31, No.3, p.107-112. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 97-6 Order No.96-364 of 30 April 1996 relating to the protection of pregnant or breast-feeding workers as a consequence of their exposure to chemical, biochemical and physical agents and modifying ... the Labour Code...[France]
Décret n°96-364 du 30 avril 1996 relatif à la protection des travailleuses enceintes ou allaitant contre les risques résultant de leur exposition à des agents chimiques, biologiques et physiques et modifiant ... le code du travail... [France] [in French]
Main contents of this Order: prohibition of work for women who notify their employer that they are pregnant and for those who are breastfeeding (work involving exposure to metallic lead and its compounds and that involving work in pressurized atmospheres >1.2bar). Other special measures aim to prevent infection with rubeola and toxoplasmosis.
Journal officiel de la République française, 1 and 2 May 1996, 128th Year, No.103, p.6613.

CIS 97-295 Gallagher J., Quaid B., Cryan B.
Susceptibility to varicella zoster virus infection in health care workers
Analysis of blood samples from 970 health care workers in a hospital in Ireland showed that 928 (95.7%) were immune to the varicella zoster virus (VZV) (chickenpox) and 42 (4.3%) were non-immune. Of the 894 clinical staff tested, 4.5% were non-immune. The advantages and disadvantages of selective staff screening are discussed. It is considered that all health care workers involved in the clinical care of patients should be screened for past VZV infection before taking up duty; those who are susceptible to VZV should be made aware of the risks and health effects associated with the disease.
Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.46, No.4, p.289-292. 12 ref.

CIS 96-2116 Israeli E., Gitelman J., Azor M.
Laboratory workers in Israel as an occupational hazard group
Adherence to biosafety and hygienic precautions in Israeli biological and medical laboratories is in many cases below the accepted international guidelines, and 25% of the laboratory personnel have had no vaccination against hepatitis B. Basic knowledge about biohazards, decontamination, hazardous waste disposal, etc. seems to be inadequate.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1996, Vol.1, No.2, p.147-152. 5 ref.

CIS 96-2311 Snashall D.
Occupational infections
This information note is part of the series ABC of Work Related Disorders. The following conditions are surveyed: anthrax, glanders, ankylostomiasis, brucellosis, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis (B and C), HIV infection, diseases spread from farm animals, non-agricultural diseases (due to contaminated oil, ear infections in divers, legionellosis, infections transmitted to health workers, Lyme disease in forestry workers). Because of their increased risk of infection, workers in certain occupations need specific immunizations.
British Medical Journal, 31 Aug. 1996, Vol.313, p.551-554. Illus.

CIS 96-1882 Magni S., Malacarne M., Vismara R.
Biological risk in sewage treatment plants
Il rischio biologico negli impianti di depurazione [in Italian]
Biological risks for waste-water treatment plant workers are discussed, with particular reference to the Italian situation compared with that existing in some other countries (Sweden, Denmark, USA, Canada, Romania). The relevant provisions of Italian decree D.L. 626/94 (see CIS 96-1531) are also commented on. Two levels of evaluation are emphasized: risk of exposure and risk of infection. It is recommended that epidemiological aspects be also analyzed together with systematic monitoring procedures of the main ways of infection: contact, ingestion and inhalation. Studies concerning hepatitis A and microbial contamination by aerosols are also reviewed.
Biologi Italiani, May 1996, Vol.26, No.5, p.46-52. 27 ref.

CIS 96-1887
International Social Security Association (ISSA)
Bloodborne infections - Occupational risks and prevention
Infections transmissibles par le sang - Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
Proceedings of a symposium on the occupational risks of bloodborne infections held in Paris, France, 8-9 June 1995. Papers cover: review of bloodborne occupational infections; risk factors of exposure and consequences in terms of prevention; prevention strategies and procedures associated with patient care, the operating room, dentistry and oral surgery, home care, laboratories and other occupations; evaluation of safety devices; waste and waste disposal; influence of workload (occupational stress, work organization, risk management); disinfection; management of occupational exposure to HIV and hepatitis; legislation and compensation; training programmes; vaccinations; epidemiological aspects.
ISSA Health Services Section, Pappelallee 35-37, 22089 Hamburg, Germany, 1996. 505p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-1884 Abiteboul D., Leprince A., Carruel F., Fleury L., Forestie-Auter A.F., Joly N., Neuville K., Patey O.
Blood-borne infections. Occupational risks and prevention
Infections transmissibles par le sang. Risques professionnels et prévention [in French]
Report on the 1st colloquium organized by the International Section on the Prevention of Occupational Risks in Health Services of the International Association of Social Security on the prevention of blood-borne infections (Paris, France, 8-9 June 1995). Organized to survey the most recent scientific knowledge obtained from cases, this meeting attracted medical experts from various fields (occupational physicians, OSH and infection specialists, hygienists, nurses, laboratory technicians, etc.), researchers, university professors, manufacturers and equipment designers, health care institution managers, etc. Main topics: epidemiological data: prevalence of major blood-borne infections; HIV occupational contaminations; work-related hepatitis B and C; infections by other pathogens (including non conventional agents and prions); exposure risk factors (surgery, obstetrics, gynaecology; laboratories; odontology, dental medicine; home care services; other exposed occupations (garbage workers, cleaners, workers in city cleaning and hygiene services, sewage workers, workers in funeral homes and penitentiary institutions, etc.)); waste disposal; vaccination; procedure in case of accident and compensation; risk assessment and control.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1996, No.66, p.131-147.

