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Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found

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  • Skin diseases

2000

CIS 00-781 Franklin P.J., Goldenberg W.S., Ducatman A.M., Franklin E.
Too hot to handle: An unusual exposure of HDI in specialty painters
Between November 1993 and May 1994, seven painters and one boilermaker who were working at three different power plants were examined following complaints of asthma, dyspnoea or rash. At their respective work sites, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) was applied to the hot surfaces of boilers that were shut down but not allowed sufficient time to cool. Consequently, these workers were exposed to volatile HDI and its thermal decomposition products. All of these workers underwent a complete physical examination, spirometry and methacholine challenge testing. All 8 workers complained of dyspnoea, while 4 of the 8 also complained of rash. On examination, 3 workers were methacholine challenge positive and 2 had persistent rash. At follow-up 4 years later, 5 workers still had to use inhalation medication and one had progressive asthma and dermatitis. All 8 workers, by the time of the follow-up, had gone through economic and occupational changes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.431-437. 39 ref.

CIS 00-469 Finch T.M., Muncaster A., Prais L., Foulds I.S.
Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from isoflurane vapour
Case report of a non-atopic anaesthetist with periorbital erythema and oedema who was initially patch tested to a standard series of products used in hospitals. He showed positive reaction to a number of allergens, including cetrimide. Despite strict avoidance of all the identified allergens, he remained symptomatic. The history suggested isoflurane could be responsible for this allergy. Repeated open application tests (ROAT) gave a positive result. The patient could not totally exclude occupational exposure isoflurane vapour; however, the use of protective eye wear has improved his symptoms.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2000, Vol.42, No.1, p.46. 5 ref.

CIS 00-415 Smith H.R., Holloway D., Armstrong D.K.B., Whittam L., White I.R., Rycroft R.J.G., McFadden J.P.
Association between tinea manuum and male manual workers
In order to test the hypothesis that tinea manuum (fungal infection of the hands) predominantly occurs in manual workers, a statistical analysis of 23,264 patients (41% male) with hand dermatitis previously patch tested was carried out showing that 48% performed work with a significant manual component. During the same period 52 patients (47 male) showed tinea manuum. 42 (39 male) were in work with a significant manual component. The five most common occupations in this population were: car mechanic, machine operator, gas/electricity worker, chemical process worker and farm worker. Manual workers develop hyperkeratosis of the skin, which provides an enhanced environment for keratinophyllic dermatophytes. The female population was too small to allow analysis.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2000, Vol.42, No.1, p.45. 3 ref.

CIS 00-468 Kanerva L., Miettinen P., Alanko K., Estlander T., Jolanki R.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from glyoxal, glutaraldehyde and neomycin sulfate in a dental nurse
Case report of a non-atopic dental nurse with work-related hand dermatitis. Two patch test sessions gave positive reactions to glyoxal, glutaraldehyde and neomycin sulfate. The latter had been frequently used to treat her dermatitis. The sensitizations to glyoxal and glutaraldehyde were considered occupational. As the nurse had been exposed to both products, it is not clear if she developed cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2000, Vol.42, No.2, p.116-117. 10 ref.

CIS 00-478 de Cock P., van Ginkel C.J.W., Faber W.R., Bruynzeel D.P.
Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from sawdust in livestock sheds
Report of two cases: a 21-year-old farmer's son working week-ends on his parents' pig and cattle farm who developed dermatitis on the face and forearms and a 43-year old dairy farmer with eczema of the hands. Both had positive patch tests to colophony. The dairy farmer also showed a positive reaction to penicillin. It was concluded that they had occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from the colophony in sawdust in livestock sheds. An allergic contact dermatitis to penicillin was also diagnosed for the dairy farmer.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2000, Vol.42, No.2, p.113. 5 ref.

CIS 00-467 Berndt U., Wigger-Alberti W., Gabard B., Elsner P.
Efficacy of a barrier cream and its vehicle as protective measures against occupational irritant contact dermatitis
In a randomized, double-blind study, a new barrier cream and its moisturizing vehicle were compared regarding their skin compatibility, efficacy and resulting acceptance. Two panels of 25 hospital nurses each with mild signs of skin irritation were asked to use one of the test products (barrier-cream or vehicle) over a period of four weeks. Effects of both types of preparations were studied weekly. No significant differences were found between the barrier cream and its vehicle. In both groups, clinical skin status improved and stratum corneum hydration increased significantly during the study period. Both preparations were well tolerated and accepted, thus showing both skin protection and skin care. These results contribute to the debate as to whether a strict distinction between "skin care" and "skin protection" products is justified.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2000, Vol.42, No.2, p.77-80. Illus. 14 ref.

1999

CIS 01-1692 Geier J., Brehler R., Eck E., Koch P., Peters K.P., Rakoski J., Rothe A., Schnuch A., Szliska C., Uter W.
Epicutaneous testing in case of suspected work-related contact allergy
Epikutantestung bei Verdacht auf berufsbedingte Kontaktallergie [in German]
The German contact allergy group (DKG) gives recommendations for epicutaneous testing in case of suspected occupational contact allergy. It also provides specific guidance on finding suspected allergens for hairdressers and masons.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1999, Vol.47, No.1, p.24-32. 31 ref.

CIS 01-1769 Struppek K., Ludwig S.
Prevention of chromate eczema in the construction industry
Prävention des Chromat-Ekzems im Baugewerbe [in German]
Chromate eczema is still one of the most important occupational skin diseases in the German construction industry. Primary prevention can be improved by partially substituting chromates by ferrous sulfate, a solution which is already being practiced. Moreover, nitrile-coated rubber gloves are suitable for protecting the skin when working with cement products. A survey also indicates that 60% of the persons questioned found that nitrile-coated rubber gloves are more comfortable, longer lasting and ensure better protection against humidity than traditional leather gloves.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1999, Vol.47, No.1, p.13-15. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 01-1709 Crépy M.N.
Work-related - Procedure to adopt
Eczéma d'origine professionnelle - Conduite à tenir [in French]
This information sheet proposes an approach for occupational physicians confronted with cases of eczema possibly due to occupational factors. Contents include: epidemiology; diagnosis at the place of work (medical history, clinical examination, aetiological diagnosis); diagnosis in specialized facilities (patch tests, other skin tests, spot tests); prognosis; prevention (substitution of allergens, hygiene, skin protection); workers' compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1999, No.77, p.43-48. 12 ref.

CIS 01-1531 Crépy M.N.
Contact dermatitis from proteins - An underestimated occupational skin disease
Dermatite de contact aux protéines - Une dermatose professionnelle sous-estimée [in French]
Occupational contact dermatitis from proteins concerns mainly workers in restaurants, in the food industry or in contact with animals. Responsible substances can include protein-rich fruit and vegetables, animal proteins, flour and enzymes. Contents: physiopathology; diagnosis in an occupational setting; diagnosis techniques (skin tests, IgE determination); prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1999, No.79, p.249-253. 31 ref.

CIS 01-785 Géraut C., Tripodi D.
Occupational skin diseases
Dermatoses professionnelles [in French]
Occupational skin diseases account for just under half of all occupational diseases in France, and for approximately one in ten of all skin diseases that lead to dermatological consultation. These skin diseases may be caused by infections, by physical agents, and - more frequently, by chemical substances. Clinical aspects of skin diseases depend on the causes and mechanisms, but most frequently, one encounters irritation dermatitis or allergic eczema. Occupations the most at risk include, by decreasing order of importance: occupations where cleaning products are used, the construction industry, hairdressing, health care and plastics processing, followed by various occupations such as metalworking, metallurgy and printing, and finally all occupations involving contact with animals or agricultural products.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 1999, No.124, 22p. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 01-423 Seoane Leal C.H., Iguti A.M.
Urticaria: A review of its clinical and occupational aspects
Urticária: Uma revisão sobre os aspectos clínicos e ocupacionais [in Portuguese]
Urticaria is a clinical manifestation of many diseases and has an unknown epidemologic profile, due to its uncommon characteristics. Only the most critical and recurrent cases are treated in health services. This article reviews the bibliography of urticaria and its clinical aspects, classifications, the various forms of occupational urticaria and its diagnostic tests. The main occupational risk factors giving rise to urticaria are reviewed with particular emphasis on manifestations caused by contact with rubber gloves.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 1999, Vol.25, No.95/96, p.77-100. 75 ref.

CIS 01-135 Tumerelle E.
Occupational allergic diseases caused by polyfunctional aziridines: A case report
Allergies professionnelles liées aux aziridines polyfonctionnelles - Revue de la littérature, à propos d'un cas [in French]
Polyfunctional aziridines (PFA) are a new class of occupational allergens, causing rare conditions. A case of occupational dermatosis induced by a PFA hardener of an acrylic resin used as glue in a textile screen-printing firm is reported. Skin tests were unable to identify the responsible allergen positively. PFAs are likely to provoke allergic contact dermatitis, occupational asthma and even a combination of both. One case of urticaria with a positive prick test has been reported. The responsible allergens are the PFAs themselves, and in some cases, the polyfunctional acrylates used in their production and other hardening constituents. There remains a degree of uncertainty about the immunological or irritative nature of these affections. Because of the growing use of water-based acrylics, polyurethanes and polyvinyl acetates requiring the use of PFA hardeners, users must be rigorously protected. PFA-induced eczema, rhinitis and asthma should also be added to the list of occupational diseases in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.36-41. 14 ref.

CIS 01-152 Smedley J., Jury A., Bendall H., Frew A., Coggon D.
Prevalence and risk factors for latex allergy: A cross-sectional study in a United Kingdom hospital
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for symptoms related to gloves, and the relation between symptoms and immunological evidence of type I hypersensitivity to latex, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among the hospital's 773 employees. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on symptoms related to gloves and associated risk factors among staff likely to use gloves at work. All who reported symptoms suggestive of type I hypersensitivity were invited for skin prick testing and measurement of specific IgE to latex (RAST). Among the 372 responders, symptoms related to gloves were common, 49% reported redness or itching of the hands, 14% reported urticaria, and 6% reported chest tightness. However, the frequency of positive skin prick tests and RASTs was surprisingly low (only two subjects tested positive). These findings indicate the need for caution in the interpretation of symptoms related to gloves even when they seem to suggest type I hypersensitivity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.56, No.12, p.833-836. 19 ref.

CIS 00-1669 Merget R., Topcu M., Friese K., Vormberg R., Fuchs T., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Breitstadt R.
A cross-sectional study of workers in the chemical industry with occupational exposure to hexamethylenetetramine
To assess the health effects of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) on the airways and skin of workers in the chemical industry, a cross-sectional study was performed with 17 employees of a HMT-producing chemical plant and 16 control subjects from the plant, as well as 4 subjects who had left the production for medical reasons. A high proportion of exposed subjects and controls reported symptoms during the previous year, most of them were not related to work. Work-related symptoms and objective parameters did not show differences between groups. No cases of sensitization to HMT as assessed by skin prick tests or patch tests were found. Among those who had left the HMT production for medical reasons, 2 former workers showed sensitization to HMT by patch tests. These reported eczema during exposure but lost symptoms after removal from exposure. High exposures to HMT may cause allergic contact dermatitis. There was no evidence of an increased risk for occupational asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1999, Vol.72, No.8, p.533-538. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 00-1605 Diepgen T.L., Coenraads P.J.
The epidemiology of occupational contact dermatitis
Occupational contact dermatitis ranks first of all occupational diseases in many countries. The incidence rate is believed to be around 0.5-1.9 cases per 1,000 full-time workers per year. Epidemiological studies play an important role in observing disease trends, analysing risk factors, and monitoring the effect of preventive measures. This review article highlights the lack of reliable epidemiologic data on occupational contact dermatitis and the difficulties of such studies. The following issues are highlighted: case ascertainment and bias, the distribution of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in the working population, the interrelationship between exogenous (allergens, irritants) and endogenous factors, the prognosis, the social and economic impact, and the need for intervention studies.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1999, Vol.72, No.8, p.496-506. Illus. 75 ref.

CIS 00-1667 Armstrong D.K.B., Jones A.B., Smith H.R., Ross J.S., White I.R., Rycroft R.J.G, McFadden J.P.
Occupational sensitisation to p-phenylenediamine: A 17-year review
The substance p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a potent contact allergen commonly found in hairdye. Between 1982 and 1998, 26,706 patients with suspected contact dermatitis were patch tested. 667 (2.5%) were positive. The commonest sites of dermatitis were the hands (35%) and the face and neck (27%). Of occupational groups, hairdressers had the highest rate of PPD allergy (19%), the great majority with hand dermatitis, followed by rubber workers (6%).
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.6, p.348-349. 12 ref.

CIS 00-1683 Kanerva L., Estlander T.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from colophony in 2 dental nurses
This article reports the cases of two dental nurses, one with fingertip dermatitis, the other with irritant contact dermatitis. They both had a previous episode of hand dermatitis. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to colophony, a substance present in dental varnishes, pastes and disinfectants.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.6, p.342-343. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1666 Kanerva L., Alanko K., Jolanki R., Estlander T.
Airborne allergic contact urticaria from methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride and hexahydrophthalic anhydride
A 32-year-old atopic man began to work as a winder in an electrical machine manufacturing plant. Within a few months he developed rhinitis and conjunctivitis, but he waited 7 years before seeing a doctor about it. He also developed work-related pruritus and redness on his arms and face. He worked in an area where methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) were used to harden epoxy resins. Patch testing was negative. An open application test showed a strong urticarial follicular reaction with MHHPA and a provocation test with this substance was positive. Provocation testing with HHPA was negative when diluted. Applied undiluted, HHPA provoked whealing. It was concluded that the patient had occupational allergic contact urticaria from MHHPA and HHPA. Occupational rhinitis from HHPA was also diagnosed from prick tests and RASTs. A change of job was recommended.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.6, p.339-341. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-1759 Christensen L.P.
Direct release of the allergen tulipalin A from Alstroemeria cut flowers: A possible source of airborne contact dermatitis?
Alstroemeria is one of the top 10 cut flower species on the Dutch market. This study investigates the possibility that tulipalin A released from Alstroemeria could be a source of airborne contact dermatitis. The allergen tulipalin A was collected, quantified and identified from cut flowers of two Alstroemeria hybrids. The amounts of tulipalin A released into the air were correlated with tulipalin A and total allergen content (tulipalin A and tuliposides) in the plant tissue, respectively. Tulipalin A was released primarily from the wounded areas, i.e. the stems, although small amounts were also emitted from the undamaged flowers in one of the hybrids. The content of tulipalin A exceeded that of tuliposides in leaves and flowers of both hybrids, whereas the content of tulipalin A in stems (in % fresh weight) was slightly lower than the content of tuliposides.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.6, p.320-324. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 00-1613 Kalimo K., Kautiainen H., Niskanen T., Niemi L.
"Eczema school" to improve compliance in an occupational dermatology clinic
From 1990 a trained nurse has been employed at the Department of Dermatology of a leading Finnish hospital to inform patients about skin care, allergen avoidance and skin protection. To find out the possible benefits of this patient education, a questionnaire was sent out to 540 patients who had been diagnosed with an occupational skin disease. 424 patients returned the questionnaire, 252 of whom had been examined before 1990 and 172 later. It appeared that when the diagnosis had been irritant contact dermatitis without allergens found, the prognosis was significantly better among those who had received this "extra education" and none had persistent dermatitis. Patients with contact allergy to metals or synthetic resins had also managed better, as compared to those who had received traditional treatment. Generally, the patients were satisfied with the additional extra information provided by the nurse.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.6, p.315-319. 29 ref.

CIS 00-1329 Berndt U., Hinnen U., Iliev D., Elsner P.
Swiss prospective eczema study on metal workers "PROMETES": Results of a longitudinal study on hand eczema
PROMETES - Schweizer prospektive Metallarbeiter-Ekzem-Studie: Ergebnisse einer Längsschnitt-Untersuchung zum Handekzem [in German]
205 apprentices of 24 Swiss metal working enterprises were followed dermatologically over a period of 2.5 years. A workplace diary was used to note relevant occupational exposures as well as the use of barrier creams and gloves. Non-occupational exposures were also noted. Skin examination was performed regularly and biophysical parameters of the skin measured. 23% of the subjects developed hand eczema symptoms, most of them early during the observation period. Eczema develops because of irritants in the cutting fluid. