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Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entries found

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CIS 06-454 Jarke J, Marcus U.
HIV infection of occupational origin among medical personnel - An assessment
Berufsbedingte HIV-Infektionen bei medizinischem Personal - eine aktuelle Übersicht [in German]
In Germany, the risk of workplace infection by HIV is lower than that for hepatitis B or C. The possibilities for preventing a chronic infection by one of these viruses by a post-exposure intervention are comparable. Prophylactic procedures following a known or possible exposure to HIV are described in detail in German-Austrian recommendations concerning post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. In 44 declared cases of HIV infection of occupational origin among health care workers in Germany, only eight were identified as being clearly linked to work. In 16 cases, the link with occupational exposure was judged to be insufficient and in 20 cases, other risk factors were evident. To detect HIV infections contracted at work following an undeclared exposure and to facilitate the evaluation of the risk of transmission at work, all health care personnel in all sectors at risk should be offered HIV tests at regular intervals.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, 2002, No.5, p. 218-220, 222-231. 73 ref.

CIS 06-453 Hoffman F, Kralj N., Beie M.
Needle-stick injuries in health care - Frequency, causes and preventive measures
Kanülenstichverletzungen im Gesundheitsdienst - Häufigkeit, Ursachen und Präventionsstrategien [in German]
Health service personnel are at risk of infection by blood-borne pathogens, notably the hepatitis B and C virus and the human immunodeficiency virus (HBV, HCV, HIV) which may be contracted during injuries or punctures with sharp or pointed instruments or needles. An epidemiological study conducted in two German health care establishments showed that some 500,000 needle-stick injuries occur each year in Germany, most of them during the disposal or recapping of used syringes. The administration of post-exposure prophylaxis is recommended for all health service workers immediately after the declaration of exposure. Programmes for the prevention of needle-stick injuries (avoidance of recapping, waste disposal in specially adapted containers, wearing surgical gloves) would limit the cost of post-exposure prophylaxis and avoid the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Gesundheitswesen, 2002, No.5, p. 259-266. Illus. 112 ref.

CIS 03-242 Laraqui C.H,, Laraqui O., Douma A., Mounassif M., Rahhali A.
Perception of occupational hazards among health care workers in prisons in Morocco
Perception des risques professionnels chez le personnel de soins en milieu carcéral au Maroc [in French]
The aim of this study was to identify the perception of occupational hazards among health care workers in prison, to evaluate their satisfaction at work and to propose preventive measures. This survey was carried out in 2000 in several prisons. Among the 140 distributed questionnaires, 58% were recovered. 72.8% of the staff declared that night guard had a negative influence on their work and health and 90.1% on their social life. 35% found the working atmosphere confined, 80.2% complained of physical constraints including 50.6% from draught, 35% from excessive heat and 74% from humidity. Poor lighting of the premises was underlined by 55.5%. The most feared infectious diseases were tuberculosis (98.8%), scabies (93.8%), syphilis (91.4%), viral hepatitis (41.9%) and HIV (41.9%). Risky objects most frequently mentioned were hollow needles (80.2%), solid needles (76.5%), blades and scalpels (75.2%). Incidents involving exposure to blood were reported by 87.7% of the staff 80.2% had been threatened by prisoners. Only 2.5% had benefited from training in hygiene and prevention.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2002, Vol.63, No.5, p.374-381. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1943 Lot F., Migueres B., Yazdanpanah Y., Tarantola A., Abiteboul M., Domart M., Bouvet E.
Occupational HIV and HCV seroconversions among health care workers in France - Situation as of 30 June 2001
Séroconversions professionnelles par le VIH et le VHC chez le personnel de la santé en France - Le point au 30 juin 2001 [in French]
This article presents the results of an ongoing study on contaminations by the human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) among health care workers in France as of 30 June 2001. No new cases of HIV seroconversion were reported since 1997, the total number of cases since the start of the study remaining at 13. With respect to HCV, 43 seroconversions were reported, of which 32 were the result of contacts with patients known to be infected at the time of accidental exposure. The breakdown in the number of cases is given by occupation, by health care department and by geographical region, together with data concerning the circumstances of the accidental infection, clinical surveillance and biological monitoring, medical follow-up evolution. The study protocol and the questionnaires are included as appendices.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.157-166. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 02-1942 Averhoff F.M., Moyer L.A., Woodruff B.A., Deladisma A.M., Nunnery J., Alter M.J., Margolis H.S.
Occupational exposures and risk of hepatitis B virus infection among public safety workers
A questionnaire and seroprevalence survey was conducted to determine the frequency and type of occupational exposures (OEs) and the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection experienced by public safety workers (PSWs). Of the 2910 PSWs who completed the survey, 6.8% reported at least one OE in the previous 6 months, including needlestick (1.0%), being cut with a contaminated object (2.8%), mucous membrane exposure to blood (0.9%), and being bitten by a human (3.5%). The rate of OE varied by occupation with 2.7% of firefighters, 3.2% of sheriff officers, 6.6% of corrections officers, and 7.4% of police officers reporting ≥1 OE. The HBV infection prevalence was 8.6%, and after adjustment for age and race, it was comparable to the overall US prevalence and did not vary by occupation. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine to PSWs early in their careers will prevent HBV infection associated with occupational and non-OEs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.591-596. 23 ref.

