Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entries found
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Grady D.F., Lee V.A.
Hepatitis B immune globulin - Prevention of hepatitis from accidental exposure among medical personnel.
Less than 1% of medical workers who were anti-HBs-positive developed hepatitis, against 11% of anti-HBs-negative subjects. Trials were performed with immune-serum globulin preparations of varying titres. The incidence of hepatitis in groups passively immunised with globulin having a titre of 1:50, 1:5,000 and 1:500,000, respectively, was 7, 5, and 2%. The significantly lower incidence in the last group (p<0.25) was offset by additional cases found at follow-up after 9 months. Various psssible explanations of this delayed onset are put forward.
New England Journal of Medicine, 20 Nov. 1975, Vol.293, No.21, p.1067-1070. Illus. 8 ref.
Hepatitis B - Risk of infection from antigen-positive medical personnel and patients.
The greater the physical contact between medical personnel and patients, the frequency of antigenaemia among patients, the number of blood transfusions given, and the number of blood specimens handled, the higher will be the attack rate for hepatitis among medical personnel. The extent of the risk for health-care personnel can ony be defined by testing for hepatitis antigen and antibody on a voluntary basis. However, caution must be exercised in recommending job changes to personnel found repeatedly to be chronic asymptomatic antigen carriers. Antigen positivity is not necessarily life-long.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 Sep. 1975, Vol.233, No.10, p.1061-1062. 14 ref.
Farina G., Morselli G., Stangalini A.
Testing 782 employees of a pharmaceutical establishment for Australia antigen
Ricerca dell'antigene Australia in 782 lavoratori di uno stabilimento farmaceutico [in Italian]
Results of serological reactions in 782 workers in the pharmaceutical sector. The radioimmunological method, which was found to be the most sensitive, gave positive reactions in 4.3% of the cases. Those who reacted positively were then subjected to clinical tests and haematological analysis for liver disease. The following practical suggestions are made: periodic examination of all subjects exposed to possible virus contagion; exclusion of workers with positive reactions from industrial processes involving the risk of contagion; prevention of risks of contagion at the workpost or from industrial products.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1975, Vol.6, No.2, p.137-146. 21 ref.
Rudolph J., Codino R.S.
Environmental hazards of hepatitis.
The ways in which medical and paramedical personnel may contract viral hepatitis are briefly described. Accidental puncture and non-parenteral spread, during blood handling, are the predominant modes of transmission of the disease. Health-care facilities handling blood should develop precautions and enforce internal regulations to minimise human exposure to the infective antigen. Detailed laboratory safety guidelines cover sample collection, handling materials in the laboratory, disposal of contamination, accidents, and general hygiene precautions.
Journal of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1975, Vol.37, No.4, p.359-362. 23 ref.
Occupational diseases and cases of poisoning due to occupation notified for the first time in Czechoslovakia during the period 1968-1972
Nově hlášené nemoci z povolání a profesionální otravy v Československu v letech 1968-1972 [in Czech]
During the period 1968-1972 the number of occupational diseases continued to decrease in Czechoslovakia (the figures for each year were: 5,544, 4,953, 4,796, 5,124 and 4,843 respectively). This trend was noticeable mainly in the number of cases of pneumoconiosis and occupational dermatitis, whereas the number of infectious diseases (especially virus hepatitis) increased in the medical profession and the auxiliary medical staff. The most frequently occurring among the overall total of occupational diseases were skin disorders. The well-known chronic poisonings, especially in their severe and advanced forms, had virtually disappeared. A breakdown of occupational diseases and cases of occupational poisoning by region and by sector of industry is given in tabular form accompanied by observations.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1974, Vol.26, No.8, p.311-320.
