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Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entries found

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CIS 05-579 The seafarers' medical service
Le service de santé des gens de mer [in French]
Information sheet on the organization of the French national medical service for sailors and other people in maritime occupations. The service is involved in: aptitude tests; medical inspection of ships registered in France; health-related training in French maritime colleges; participation on on-board OSH committees. A special supplement concerns advice on how to avoid infection with avian influenza. Also covered are: history of the service; organization, mission and activities of the service; statistics on maritime accidents.
Direction des affaires maritimes et des gens de mer (DAM), Paris, France, [c2005]. Internet document, several pages. [in French]

CIS 05-727 Working with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
Information sheet on avian influenza (also known as bird flu), aimed at people who may be exposed to infected animals. There are two associated data sheets with more specific information: Avoiding The Risk Of Infection When Working With Poultry That Is Suspected Of Having Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) and Avoiding The Risk Of Zoonotic Infections When Working With Poultry That Is Not Suspected Of Having Avian Influenza.
Health and Safety Executive (, United Kingdom, 2005. Internet document (2+2+1p.) [in English]

CIS 05-726 Avian influenza: Frequently asked questions
Grippe aviaire: questions fréquemment posées [in French]
Data sheet on the dangers of this new infectious disease, also known as bird flu. Implications for human health, including the possibilities of infection in an occupational setting (by workers in contact with infected birds), are discussed.
World Health Organization (WHO), ave. Appia 20, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2005. Internet publication (6 pages) [in English] [in French]

CIS 05-725 Avian influenza: Hazards in the workplace and preparations for a possible pandemic
Grippe aviaire: risques en milieu professsionnel et perspectives en cas de pandémie [in French]
Information sheet on avian influenza. Contents: overview (viral disease, modification of type-A influenza, spread by birds, origin in the Far East); potential of very high mortality; incubation period (1-2 days in birds, a bit longer in humans); transmission; means of protection; groups at particular risk of being infected; recommendations to people who may have to visit infected areas for professional reasons; advice to people returning from infected areas (if they develop suspicious symptoms); relationship between avian and human influenza; preparations for a possible pandemic.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier Noyer, 75680 Paris, Cedex 14, France, updated edition, 2005. Internet document (7p.) Illus. 10 ref.$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]


CIS 08-1219 Laboratory biosafety guidelines
Lignes directrices en matière de biosécurité en laboratoire [in French]
Contents of this detailed manual on biosafety procedures to be followed in laboratories handling infectious materials: biological safety; handling infectious substances; laboratory design and physical requirements; commissioning, certification and recertification for CL3 and CL4 laboratories [CL = Containment Level]; large-scale production of microorganisms; programme-specific guidelines (laboratory animals, recombinant DNA and genetic manipulation, cell lines); decontamination; biological safety cabinets; regulatory aspects for handling infectious substances in Canada.
Health Canada (, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 3rd ed., 2004. vii, 113p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index. [in French] [in English]

CIS 06-1113 Khalfallah T., Derouiche S., Abdallah B., Chaari N., Hanchi M.A., Akrout M.
Sick building syndrome in the banking sector in Tunis
Syndrome des bâtiments malsains dans le secteur bancaire de Tunis [in French]
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of sick building syndrome among 286 persons (182 men and 104 women) employed in 20 branches of one of Tunisia's leading banks. Data on personal characteristics and perceived symptoms were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires. The main symptoms reported were headache (34.6% of subjects), chest tightness (23.4%), flu-like syndrome (16.4%) and eye irritation (15.0%). Other findings are discussed. The study establishes a link between these symptoms and sick building syndrome based on findings reported in other countries.
Bossons futé, 17 avenue Miss Cavell, 94100 Saint-Maur, France, 2004. Internet document (PDF format). 24p. Illus. 58 ref. [in French]

CIS 06-967 Wilburn S.Q., Eijkemans G.
Preventing needlestick injuries among healthcare workers: A WHO-ICN collaboration
Effective measures to prevent infections from occupational exposure of healthcare workers to infected blood include immunization against hepatitis B virus, eliminating unnecessary injections, implementing universal precautions, eliminating needle recapping, disposing of the sharp into a sharps container immediately after use, use of safer devices such as needles that sheath or retract after use, provision and use of personal protective equipment and training workers in the risks and prevention of transmission. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral medications can reduce the risk of HIV transmission by 80%. In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Council of Nurses (ICN) launched a pilot project in South Africa, Tanzania and Vietnam to protect healthcare workers from needlestick injuries. The results of the pilot will be disseminated worldwide, along with best policies and practices for prevention.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.451-456. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 06-716 Mirón Hernández M.A.
Diseases caused by biological agents in the fishing sector
Enfermedades por agentes biológicos en el sector de la pesca [in Spanish]
Presented in the form of a table, this article summarizes the main infectious diseases that can affect fishermen, namely yellow fever, plague, tetanus, leptospirosis, skin infections, schistomiasis, amoebiasis, dermatomycosis, dermatitis and asthma. For each infectious agent, the table also mentions the mode of entry, characteristic symptoms, preventive measures and medical treatment.
Medicina Marítima, Dec. 2004, Vol.4, No.2, p.147-150. 8 ref.

