Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entries found
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World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Human papillomaviruses
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are common sexually-transmitted infectious agents. Although most infections are asymptomatic and are cleared within a period of two years, genital HPV infection can lead to clinical disease, including anogenital warts, cervical neoplasia, cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Of the many types of HPVs, some are classified as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), others as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) and yet other as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Recent data includes strong evidence of carcinogenicity at sites other than the cervix. Vaccination can reduce the incidence of HPV-related genital diseases. However, such prophylactic treatments require that such vaccines be provided women for whom access to cervical cancer screening services is problematic. Therefore, the development of vaccines that are cheaper and easier to deliver remains highly desirable. Update of the IARC Monograph No.64 on the same subject (see CIS 96-1096).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2007. viii, 670p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 55.00 (CHF 38.50 in developing countries). Downloadable version free of charge.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol90/mono90.pdf [in English]
César Gonzáles R., Ciro Maguiña V., Felipe Heras M., Luis Conde-Salazar G.
Bartonellosis (Oroya fever or Verruga Peruana) - An occupational disease?
Bartonelosis (fiebre de la Oroya o Verruga Peruana) ¿Enfermedad ocupacional? [in Spanish]
Bartonellosis (also known as Oroya fever, Verruga Peruana or Carrion's disease) is an endemic disease in South America caused by the Bartonella bacilliformis bacterium and propagated by the Lutzomyia verrucarum mosquito. This infection constitutes a public health problem in rural areas, with epidemics having occurred in mountainous regions of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. This article reviews current epidemiological and clinical understanding of the disease and highlights the fact that workers travelling in the endemic areas are particularly at risk, which is why the occupational nature of this disease should be recognized.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2007, Vol.LIII, No.209, p.35-41. Illus. 14 ref.
http://scielo.isciii.es/pdf/mesetra/v53n209/original5.pdf [in Spanish]
Ornithosis-psittacosis (Chlamydophila psittaci)
Ornithose-psittacose (Chlamydophila psittaci) [in French]
Ornithosis or psittacosis is an infection caused by a bacterium transmitted by infected birds or their contaminated environment. The disease often remains unnoticed but its effect on humans can be serious. Contents of this leaflet: information on the bacterium (Chlamydophila psittaci); description of the disease; occupations and populations at risk; safety, health and protective measures to be implemented.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2007. 6p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/intranetobject-accesparreference/ed%206010/$file/ed6010.pdf [in French]
Protect your employees with an exposure control plan
NIOSH researchers visited a number of prisons and jails to learn more about current practices and procedures being used to protect health care workers from blood-borne diseases. This leaflet provides tips to medical service administrators and supervisors for improving the plans aimed at protecting workers from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, which are required by OSHA. These tips include information on the exposure control plan, workers' participation in the selection of equipment, supply and use of personal protective equipment and designating persons responsible for the implementation of the plan and of the vaccination policy.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Sep. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-158/pdfs/2007-158.pdf [in English]
Let art be your legacy
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how contamination by hepatitis B occurs; it suggests that body artists be vaccinated against hepatitis B and that they attend yearly blood-borne pathogen training. See also CIS 08-532/533.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-137/pdfs/2007-137.pdf [in English]
Good, clean art
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card explains how to reduce cross-contamination within the body art sector. See also CIS 08-532 and 08-534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-138/pdfs/2007-138.pdf [in English]
NIOSH researchers worked with professional tattoo artists to figure out how they can be exposed to blood and blood-borne pathogens. Based on visits to piercing and tattooing shops and interviews with practicing artists, various communication materials were developed to better inform artists of these diseases, explain how artists can be exposed and reinforce safe practices to reduce the chances of exposure. This information card addresses the issues of handling and disposing sharps within this sector of activity. See also CIS 08-533/534.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2007. 2p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-139/pdfs/2007-139.pdf [in English]
Sambo L.G., Kisting S., Alli B., Wilburn S., Eijkemans G., Ansa V.O., Anah M.U., Udoma E.J., Umoh M.S., Gold D., Comlan P., Ezinah F., Nambo Wezet G., Anyunzoghe E.S., Ossoubita B.O., Kibwage J.K., Momanyi G.M., Odondo A.J., Lekei E.E., Akhabuhaya J., Mkalaga H., Clarke E.E., Sutherland D.K.