CIS 02-1270 Le Bâcle C., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C.
The forest and its ills: From tree to man - XXVIIIth national symposium of agricultural medicine, 22 June 2002, Tours
La forêt et ses maux: de l'arbre à l'homme - XXVIIIe symposium national de médecine agricole, 22 juin 2001, Tours [in French]
This article is a summary of the papers presented at an agricultural medicine symposium devoted to forestry, held on 22 June 2001 in Tours, France. Contents: economic and social role of forestry in France; occupational hazards during forestry work and woodworking; forestry workers and vibration hazards; hazards from toxic substances used for the treatment of wood; prevention of diseases caused by arthropods; epidemic haemorrhagic fever; Lyme's disease.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.65-74.

CIS 02-757 Robert E., Saillenfait A.M.
Occupational hazards for pregnant women
Risques professionnels chez la femme enceinte [in French]
There currently exist very few occupational exposure factors clearly identified as presenting a risk for human reproduction, the most important being solvents and lead for women working in the chemical industry and certain infectious agents (rubella, toxoplasmosis and human immunodeficiency virus) for health care personnel. It is necessary at the same time to evaluate the intensity of exposure through regular measurements, to carry out biological monitoring of exposed workers and to be alert to the general clinical symptoms which include migraine, nausea or perceived ill odours. The importance of applying the basic preventive measures should be emphasized and additional collective or individual protective measures should be provided if necessary. Pregnant women need to inform their occupational physician of their state as soon as possible so as to enable the provision of less constraining working conditions before possibly considering the interruption of work.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 6p. 39 ref.


CIS 09-833 The 6th International Symposium on Maritime Health
Proceedings of the International Conference on Maritime Health held in Manila, Philippines, 5-8 November 2001. Leading international maritime health experts have gathered to discuss scientific issues in maritime occupational health and safety. Participants included ship managers, maritime experts, health practitioners, occupational health physicians and maritime authorities.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-1286 HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B and C - Preventing exposure at work
This booklet is aimed at employers and workers who are not expected to come into contact with blood and body fluids at their workplace but who could nonetheless have contact with these fluids in rare, isolated incidents that cannot be foreseen. This booklet describes the health effects caused by HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C viruses, together with their mode of infection, and explains how to prevent or reduce exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Includes examples of safe work practices.
WorkSafe, Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Canada, 2001. iv, 34p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1920 Łuczak M., Zużewicz M.A.
Biological hazards - A case study
Zagrożenia biologiczne - wybrane zagadnienia [in Polish]
This document describes living organisms which are biological hazards for humans: bacteria, fungi and viruses, as well as irritating agents, allergens, carcinogens and biological toxic agents. The development cycles of Chlamydia and Legionella are also presented.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 64p. Illus. 24 ref