CIS 06-283 Castro M., Moreira S., Santos C.S.
Occupational diseases in the region of Lisbon and Vale de Tejo 2003
Doenças profissionais na região de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo no ano de 2003 [in Portuguese]
Statistics of reported occupational diseases in the region of Lisbon and Vale do Tejo for the year 2003. Results are presented by age, sex, sub-region and outcome (with or without invalidity, degree of invalidity). Occupational diseases that resulted in the largest number of reports were hearing loss (147 out of 375) and musculoskeletal diseases (145 out of 375). Risk factors relating to these two diseases are described, together with applicable prevention measures.
Centro regional de saúde pública de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (CRSP), Av. Estados Unidos da América 53-D, 1700-165 Lisboa, Portugal, Dec. 2004. 32p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 06-450 Jarke J.
Health service personnel with chronic HBV, HCV and HIV infections - Guidelines for work versus exclusion from the profession
Chronisch HBV-, HCV-, HIV-infiziertes Personal im Gesundheitsdienst - Regelungen zur Berufsausübung versus Berufsverbote [in German]
Patients at health care centres should be effectively protected against viral infections (hepatitis, HIV) transmitted by infected health care personnel. While the occupational physician is responsible for health and safety at work rather than for protecting the patient, they must act with regard to the well-being of the patient. In Germany, no guidelines have been issued for the protection of patients which could serve as a guide to occupational physicians, infected health care workers and employers. Nevertheless, recommendations published by scientific institutions provide sufficient guidance for rational measures to be drawn up to allow infected workers to continue in their occupation and to enable employers to carry out their duties in accordance with labour laws. Unfortunately, those in charge often make decisions on an irrational or emotional basis, leading to discrimination and injustice for health care workers. It is argued that a legal directive is urgently needed.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, 2004, No.8, p. 428-434. 12 ref.

CIS 05-729 Avian influenza - Protecting poultry workers at risk
Contents of this information sheet: general information on avian influenza; measures for protecting poultry workers (follow biosecurity practices, recognize infection in poultry, take antiviral medication and get vaccination, know the signs and symptoms of human infection, wear personal protective equipment); respiratory protection; eye protection; protective clothing and hand-hygiene practices. In annex: table showing the advantages, disadvantages and price of different kinds of air-purifying respirators for protecting poultry workers.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2004. 8p. [in English]

CIS 05-228 Salico de Sosa S.H.
Biological safety in blood banks
Bioseguridad en bancos de sangre [in Spanish]
Blood banks are responsible for collecting and preparing blood formulations for transfusion. These operations need to be carried out with care to avoid the exposure of personnel, donors and patients. This article describes the hazards that are inherent in the activities of blood banks (chemical, physical, psychological and social hazards, but primarily biological hazards related to blood exposure), the biological safety measures to be adopted, prophylaxis (vaccination against HBV, possibly with injection of IgG) and the procedure to adopt in the event of an accident, in particular when involving exposure to contaminated blood. Current Argentinean biological safety standards and regulations are also cited.
Salud Ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.XXII, No.88, p.7-14. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 05-227 Insausti Macarrón D., Caso Pita C., Rodríguez de la Pinta M.D., Gómez Parra I.R., Lucas J.C., Cruzet Fernández F.R.
Hepatitis C virus infection among health care personnel following accidents involving biological material
Infección por virus de hepatitis C en profesionales sanitarios tras accidente con material biológico [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to analyse cases of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections that occurred following accidents involving biological material reported between 1991 and 2002 among the health care personnel of a Spanish hospital. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire. 554 needlestick injuries with potential HCV contamination were reported during the study period. Five workers were infected, corresponding to an overall risk of 0.9%. Unexpected situations being difficult to avoid, it is advised that health care personnel be provided with safe equipment and that accident cases be followed so as to allow the early detection and efficient treatment of cases.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2004, Vol.L, No.195, p.31-38. 25 ref.