Collection of articles on infectious diseases of relevance to African countries. Contents: ILO programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work; protecting health care workers from occupational exposure to HIV, hepatitis and other bloodborne pathogens; reducing occupational risks to HIV and hepatitis B virus exposure among health care workers in Nigeria. Other topics: addressing psychosocial issues in Africa through the ILO's SOLVE programme; occupational safety and health (OSH) problems among wood processing workers in Gabon; OSH concerns of smallholder tobacco farmers in Kenya; OSH issues in pesticide formulation plants in Tanzania; OSH initiatives aimed at health care workers in Ghana.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2007, Vol.17, No.2, p.31-55 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/6ADDA217-D9CE-4B3A-8E5C-B8C24D795049/0/AfricanNL22007.pdf [in English]
Surveillance of occupational contamination by HIV, HCV and HBV among health care personnel
Surveillance des contaminations professionnelles par le VIH, le VHC et le VHB chez le personnel de santé [in French]
The surveillance of occupational seroconversions among health care personnel is in effect since 1991 for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, or AIDS virus), since 1997 for HCV (or hepatitis C virus) and since 2005 for HBV (or hepatitis B virus). Between 1983 and 2005, 14 HIV seroconversions were notified. Within this surveillance programme, there were also 34 notifications of presumed HIV infections. With respect to HCV, 55 occupational seroconversions were counted between 1991 and 2005. In almost all cases, seroconversions were the result of a percutaneous skin injury. Close to half of the HIV and HCV seroconversions were related to accidents involving an exposure to blood when the putting away or disposal of equipment and therefore could have been avoided by following usual precautions. To this day, no occupational contaminations by HBV have been notified.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2007, No.109, p.51-60. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20158/$File/TF158.pdf [in French]
Gómez Murcia J.E., Flórez C.M., Mejía Rodríguez S., González Ó ., Cajigas de Acosta B.E.
Biological safety in the health care sector
Bioseguridad en el sector salud [in Spanish]
Contents of this collection of articles on biological safety in the health care sector: classification of biological waste and infection hazards; biological safety standards and procedures in hospital settings; importance of having equipment that can limit the ambient concentration of infectious agents; biological safety and pathogens; criteria for the selection of single-use or re-usable protective clothing; waste management in hospital settings; workers exposed to blood-borne viral infections (HIV, HBV, HCV).
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2007, Vol.53, No.311, p.51-79. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Guidance on preparing workplaces for an influenza pandemic
A worldwide influenza pandemic could have a major effect on the global economy, including travel, trade, tourism, food, consumption, investment and financial markets. Planning for pandemic influenza by business and industry is essential to minimize a pandemic's impact. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) therefore developed this pandemic influenza planning guidance based upon traditional infection control and industrial hygiene practices. Topics addressed: how a severe pandemic influenza could affect workplaces; how influenza can spread between people, classifying employee exposure to pandemic influenza at work, how to maintain operations during a pandemic, how organizations can protect their employees; steps every employer can take to reduce the risk of exposure to pandemic influenza in their workplace; what employees living abroad or who travel internationally for work should know.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2007. 43p. Illus.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3327pandemic.pdf [in English]
Migueres F., Pellissier G., Goyer F., Touche S., Alcouffe J., Fabin C., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Abiteboul D.
Risk of exposure to blood when taking venous blood samples - Results of a survey in medical laboratories
Risque d'exposition au sang lors des prélèvements veineux - Résultats d'une étude dans des laboratoires d'analyses médicales [in French]
This study on the risk of incidents involving exposure to blood in France when taking venous blood samples involved three tasks: job observations by occupational physicians of the gestures carried when taking blood samples; evaluation of responses to a questionnaire on line addressed to biologists working in medical laboratories; survey among the main manufacturers of equipment used in laboratories. Findings concerning the incidence of needlestick injuries when taking blood samples, blood sampling systems, the use of protective gloves and the rate of hepatitis B vaccination are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, June 2007, No.110, p.173-184. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20159/$File/TF159.pdf [in French]
Vaccination in occupational settings
Vacunación en el ámbito laboral [in Spanish]
Vaccination is the most effective means of primary prevention for persons exposed to the risk of certain infectious diseases related to their work. The work environment also presents suitable settings for detecting diseases, even when they are not directly related to occupational activities. This article discusses general considerations concerning vaccination at the place of work, the groups of workers that are exposed and that should be subject to preventive vaccination, the steps involved in immunization plans, the diseases for which vaccination at the place of work is recommended, contraindications to vaccination and Spanish legislation on the subject.
ERGA Noticias, 2007, No.98, p.4. Illus. 3 ref.
http://www.insht.es/InshtWeb/Contenidos/Documentacion/TextosOnline/ErgaNoticias/Ficheros/2007/ErNOT98_07.pdf [in Spanish]
Vaxelaire S., Houssin D., Le Bâcle C., Abadia G., Bacarisse J.P., Kiniger-Passigli D.
