Viral diseases (other than aids) - 571 entries found
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Holdener F., Grob P.J., Joller-Jemelka H.I.
Hepatitis virus infection in flying airline personnel
Sera of 1126 flying personnel were tested for present or past infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or A virus (HAV). The prevalence of anti-HA antibodies was similar to that of controls. HBV immunity was similar in pilots, flight engineers, and female flight attendants, but more prevalent in male flight attendants. Within 1 year, 13 of 2624 personnel had acute hepatitis, mainly due to hepatitis B among male flight attendants. It is suggested that life style may be responsible for these findings.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 1982, Vol.53, No.6, p.587-590. Illus. 6 ref.
Venkitaraman A.R., John T.J.
Chickenpox outbreak in staff and students of a hospital in the tropics
12 members of the staff of a hospital in India acquired varicella from a young patient. None had had varicella earlier. In tropical hospitals with many non-immune staff it may be difficult to prevent hospital-acquired infection. Immigrant staff from the tropics working at hospitals in temperate countries are also at risk. Their immunity should be assessed so that measures can be taken to forestall varicella outbreaks in hospital personnel.
Lancet, 17 July 1982, Vol.2, No.8290, p.165.
Seitz B., Seitz G., Denis J., Hamard H., Philbert M., Dughera J.
Result of a study of epidemic kerato-conjunctivitis (with adenovirus) in ophthalmological practice
Résultat d'une enquête sur les kérato-conjonctivites épidémiques (à adénovirus) en milieu ophtalmologique [in French]
Results of a nationwide survey in France among ophthalmological services where the personnel seems at particularly high risk (230 cases reported, 108 of which were in medical staff, 86 in nursing staff and 36 in various other workers) due to the endemic nature of the disease transmitted by patients with infection occurring via the hands and medical instruments. This disease should be included in the schedule of occupational diseases.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.6, p.484-485.
Crespy J., Olagnier E., Rey P., Andlauer P., Blanchard M., Gaillot P., Lafarge C., Lyonnet R., Martinet R., Matthieu M.A., Mezan P., Monestier F., Passerat A., Pirot R., Rapallini M., Requin C., Rozet J., Salomon F., Thibaudier C.
Incidence of warts and allergies in a population of workers who consulted occupational medicine specialists
Fréquence des verrues et des allergies dans une population de consultants en médecine du travail [in French]
Epidemiological study of incidence of warts in a population of 2,659 people employed in agriculture, food and related industries. Comparison with workers in other sectors. Frequency of warts and occupational allergies was significantly higher in the agricultural and food sector (except in the case of butchers).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 10 ref.
Viral hepatitis in hospitals
Hépatites virales en milieu hospitalier [in French]
Investigation in a hospital where the staff medical service physician made regular check-ups on the personnel over a period of 13 years: study of trends in hepatitis cases (distribution chronologically, and by hospital department); in-depth research on the types of hepatitis which occurred and immunity acquired by intensive-care unit personnel. The results of the investigation and available statistics show that the present-day practitioner is better acquainted with the helath status of hospital staff and is therefore more efficient as regards preventive medicine. Analysis of general hepatitis prevention in hospital services: systematic medical surveillance and individual prevention (medical examinations, laboratory tests, consultations, return to work). Review of immunological aspects of viral hepatitis.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2nd quarter 1982, Vol.22, No.86, p.21-30.
Considerations regarding infection during hospital employment
The risks of tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, rubella, herpes (simplex virus), meningococcal disease, scabies, pertussis, respiratory syncytial virus disease, influenza, diphtheria and laboratory-associated infections among hospital workers are surveyed. Screening and diagnostic procedures are considered, together with control measures such as surveillance, appropriate immunisations, epidemiological investigations, antibiotic prophylaxis, when indicated, and environmental safeguards.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1982, Vol.24, No.1, p.53-57. 53 ref.
The hospital as a workplace
Arbeitsort Krankenhaus [in German]
This issue is entirely devoted to OSH problems of hospital and health care institution personnel, with articles on: planning and layout - criteria for modernisation and enlargement; fire protection; air conditioning; planning for cleaning and disinfection; precise description and delineation of tasks, functions and responsibilities, to avoid conflicts; shortcomings in staff training and their consequences in hospital work; accident "black spots" and typical hazards; explosion hazards in operating theatres; antigen B viral hepatitis and its prevention; investigation of stress and strain in medical personnel; accident-insurance aspects.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Apr. 1982, Vol.17, No.4, p.77-104 and XXI. Illus. 40 ref.
Maibach H.I., Gellin G.A.