CIS 05-226 Caso Pita C., Insausti Macarrón D., Rodríguez de la Pinta M.L., Lucas J.C., Alonso Cobo M.T., Cruzet Fernández F.
Viral hepatitis among health care workers: Time trends
Hepatitis víricas en personal sanitario: Evolución temporal [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to examine the trends in the incidence of viral hepatitis cases among workers of a Spanish hospital between 1979 and 2003. 253 cases of occupational disease caused by a biological agent were recorded during this period, including 89 cases of hepatitis (35.2%). The distribution of hepatitis cases by category of staff shows that qualified nurses and physicians are the most affected. The incidences of all types of hepatitis and hepatitis B show a decreasing trend during the study period, with very low rates since 1985 when hepatitis B vaccination was first introduced. A significant decrease was also observed for hepatitis C or non-A, non-B (NANB) hepatitis.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2004, Vol.L, No.194, p.11-21. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 05-22 Parreira Cano M.M.
Potential workplace exposure to microorganisms
Exposição potencial a microorganismos no local de trabalho [in Portuguese]
This information booklet, which is primarily intended for employers and employees of small enterprises, describes the risks of potential workplace exposure to microorganisms. Contents: general aspects of workplace contamination and contagion; classification of microorganisms; evaluation of exposure hazard (hazard identification, epidemiological chain of events); measures aimed at preventing or reducing the risk (hygiene end personal protection measures, medical supervision, safety and health training); potential exposure of workers (contamination of ventilation systems, facade cleaning or building preservation work, work on archive documents, contamination of workplace air); workplace air quality control, occupations at risk of exposure to microorganisms or other biological agents; current legislation.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, March 2004. 56p. Illus.

CIS 04-713 Ravallec C.
Health care wastes that present infectious hazards - Waste disposal system
Déchets d'activités de soins à risque infectieux - La filière d'élimination [in French]
Health care wastes that present infectious hazards are an important public health issue. These potentially contaminated wastes are generated during medical or veterinary activities, and may expose persons handling or otherwise coming into contact with them to biological hazards such as HIV, HBV or HCV. Approximately 155,000 tons of these wastes are generated each year in France. Their disposal requires the involvement of specialized waste disposal enterprises, which apply strict traceability controls at each step. Precautions need to be taken starting from the time the wastes are generated. They need to be placed in suitable packaging according to the type of waste and the hazard it involves. Separation should be carried out at the source. Intermediate storage of these packages should be in containers placed in a suitable area that satisfies precise criteria. Waste collection should be carried out by persons specially trained with respect to biological hazards. Important precautionary measures should be taken during the incineration of these wastes. Empty containers should be washed and disinfected before being re-introduced into the collection cycle.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2004, No.642, p.28-39. Illus.$File/TS642page29.pdf?OpenElement [in French]

CIS 04-332 Azaroff L.S., Levenstein C., Wegman D.H.
The occupational health of Southeast Asians in Lowell: A descriptive study
To assess the occupational health of a group of vulnerable immigrant workers, 160 residents of Cambodian or Lao origin in Lowell in the U.S. State of Massachusetts were interviewed regarding working conditions, health problems and use of medical services. Over 40% reported working in electronics and computer assembly. A fourth of those currently employed held temporary jobs. Workplace hazards included soldering fumes, inadequate ventilation, prolonged sitting or standing, awkward postures, unguarded machinery, shift work, long hours and pressure to produce quickly. Common work-related health problems included sprains and strains, headache, dizziness and flu-like symptoms. Less than a third of the respondents were aware of workers' compensation.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.47-54. 40 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-86 Lazor-Blanchet C., Rusca S., Vernez D., Berry R., Albrecht E., Droz P.O., Boillat M.A.
Acute pulmonary toxicity following exposure to a floor stain protector in the building industry in Switzerland
Waterproofing agents are widely used as stain-repellents on indoor floor and wall tiles. They are applied by spraying, generally by professionals, but sometimes also by consumers themselves. This article describes three cases of acute respiratory injury in healthy adults following occupational inhalation of a new waterproofing formulation containing an acrylate fluoropolymer. Within two hours after exposure, they developed a rapidly progressive dyspnoea; two also showed hypoxaemia and flu-like reactions. All three improved with supportive treatment within a few days. The mechanism of toxicity is still under investigation, but experimental data suggest the role of this new acrylate fluoropolymer. Both workers and consumers should be warned about the risks of spraying floor stain repellents, informed about the importance of proper air circulation within the premises and instructed to avoid concomitant smoking.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2004, Vol.77, No.4, p.244-248. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 04-226 Shvartsblat S., Kochie M., Harber P., Howard J.
Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employee
Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population. A 24-year-old male pet shop employee contracted the disease through a minor superficial finger wound during a contact with a contaminated rat cage. The disease progressed from a flu-like illness to endocarditis involving first the aortic valve and then the mitral valve and septum. Despite aggressive therapy including two surgical procedures, the patient died from sepsis and multi-organ system failure 59 days after initial injury. This is the first reported case of rat-bite fever in a pet shop work setting. Zoonotic infections may present a significant hazard to workers handling animals. Education on hazards of animal contact and other preventive measures are needed in small business such as pet shops.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.357-360. 5 ref.