Influenza pandemic and the activities of enterprises
Pandémie grippale et vie des entreprises [in French]
This full issue is devoted to the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on enterprises in France and the means for preparing to respond. It includes interviews, opinions and advice of various specialists and responsible persons including a senior public health official, an expert on biological hazards at the INRS, an occupational health physician, the safety and health officer of a multinational enterprise and the head of the ILO task force, who explains the role of the organization with respect to the risk of a bird pandemic (protecting the means of subsistence, ensure the compliance with international health agreements, reinforce synergies between national and international bodies, supply relevant information).
Réalité Prévention, Mar. 2007, No.14, p.1-12 (whole issue). Illus.
Møller L., Stöver H., Jürgens R., Gatherer A., Nikogosian H.
Health in prisons - A WHO guide to the essentials in prison health
Based on the experience of many European countries, this guide describes the steps prison systems should take to protect the health of prisoners and prison staff. This requires that all persons working in prisons understand how imprisonment affects health, what prisoners' health needs are and how to provide health services. Other essential elements include awareness of internationally-recommended standards for prison health; providing professional care with the same professional ethics as in other health services and promoting a whole-prison approach to care, health and well-being of people in custody.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2007. xvi, 179p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 40.00, USD 36.00 (CHF 28.00, USD 25.20 in developing countries)
http://www.euro.who.int/document/e90174.pdf [in English]
Present and infect
When individuals come to work while feeling unwell, there are hidden costs for both employees and their employers. Presenteeism is defined as lost productivity that occurs when employees come to work but perform below due to any kind of illness. Common causes of presenteeism include migraines, allergies, depression, musculoskeletal problems, gastrointestinal problems and eczema. In the case of contagious diseases such as influenza, affected individuals who come to work may transmit the disease to fellow employees. This article explains how investigating the problem of presenteeism can potentially reduce sickness absence.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2007, Vol.25, No.8, p.54-56. Illus. 10 ref.
Bianchi C., Bianchi T.
Malignant mesothelioma: Global incidence and relationship with asbestos
Literature survey. Mesothelioma incidence varies markedly from one country to another. The areas of high incidence generally correspond to the sites of industries with high asbestos use, such as shipbuilding and asbestos-cement industry. However, in some countries with high asbestos consumption, mesothelioma incidence is low. The reasons for this situation are not clear. Mesotheliomas generally develop after long-time exposures to asbestos and with latency periods of often more than 40 years. An inverse relationship exists between intensity of asbestos exposure and the length of the latency period. Some recent studies show that the risk increases with the duration of exposure. Possible co-factors in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related mesothelioma include genetic predisposition, diets poor in fruit and vegetables, some viruses, immune impairment and recurrent pleural inflammation. While a levelling-off in mesothelioma incidence has been registered in some countries, a worsening of the epidemic is predictable in large parts of the world.
Industrial Health, June 2007, Vol.45, No.3, p.379-387. Illus. 89 ref.
Brun E., Van Herpe S., Laamanen I., Klug K., Linsel G., Schöneich R., Flaspöler E., Reinert D., Galwas M., Mirón Hernández M.A., García-Matarredona Cepeda D.
Expert forecast on emerging biological risks related to occupational safety and health
About 320,000 workers worldwide die every year of communicable diseases, and some 5,000 in the European Union. In the last decade, media coverage has increased awareness among the public for biological hazards, such as anthrax due to bioterrorist activities, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and avian flu. But biological agents are ubiquitous and, in many workplaces, workers face considerably harmful biological risks. The Community strategy 2002-2006 called on the Agency to set up a risk observatory to anticipate new and emerging risks. This report sets out to present the results of the forecast on emerging OSH biological risks.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2007. 145p. Illus. 361 ref. Price: EUR 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://osha.europa.eu/publications/reports/7606488/risk_observatory_en.pdf/at_download/file [in English]
Bouchet H., Castel S., Chaney C., Mzabi M.I.
Fishmongers through the ages
Poissonniers d'hier et d'aujourd'hui [in French]
The job of fishmonger has much evolved through the centuries, as have the methods used for fishing and transporting fish (including the rapid growth in deep freezing on-board fishing vessels). Today, fishmongers work in small fish shops, in medium and large supermarket chains, on markets, in industrial enterprises, at wholesalers, at caterers or in traditional restaurants. In this occupation, occupational accidents and diseases can have multiple effects on the operations of the enterprise. The main hazards include osteo-articular injuries due to occupational accidents (falls, incorrect manual handling) or repetitive work, skin injuries and diseases (cuts, burns, contact dermatitis, warts) and cardiovascular diseases due to prolonged exposure to cold working environments. An occupational information sheet on the job of fishmonger is included as an insert.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, Vol.47, No.2, p.117-127. 8 ref. + Insert 2p.