CIS 03-929 Pelle-Duporte D., Gendre J.C.
Outbreaks of ornithosis in a poultry processing plant
Epidémies d'ornithose dans un abattoir de volailles [in French]
Psittacosis or ornithosis, also known as avian chlamidiosis, is an infectious zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci bacteria, of which birds are the usual vectors. In humans, it causes pneumopathy and other flu-like symptoms. The two outbreaks described in this article occurred in a poultry processing plant in the west of France. Thanks to their knowledge of the work environment, occupational physicians were able in both cases to establish a diagnosis and to coordinate the inquiry among workers and their physicians, thereby enabling a prompt and efficient treatment of the affected workers. These two outbreaks are not isolated cases, other instances having occurred in the poultry industry.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2001, No.85, p.49-57. 22 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-440 Kralj N.
Technical and immunological methods of preventing hepatitis B viral infections
Sicherheitstechnische und immunologische Prävention berufsbedingter Hepatitis-B-Virus-Infektionen [in German]
In this thesis, a critical review of occupational hazards and epidemiology relating to hepatitis B infection was carried out, together with incidents that give rise to infections in occupational settings. The frequency with which the piercing of gloves occurred in hospital environments was also evaluated for the purpose of defining the conditions giving rise to such incidents. Results were compared to those of published studies. Despite the adoption of purely technical prevention measures such as wearing double-layer protective gloves or incision-resistant gloves, and protecting the skin to avoid skin diseases, protective vaccination remains an indispensable prevention measure.
FFAS, Postfach 5171, Freiburg, Germany, 2001. 124p. Illus. 152 ref.

CIS 03-200 Wong O., Harris F., Rosamilia K., Raabe G.K.
Updated mortality study of workers at a petroleum refinery in Torrance, California, from 1959 to 1997
This cohort study involved 3328 workers employed at a refinery for at least one year between 1959 and 1997, with an observation period from 1960 to 1997. Mortality data were analysed in terms of cause-specific standardized mortality ratios with expected deaths based on US national data. The overall mortality of the cohort was significantly lower than expected. Overall cancer mortality was also lower than expected, with significant mortality deficits being observed for certain specific sites. For other diseases, no significant increases were observed, with specific mortality deficits for ischaemic heart disease, chronic endocardial disease and other myocardial insufficiencies, all other heart disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Detailed analysis by length of employment did not reveal any significant mortality excess or upward trend. Analyses of male employees by job classification (process and maintenance) showed significantly elevated mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and suicide among maintenance workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1089-1102. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1675 Libouton P., Caroyer J.M., Machtelinckx V.
New occupational diseases recognized by the Occupational Disease Fund
Nouvelles maladies professionnelles reconnues par le Fonds des maladies professionnelles (F.M.P.) [in French]
Nieuwe beroepsziekten erkend door het fonds de beroepsziekten (F.B.Z.) [in Dutch]
The list of compensated occupational diseases increases regularly. This article gives an overview of the latest occupational diseases recognized by the Belgian Occupational Disease Fund (Fonds des maladies professionnelles). They include lung cancer and cancer of the larynx caused by asbestos, the organo-psychotic syndrome caused by solvents, gonarthrosis, warts and asthma.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.179-186. 17 ref.

CIS 02-1945 Brouwers J.F.
Proposed procedure to be adopted in non-hospital environments following injuries by potentially-contaminated blood-stained objects
Proposition de procédure à suivre, en dehors d'un milieu hospitalier, lors d'un accident du travail avec blessure causée par un objet souillé par du sang susceptible d'être contaminé [in French]
Outside of the hospital sector, many enterprises and public services are also confronted with the risk of occupational accident resulting in wounds acquired with objects possibly soiled by infected blood. Although the working procedure for such accidents is well known and regularly applied in hospitals, this is generally not the case in other sectors. This article proposes an approach derived from hospital recommendations. Appendices include information documents aimed at the enterprise-level occupational safety and health committee, at the medical practitioner treating the patient on the day of the accident and at the medical practitioner following this patient, as well as a list of hospitals in Belgium that are able to apply urgently a preventive AIDS tritherapy to injured workers who are not part of their personnel.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.167-178. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1280 Leggat P., Kedjarune U.
Occupational risks of modern dentistry: A review
Occupational health risks in modern dentistry include exposure to infectious diseases (such as hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)), musculoskeletal and other injuries, contact dermatitis, radiation, noise, mercury, dental materials and stress. Percutaneous injuries are of particular concern to those dentists who may be exposed to serious infectious agents (such as HIV, HBV and HCV), and education on how to avoid such injuries would be beneficial. Dentists should receive HBV immunization and use personal protective measures and appropriate sterilization or high-level disinfection techniques. Dentists should be kept up to date with current OHS practices (particularly in areas such as exposure to mercury, radiation and some of the newer dental materials) through continuing education programmes.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.279-286. 48 ref.