CIS 04-227 HIV/AIDS and work: Global estimates, impact and response
This report presents the estimates by the ILO of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the working population of 50 countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in more developed regions. Contents: global estimates of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the world of work; macroeconomic impact; impact of HIV/AIDS in the private and public sectors, agriculture and informal economy; impact on women and children; policy implications; response to HIV/AIDS in the world of work.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2004. xii, 99p. Illus. 149 ref. Price: CHF 25.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1922 Setbon M.
Hazards, public health and decision processes
Risques, sécurité sanitaire et processus de décision [in French]
The evaluation of major public health hazards is a central aspect of national health-care planning. Decision processes represent a key step determining whether these hazards and risks justify or not the launching of public intervention programmes. Resulting decisions are nationwide in scope. These hazards or risks can be relevant to three areas: the health care system, food and the environment. This publication presents the results of a retrospective research project aimed at making it easier to understand sanitary safety decisions taken in response to hazards or risks. Eight cases are studied, which then form the basis of a comparative overview.
Elsevier SAS, 23 rue Limois, 75725 Paris cedex 15, France, 2004. 170p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 30.00.

CIS 03-1709 Beaucousin M., Borel P., Goudifa P., Goujon E., Hubert O., Klarsy D., Mageau E., Mignot G., Redor F.
Mobile phone antennae maintenance and repair technicians
Le technicien d'exploitation d'antenne de radiotéléphonie mobile [in French]
Contents of this occupational medicine data sheet on the job of mobile phone antenna maintenance and repair technicians: general characteristics of the job; technical and organizational characteristics; constraints and working conditions (related to the working environment, climatic and geographic conditions, work organization, tasks and equipment); hazard evaluation methods (metrology); health hazards and occupational diseases; prevention; medical supervision; regulations; work aptitude.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.1, 2p. Insert. 4 ref.

CIS 03-1918 Biardeau B.
Advice to expatriates - Sub-Saharan Africa
Conseils aux expatriés - Afrique subsaharienne [in French]
A growing number of enterprises assign their personnel to postings abroad for varying durations. Occupational physicians need to ensure the safety and health of staff against the hazards related to these foreign postings. This article describes the protective measures that apply to Sub-Saharan African locations, and addresses the following topics: measures to be taken before travelling (vaccinations, prevention of sinusitis, first aid kits, traveller's medical kit); disorders that may arise during the trip (disorders related to air travel, in particular the "economy class syndrome"); precautions to be taken on arrival (measures against heat and sunlight); possible risks during the stay (road accidents, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue, sexually-transmitted diseases, rabies); what to do on return in the event of disorders; advice for pregnant women.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.1, p.17-25. 7 ref.

CIS 03-1928 David C.
Biological agents
Les agents biologiques [in French]
Occupational exposure to biological agents may give rise to hazards in cases where these agents are pathogenic. Some workers are exposed to biological agents under controlled conditions, for example in biotechnology research laboratories or in the pharmaceutical industry, while others may be exposed without fully understanding the hazards, as may be the case in waste water treatment, solid waste disposal or health care settings. In either case, the evaluation and prevention of biological hazards require a proper understanding of these pathological biological agents and their hazards. This document describes the various types of biological agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths), their form of life, their industrial relevance and their potential pathogenic effects.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2004, No.639, 4p. Insert. Illus. 1 ref.


CIS 06-452 Gensch R.W
Is AIDS still a topical issue in occupational medicine?
AIDS - immer noch ein Thema für Arbeitsmedizin? [in German]
Infection with HIV/AIDS is an important occupational health issue in health care establishments. According to estimations, there will be some 500,000 puncture injuries per year potentially leading to infection with HIV or hepatitis B or C. To reduce the number of these injuries, the following measures are necessary: provision of special containers for hazardous waste; use of fewer dangerous instruments; procedures for the declaration of accidents involving exposure to blood and the offer of post-exposure prophylaxis; reduction of work rates; and examination of workstation ergonomics. It is also necessary to make health service managers aware of the importance of workers' health requirements so that these workers will in turn adopt appropriate behaviours with respect to safety and health.
Paper presented at the 17th Freiburg Symposium, "Occupational Medicine in the Health Services", 10-12 September 2003.