Avian influenza/Risk of pandemic - Protection of health care personnel
Vogelgrippe/Pandemie: Schutz des Arbeitnehmenden im Gesundheitswesen [in German]
Grippe aviaire/Risque de pandémie - Protection des personnes travaillant dans le secteur de la santé [in French]
In the event where avian influenza would become pandemic, health care personnel would be the most exposed. Swiss law requires that employers implement the necessary preventive measures to ensure the protection of workers. These measures include: information of personnel; use of personal protective equipment; proper application of hygiene measures; early screening of infected persons; separation from other patients and unprotected staff.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2007, No.78, p.71-73. 8 ref.
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_78_f.pdf ((part)) [in French]
https://wwwsapp1.suva.ch/sap/public/bc/its/mimes/zwaswo/99/pdf/02869_78_d.pdf ((part)) [in German]
Biological agents and occupational health
Les agents biologiques et la santé au travail [in French]
Biologische agentia en gezondheid op het werk [in Dutch]
Aimed at employers, this guide comments on the Belgian Royal Order of 4 August 1996 concerning the protection of workers against risks connected with the exposure to biological agents at work (see CIS 00-1532) and explains how to ensure its compliance within the enterprise. Contents: definitions and scope; health effects of biological agents; hazard evaluation; documents to be completed by employers; risk prevention and control; health surveillance; vaccination; roles of the various parties involved in risk prevention and health surveillance.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2007. 36p. Illus. 11 ref.
http://www.werk.belgie.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=3854 [in Dutch]
http://www.emploi.belgique.be/WorkArea/showcontent.aspx?id=3854 [in French]
Ornithosis-psittacosis: Beware of infections caused by birds
Ornithose-psittacose: gare aux infections dues aux oiseaux [in French]
Construction industry workers are at risk of exposure to ornithosis-psittacosis, an infectious disease transmitted by bird droppings. The bacterium which causes the infection is very stable and can survive several months in dried droppings without losing its potency. The most frequent signs are fever, shivering, headache, cough and flu-like symptoms. It can also cause moderate or severe bronchopneumonia. It is recognized as an occupational disease in France. Preventive measures include the usual hygiene precautions, working in a manner to avoid the formation of aerosols and use of personal protective equipment.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2007, No.92, p.58-59. Illus.
Bloodborne facts - Protect yourself when handling sharps
A needlestick or a cut from a contaminated scalpel can lead to infection from hepatitis B virus or human immunodeficiency virus which causes AIDS. Although few cases of AIDS have been documented from occupational exposure, approximately 8700 health care workers each year contract hepatitis B. About 200 will die as a result. Aimed at health care personnel, this information sheet explains how to avoid the risk of cut and stick injuries (disposing of sharps in puncture-resistant containers, handling of sharps containers).
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, . 1p.
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_BloodborneFacts/bbfact02.pdf [in English]
Work-related infectious disease in Australia: Causes and affected workers
This article consists of a literature-based review of epidemiological studies on work-related infectious disease in Australia. It reviews the magnitude, severity, causes and affected occupational groups. A wide range of Australian workers are at considerable risk of developing some kind of work-related infection. Most of these cases are relatively minor, but some result in significant morbidity. The main infections include both zoonotic and non-zoonotic organisms. The main occupational groups at risk include healthcare workers, childcare workers, agricultural workers, and meat and livestock workers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2006, Vol.22, No.4, p.303-314. 104 ref.
OSHA Fact Sheet - Avian flu
Fact sheet on avian flu, covering: symptoms in humans; ways of infection; employees at potential risk of exposure; treatment; general precautions and specific control measures; training.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 2p.
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AvianFlu/avian_flu_factsheet.pdf [in English]
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AvianFlu/avian_flu_factsheet_sp.pdf [in Spanish]
Infection hazards faced by health care personnel
Risques infectieux professionnels pour le personnel de santé [in French]
While accidents that involve exposure to blood have been widely studied and have given rise to so-called universal precautions which form the basis of preventive measures against infection hazards among health care personnel, there also exist other forms of contamination. There are many potentially responsible pathogens, but epidemiological data that would allow the quantification of the hazard are lacking. The pathogens are also often responsible for nosocomial infections, thus making the protection of staff and patients closely related and justifying the implementation of standard precautions, completed where appropriate by specific measures applicable to exposures from aerosols, droplets or direct contact. These technical measures must be accompanied by appropriate medical prevention (vaccination, medical treatment after exposure and medical supervision).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.152, 13p. Illus. 88 ref.