Occupational and industrial dermatology
Contents of this manual, to which several authors contributed: diagnosis of occupational skin disease (OSD); principles and significance of occupational site survey; risk factors in OSD; dermatoses due to water, soaps, detergents, solvents; allergens; use and abuse of patch tests; allergic contact dermatitis (immunologic aspects); treatment of OSD; biologic causes of OSD (microbes, fungal diseases, viral agents); physical and mechanical causes; photobiologic effects; the pilosebaceous unit; sweat retention syndrome; pigment responses and pigmentation disorders; compensation; predisposing factors and pre-employement medical examinations; assessment of cutaneous impairment and disability; determining allergic contact potential of chemicals; predictive tests for allergic contact dermatitis; percutaneous absorption; dermatitis of the hands in beauticians; contact dermatitis in medical personnel; fiberglass; cutting fluids; epoxy resins; other plastics; metals; printing-plate manufacturing; culinary plants; forest products; construction work; scleroderma due to silica dust; paints and oil of turpentine.
Year Book Medical Publishers, 35 E. Wacker Drive, Chicago IL 60601, USA, 1982. 375p. Illus. 650 ref. Price: US-$54.45.
State of the art regarding contagious diseases in occupational medicine: melioidosis, Legionaries' disease, African haemorrhagic viral diseases (Lassa, Marburg, Ebola)
Actualisation de maladies infectieuses en médecine du travail: mélioïdose, maladie des légionnaires, fièvres virales hémorragiques africaines (Lassa, Marburg, Ebola) [in French]
This MD thesis considers 3 groups of contagious diseases of recent occurrence in our environment. Currently available data are used to determine if they can be linked to certain occupations, with consequent implications for occupational medicine, with a view to possible amendments to labour legislation. The thesis is mainly concerned with the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of these diseases, their clinical aspects, the occupations at risk, and case studies in the working environment. Prophylaxis is also considered.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1982. 150p. 25 ref.
Griffith G.W., Doerken H., Rehpenning W., Pegum J.S., Milham S.
Lung cancer in butchers
Attention is drawn, in these 4 letters, to excess mortality from lung cancer found for butchers and meat processing workers in the U.K. as early as 1951, an excess of cancers of the respiratory tract in butchers compared with bakers in West Germany, an excess occurrence of viral warts in U.K. butchers, and a finding of no excess mortality due to lung cancer in a sample of butchers and meatcutters in the U.S.A.
Lancet, 13 Feb. 1982, Vol.1, No.8268, p.399, 2 ref.; 6 Mar. 1982, No.8271, p.561, 2 ref.; 20 Mar. 1982, No.8273, p.690. 1 ref.
Wall L.M., Oakes D., Rycroft R.J.G.
Virus warts in meat handlers
Epidemiological study of virus warts on the hands of employees of a large meat processing factory (pork, beef). Of 1,141 employees examined, 687 were constantly handling meat. Detailed study of the various departments of the factory (deboning, butchery, processing, storage, packing, cookhouse, etc.). According to type of employment, prevalence of warts varied between 33.6% and 70.4% in employees handling meat, and between 18.2 and 44.4 in non-meat handlers. In 50% of these cases the workers concerned were unaware of the development of warts (especially plane warts).
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1981, Vol.7, No.5, p.259-267. Illus. 8 ref.
Laerum O.D., Iversen O.H.
International Union Against Cancer
Biology of skin cancer
This report of the workshop held 12-16 Jan. 1981 in Geneva, Switzerland covers: a brief history of skin cancer and carcinogenesis research; normal skin; skin cancer (geographical and racial variations, genetic factors, classification, biological properties); criteria of malignancy (human and animal); chemical carcinogenesis (environmental carcinogens, experimental models, epidermal cell proliferation kinetics, biochemical mechanisms, short-term tests for carcinogens); ultraviolet radiation carcinogenesis; ionising radiation carcinogenesis; viral carcinogenesis; the immune system in human carcinogenesis; stroma and tumour invasiveness; role of ageing in carcinogenesis; conclusions and implications, recommendations for future research.
Hans Huber Publishers, Länggasstrasse 76, 3000 Bern 9, Switzerland, 1981. 263p. 992 ref. Price: SF.44.00.
Dutkiewicz J., Ulmiński J., Łotach H.
Harmful occupational biological agents - Classification
Klasyfikacja biologicznych szkodliwości zawodowych [in Polish]
Description of a new system of classifying biological agents that may cause occupational diseases. The system comprises a classification based on the principles of taxonomy (from viruses to vertebrates) and a classification on the basis of workplace characteristics. The first gives data on 83 agents: Latin and Polish names, occurrence, means of transmission, routes of entry, effects on the human body and categories of workers exposed. In the second, the symbols adopted for the data on each agent are attributed to 208 workplaces, arranged by category of occupational and branch of industry. The classification, which also includes an appendix containing a descriptive list of methods for studying the workplace and for the periodic medical examination of workers, is intended to help in diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1981, Vol.31, No.111, p.291-305. 24 ref.
Brenner W., Florian H.J., Stollens E., Valentin H.