CIS 06-72 Whelan E.A., Lawson C.C., Grajewski B., Petersen M.R., Pinkerton L.E., Ward E.M., Schnorr T.M.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among female flight attendants and teachers
The purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms and illnesses among two populations largely confined to indoor environments, flight attendants (FAs) and schoolteachers. The prevalence of work related eye, nose, and throat symptoms, wheezing, physician diagnosed asthma, chest illness, and cold or flu were calculated and stratified by smoking status in 1824 FAs and 331 schoolteachers (all women). FAs and teachers were significantly more likely to report work related eye, nose and throat symptoms than were other working women. FAs were also significantly more likely than teachers and other working women to report chest illness during the prior three years. Both study groups were more likely to report five or more episodes of cold or flu in the past year than were other working women and both groups were more likely to report wheezing than other working women. FAs were less likely than teachers and other working women to report having been diagnosed with asthma.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.929-934. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 05-468 Percaz Arrayago M.A., Ruiz Cirauqui A.M., Esquiroz Ayesa I.
Evaluation of hepatitis B serology among workers exposed to biological hazards
Valoración de serologías de hepatitis B en trabajadores con riesgo biológico [in Spanish]
The vaccination protocol in effect in Spain for workers exposed to hepatitis B virus calls for revaccination every five years. Since some recent studies suggest that the immunological memory may persist for at least twelve years, the serology of a group of 163 workers vaccinated since 1996-1997 was examined to establish their immunological state and to determine whether it would be possible to increase the revaccination intervals. Results indicated that more than 85% of the vaccinated workers still had protective antibody levels above 20UI/ml after five years and that it would be possible to extend the period between revaccination.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Aug. 2003, Vol.XLX, No.192, p.1-7. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 05-224 de Souza Ciorlia L.A., Zanetta D.M.T.
Hepatitis C in healthcare workers: Risks of exposure and infection
Hepatite C em profissionais da saúde: risco de exposição e infecção [in Portuguese]
This review article is devoted to the topic of hepatitis C and the risks of exposure and infection among health care personnel. Contents: general aspects concerning hepatitis C; epidemiology; diagnosis; preventive measures in the absence of vaccines or HCV-specific IgG immunoglobulins; notification of accidents; occupational accidents involving biological material; consequences of cut or needlestick accidents and microcutaneous exposures.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.107/108, p.91-100. 66 ref.

CIS 04-714 Fau-Prudhomot P., Fabin C., Montéléon P.Y.
Follow-up study organized by the Association of Medical and Social Centres of the Ile-de-France region on accidents involving exposure to blood (IEBs): Analysis of the initial results
Observatoire ACMS des accidents avec exposition au sang (AES): mise en place des premiers résultats [in French]
Accidents involving exposure to blood (AEBs) have been regularly recorded and analysed for several years in large public hospitals in France. However, this has not always been the case in private health care institutions and in other sectors of activity that present a potential hazard. The objective of this study was to record and describe AEBs occurring in small-to-medium-sized institutions as well as in non-health-care settings in the Ile-de-France region. Between July 2001 and January 2003, 196 cases of AEBs were recorded, of which 15 occurred outside health care settings during waste collection, cleaning or supervision of the premises. In health care settings, the victims were predominantly women (90.4%), persons with less than two years of tenure (60.3%) and persons vaccinated against hepatitis B (95.7%). More than half the cases of AEB occurred during the disposal of contaminated material (58%), in particular because containers were often not easily accessible (40%). Gloves were not worn in 40% of AEB cases.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.125-140. 18 ref.

CIS 04-562 Imbernon E.
Occupational cancers: First attempt at quantification
Cancers d'origine professionnelle: 1re approche de quantification [in French]
This article reviews a report, published in 2003, on the estimation of the number of cancers attributable to occupational causes in France. The study was restricted to men. Epidemiological data allow estimations to be made for the following cancers, including in some cases the proportion due to the main known causal agents (in particular asbestos, heavy metals, ionizing radiation, volatile organic substances, aromatic amines, wood dust, oils and tars): bronchopulmonary cancers; pleural mesothelioma; bladder cancer; sinonasal cancers; leukaemia.
Préventique-Sécurité, Nov.-Dec. 2003, No.72, p.28-31. Illus.

CIS 04-621 Hsieh H.I., Wang J.D., Chen P.C., Cheng T.J.
Synergistic effect of hepatitis virus infection and occupational exposures to vinyl chloride monomer and ethylene dichloride on serum aminotransferase activity
This study examines the synergistic effect of occupational chemical exposure and hepatitis virus infection on serum aminotransferase activity. A total of 568 male workers who were employed in five polyvinyl chloride and four vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) manufacturing factories were studied. Workers were classified into high, moderate and low exposure groups according to their level of exposure to chemical mixtures. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and anti-hepatitis C antibody were assayed. Hepatitis virus infection and increased body mass index were associated with abnormal serum aminotransferase activity. In workers with hepatitis virus infection, those with high exposure had a higher prevalence of abnormal AST and ALT compared to low exposure; among those without hepatitis virus infection, no significant differences of prevalence of abnormal AST and ALT were found between different chemical exposure groups. There was a significant trend of increasing risks of increased AST and ALT in moderate and high exposure groups with hepatitis virus infection. Such a synergistic effect was more prominent among HBeAg-positive workers. It is concluded that mixed exposures to 1,2-ethylene dichloride and VCM have a positive synergistic effect with hepatitis virus infection on liver damage.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.774-778. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 04-469 Vaidya S.R., Tilekar B.N., Walimbe A.M., Arankalle V.A.
Increased risk of hepatitis E in sewage workers from India
Considering faeco-oral transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the risk of infection was assessed among sewage workers. The study involved 147 sewage workers and age-matched controls without exposure to sewage. IgG-anti-HEV positivity in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher among sewage workers (56.5%) than among controls (19%). Furthermore, a significant rise in anti-HEV positivity was observed among sewage workers working for over five years. Multivariate regression analysis identified contact with sewage as the independent variable associated with anti-HEV positivity. Strict adherence to good working practices must take the top priority for the protection of these workers from sewage pathogens.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1167-1170. 20 ref.