Leiva D., Panigadi C., Limonti G.
Guide to safe maintenance and cleaning work
Guía para el trabajo seguro en maestranza [in Spanish]
Aimed at workers carrying out maintenance an cleaning tasks, this guide presents a number of practical occupational safety and health recommendations grouped under three headings: hygiene and safety aspects; health hazards; legislation, procedures for the notification of accidents and labour-management agreements.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2006. 50p. Illus.
Burrow J.G., McLarnon N.A.
World at work: Evidence based risk management of nail dust in chiropodists and podiatrists
This review article discusses the risks to chiropodists from occupational exposures when filing or drilling toenails. Nail dust particle dimensions are of the order of one micron, suggesting the possibility of deposition in the alveoli and bronchioles. There also exists a risk of exposures to aerosols of blood and body fluids, with the transmission of HIV and hepatitis B. Exposures can be controlled by local exhaust ventilation, drill maintenance, improved drilling techniques and personal protective equipment (eye protection, masks).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.713-716. Illus. 43 ref.
OSHA guidance update on protecting employees from avian flu (avian influenza) viruses
Orientación actualizada de OSHA acerca de cómo proteger a los empleados contra los virus de la gripe aviar (influenza aviar) [in Spanish]
This health protection guide is aimed at employers whose employees may be exposed to avian influenza (AI) viruses. It contains guidance for poultry employees, animal handlers other than poultry employees, laboratory employees, healthcare workers who treat patients with known or suspected AI, food handlers, airport personnel exposed to passengers suspected of being AI-infected, travelers on temporary work assignment abroad, United States employees stationed abroad and other employee groups that may be at risk. It discusses modes of infection, infection control measures, use of personal protective equipment, vaccination, antiviral drugs and medical supervision of exposed personnel. Appendices provide technical information about AI viruses and, in particular, about H5N1, an AI virus currently circulating in Asia, Europe and Africa that rarely causes disease in humans but when it does, the case fatality rate is high.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2006. 71p. 55 ref.
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AvianFlu/avian_flu_guidance_spanish.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_AvianFlu/avian_flu_guidance_english.pdf [in English]
Sulsky S.I., Birk T., Cohen L.C., Luippold R.S., Heidenreich M.J., Nunes A.
Effectiveness of measures to prevent needlestick injuries among employees in health professions
Wirksamkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit präventiver Maßnahmen zur Vermeidung von Nadelstichverletzungen bei Beschäftigten in Gesundheitsberufen [in German]
The pathogens of greatest concern that may be transmitted by a needlestick injury (NSI) are hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. The objective of this literature survey was to critically review and summarize the published literature on NSI, with the main focus on studies evaluating the effectiveness and cost aspects of the implementation of safer devices in hospitals. More than 2300 publications were identified, among which 61 met the quality and inclusion criteria. Nurses and physicians were the most likely to report NSI and NSI were most likely to occur in patient and operating rooms. However, widespread underreporting makes it impossible to accurately estimate the risks. Engineering controls, especially the introduction of safety-designed devices, were found to be effective in reducing the number of reported NSI. Other findings are discussed.
Hauptverband der Gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (Hvbg), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Mar. 2006. 122p. 104 ref.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/bia/pub/rep/rep05/pdf_datei/nadelstich/nadelstichverletzungen.pdf [in German]
http://www.hvbg.de/e/bia/pub/rep/rep05/pdf_datei/nadelstich/rep_nadelstich_e.pdf [in English]
Vaccination in the workplace
Les vaccinations en milieu de travail [in French]
The prevention of biological hazards in the workplace is required by French labour laws. Depending on the hazards identified, preventive measures may include personal and collective protection (hygiene measures, technical measures, personal protective equipment), as well as vaccination. This article summarizes French regulations concerning vaccination in the workplace. Vaccination against hepatitis B, tetanus, influenza and polio are mandatory for persons working in health care, while immunization against typhoid is required for persons working in medical laboratories.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2006, No.668, p.47-49. Illus. 2 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/archivests/archivests.nsf/(alldocparref)/TS668page47_1/$file/TS668page47.pdf?openelement [in French]
A hantavirus exposure control program for employers and workers
Hantavirus infection is caused by a virus found in some field rodents in Canada and the United States. It is rarely transmitted to humans, but when it is, it can cause severe illness, even death. This booklet is intended for employers and workers who may come into contact with rodents or rodent droppings while at work, primarily in rural areas. Contents: definition of hantavirus, the diseases it causes, how it is transmitted and where it is most likely to be encountered; responsibilities of employers; exposure control plan; respiratory protection; good work practices.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. iii, 17p.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/hantavirus.pdf [in English]
Risk of biological accidents among workers of a health administration region
Riesgo biológico accidental entre trabajadores de un área sanitaria [in Spanish]
This article presents the findings of a survey carried out between 1999 and 2003 in the Spanish health administration region of Puertollano on the incidence of biological accidents. It involved 742 workers (533 women and 209 men). 188 cases of accidental exposure to biological agents were notified during the study period, corresponding to a rate of 5.1 cases per 100 workers. Accidental exposure was the most frequent among nursing staff. Findings are discussed.