CIS 02-941 Scherrer Y., Boillat M.A.
Are guards in the penitentiary system of the Canton of Vaud at risk of occupational exposure to blood-transmissible diseases?
Les surveillants travaillant dans le système pénitentiaire vaudois sont-ils soumis à un risque d'exposition professionnelle à une maladie transmissible par le sang? [in French]
Prison staff is at risk of blood-transmissible diseases given the nature of the of inmate population they are confronted with, in particular in the course of searches, acts of violence and accidents. The objective of this study conducted in a Swiss canton was to characterize the real and perceived risk of occupational blood-transmissible diseases in this occupation. Hepatitis B (HB) was used as an indicator of blood transmissible diseases, and HB serology of all employees (n = 248) was determined. Furthermore, a questionnaire was addressed to all employees. 19% of the warders had been wounded during searches in cells and 8.2% when searching inmates. One third of the guards had been at least once in contact with the blood of a prisoner. However, no increases in the number of seroconversions were observed. Finally, risk perception remains intense, concerning 73% of the guards and 20% of the remaining staff.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.83-91. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-815 Luo J.C., Kuo H.W., Cheng T.J., Chang M.J.W.
Abnormal liver function associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide and hepatitis B virus
N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) has excellent solvent properties and is used intensively in the production of synthetic leather and resins. It has caused hepatoxicity in human and animal studies. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus infections are reported to be the major causes of chronic liver diseases (including liver cirrhosis and liver cancer) in Taiwan. This study examined the dose-response relationship of the observed abnormal liver function among the DMF-exposed workers and the interactions among DMF, other chemical exposures, HBV infection, and potential confounders on liver abnormalities. It was observed that a significant dose-response relationship existed between liver function abnormalities and DMF exposure among workers in Taiwan, and that HBV carrier status or increased BMI had synergistic effects with DMF exposure in causing liver abnormalities (abnormal liver function tests and clinical chronic liver diseases).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.474-482. 29 ref.

CIS 02-439 Global programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work
Programme mondial sur le VIH/SIDA et le monde du travail [in French]
Programa mundial sobre el VIH/SIDA y el mundo laboral [in Spanish]
Folder containing 4 leaflets, including a message from the Director-General of the ILO and two copies (one pocket-sized) of "An ILO code of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work". This code of practice provides guidelines to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the world of work in the context of the promotion of decent work. The guidelines cover: prevention of HIV/AIDS; management and mitigation of the impact of HIV/AIDS and the world of work; care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. Folder with 4 leaflets and 1 booklet (8p. + vii, 32p. 79 ref.).

CIS 01-1836
Health and Safety Executive
Blood-borne viruses in the workplace - Guidance for employers and employees
Blood-borne viruses (BBVs) include hepatitis B, hepatitis C and hepatitis D, which affect the liver, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This guidance note is aimed at all persons involved in work where exposure to blood or other body fluids may occur. Contents include: description of BBVs; types of work where exposure to BBVs may occur; legal responsibilities of employers and employees; actions to be taken after possible infection with a BBV; special considerations for first-aid attendants.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 8p. 11 ref.

CIS 01-1309
Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens; Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries: Final Rule [USA]
This is a revision of the Bloodborne Pathogens standard (for 1991 original, see CIS 93-371) in conformity with the requirements of the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. New examples have been included in the definition of engineering controls, along with two new definitions (needleless systems and sharps with engineered sharps injury protections). In addition, employers who are required to establish an Exposure Control Plan must document how the Plan is implemented. Certain employers are also required to establish and maintain a log of percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps.
Federal Register, 18 Jan. 2001, Vol.66, No.12, p.5318-5325. [in English] [in English]