The modern practice of occupational medicine
Arbeitsmedizin aktuell [in German]
Loose-leaf folder with periodical supplements. Classification of articles: aims and institutions, work organisation, occupations and medicine, occupational health, occupational physiology, ergonomics, occupational psychology, pathology, diagnosis and treatement, medical examinations, medical prevention, occupational safety, rehabilitation, social aspects, epidemiology and documentation, legal medicine, occupational sociology, training, industry and pollution, legislation and regulations. The 1981 supplements include articles on: protection of working mothers; viral hepatitis; silico-tuberculosis; silicosis; medical emergencies at the workplace; hazards of ionising and electromagnetic radiations and fluorescent lamps; ordinance on dangerous industrial substances; the ILO International Classification of the Radiographic Appearances of Pneumoconioses; work in extreme climatic conditions; the work of poisons centres; definitions of terminology in the relevant legislation; workplace air analysis using detector tubes; medical supervision of workers at risk of falls from heights; responsibilities of plant physicians; biological threshold values; step-by-step diagnosis; periodic medical examinations.
Gustav Fischer Verlag, Wollgrasweg 49, 7000 Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Federal Republic of Germany, 1981. 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th instalments. 1005p. (complete publication). Price: DM.252.00.
Skinhøj P., Hollinger F.B., Hovind-Hougen K., Lous P.
Infectious liver diseases in three groups of Copenhagen workers: Correlation of hepatitis A infection to sewage exposure
3 groups of municipal workers, matched for age and duration of employment, and consisting of 77 sewer workers, 81 gardeners and 79 clerks were studied for clinical and serological evidence of infection with viral hepatitis types A and B and pathogenic leptospires. Antibody against hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) was found in 80.5% sewer workers compared with 60.5% gardeners and 48.1% clerks. The anti-HAV prevalence rates correlated with age rather than duration of employment. In 11 reported cases of jaundice only 3 occurred amongst sewer workers. Hepatitis B serological markers were similar in each group. Exposure to metropolitan sewage appears to impose a limited risk of hepatitis A infection while the hepatitis B virus is not successfully transmitted by this route.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1981, Vol.36, No.3, p.139-143. 20 ref.
Hansen J.P., Falconer J.A., Hamilton J.D., Herpok F.J.
Hepatitis B in a medical center.
Over a 40-month period, there were 1,235 cases of exposure to blood product or body fluids. Of the 155 workers exposed to HBsAg-positive blood, 101 were not immune to hepatitis B. 3 of them developed clinical hepatitis, as did 24 other employees. The cumulative incidence was 106 per 100,000 employee-years.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.338-342. Illus. 34 ref.
Andrews B.E., Major R., Palmer S.R.
Ornithosis in poultry workers.
An outbreak of ornithosis in duck workers is reported. A serological survey showed that 61% of them (compared with 23% of control workers) had chlamydia group antibody titres of ≥ 1:8. 9% of duck workers had antibody titres ≥ 1:32 and a clinical illness suggestive of ornithosis. The proportions of seropositive tests and clinical attack rates were highest in workers eviscerating ducks and lowest in farm workers.
Lancet, 21 Mar. 1981, Vol.I, No.8221, p.632-634. 8 ref.
Price A., Le Serve A., Parker D.
Biological hazards - The hidden threat.
This is one of a series of concise guides on hazards at the workplace addressed to shop stewards and trade union safety representatives. Contents: general remarks; how hazards enter the body (inhalation, direct contact, ingestion); biological health hazards (bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasitic worms, plant diseases); case studies (smallpox, humidifier fever, bacterial contamination of soluble oils and coolants, diseases of agricultural workers); sampling and monitoring; action on biological hazards (shop floor organisation, inspections and checklists, medical records and surveys, access to information); diseases and infections of biological origin.
Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., Nelson House, Mayfield Road, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey KT12 5PL, United Kingdom, 1981. 89p. Illus. Price: £1.40.
The relation between length of service and the course and sequelae of viral hepatitis in workers in the chemical industry
O vlijanii professional'nogo staža na tečenie i posledstvija virusnogo gepatita u rabočih himičeskih predprijatij [in Russian]
Viral hepatitis occurs in a more severe and protracted form in workers who have been occupationally exposed to toxic chemicals for long periods. Liver functions are more extensively impaired. Where the disease remits, biochemical levels are slow to normalise. Greater length of service correlates with more harmful sequelae.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1980, No.12, p.33-36. 7 ref.
Nordic occupational dermatitis symposium.