Salud, Trabajo y Ambiente, 3rd Quarter 2006, Vol.13, No.49, p.13-16. Illus.
Avian flu - Concerns for enterprises and their employees
Grippe aviaire - Préoccupations pour les entreprises et leur personnel [in French]
This article reviews the actions that need to be undertaken within the enterprise to ensure a state of preparedness against avian flu. Contents: definition of avian flu; possible consequences of a pandemic; measures to be undertaken within the enterprise in the event of a pandemic of avian influenza.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2006, Vol.22, No.3, p.32-34. 6 ref.
Recommendations for protecting laboratory, field, and clinical workers from West Nile virus exposure
The West Nile Virus (WNV) is most often spread to humans from the bite of an infected mosquito. However, the virus can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals, their blood or their tissues. Thus laboratory, field, and clinical workers who handle tissues or fluids infected with WNV are at risk of exposure. These workers include laboratory technicians, pathologists, researchers, veterinarians and their staff, forest wardens, entomologists, ornithologists, wildlife biologists, zoo workers, health care workers, emergency personnel and others in related occupations. Aimed at these occupations, this booklet includes frequently-asked questions, and recommendations for employers and employees.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Aug. 2006. 9p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-115/pdfs/2006-115.pdf [in English]
Shah S.F., Bener A., Al-Kaabi S., Al Khal A.L., Samson S.
The epidemiology of needle stick injuries among health care workers in a newly developed country
The main objective of the study was to characterize the epidemiology of needle-stick injuries (NSI) occurring during 2001 among health care workers (HCWs) of a hospital group in Qatar. Of the 1274 HCWs who were approached to participate in this study, 1022 workers responded to a questionnaire that included variables on age, socio-demographic data and immunization history (response rate 80.2%). Findings are discussed. The study revealed a NSI prevalence of 21%, with the risk of blood borne virus transmission.
Safety Science, June 2006, Vol.44, No.5, p.387-394. 25 ref.
Le Bâcle C., Ducovel-Pame N., Durand E.
Avian influenza, avian flu and threat of pandemic: A new occupational health challenge
Influenza aviaire, grippe aviaire et menace de pandémie: un nouvel enjeu en santé du travail [in French]
This medical and technical review article presents the current situation with respect to influenza viruses, avian influenza, seasonal influenza, avian flu in humans and the risk of a flu pandemic. It also discusses the issue of the risk of avian flu among exposed health care professionals. Preventive measures to be implemented in specific situations are presented. An appendix summarizes the main recommendations for hospitals issued by the French ministry of health.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2006, No.106, p.139-168. Illus. 56 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TC%20107/$File/TC107.pdf [in French]
Avian flu - What needs to be known today, what to tell patients, what needs to be done without further delay
Grippe aviaire - Que savoir aujourd'hui, que dire aux patients, que faire dès maintenant? [in French]
Review of a colloquium on avian flu held in Paris, France, on 16 March 2006. Among the topics presented: preparing for a pandemic; French prevention plan (stocks and distribution of masks, antiviral drugs and vaccines); management of the various phases (before and during a pandemic); informing the general population; role of general practitioners. An appendix includes extracts from the French governmental plan.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2006, Vol.46, No.2, p.193-203.
The ABC of occupational safety and health
Abécédaire de la prévention [in French]
This whole issue contains summaries of 66 occupational safety and health topics applicable to the construction industry, arranged in alphabetical order. Topics include harmful substances (asbestos, lead, wood dust), equipment (elevating trucks, scaffolds, ladders, hand tools), diseases (occupational cancers, musculoskeletal diseases, avian flu) as well as a variety of topics relating to hazards, prevention, regulations and work organization.