CIS 06-218 Code of practice on the management of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis at workplaces
This revised code of practice provides practical guidance for the management of HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the workplace. It describes the nature and means of transmission of the diseases and presents guidance on risk management: sources of infection; hazardous activities and occupations; control measures; personal hygiene; sharp instruments; cleaning and disinfection; spills; waste management; vaccination; personal protective equipment; information and training; monitoring and evaluation. Replaces CIS 99-1353.
WorkSafe Western Australia, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, rev. ed. Sep. 2000. 46p. Illus. 10 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1452 Vandersmissen G., Moens G., Vranckx R., de Schryver A., Jacques P.
Occupational risk of infection by varicella zoster virus in Belgian healthcare workers: A seroprevalence study
The presence of varicella zoster virus (VZV, chickenpox) antibodies was investigated in health care personnel in Belgian hospitals. The prevalence of VZV seropositivity was 98.5%. Seronegative workers were significantly fewer among nursing than among non-nursing staff. Because of this low overall susceptibility, VZV infection seems not to be an important occupational risk among healthcare workers. A negative history of chickenpox had no value as a predictor of susceptibility in adults.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.621-626. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-687 Special feature on "foreign experiences"
Dossier "Expériences étrangères" [in French]
Collection of articles on experiences in the field of occupational medicine in Morocco, the Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso. Cases presented: occupational hazards in a small-scale cooperative manufacture of ceramic tiles in Morocco; contact dermatitis in the construction industry in Morocco; survey of sexually-transmitted diseases among workers of a luxury hotel complex in Morocco; preventive vaccination in occupational settings in the Ivory Coast; psycho-pathological disorders and night work among women in the health care sector in Burkina Faso.
Revue de médecine du travail, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.1, p.21- 52. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 02-430 Benbirk E., Tiberguent A., Dômont A.
Comparative study of the HAV seroprevalence among water purification station workers, sewage workers and administration workers
Enquête comparative de séro-prévalence de l'hépatite A entre les professionnels d'une station d'épuration, de l'assainissement et administratifs [in French]
An HAV seroprevalence study was conducted among 390 water-purification station workers, 201 sewage workers, and 643 non-occupationally exposed administrative workers. All workers were male, with similar age and socio-educational characteristics. After correcting for age, the rate of hepatitis A seroconversion for all populations was about 69%. Occupational exposure to sludge and sewage were the most important transmission risk factors for hepatitis A. Water-purification station workers exposed to soiled earth polluted with sludge were subject to major risk of hepatitis A transmission with an odds ratio of 1.85. For sewage workers, contact with floating corpses appeared to be an increasing occupational risk for hepatitis A, with an odds ratio of 1.59. A multivariate analysis was also performed to determine the characteristics of the exposed groups and evidence certain patterns of hepatitis A exposure. Vaccination against hepatitis A appears to be the best way to fight against this biological risk, although hygiene and safety measures must not be overlooked.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.7-28. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 02-432 Chew M.H.L., Arguin P.M., Shay D.K., Rollin P.E., Shieh.W.J., Zaki S.R., Rota P.A., Ling A.E., Ksiazek T.G., Chew S.K., Anderson L.J.
Risk factors for Nipah virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore
During 10-19 March 1999, 11 workers in one of two Singapore abattoirs developed Nipah-virus-associated encephalitis or pneumonia, resulting in one death. A case-control study was conducted to determine occupational risk factors for infection. Case patients were workers from the affected abattoir who had anti-Nipah IgM antibodies; control subjects were randomly selected workers from the same abattoir who tested negative for anti-Nipah IgM. All 13 case patients versus 26 (63%) of 41 control subjects reported contact with live pigs. No unusual illnesses among pigs processed during February-March were reported. Contact with live pigs appeared to be the most important risk factor for human Nipah virus infection. In the other abattoir where no case was reported, the use of face shields increased among eviscerators 3-4 months before the outbreak. Direct contact with live, potentially infected pigs should be minimized to prevent transmission of this potentially fatal zoonosis to humans.
Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2000, No.181, p.1760-1763. 14 ref.

CIS 01-707 Rescalvo Santiago F.
Occupational medicine II
Medicina del trabajo II [in Spanish]
Manual of occupational medicine in 2 volumes aimed at company health services. The first volume covers management issues (see CIS 01-706) while the second is devoted to pathologies. Contents include: occupational carcinogenesis; lung cancer; diseases of the upper respiratory tract; respiratory diseases; acute respiratory infections; tuberculosis; viral hepatitis; HIV infections and AIDS; risks to women's health in various occupational settings; teratogenic effects; modifications to male fertility; cataract; heart diseases; musculoskeletal diseases; sick building syndrome; diseases caused by the use of visual display terminals; toxic and neurotoxic substances; occupational psychopathy; neurosis and alcoholism.
IBERMUTUAMUR, Ramírez de Arellano 27, 28403 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 524p. Illus. Ref.bibl.