Some of the papers read at the symposium (Dublin, Ireland, 10-12 Nov. 1978): bacteria and soluble oil dermatitis; contact dermatitis due to machine oil in hosiery workers; 10-year review of an industrial dermatitis clinic; permanent disability from nickel allergy; kangri cancer in the brick industry; allergic contact dermatitis in veterinary surgeons; contact urticaria from latex surgical gloves; allergy to nyloprint acrylate printing plates; orf (ecthyma contagiosum of sheep and goats); oedema of fingers from a hydrogen-fluoride-containing aluminium blancher; itching in potroom workers using recycled alumina; health risks from isocyanates; identification of contact sensitisers by animal assay; acrylates in industry; contact allergy to bis(4-chlorophenyl)methyl chloride; hand eczema from formaldehyde in price labels; legal aspects of occupational dermatitis in Northern Ireland; photosensitivity and allergy to lichens and oleoresins; work in ultraviolet radiation; occupational eczema in a woodpulp factory.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1980 (extra issue), Vol.6, No.1, p.5-79. Illus. 108 ref.
A prevalence study of virus warts on the hands in a poultry processing and packing station.
The prevalence of viral warts in these workers was 38.2% (11.9% in a control population of textile workers). The common human papova virus was identified from scrapings. The possible reasons for the high prevalence of warts is discussed: the cause may be that the workers' hands are frequently wet rather than contact with the chickens themselves. Wearing gloves significantly protected workers against warts, but the prevalence was still 32% in those who always wore gloves.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol.30, No.1, p.20-23. 9 ref.
Banerjee K., Gupta N.P., Goverdhan M.K.
Viral infections in laboratory personnel.
The staff of the Indian National Institute of Virology was studied. Since the Institute was established in 1952, there have been 87 cases of infection with Kyasanur forest disease (KFD), 3 with Chikungunya, 7 with Ganjam and 1 with West Nile viruses. 64 of the KFD infections were in laboratory workers, 23 in field workers collecting insects. Infections were similar to natural cases, but there were no deaths in laboratory personnel. Vaccination with formolised KFD vaccine in 1966 seemed to reduce the incidence of infection in laboratory workers. The main mode of infection was via aerosols.
Indian Journal of Medical Research, Mar. 1979, Vol.69, p.363-373. 23 ref.
Discussion of safety of work in microbiological laboratories, with reference to recent incidents in the United Kingdom (smallpox, Lassa fever and other pathogens) with some statistics (total laboratory-associated infections (UK), pre-1925 to 1974: 3,921 (164 deaths); breakdown by types of laboratory: research (59% cases); diagnostic 17% - often viral hepatitis); teaching (2.7%); biological products manufacture (3.4%)). Considerations on inadequacies of some fume cupboards, inspections of medical and hospital laboratories instead of voluntary control (role of the Health and Safety Executive); new procedures (safety code and efficient incident-reporting system set up at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and at Birmingham University following deaths from smallpox infection among laboratory staff).
Health and Safety at Work, Nov. 1979, Vol.2, No.3, p.46-49. Illus.
Hepatitis B: An occupational hazard of health care facilities.
During a 4 year period, 30 cases of hepatitis B attributed to work occurred at an urban medical centre. Only 5 of the workers affected described a relevant incident before onset of the disease. Early symptoms were non-specific, and routine monitoring and clinical awareness are necessary for early diagnosis. More effective control measures are needed. It is unlikely that post-exposure immune globulin prophylaxis will reduce the incidence of hepatitis B.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1979, Vol.21, No.12, p.807-810. 31 ref.
Zoonoses: Animal diseases and man.
The most important zoonoses are listed with infectious agent, transmitting animal, symptoms in humans including mortality, occurrence (place and number of cases), and treatment of: anthrax, brucellosis, ornithosis, rabies, swine erysipelas, tetanus and trichinosis. Other possible occupational diseases are mentioned.
Professional Safety, June 1979, Vol.24, No.6, p.15-17. 9 ref.
National Joint Technical Committee for the Activities of the Intertrade Group, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité technique national des activités du groupe interprofessionnel, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie), Paris, 14 Nov. 1978.
Viral hepatitis of occupational origin
Hépatite virale d'origine profesionnelle. [in French]
This recommendation, which concerns more particularly antigen-B type hepatitis, prescribes measures to be adopted with regard to medical supervision, personal hygiene and personal protection, information and training of staff exposed to viral hepatitis contagion, and with regard to technical measures to be adopted concerning premises, furnishings and equipment, bedding and linen to avoid all risk of contamination. A commentary on the recommendation follows.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1979, No.94, Note No.1173-94-79 (Recommendation No.151), p.163-166.
Recommendations for prophylaxis of viral hepatitis
Recommandations concernant la prophylaxie de l'hépatite virale. [in French]
Paper communicated to the Technical Regional Committee for Food Wholesale and Retail Trades (Comité technique régional "alimentation-interprofessionnelle", Lille, France). The recommended prophylaxis consists essentially of general hygiene measures for hospital nursing, laboratory and haemodialysis unit personnel. These measures, designed to avoid contact with contaminated matter or linen, are listed. Screening for Australia antigen plays an important part in the prevention of this disease. The article mentions the role of passive immunisation by preventive injection of gamma globulin.