Prévention BTP, July - Aug. 2006, No.87, p.3-66 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Avian influenza, including influenza A (H5N1), in humans: WHO interim infection control guideline for health care facilities
This publication provides guidance on the prevention of infections among health care personnel in contact with patients who are suspected or confirmed bearers of the avian flu virus. It is aimed at health specialists and all persons in governments and administrations faced with the avian flu problem. It consists of three parts. The first part summarizes WHO recommendations with respect to infection prevention and personal protective equipment and the second part details the precautions to be taken to prevent infections. Appendices include general information on avian flu, its routes of transmission, respiratory protection, confinement units, the use of disinfectants and prophylaxis.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, updated Apr. 2006. PDF document. iii, 54p. Illus. 67 ref.
http://www.wpro.who.int/NR/rdonlyres/EA6D9DF3-688D-4316-91DF-5553E7B1DBCD/0/InfectionControlAIinhumansWHOInterimGuidelinesfor2b_0628.pdf [in English]
Avian influenza information for bird owners
This Internet document provides guidance for poultry producers and bird keepers on measures for the prevention of an outbreak of avian influenza.
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia, 2006. Internet document, 2p. 7 ref.
http://www.affa.gov.au/content/output.cfm?ObjectID=C110DB62-D73C-438F-85792D84E945F031 [in English]
Department of Health and Ageing
The Australian health management plan for pandemic influenza
The Australian Health Management Plan for Pandemic Influenza is divided into four parts: background information on the nature of influenza and pandemics; what the Commonwealth Government is doing to prepare for a possible pandemic from a health perspective; how a pandemic might play out and the actions that would be needed to respond to it; and practical information about what groups and individuals can do to prepare for a pandemic, to manage during it, and to recover from it.
National Mailing and Marketing, P.O.Box 7077, Canberra Mailing Centre, ACT 2610, Australia, 2006. 64p.
http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/Content/ohp-pandemic-ahmppi-toc.htm [in English]
Flu - Preparing for a pandemic
Grippe - Préparer l'épreuve d'une pandémie [in French]
Since the emergence of the highly-infectious H5N1 bird flu virus at the end of 2003, 150 million poultry and other birds died or were intentionally eliminated in Asia. Hundreds of thousands or possibly millions of humans were infected, among whom approximately a hundred died. Fortunately, the transmission to humans is rare, but a pandemic remains possible. Contents of this special feature on the precautions to be taken against a possible pandemic: description of the bird flu pandemic threat; types of flu viruses; collective and personal protective measures following suspected contamination on a farm; medical prevention; setting-up an emergency plan; precautions to be taken when handling dead birds.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2006, No.661, p.23-32. Illus. 4 ref.
http://www.travail-et-securite.fr/archivests/archivests.nsf/(alldocparref)/ts661page23_1/$file/ts661page23.pdf?openelement [in French]
Maroni M., Fanetti A.C.
Liver function assessment in workers exposed to vinyl chloride
A medical examination including liver function tests (LFTs) and liver ultrasonography was carried out in a group of 757 workers with long-standing service in the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in four production plants in Italy. Cumulative and maximum VCM exposures were calculated. Possible histories of viral hepatitis and alcohol intake habits of subjects were carefully investigated. Regression analysis explored the association between abnormal LFTs and a group of possible determinants. Results indicate that liver function assessment only (including LFTs) is not able to detect VCM-induced liver damage, but reveals alterations due to non-occupational factors, such as dietary and/or metabolic dysfunctions. The LFTs are however of importance in detecting conditions that indicate the need to avoid VCM exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.79, No.1, p.57-65. 17 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/j110530u28817775/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Dounias G., Kypraiou E., Rachiotis G., Tsovili E., Kostopoulos S.
Prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers in municipal solid waste workers in Keratsini (Greece)
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers among municipal solid waste workers. Participants consisted of 166 workers in Keratsini, Greece. Evaluations included the prevalence of biological markers of HBV infection (HbsAg, anti-Hbc, anti-Hbs) and their association with exposure to waste and various socio-demographic factors. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of anti-Hbc positivity between exposed and non-exposed employees to waste. Older employees had a significantly higher prevalence of anti-Hbc positivity. Logistic regression analysis showed that the exposure to waste and age were independently associated with the anti-Hbc positivity. It is concluded that occupational exposure to waste is possibly associated with the acquisition of HBV infection. Immunization of these workers should be considered to reduce the risk of HBV infection.
Occupational Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.55, No.1, p.60-63. 22 ref.
Smith D.R., Leggat P.A., Takahashi K.