CIS 01-764 Worker health chartbook, 2000
This publication provides information on occupational safety and health surveillance from different sources in the United States. It covers fatal injury and fatal illness by State, age, race, sex and occupation as well as non-fatal injury by sector and injury type, and non-fatal occupational diseases. One chapter is dedicated to mining. Descriptions of surveillance systems and of industry and occupation coding systems are included in the appendixes.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Sep. 2000. xvii, 250p. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 00-1459 Weldon M., VanEgdom M.J., Hendricks K.A., Regner G., Bell B.P., Sehulster L.M.
Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus in drinking water workers and wastewater workers in Texas from 1996 to 1997
To determine if wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) than drinking-water workers, 359 wastewater and 89 drinking-water workers were evaluated for risk factors by questionnaire and tested for anti-HAV. Anti-HAV positivity was 28.4% for wastewater and 23.6% for drinking-water workers. After adjustment for age, educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity, the odds ratio for the association between anti-HAV positivity and wastewater industry employment was 2.0. Among wastewater workers, never eating in a lunchroom, ≥8 years in the waste water industry, never wearing face protection, and skin contact with sewage at least once per day were all significantly associated with anti-HAV positivity. Wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of anti-HAV than drinking-water workers, which suggested that wastewater workers may have been at increased risk of occupationally acquired hepatitis A.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.821-826. 18 ref.

CIS 00-554 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 5/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-553). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by firemen, ambulance drivers, educational workers and childminders, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).

CIS 00-553 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 4/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by taxi and bus drivers, cleaners, restaurant and pub doormen, and library and shop workers, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).

CIS 00-552 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 3/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-551, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations, which could be experienced by social workers, bailiffs, pharmacists and pharmacy employees, dentists and nurses, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).

CIS 00-551 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 2/5
This videotape is part of a series of 5 films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-550, CIS 00-552, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by nurses, real estate managers, agricultural workers, health inspectors as well as microbiology laboratory workers, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 40min).

CIS 00-550 Juntunen J.
Contagious diseases in the working environment - Part 1/5
This videotape is part of a series of five films on contagious diseases (HIV, hepatitis C and B, tuberculosis, etc.) in the working environment (see also CIS 00-551, CIS 00-552, CIS 00-553 and CIS 00-554). This film focuses on infection risk situations which could be experienced by police, border guards, customs officials, conductors and security guards, and which could give rise to the possibility of their becoming carriers of a contagious disease through contact with body fluids.
EURO TV-News/Educational films, PL 1243, 96101 Rovaniemi, Finland, 2000. Videotape (VHS) (length: approx. 30min).


CIS 01-1022 Sousa J.P., Franco M.H., Rodrigues M.A., dos Santos M., Reis F.
Hazards due to biological agents - Prevention manual
Riscos dos agentes biológicos - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual provides technical information on the risks from exposure to biological agents in various occupational sectors. It also surveys the prevention measures for improving safety, hygiene and health conditions that need to be implemented at work sites where biological agents are handled or produced. Separate chapters cover: legislation in Portugal and methods for risk evaluation; metabolism of different organs in the body; action of biological agents on the organism; biological hazards in certain industries (research and clinical laboratories, hospitals and other health-care establishments, the food industry, in the fishing industry, in the transport and elimination of wastes, in water treatment centres); biological agents (fungi) in workplace air.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Oct. 1999. 405p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-655 Decree No.99-645 of 26 July 1999 amending and completing the schedules of occupational diseases appended to Book IV of the Social Security Code (2nd part: Orders of the State Council) [France]
Décret n°99-645 du 26 juillet 1999 révisant et complétant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au livre IV du code de la sécurité sociale (2ème partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France] [in French]
This decree applies to the amendments made to certain schedules of occupational diseases, concerning in particular spirochaetoses (leptospiroses and Lyme borrelioses), diseases caused by tuberculosis bacilli and certain atypical mycobacteria, as well as occupational infections caused by hepatitis A, B, C, D and E viruses.
Journal officiel de la République française, 29 July 1999, Year 131, No.173, p.11306-11309.

CIS 01-884 Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A.
Biological hazard prevention in the laboratory: Work with viruses
Prevención del riesgo biológico en el laboratorio: trabajo con virus [in Spanish]
This information note provides guidance on biological hazards linked to the handling of various viruses (hepatitis A, B and C, herpes, influenza, Armstrong's disease, polio, rabies, spongiform encephalopathy and vesicular stomatitis, HIV and SIV retroviruses); modes of transmission and levels of confinement appropriate for safe work in laboratories.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. 8 ref.

CIS 01-581 Murlidhar V.
Bloodborne occupational diseases of health care workers (HCW)
This manual on the risks of exposure to bloodborne diseases of health care personnel focuses on hepatitis B and C, HIV and AIDS transmission risks. Transmission mechanisms, risk factors for seroconversion following percutaneous injury, post-exposure prophylaxis, hygiene practices, decontamination and sterilization, personal protective equipment and vaccination are presented along with safety recommendations for dealing with sharp instruments and body fluids.
Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), 42 Tughlakabad Institutional Area, New Delhi 110062, India, 1999. i, 27p. 52 ref.