Regional Health Insurance Fund for Northern France (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de la France), 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 14 Sep. 1978. 7p. Gratis.
Record of proceedings of the VIIIth National Congress of Preventive Medicine for Hospital Staff, Marseille, 12-14 October 1977
Compte rendu des travaux des VIIIes Journées nationales de médecine préventive du personnel hospitalier, Marseille, 12-14 octobre 1977. [in French]
Papers presented are grouped under 3 main topics. 1st topic (ergonomics in the hospital): ergonomics and nursing work; global study of the workload of an orthopaedics nurse. 2nd topic (work schedules): work schedules in the hospital and their repercussions on staff health; effects of night shift working on a feminine population; suggestions for night schedules; survey in a surgery service; considerations on hospital work schedules. 3rd topic (viral hepatitis, an occupational disease of hospital staff): viruses of hepatitis and their antigens; protocol of systematic prevention of antigen B hepatitis in haemodialysis centres; statistics concerning the hazard of viral hepatitis B in hospitals in the Rhône-Alps region; informational training in the prevention of viral hepatitis; medico-legal settlements for viral hepatitis in hospital employees; prevention of hepatitis B by vaccination. Non-scheduled papers presented: working conditions of assistant-nurses in hospitals; mental stress in hospital staff; medical supervision of hospital staff, etc.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep. 1978, Vol.39, No.9, p.511-584. Illus. 35 ref.
Viral hepatitis: statistics and detailed analysis of 60 cases reported in 1976
L'hépatite virale: résultats statistiques et analyse détaillée des 60 cas déclarés en 1976. [in French]
Communication submitted to the Regional Joint Technical Inter-Occupational Committee for the Food Industry (Lille, France). According to statistics available, infectious hepatitis seems limited to hospital staff. Contents: detailed study of 57 cases reported in 1976 in the milieu covered by the above Committee (breakdown by sex, age, profession or activity); places where hospital employees are particularly exposed to the hazard (laboratories; general medical wards and services; open-heart surgery; haemodialysis and bood transfusion services); preventive measures (protection of medical, nursing and laboratory staff (personal and general hygiene, sterilisation, disinfection); mass immunisation).
Regional Health Insurance Fund for Northern France (Caisse régionale d'assurance maladie du Nord de France), 11 boulevard Vauban, 59024 Lille Cedex, France, 8 June 1978. 6p. Gratis.
D'Andrea F., Apostoli P., Menestrina F.
Systemic virosis in poultry-breeding workers
Virosi sistemica in lavoratori addetti all'allevamento di polli [in Italian]
Two cases are reported of workers with lymphoadenomegaly. The work history, laboratory and special tests, and historical biopsy findings from a cervical lymph node suggested virosis transmitted by poultry.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1978, Vol.69, No.4, p.537-541. Illus. 9 ref.
Berris B., Feinman S.V., Richardson B., Wrobel D.W., Sinclair J.C.
Hepatitis in undertakers.
106 undertakers were studied. The percentage who gave a past history of hepatitis was no greater than that of controls. There was a non-significant difference in the number with blood that was positive for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. While undertakers appear to be in a low-risk occupation as regards hepatitis, it is suggested that there may be an increased risk of exposure in undertakers who do not wear gloves, and this practice is therefore recommended.
Journal of the American Medical Association, July 1978, Vol.240, No.2, p.138-139. 11 ref.
Occupational disease during pregnancy and its effects on the foetus
Les maladies professionnelles chez la femme enceinte et leur retentissement sur le f¿tus. [in French]
MD thesis. Considerations on teratogenesis and ways in which the ovum can be harmed are followed by a review of the various pathogenic agencies to which a female worker could be occupationally exposed during pregnancy: physical (mechanically-caused trauma, whole-body vibration, ultrasound, effects of hot workplaces, ionising radiation); infectious, viral or chemical (benzene, lead, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, pesticides, etc.), indicating the particular hazards of each. The author then refers to French labour legislation as it applies to pregnancy during employment, emphasising the role of the plant physician, who is in the best position to assess the hazards to which an expectant mother is exposed if she continues in her employment.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1978. 112p. 63 ref.
Estienne J., Rio Y., Stœssel J.M.
Accidents in general hospital laboratories
Les accidents dans les laboratoires des hôpitaux généraux. [in French]
Results of a study of the frequency and severity of occupational accidents and diseases in the personnel of non-university hospitals in France from 1970 to 1974. Infectious diseases head the list (9.9% of workers). The most frequent is viral hepatitis (6.5%), occurring especially in biochemical laboratories in proportion to the number of examinations performed. This is followed by tuberculosis (1.8%); overcrowding of the laboratories and the small space allotted to laboratory staff appear to play a role in transmission of the disease. Comparison with other studies. Preventive measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1977, Vol.38, No.7-8, p.659-668. 15 ref.
Brown P.M., Souter R.V.