Zoonoses as occupational diseases
Zoonosen als Berufskrankheiten [in German]
Review of zoonoses (considered as diseases transmissible from animals to man) in order of importance: tuberculosis, brucellosis, Q fever, milker's nodule, cutaneous anthrax, erysipeloid, salmonellosis, leptospirosis, ornithosis, toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, tularaemia, tick-transmitted encephalitis and parasite diseases. The article considers the question principally from the aspects of epidemiology, clinical picture and experts' reports.
Homburg-Informationen für den Werksarzt, 1974, Vol.21, No.6, p.122-138.
Pattison C.P., Boyer K.M., Maynard J.E., Kelly P.C.
Epidemic hepatitis in a clinical laboratory.
During a 6-month period an outbreak of hepatitis occurred in 5 employees concerned with blood-specimen control at a hospital clinical laboratory. The laboratory had recently adopted a computerised system for specimen collection and data dispersal, and a significant correlation was found between accidental cuts from computer cards and the development of clinical hepatitis. Because blood is frequently spilt on these computer cards, the authors speculate that the presumed increase in hepatitis and the growing use of computerised requisition systems in hospitals, the occupational hazard to medical, paramedical and dental personnel may increase at an alarming pace.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 11 Nov. 1974, Vol.230, No.6, p.854-857. Illus. 12 ref.
Taylor J.S., Shmunes E., Holmes A.W.
Hepatitis B in plasma fractionation workers.
Between 1968 and 1971, hepatitis B occurred at a plasma fractionation company in 14 employees who had worked for 18 months or less (9.4% of the workers at risk). Plasma dumping, a manual operation involving handling of incoming plasma (resulting in frequent minor cuts on glass bottles or sharp instruments), a task to which new employees tend to be assigned, appears to entail the greatest risk. Other procedures considered hazardous are manual scraping of fibrinogen from centrifuges, and processing and aerosolisation of plasma fractions (splashing on mucous membranes of face). The degree of contact correlated directly with the prevalence of antibody in the population studied. Prophylactic recommendations cover general hygiene and safety measures. Periodic monitoring of exposed employees is strongly recommended.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 11 Nov. 1974, Vol.230, No.6, p.850-853. 18 ref.
Benoit, Marc, Beauvieux G., Duroux J., Boisseau, Marlin, L'Epée, Doignon, Schartz W., Traissac F.J., Paccalin J., Mesmier F., Rivasseau.
Occupational safety and health and chemical hazard
Médecine du travail et risque chimique. [in French]
Communications submitted on 22 and 23 Feb. 1973 at a training course organised by the Association pour la formation des médecins du travail (AFOMETRA) and the Institut de médecine of Bordeaux (France); biological tests for early diagnosis available to plant physicians; occupational asthma due to chemical substances; the haemogram in occupational safety and health - pitfalls to avoid in its interpretation; French regulations concerning preventive medicine with reference to chemical hazards; brief summary of legislative texts concerning technical preventive measures to safeguard personnel against chemical hazards; hazards of chemical substances used by workers for therapeutic purposes; occupational health problems of Australia antigen infection; occupational asthma due to chemical substances (statistical incidence and diagnostic procedures).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1st and 2nd quarter 1974, Vol.14, No.53-54, p.3-92. 30 ref.
Virus hepatitis B: an occupational disease - Epidemiological and prophylactic study in haemodialysis centres
Hépatite virale B: maladie professionnelle - Etude épidémiologique et prophylactique dans les centres d'hémodialyse. [in French]
The first part of this MD thesis is devoted to background information on virus hepatitis as an occupational disease, and to the following aspects: frequency of virus hepatitis B among the staff of haemodialysis units, role of the Australia antigen, modes of transmission. The second part is devoted to medico-social problems: French legislation, absence from work, course of the disease and treatment. Prophylaxis is discussed in one chapter: general hygiene (organisation of working conditions, staff training), preventive measures to cope with antigen-carrying patients and immunisation. Prevention by means of specific immunoglobulins has gone beyond the experimental stage and the manufacture of a vaccine against hepatitis B is at present being studied.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Pitié - Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1974. 42p. 27 ref.