CIS 01-261 Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection resulting from ocular exposure
Persons in contact with macaque monkeys are at risk of infection from Cercopithecine herpesvirus (B virus). These infections can be fatal, approximately 40 known cases of fatal human B virus infections being described in medical literature. This information sheet describes the case of a scientific research worker having been infected by a monkey through liquid entering her eye, with a fatal outcome. It describes preventive measures that need to be taken by persons exposed to macaque monkeys, with emphasis on eye protection.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, May 1999. 4p.

CIS 01-256 Duma S.M., Rudd R.W., Crandall J.R.
A protocol system for testing biohazardous materials in an impact biomechanics research facility
This article presents a protocol system, comprising a review process and a series of checklists, that was developed for testing cadaveric tissue in an impact biomechanics research facility. The use of cadaveric tissue may expose personnel to bloodborne pathogens including HIV and hepatitis B, which have been shown to remain virulent in a cadaver for several weeks after death. To minimize exposure risks, the protocol system presented emphasizes initial blood screening to keep infectious tissue from entering the laboratory, and adopts universal precautions to prevent exposure by treating all tissue as though it were infected. All laboratory employees must read, sign and demonstrate proficiency with the protocol. Well-developed test procedures for the handling of biohazardous materials along with an annual individual protocol review have proven effective for the preceding six years in minimizing exposure risks.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1999, Vol.60, No.5, p.629-634. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 01-258 Benbrik E., Dômont A.
Legal aspects of vaccination in occupational medicine in 1998
Aspects jurisprudentiels et réglementaires de la vaccination en médecine du travail en 1998 [in French]
Occupational physicians in France may in the future be responsible for prescribing (as they are currently for administering) vaccinations. Since the Hédreul judgment (25 February 1997), legal practice has modified the physician's duty to inform and has put the burden of proof on the physician. This reversal may lead to a changing relationship between workers and occupational physicians, making the French system similar to that prevailing in the United States.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.1-12. 8 ref.

CIS 01-252 Payne D.A., Mehta S.K., Tyring S.K., Stowe R.P., Pierson D.L.
Incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in astronaut saliva during spaceflight
Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in reactivation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crewmembers. In order to test the hypothesis that the level of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts increases during spaceflight, a total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. The findings were that EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during or after flight. No significant difference between the inflight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. In conclusion, the increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.70, No.12, p.1211-1213. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 00-1580 Ramos Carrillo C.
Ministerio de trabajo y asuntos sociales
Biological hazards among health care personnel - Prevention programmes
Riesgos biológicos en personal sanitario - Programas de prevención [in Spanish]
Topics: antibodies; bacterial diseases; biological hazards; chickenpox; health care personnel; health programmes; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious hepatitis; influenza; legionellosis; manuals; medical supervision; risk factors; rubella; Spain; training material; tuberculosis; typhoid fever; vaccination; virus diseases.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 51p. 21 ref.

CIS 00-1636 Hasselhorn H.M., Toomingas A., Lagerström M.
Occupational health for health care workers - A practical guide
Topics: chemical hazards; cytotoxic effects; dental services; disinfectants; disposal of harmful waste; health care personnel; heavy work; hospitals; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; inhalation anaesthetics; manual lifting; manuals; mental illness; musculoskeletal diseases; needle-stick injuries; night work; noise; occupational hygiene; radiological services; risk factors; shift work; skin diseases; violence.
Elsevier Science B.V., Sara Burgerhartstraat 25, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1999. xiii, 231p. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 00-1037 Kneller P.
'Dem bones, 'dem bones - Health and safety in church archaeology
Topics: biological hazards; body tissues; bones; lead; contagion; emotivity; health hazards; personal protective equipment; physical hazards; research; smallpox; trenching and excavating; work in confined spaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Nov. 1999, Vol.17, No.11, p.12-15. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 00-719 Loewenson R.
Assessment of the health impact of occupational risk in Africa: Current situation and methodological issues
Information from the current monitoring systems for occupational illness and injury in countries of the Southern African Development Community is presented. These data indicate that the reported annual injury rates for wage workers range widely from 0.35 to 49.42 injuries per 1,000 workers, and reported occupational fatality ranges from 0.85 to 21.6 fatalities per 100,000 workers. Despite wide variability in reported rates (probably caused by variability in coverage and accuracy of reporting systems), transport, agriculture, mining and, to a lesser extent, construction consistently make up about three-quarters of all fatalities, with vehicle- or transport-related causes accounting for high proportions of fatal accidents. The paper identifies and discusses major sources and direction of bias and error in the reported data and suggests approaches for a better assessment of the health impact of occupational illness, injury and mortality in African countries.
Epidemiology, Sep. 1999, Vol.10, No.5, p.632-639. 63 ref.