CIS 04-229
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Biological matter in the health and social care sector
Biologische Arbeitsstoffe im Gesundheitswesen und in der Wohlfahrtspflege [in German]
Contents of these guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance concerning activities that imply contact with biological matter in the health and social care sector: scope; hazard evaluation; protective measures as a function of the degree of hazard of the activity; training of personnel; obligation to notify level 3 and 4 activities; additional protective measures that apply to specific activities (cleaning, disinfection, sterilization, handling of soiled linen, elimination of medical waste, endoscopy, protection against methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococci aurei); preventive medical examinations and vaccinations. In appendices: useful addresses for persons in contact with highly-contagious or fatal diseases, protective plans against life-threatening imported diseases; classification of human and animal medical waste; examples of instructions for work falling under the provisions of the biological substances ordinance; constituents of a hygiene plan; related directives, rules and standards.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2003. 59p. Illus.

CIS 03-1622 Burton W.N., Morrison A., Wertheimer A.I.
Pharmaceuticals and worker productivity loss: A critical review of the literature
Many chronic illnesses that affect the working population can cause losses in productivity. The extent to which these productivity losses can be reduced by pharmacological treatment is of particular interest to employers, who bear the costs of productivity losses and of employees' health care. This article consists of a summary and critical review of various earlier studies on the effects of pharmaceuticals on productivity losses. For a dozen drug classes, there is good evidence that pharmaceuticals reduce productivity losses caused by respiratory illnesses (such as asthma, allergic disorders, bronchitis, upper respiratory infections, and influenza), diabetes, depression, dysmenorrhoea and migraine. In many cases, the reduction in productivity loss may partially or completely offset the costs of treatment. These results should be helpful to occupational physicians in providing recommendations on employer benefit plan designs taking into account the benefits of pharmacological treatments.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.45, No.6, p.610-621. Illus. 87 ref.

CIS 03-1641 Cohen P., Darling C., Hampson A., Downs K., Tasset-Tisseau A.
Influenza vaccination in an occupational setting: Effectiveness and cost-benefit study
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-like illness and absenteeism among workers of a large steelworks. The study was a prospective, randomized trial conducted during the 2000 influenza season. Healthy adults aged 18-64 years were randomized into two groups: 270 received parenteral influenza vaccine (VAXIGRIP) and 270 had no intervention. Data were collected using self-reporting questionnaires for a total period of six months. This study suggests that influenza vaccination programs for healthy, working-age adults may represent a cost-effective intervention strategy from the employer's perspective during the influenza season, especially during the peak period of the disease.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2003, Vol.19, No.2, p.167-182. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 03-1935 Facing HIV/AIDS at the workplace
Cómo enfrentar el VIH/SIDA en el lugar de trabajo [in Spanish]
This CD-ROM provides guidelines to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic at the workplace within the context of ILO global programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work. It contains two documents in PDF format: the ILO codes of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work, together with a training and education manual on the implementation of the ILO codes of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work (in English). The guidelines apply to the following areas of activity: prevention of HIV/AIDS; management and mitigation of its impact on the world of work; care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. CD-ROM and presentation leaflet (4p.).

CIS 03-1917 Charbotel B., Forissier M.F., Hours M., Bergeret A.
Review of occupational hazards from waste disposal in the health care sector
Revue sur les risques professionnels liés à l'élimination des déchets d'activité de soins [in French]
This literature survey reports on the current situation with respect to occupational hazards among workers involved in waste disposal in the health care sector. Biological hazards are the most important. In the early stages of waste disposal, blood exposure accidents are associated with the risk of infection with hepatitis or human immunodeficiency viruses. Other infectious diseases such as tuberculosis have been reported among workers involved in medical laboratory waste disposal. In health care establishments, chemical and radioactive wastes need to be managed by specialized and well-identified waste disposal systems. However, it appears that these systems are not always operational. Risks related to handling are important and are not always well controlled. Road transport risks have received little attention, but should not be overlooked given their potential seriousness.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2003, Vol.64, No.2, p.100-105. 32 ref.

CIS 03-1911 Le Bâcle C.
Current situation with respect to zoonoses: 30th National Symposium of Agricultural Medicine
L'actualité des zoonoses - XXXe symposium national de médecine agricole [in French]
The objective of this symposium on zoonoses held on 25 April 2003 in Tours, France, was to discuss the current situation of known zoonoses and to shed light on emerging pathologies. The wide range of participants included medical practitioners from the farmers' cooperative insurance company, occupational physicians, infectologists, veterinarians and biologists. Topics presented and reviewed in this article include: main zoonoses transmitted by farm animals; main zoonoses transmitted by domestic animals; zoonoses from wild animals; current advances in human medicine; Q fever in France and recent epidemics; psittacosis and poultry farming; toxocariasis among humans.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.96, p.459-473.