Les dermatoses professionnelles [in German]
Les dermatoses professionnelles. [in French]
Contents: definition and classification of types of occupational dermatitis; pathogenesis; clinical picture, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment; technical and medical prevention; frequency, exposed occupations; legal aspects (insurance rights), statistics.
Maladies professionnelles, Leaflet No.11, Swiss National Accident Insurance Institute (Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt), Luzern, Switzerland, Feb. 1974. 24p. Illus. 9 ref.
Hinthorn D.R., Foster M.T., Bruce H.L., Aach R.D.
An outbreak of chimpanzee associated hepatitis.
A report of an outbreak of chimpanzee-associated hepatitis which occurred at a zoo and involved 14 animal handlers. The outbreak had characteristics of short-incubation or type A viral hepatitis and was traced to a recently imported chimpanzee. Considerable caution would seem advisable in the handling of newly imported subhuman primates and especially their excreta. Routine screening for elevated serum transaminases on arrival might prove valuable in detecting animals capable of transmitting hepatitis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1974, Vol.16, No.6, p.388-391. Illus. 25 ref.
Dermatologic hazards in the poultry industry.
An investigation of the dermatological hazards at a large poultry processing facility is reported, and a safety and health programme is suggested to reduce the frequency of dermatological injury and disease. More research is needed to assess the extent of the problem throughout the industry.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1974, Vol.16, No.2, p.94-97. 8 ref.
Present problems concerning the prevention of and compensation for infectious diseases of occupational origin
Problèmes actuels posés par la prévention et la réparation des maladies infectieuses d'origine professionnelle. [in French]
MD thesis. Importance of infectious diseases (excluding parasitoses) in occupational pathology, followed by a review of the preventive aspects of occupational health, which is limited to a few diseases given more favourable treatment, and of the 3 types of disease for which compensation is provided for by French legislation: occupational diseases (bacterial, viral and rickettsial diseases), occupational accidents (complications of cuts, wounds, etc.) and diseases attributable to work but compensated under sickness insurance (diseases to which personnel are exposed in bacteriology laboratories, medical personnel and employees required to work in other countries). The author makes suggestions for improved preventive measures and more easily available compensation.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Cochin - Port Royal, Paris, France, 1973. 78p. 122 ref.
6th national preventive medicine days for hospital staff
VIe Journées nationales de médecine préventive du personnel hospitalier. [in French]
Proceedings of this congress (10-12 May 1973, Tours, France) at which 2 reports were presented: Psychological approach among hospital staff (Meau R., Sudre M.C., Paquiet J.); Standards of aptitude to be met by hospital personnel (Doumert J., Barbier C., Cherif S., Jallet M.F., Pigney F., Ronot P.). These reports were supplemented by various communications dealing with the following subjects among others: absenteeism due to psychic factors; psychiatric pathology among hospital staff; psychosomatic disturbances among female hospital staff; psychological difficulties which confront practitioners responsible for preventive medicine among hospital staff; epidemiology and prophylaxis of viral hepatitis in hospitals.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1973, Vol.34, No.12, p.681-781. Illus.
Prost G., Dechavanne M., Tolot F.
Hepatic and renal diseases of occupational origin
Atteintes hépatiques et rénales d'origine professionnelle. [in French]
Considers a number of liver and kidney diseases due to infection (brucellosis, leptospirosis, viral hepatitis). The distinction is drawn between forms of toxic hepatitis due to substances which are absolute or constant poisons for the liver, and those caused by substances which are inconstant or idiosyncratic poisons. The various aetiologies, toxic process, anatomical and clinical observation, course of the disorder and possibilities of diagnosis are given for each of these substances. Acute poisoning of the kidneys occurs in 2 ways: directly, or during haemolysis. Chronic lesions are mostly due to lead or cadmium. Preventive medicine has to deal with 3 vital problems: working capacity of persons suffering from kidney or liver damage, diagnosis of the most discrete forms of such impairment, research on new toxic substances.
Journal de médecine de Lyon, 5 May 1973, Vol.54, p.643-652.
Weiss M., Guiard J., Planché C., Guilleret C.
Viral hepatitis - A complication of extracorporeal blood circulation endangering hospital teams
L'hépatite virale - Une complication des circulations extra-corporelles qui n'épargne pas l'équipe de soins. [in French]
Description of 2 self-observed cases of viral hepatitis due to occupation, which occurred among the staff of an open-heart surgery unit (1 surgeon and 1 heart-lung machine technician contracted viral hepatitis with positive Australia or HB antigen test). The article examines the practical problems which arise from the points of view of forensic medicine, prophylaxis and statistics. Preventive measures should be oriented mainly towards systematic discovery of donors of contaminated blood and patients who are carriers of the HB virus or Australian antigen (patients about to undergo open-heart surgery, kidney transplant or haemodialysis); this is indispensable for the patient as well as for the hospital team. The statistical data quoted show a very high incidence of hepatitis among nursing and technical staff of specialised hospital services: 14 positive reactions and 12 cases of icterus among 190 persons examined during 1 year in a hospital, and 9 cases out of 52 persons during the same year in the laboratory of a hospital pharmacy.
Nouvelle presse médicale, 26 May 1973, Vol.2, No.21, p.1437-1441. 30 ref.
Notification No.2/1973 concerning protection against hepatitis infection
Meddelelse nr.2/1973 om retningslinier for beskyttelse mod hepatitissmitte (leverbetændelse) [in Danish]
These directives, intended for hospitals and laboratories which analyse human blood and other biologic substances, call for strict observance of hygienic rules. Direct contact with blood, urine, faeces, etc. must be avoided. Pipetting by direct mouth aspiration is prohibited. Washing hands before and after taking samples is compulsory. Gloves should be used whenever possible.
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 15 Feb. 1973. 2p. Gratis.
Occupational dermatology due to virus zoonoses
Dermatologie professionnelle due aux zoonoses virales. [in French]
Humans can be infected by certain virus zoonoses through occupational exposure to the pathological agent; the infection appears clinically in the form of cutaneous and/or mucous lesions. The study covers zoonoses encountered in temperate climates: foot-and-mouth disease, cow-pox, sheep-pox, orf (ecthyma contagiosum), Aujeszky's disease (pseudo-rabies or infectious bulbar paralysis), milkers' nodules; it deals with the comparative pathology of these diseases and their medico-social aspects.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Apr.-May 1973, Vol.34, Nos.4-5, p.248-252.
Anglo-French meeting on occupational dermatitis
Réunion franco-anglaise consacrée aux dermatoses professionnelles. [in French]
Proceedings of this meeting, held in Jan. 1973, covering the following topics in particular: leukoderma from neoprene adhesives; dermatitis in the building industry, agriculture and slaughter-houses; prognosis of cement dermatitis; occupation and cancer of the skin in Great Britain; occupational dermatology and viral zoonoses; radiodermatitis; toxic reactions to local steroid applications; selection of protective gloves and their resistance to solvents; pH of workshop detergents for washing hands; irritant action of Javel extract.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Apr.-May 1973, Vol.34, Nos.4-5, p.235-272. Illus. 21 ref.
Taylor P.J., Pocock S.J.
Commuter travel and sickness absence of London office workers
The relationship between the pattern of commuter travel to work and sickness absence was studied in a population of 1984 office workers in central London. The median journey time was 1h; the average journey had 2.8 stages. One third of the sample considered their journey uncomfortable. The number of journey stages was the most important factor relating to both certified and uncertified sickness. The use of a car or a journey lasting >1.5h was associated with higher uncertified rates of absence. The incidence of certified influenza did not relate to any specific aspect of the journey, including the use of public transport.
British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, Aug. 1972, Vol.26, No.3, p.165-172. Illus. 12 ref.
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