CIS 00-548 Preventing needlestick injuries in health care settings
This booklet is addressed to employers and workers in health care establishments. Health care workers exposed to needles are at an increased risk of needlestick injuries. Such injuries can lead to serious (even fatal) infections with bloodborne pathogens, such as hepatitis B and C viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case studies of needlestick injuries are presented. The brochure advises avoiding the unnecessary use of needles, using needleless and safer needle devices, and promoting education and safe work practices. It also presents intervention strategies for reducing the risks.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 1999. 23p. Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 00-546 Guastello S.J., Gershon R.R.M., Murphy L.R.
Catastrophe model for the exposure to blood-borne pathogens and other accidents in health care settings
Workers at three hospitals were surveyed on HIV-relevant exposures (needlesticks, cuts, splashes, contact with open wounds), the accident rate for broadly-defined injuries, and several occupationally relevant themes. A cusp (cubic polynomial) model predicting HIV-relevant exposures was more accurate than a linear model containing the same variables. Some of the variables predisposed workers to greater differences in HIV-relevant and general accident exposures: shiftwork, climate, depressive symptoms and workpace. Other variables governed how close an individual was to a critical threshold where a harmful incident would take place: verbal abuse, professional group membership. Similarly, a cusp model for accident incidents predicted from HIV-relevant exposures and occupational variables was also more accurate than comparison models. Two variables predisposed the worker to a greater accident risk: depression symptoms and shift work. Four other variables predisposed the worker to lesser accident risk: job satisfaction, safety climate, environment stressors and workpace.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov. 1999, Vol.31, No.6, p.739-749. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-249 Rieger M.A., Nübling M., Hofmann F.
Spring-summer meningoencephalitis - A problem for occupational medicine
Die Frühsommermeningoenzephalitis als arbeitsmedizinisches Problem [in German]
Literature survey on the present knowledge of the pathogenesis, occurrence, diagnosis and prevention of tick-borne viral meningoencephalitis shows that: the virus causing the disease is borne by two types of the Ixodes tick which are widespread in Europe and Asia. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is most commonly used by doctors to diagnose the disease. However, the assay is not specific to the antibodies produced by the virus. Yellow fever and dengue fever viruses, which are related to the virus causing the tick-borne meningoencephalitis, may also produce positive ELISA results. In doubtful cases, the more specific Western blot test is used. It is not known at present how many persons bitten by virus-infected ticks are affected. For people working in agriculture, the risk of contracting the disease was found to be moderately higher and for forestry workers significantly higher than the general population. Workers at risk should be vaccinated. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis should be classified as an occupational disease.
Ergo-Med, Mar.-Apr. 1999, Vol.23, No.2, p.72-85. Illus. 124 ref.

CIS 00-253 Kao J.H., Heptonstall J., Chen D.S.
Molecular methods of measurement of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus infection: Implications for occupational health practice
Over the past decade, several molecular techniques for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been developed that have implications for occupational health practice. This review describes the techniques used for qualitative and quantitative detection of the viral genome, and briefly explains nucleic acid sequencing and analysis of phylogenetic trees. The review also discusses the current and potential uses of these techniques in investigations of transmission of bloodborne viruses by patient to worker and worker to patient, in the management of occupational exposure to blood, in research, and in the development of guidance and policy on infected healthcare workers who perform procedures prone to exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1999, Vol.56, No.11, p.730-734. 31 ref.

CIS 00-251 de la Hoz García C., Otones Pérez J.J., Paredes Palomo L.E.
Model for the evaluation of biological hazards in medical centres
Modelo de evaluación de riesgos biológicos en centros sanitarios [in Spanish]
Topics: biological hazards; hazard evaluation; health services; immunodeficiency syndrome; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; laboratories; legislation; risk factors.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.74, p.3-8. Illus. 24 ref.

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