CIS 03-1916 Abiteboul D., Lolom I., Lamontagne F., Pellissier G., Tarantola A., Descamps J.M., Bouvet E.
Risk of blood exposure among hospital workers - Trends 1990-2000
Risque d'exposition au sang parmi le personnel hospitalier - Evolution 1990-2000 [in French]
A survey had been conducted among health care workers in 1990 to quantify the frequency and risk factors of blood exposure accidents (BEAs). 502 nurses from 17 hospitals had volunteered to participate. It was the first study that yielded data not only on the frequencies by nurse, but also by risk-involving task (injection, sample collection, installing and removing intravenous perfusions, work involving pacemakers). The most hazardous tasks were identified and ranked. The objective of the present study was to analyse the trends in BEA risks ten years later. Participants included 1506 volunteers among nurses in 36 hospitals. There were significant improvements from 1990 to 2000, the frequency of BEAs having decreased from approximately 0.35 to 0.12 per nurse per year, and needlestick injuries, which are the leading cause, from 0.26 to 0.07 respectively, per nurse per year.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2003, No.96, p.447-457. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 03-1924 Bricaire F., Bossi P.
Bioterrorisme [in French]
The events that occurred in the United States during October 2001, with the sending of letters containing spores of anthrax, led many countries to reconsider the bioterrorism as a possible threat. Numerous infectious agents could be used as biological weapons, some of which are little known. Following a definition of bioterrorism, this publication describes the following biological agents that could be used with terrorist intent, together with their related clinical symptoms: anthrax, smallpox, plague, tularaemia, botulism, haemorrhagic fever, glanders, Q fever, viral encephalitis, bruccelosis, toxins. It also explains how to recognize these pathologies and confirm the diagnosis, the actions to follow, the therapy and the prophylaxis. Finally, it presents the French emergency plans in the event of a biological attack.
Elsevier SAS, 23 rue Limois, 75725 Paris cedex 15, France, 2003. 115p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 25.00.

CIS 03-1432 Wallace R., Schluter P., Webb P.
Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A and B infections in carers of adults with intellectual disability
Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis A and hepatitis B are common transmissible diseases among adults with intellectual disability. This pilot study was designed to assess the possibility that H. pylori infection might pose an occupational risk, and the extent of hepatitis A and B immunization rates among carers of adults with intellectual disability. The overall rate of H. pylori infection was comparable to that in the general population. However, carers working with currently and previously institutionalized adults with intellectual disability had a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than carers of never institutionalized clients. Hepatitis immunization rates were better among carers working with clients with a history of institutionalization, but could be improved in all carer groups.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2003, Vol.19, No.1, p.99-108. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 03-1431 Coward P.
Occupational infectious disease risks in the health care industry
Health care workers are at risk of exposure to infectious diseases; in addition, pregnant health care workers may be exposed to infectious diseases that are reproductive hazards. This article provides an overview of some of the major infectious risks to which health care workers may be exposed, and discusses appropriate risk management strategies. The following hazards are discussed: blood-borne viruses (hepatitis B and C, HIV); risks to pregnancy (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella-zoster, parovirus B19); hepatitis A; tuberculosis; meningococcal disease; pertussis.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2003, Vol.19, No.1, p.35-44. 40 ref.

CIS 03-1115 Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections in medical laboratories
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen in medizinischen Laboratorien [in German]
Prévention des infections transmises par voie sanguine dans les laboratoires médicaux [in French]
Prevenzione delle infezioni transmese par la via ematica nel laboatori di analisi cliniche [in Italian]
Aimed at medical laboratory workers, this booklet addresses the issue of infection hazards from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the event of accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids. Contents: infection hazards; purpose of prevention; main preventive measures (avoiding pricks and injuries, avoiding contact with blood and biological fluids, ensuring cleanliness and hygiene during work, hepatitis B vaccination); measures to be taken in the event of accidental exposure. Updated version of CIS 90-2071.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 4th rev.ed., May 2003. 7p. 1 ref. [in German] [in French] [in Italian]

CIS 03-1114 Jost M., Francioli P., Iten A., Jost J., Colombo C., Cartier B., Rüegger M., Gutzwiller A.
Prevention of blood-borne infections during patient care
Prévention des infections transmises par voie sanguine lors de soins aux patients [in French]
Verhütung blutübertragbarer Infektionen beim Umgang mit Patienten [in German]
Prevenzione delle infezioni trasmese par la via ematica nel contatto con i pazienti [in Italian]
Aimed at health care workers in contact with patients, this booklet addresses the issue of infection hazards from HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the event of accidental exposure to blood or other biological fluids. Contents: infection hazards; purpose of prevention; main preventive measures (avoiding pricks and injuries, avoiding contact with blood and biological fluids, ensuring cleanliness and hygiene during work, hepatitis B vaccination); measures to be taken in the event of accidental exposure. Updated version of CIS 90-2070.
Suva, Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 5th rev.ed., May 2003. 7p. 1 ref. [in German] [in French] [in Italian]