Percutaneous exposure incidents among Australian hospital staff
This study investigated all reported percutaneous exposure incidents (PEI) among staff from a large Australian hospital from 2001 to 2003. There were a total of 373 PEI, of which 38.9% were needlestick injuries, 32.7% were cutaneous exposures and 28.4% sharps-related injuries. Nurses were the most commonly affected staff members, (63.5% of the total), followed by doctors (18.8%) and other staff (17.7%). Needlestick injuries were responsible for the majority of nurses' PEI (44.7%) and sharps injuries for those of doctors (44.3%). Overall, the investigation suggests that PEI is a considerable burden for health care workers in Australia.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.323-330. Illus. 20 ref.
Lot F., Miguéres B., Abiteboul D.
Occupational seroconversions through HIV and HCV among health care professionals in France, as of 31 December 2004
Séroconversions professionnelles par le VIH et le VHC chez le personnel de santé en France. Situation au 31 décembre 2004 [in French]
This article provides the results of a survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) contamination in occupational settings carried out by the French Health Monitoring Institute (Institut de veille sanitaire) and the results of a study by GERES (study group on health care workers' exposure to infectious agents) on occupational HCV contamination risk factors. No new cases of occupational HIV contamination were reported among health care personnel between 1997 and 2004 (a total of 13 HIV seroconversions were reported up to 1997). Between 1991 and 2004, 54 cases of hepatitis C conversions were reported among health care personnel. Results of the studies suggest that close to half of the HIV or HCV seroconversions occurring in occupational settings could have been avoided had standard precautions been observed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Sep. 2005, No.103, p.335-346. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20143/$File/TF143.pdf [in French]
Smit L.A.M., Spaan S., Heederik D.
Endotoxin exposure and symptoms in wastewater treatment workers
This study investigated endotoxin exposure and work-related symptoms in wastewater treatment workers. Questionnaire on data on symptoms was obtained from 468 employees in 67 sewage treatment plants and personal endotoxin exposure was measured in a sample of workers in three different periods during one year. Endotoxin exposure ranged from 0.6 to 2093 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, the geometric mean exposure being low (27EU/m3). Factor analysis yielded three clusters of correlated symptoms: lower respiratory and skin symptoms, flu-like and systemic symptoms, and upper respiratory symptoms. Symptoms appeared to be more prevalent in workers exposed to endotoxin levels higher than 50EU/m3. A significant dose-response relationship was found for lower respiratory and skin symptoms and for flu-like and systemic symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.30-39. 38 ref.
Occupational physicians and personnel with a chronic infection
Betriebsärztinnen/-ärtze und chronisch infiziertes Personal [in German]
Description of measures for preventing the transmission of pathogens by infected health care personnnel to patients and to other employees. The pathogens considered are hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Precautions to be taken include continuous surveillance of infected personnel by an occupational physician, constant reminders of safety guidelines (use of protective gloves and appropriate containers for waste disposal) and notification of injuries to occupational physicians. Following an accident involving exposure to blood, a meeting should be held in the presence of the person concerned, the occupational physician, a virologist and representatives of the works council and the human resources department. The meeting should decide whether the person should continue his/her work or would benefit from transfer to other work. Among newly-infected people, the percentage who develop a chronic infection is from 5 to 10% for hepatitis B, 70% for hepatitis C and 100% for HIV.
Praktische Arbeitsmedizin, July 2005, No.1, p. 9-15. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.bsafb.de/fileadmin/downloads/pa_1_7_2005/pa_1_7_2005_chronisch_infiziertes_personal.pdf [in German]
Advice on working with influenza viruses
Information sheet on safe working practices in laboratories where exposure to influenza viruses is a realistic possibility. Contents: current classification; recommendations for laboratories knowingly handling influenza viruses; diagnostic work; use of microbiological safety cabinets; planning for pandemics. In annex: guidance on the application of the Specified Animal Pathogens Order 1998.
Health and Safety Executive (http://www.hse.gov.uk/), United Kingdom, 2005. Internet document (6p.)
http://www.hse.gov.uk/biosafety/diseases/acdpflu.pdf [in English]
The seafarers' medical service
Le service de santé des gens de mer [in French]
Information sheet on the organization of the French national medical service for sailors and other people in maritime occupations. The service is involved in: aptitude tests; medical inspection of ships registered in France; health-related training in French maritime colleges; participation on on-board OSH committees. A special supplement concerns advice on how to avoid infection with avian influenza. Also covered are: history of the service; organization, mission and activities of the service; statistics on maritime accidents.
Direction des affaires maritimes et des gens de mer (DAM), Paris, France, [c2005]. Internet document, several pages.
http://www.mer.gouv.fr/hommes/05_medical/01_ssgm/liste_pages.htm [in French]
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