CIS 96-1890 Forestié-Auter A.F., Abadia G., Levery G., Besnard C., Dubois F., Thévenas C., Tichet J., Henin D.
I. Hepatitis A and waste water. Vaccination strategy in the workplace. II. Hepatitis and occupational exposure to waste water. Serological prevalence study
I. Hépatite A et eaux usées. Stratégie vaccinale en milieu de travail. II. Hépatite A et exposition professionnelle aux eaux usées. Etude de séroprévalence [in French]
Medical technical data sheet in two parts on the relationship between hepatitis A and waste water in France (vaccination strategies in occupational settings and seropositivity study). Because of the recent availability of a vaccine against hepatitis A, which is both effective and well tolerated, the relevance of vaccination in France and the strategy to be adopted in certain occupations, primarily those with an exposure to waste water, are under review. This prevalence survey supports the proposed vaccination strategy.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1996, No.65, p.7-11. 28 ref.

CIS 96-1092 Pellé-Duporté D., Kouyoumdjian S., Tuchais E., Carbonnelle B., Simon B.
An outbreak of ornithosis in a poultry slaughterhouse
Une épidémie d'ornithose dans un abattoir de volailles [in French]
Ornithosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci. Poultry and other birds are the main carriers of the bacteria, transmitted to the human through the respiratory tract. An outbreak of this disease in a French poultry slaughterhouse in April 1990 is reported. Out of 56 workers, 18 developed symptoms compelling them to stop work (4 were sent to hospital). Symptoms combined acute and feverish pneumopathies with a general deterioration of the state of health. In other cases, the clinical picture was less complete. Diagnosis was founded on serology, no germ was isolated by usual bacteriological techniques. The evolution of the disease, after antibiotic treatment, was good in all the cases. Workers were compensated by the French "Régime général de la Sécurité sociale" (occupational disease No.87).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.1, p.51-54. 14 ref.

CIS 96-1091 Gutersohn T., Steffen R., Van Damme P., Holdener F., Beutels P.
Hepatitis A infection in aircrews: Risk of infection and cost-benefit analysis of hepatitis A vaccination
Analysis of Swissair medical files for the period 1987 to 1991 revealed 22 cases of hepatitis A among 3,322 crewmembers; all cases occurred in crewmembers who had spent some time on duty in developing countries. For non-immune crewmembers, the overall annual incidence rate was estimated to be 1.53 per 1000, and 12.2 per 1000 during a stay in a high risk country. Male flight attendants had a higher rate than female flight attendants or pilots. Simplified comparison of cost of infection and cost of vaccination indicated that vaccination may be cost-saving to the airline company for both male flight attendants and pilots.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.67, No.2, p.153-156. 25 ref.

CIS 96-1097 O'Neil J.T.
The bloodborne pathogens standard: A pragmatic approach
This handbook on the prevention of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens is aimed at all workers with potential exposure, with a particular emphasis on exposure in a health-care environment. It is a practical guide to the implementation of the 1991 US Bloodborne Pathogen Standard (CIS 93-371). Contents: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and its role in the setting of occupational safety and health standards; hepatitis B (biology of the HBV virus, disease outcomes, transmission, epidemiology, vaccination, post-exposure prophylaxis); HIV and AIDS (biology, the HIV antibody test, transmission, occupational case histories, workers with AIDS); the creation of the Standard; detailed explanation of the Standard (exposure control, methods of compliance, HIV and HBV research laboratories and production facilities, HBV vaccination and post-exposure follow-up, hazard communication, record keeping, effective dates); compliance and legal implications; future trends. In annex: full text of the Standard; various recommendations and guidelines for the prevention of bloodborne infections; management of occupational exposure to HIV, including post-exposure use of zidovudine.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Ave., New York NY 10003, USA; Chapman & Hall, 2-6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, United Kingdom, 1996. xiii, 319p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price (in Europe): GBP 34.95.

1995

CIS 99-1691 Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Bloodborne pathogens: An occupational hazard
Patógenos transmitidos por la sangre: un riesgo laboral [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; community services; data sheet; health care personnel; immunodeficiency syndrome; infection control; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; prophylaxis; Spain; vaccination.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 4p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 99-486 Alonso Espadalé R.M., Martí Solé M.C.
Active immunization: A means of prevention
La inmunización activa: una herramienta de prevención [in Spanish]
Topics: brucellosis; data sheet; echinococcosis; immunization; infection control; legal aspects; leptospirosis; rabies; Spain; tuberculosis; typhus; vaccination.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1995. 4p. 9 ref.

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