CIS 03-1485 Mohren D.C.L., Swaen G.M.H., van Amelsvoort L.G.P.M., Borm P.J.A., Galama J.M.D.
Job insecurity as a risk factor for common infections and health complaints
The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal impact of job insecurity on common infections and health complaints. Self-administered questionnaire data were used from the Maastricht Cohort Study comprised of 12,140 subjects. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. A cross-sectional relationship between job insecurity and common infections or health complaints was found. For the longitudinal relationship, the largest effect was found for flu-like illness (OR 1.39) and health complaints (OR 1.51). Corrections were additionally made for health behaviour, the presence of a long-standing illness, and work-related demands, resulting in lower ORs. Increases in common infections or health complaints have a substantial impact on employee well-being and may result in economic consequences for the company.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.45, No.2, p.123-129. 30 ref.

CIS 03-937 Actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures
Conduite à tenir en cas d'accident avec exposition au sang [in French]
This leaflet summarizes the main actions to be undertaken in the event of accidental blood exposures, namely: cleaning (rinsing copiously with clean water in cases of eye or mouth exposure, cleaning and disinfecting in cases of needle-stick or other skin injuries); reporting the accident and informing the occupational physician; setting up the biological monitoring system.
Association interprofessionnelle des centres médicaux et sociaux de la région Ile-de-France, 55 rue Rouget-de-l'Isle, 92158 Suresnes Cedex, France, 2003. 4p. 2 ref.

CIS 03-925 Malard S., Schaffner F., Le Bâcle C.
Dengue: A public health problem related to certain occupational activities
La dengue: un problème de santé publique lié à des activités professionnelles [in French]
Dengue is a viral disease characterized by high bouts of fever accompanied by tremors, frontal headache, myalgia and intense musculoskeletal pain in the upper and lower extremities. It may be fatal. The objective of this feature article is to discuss the risks of importing into France the mosquito vector of the disease (Aedes), to alert the enterprises at risk by way of their occupational physician and to propose preventive measures. Contents: sectors of activity concerned by the disease (direct exposure to goods imported by sea from Asia and Africa, in particular used tyres and plant seedlings); evaluation and characterization of the hazard (description of the disease and its vectors); prevention within the enterprise (current sanitary regulations, storage, disinfection); specific problems faced by French overseas territories.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.94, p.151-160. Illus. 26 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-441 National Code of Practice for the control of work-related exposure to hepatitis and HIV (blood-borne) viruses
Contents of this Code of Practice (1st edition, NOHSC:2010 (1993), see CIS 94-2115): introduction (hepatitis viruses and HIV); hazard identification; risk assessment; risk control (sharps, safe working procedures, standard precautions, risk control strategies for certain occupations, education and training, exposure incidents, vaccination, monitoring and evaluation). In the appendices: discrimination and privacy; principles of the storage, transport and disposal of clinical waste; what to do in the event of exposure of if you find a syringe; principles of standard precautions; workers with hepatitis B, C and HIV; glossary; sources of information.
AusInfo Government Info Shops,, Australia, 2nd ed., Dec. 2003. xiii, 53p. 19 ref. [in English]


CIS 08-1469 OSHA Fact Sheet - Bloodborne pathogens
Bloodborne pathogens are infectious materials in blood that can cause disease in humans, including hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Workers exposed to these pathogens risk serious illness or death. This information sheet explains the protection against bloodborne pathogens provided by the OSHA standard specifying the legal obligations of employers to prevent exposure among workers at risk. These obligations include hazard evaluation, exposure evaluation, implementing engineering controls, providing personal protective equipment, information and training of personnel, medical supervision and maintaining records.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2002. 2p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-278
Health and Safety Executive
Working with sewage - The health hazards
This leaflet for persons working with sewage explains the main health risks (gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and hepatitis), the measures to be taken to prevent infections and what to do in case of illness.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2002. 6p. [in English]

CIS 06-454 Jarke J, Marcus U.
HIV infection of occupational origin among medical personnel - An assessment
Berufsbedingte HIV-Infektionen bei medizinischem Personal - eine aktuelle Übersicht [in German]
In Germany, the risk of workplace infection by HIV is lower than that for hepatitis B or C. The possibilities for preventing a chronic infection by one of these viruses by a post-exposure intervention are comparable. Prophylactic procedures following a known or possible exposure to HIV are described in detail in German-Austrian recommendations concerning post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. In 44 declared cases of HIV infection of occupational origin among health care workers in Germany, only eight were identified as being clearly linked to work. In 16 cases, the link with occupational exposure was judged to be insufficient and in 20 cases, other risk factors were evident. To detect HIV infections contracted at work following an undeclared exposure and to facilitate the evaluation of the risk of transmission at work, all health care personnel in all sectors at risk should be offered HIV tests at regular intervals.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, 2002, No.5, p. 218-220, 222-231. 73 ref.

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