Health and safety in hospital laboratories.
This paper is a report of a joint inspection of a group of hospital laboratories carried out by the Employment Medical Advisory Service (EMAS) and the Factory Inspectorate. Deficiencies were found which would not have been acceptable by the standards applying to factories. Aspects giving rise to concern included: ventilation, cleanliness, illumination, storage of chemical and highly flammable liquids, fire provisions, and safe operation of autoclaves, centrifuges and other appliances. The infective hepatitis hazard is discussed.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1977, Vol.27, No.4, p.148-150. 15 ref.
Hazards of women occupationally exposed to rubella - Occupational health problems and compensation
Risques encourus par les femmes professionnellement exposées à la rubéole - Problèmes posés par la prévention et la réparation. [in French]
MD thesis. Study of the problem of pregnant women occupationally exposed to rubella, with the concomitant hazard of foetal abnormality (employment in laboratories, hospitals, educational establishments, kindergartens, creches and nurseries, social welfare work, etc.). Contents: brief overview of rubella infection and its prevention, epidemiology, diagnostic methods, study of congenital rubella, prevention. Preventive measures consist mainly of serum prophylaxis (which has contraindications). Situation in some countries (USA, Belgium, Switzerland) as regards vaccination. In France, the question of screening high-risk populations (female employees of hospitals and educational establishments) for rubella antibodies, with vaccination of serum-negative subjects, is under consideration. Role of the occupational health physician and responsibility of the State towards exposed persons. An amendment to the statutory lists of occupational diseases giving entitlement to compensation is proposed.
Université de Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1977. 51p. 83 ref.
Pinheiro F.P., Bensabath G., Rosa A.P.A.T., Lainson R., Shaw J.J., Ward R., Fraiha H., Moraes M.A.P., Gueiros Z.M., Lins Z.C., Mendes R.
Public health hazards among workers along the Trans-Amazon highway.
Communication to the Symposium on geography and occupational health (Brighton, United Kingdom, 14-19 Sep. 1975), reporting results of a permanent surveillance programme begun in Nov. 1972 in the Altamira area (Pará State). Serological studies on arbovirus infections; investigation of haemorrhagic syndrome of Altamira (163 cases were noted in the Altamira area in 3 years); prevalence of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, including problems of prevention and control; malaria; schistosomiasis; blastomycosis; histoplasmosis; leptospirosis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1977, Vol.19, No.7, p.490-497. Illus. 5 ref.
Hahon N., Booth J.A., Eckert H.L.
Antagonistic activity of poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide) to the inhibition of viral interferon induction by asbestos fibres.
The depressive effect of various asbestos fibres on interferon induction by influenza virus was significantly diminished or abolished by pretreating either the asbestos fibres or cell monolayers with poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide). Maximum antagonistic activity was time- and concentration-dependent. Pretreating asbestos fibres with the polymer was more rapid and effective than pretreating cell monolayers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1977, Vol.34, No.2, p.119-125. 31 ref.
Cohen S.R., Butler G.J., Shmunes E., Holmes A.W.
Hepatitis among plasma fractionation workers - An industry-wide study.
This questionnaire and field study covered 14 plasma-processing plants. Inspection revealed many instances of employee-product contact throughout the process (reception, pooling, centrifugation, leophilisation, recovery of the powder (harvesting), filtration, bottling). Awareness of the hazards was very poor. Epidemiological data on 86 clinical cases of viral hepatitis are given and discussed. Plasma fractionation is a high-risk vocation, and several questions as to protection remain unanswered.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1976, Vol.18, No.10, p.685-689. 17 ref.
Goubran G.F., Cullens H., Zuckerman A.J., Eddleston A.L.W.F., Williams R.
Hepatitis B virus infection in dental surgical practice.
61 dental surgeons were interviewed. 6 had a history of hepatitis. The results of serological studies are given and discussed. Dental surgeons may be more at risk from hepatitis B infection than the general population: use of sharp instruments in a field contamined with saliva and possibly blood, potentially infectious aerosol projected by ultrasonic rotary instruments and air and water sprays. While hospital dental surgeons may be particularly vulnerable, they can take appropriate precautions if the HBsAg status of the patients is known. In the present study the infection rate in hospital dentists was low. Measures recommended: medical history, emphasising hepatitis, blood transfusion or drug abuse; referral of suspected cases for blood testing; use of mask and gloves when treating HBsAg-positive patients; injection of hepatitis B immunoglobulin if the skin is punctured and contaminated with potentially HBsAg-positive material.
British Medical Journal, 4 Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.6035, p.559-560. 14 ref.
Relation of e antigen to infectivity of HBsAg-positive inoculations among medical personnel.
Accidental inoculation of blood containing hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) resulted in hepatitis B or an anti-HBs response in 60% of cases when e antigen was present, as against 31% when it was not. A soluble protein identified by Magnium and Espmark in sera containing HBsAg, e antigen appears to be a marker of infectivity in maternal-foetal transmission of hepatitis B. The high prevalence of e antigen in patients on renal dialysis units where staff acquired hepatitis B most frequently suggests a comparable association. e antigen was detected in 74% of inocula from chronic renal dialysis and transplantation units, compared with 28% from other services, and the incidence of hepatitis B varied accordingly (22% and 6%, respectively). The validity of linking e antigen with infectivity is briefly discussed.
Lancet, 4 Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.7984, p.492-494. 12 ref.
Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l'agriculture), Paris.
Decree No.76-74 of 15 January 1976 to revise and supplement the tables of agricultural occupational diseases annexed to Decree No.55-806 of 17 June 1955, as amended
Décret n°76-74 du 15 janvier 1976 revisant et complétant les tableaux des maladies professionnelles agricoles annexés au décret n°55-806 du 17 juin 1955 modifié. [in French]
This decree adds the following new tables (34 to 42) to the tables of statutory occupational diseases in agriculture listed in the French Labour Code: ulcerations caused by chromic acid, alkaline chromates and dichromates; diseases due to tar, pitch and anthracene oils; diseases due to tropical woods; diseases due to epoxy resins; poliomyelitis; hygroma (beat knee); CO poisoning; hexane poisoning; diseases due to cadmium; diseases due to organic isocyanates. The following tables are amended: 4 (anthrax), 5 (leptospirosis), 7 (tularaemia), 8 (carbon disulfide poisoning), 9 (carbon tetrachloride poisoning), 11 (diseases due to various organic phosphorus compounds), 12 (mercury poisoning), 13 (poisoning due to nitrophenols), 15 (skin mycoses), 16 (tuberculosis), 18 (lead poisoning), 19 (benzene poisoning), 20 (health damage due to ionising radiations), 21 (poisoning due to halogenated acyclic hydrocarbons), 22 (silicosis), 23 (methyl bromide poisoning), 25 (dermatitis due to lubricants), 28 (health damage due to formic acid), 29 (vibration-induced osteoarticular disorders).
Journal officiel de la République française, 26-27 Jan. 1976, Vol.108, No.22, p.682-690.
Maupas P., Goudeau A., Coursaget P., Drucker J., Bagros P.
Immunisation against hepatitis B in man.
An inactivated vaccine against hepatitis B (serum hepatitis) was administered to 96 people at a hospital in Tours (France). Results in 46 of them (mainly members of the ward staff or relatives of dialysis patients) are reported. A positive response - production of anti-HBs antibodies - was elicited in 35. The vaccine appears to protect against hepatitis B. A general outline of some of the difficulties encountered in developing a vaccine are published in the same issue of Lancet (Zuckerman A.J., p.1396-1397, 20 ref.), together with a general commentary of the question (p.1391).
Lancet, 26 June 1976, Vol.1, No.7974, p.1367-1370. 24 ref.
Smith T.F., Burgert E.O., Dowdle W.R., Noble G.R., Campbell R.J., Van Scoy R.E.
Isolation of swine influenza virus from autopsy lung tissue of man
Case report of a boy who until 5 days before his death from respiratory failure due to Hodgkin's disease had worked on a farm where swine were raised. Swine influenza virus was isolated from lung specimens at autopsy. The possibility that both the Hodgkin's disease, and the chemotherapy for it, had modified his resistance to infection by impairing immunological responses is discussed.
New England Journal of Medicine, 25 Mar. 1976, Vol.294, No.13, p.708-710. Illus. 15 ref.
Harrington J.M., Shannon H.S.
Incidence of tuberculosis, hepatitis, brucellosis, and shigellosis in British medical laboratory workers.
A retrospective questionnaire survey of 21,000 medical laboratory workers in England and Wales in 1971, and of 3,000 in Scotland in 1973, showed: 21 new cases of tuberculosis (5 times the rate in the general population), 38 cases of hepatitis, 45 cases of shigellosis (microbiology staff were twice as vulnerable as that of other pathology divisions), and one case of brucellosis. Tuberculosis definitely, and hepatitis and shigellosis possible, are still occupational hazards of British medical laboratory workers.
British Medical Journal, 27 Mar. 1976, Vol.1, no.6012, p.759-762. 19 ref.
Pathologie rurale. [in French]
Review of the various health hazards commonly encountered in the rural milieu: a) poisoning due to the natural environment (animals and plants), or to the use of products such as fertilisers and pesticides, or due to other factors (carbon monoxide, lubricants, solvents, etc.); b) disease due to infection by parasites or pathogenic agents, with increased incidence due to modern farming methods (zoonoses, tetanus, anthrax, rabies, etc.); c) pathology of accidents (due to a wide variety of causes: animals, use of machinery, etc.); d) physiopathology and pathology linked to mechanisation (tractors, use of aircraft in agriculture etc.); e) pathology linked to various factors (bad weather, dust, noise and vibrations, bad posture, eating habits, fatigue, etc.). For each pathological cause the appropriate preventive measures and the essential statutory provisions which apply are indicated. List of French bodies concerned with occupational safety and health in rural occupations. List of relevant French regulations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Pathologie professionnelle, Fascicule 16538 A 10, 2-1976. 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France. 16p. 17 ref.
Mosley J.W., Edwards V.M., Casey G., Redeker A.G., White E.
Hepatitis B virus infection in dentists.
Of 1,245 dentists, 0.9% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, and 12.7% were antibody positive. The frequency of evidence for infection increased with increasing years of professional experience. Dentists appear to have a risk of hepatitis B virus infection about 2-3 times that of the general population. Frequencies did not vary with geographic region in the USA, nor with size of community.
New England Journal of Medicine, 9 Oct. 1975, Vol.293, No.15, p.729-734. 28 ref.
Ministry of Agriculture (Ministère de l'agriculture), Paris.
Decree No.75-863 of 8 September 1975 to revise and add to the schedule of agricultural occupational diseases in the schedule to Decree No.55-806 of 17 June 1955, as amended
Décret n°75-863 du 8 septembre 1975 révisant et complétant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles agricoles annexés au décret n°55-806 du 17 juin 1955 modifié. [in French]
The following diseases are added: rabies of occupational origin, diseases caused by poisoning due to pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate and "sodium laurylpentachlorophenate", diseases due to inhalation of dust in aviaries and poultry farms, and virus hepatitis of occupational origin. Amendments to the original decree concern occupational tetanus, occupational brucellosis and diseases due to cement (ulcerations and other skin disorders, blepharitis, conjunctivitis).
Journal officiel de la République française, 20 Sep. 1975, Vol.107, No.219, p.9715-9717.
Lévy A., Jourdan R., Mouret A., Malby M.R.
Occupational viral hepatitis - An acute problem of hospital hygiene
L'hépatite virale professionnelle - Problème aigu d'hygiène hospitalière. [in French]
Statistical data illustrating the magnitude of this problem. Hazards presented by healthy chronic virus carriers, who are more numerous in the hospital environment than in the general population. Economic data (in France, viral hepatitis accounts for 11.6% of occupational diseases). Epidemiological analysis of occupational viral hepatitis at the university hospital of Montpellier, France. Prevention: technical aspects (routine screening for HB antigen, isolation of antigen carriers, observance of hygiene rules); educational aspects (information and education of personnel, teaching of strict rules of hygiene and disinfection); administrative aspects (diagnostic criteria, obligatory notification).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Sep.1975, Vol.36, No.9, p.465-475. 16 ref.
Thomson S., Inwood M.J.
Laboratory-acquired hepatitis B.
Letter to the editor proposing a method to overcome the high risk of hepatitis when Coombs test material is transferred from test tubes to slides for microscopic reading. An inversion microscope equipped with a viewing holder for 10x75mm tubes is used, allowing agglutination patterns to be directly assessed in the tube, so avoiding transfer of hazardous material. Visual assessment is considered as accurate as the traditional slide and pipette method, and the cost of the microscope is quickly recovered in savings due to the fact that additional slides and pipettes are not required.
Lancet, 28 Feb. 1976, Vol.1, No.7957, p.489.
Durfee P.T., Pullen M.M., Currier R.W., Parker R.L.
Human psittacosis associated with commercial processing of turkeys.
After an introduction tracing the incidence of psittacosis epidemics in the USA, this report describes investigations of a series of such epidemics at turkey-processing plants, mainly in Texas, in May-Aug. 1974, involving 114 workers. The incidence in 80 workers at 3 plants is classified by occupation: the attack rate was directly related to exposure to the viscera and faeces of infected turkeys. Workers exposed to live birds did not fall ill. Serological studies suggested that non-clinical psittacosis may be relatively common in persons associated with turkeys. Control measures included screening turkey flocks before slaughter and treatment of infected birds.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 1 Nov. 1975, Vol.167, No.9, p.804-808. Illus. 11 ref.
Grady D.F., Lee V.A.
Hepatitis B immune globulin - Prevention of hepatitis from accidental exposure among medical personnel.
Less than 1% of medical workers who were anti-HBs-positive developed hepatitis, against 11% of anti-HBs-negative subjects. Trials were performed with immune-serum globulin preparations of varying titres. The incidence of hepatitis in groups passively immunised with globulin having a titre of 1:50, 1:5,000 and 1:500,000, respectively, was 7, 5, and 2%. The significantly lower incidence in the last group (p<0.25) was offset by additional cases found at follow-up after 9 months. Various psssible explanations of this delayed onset are put forward.
New England Journal of Medicine, 20 Nov. 1975, Vol.293, No.21, p.1067-1070. Illus. 8 ref.
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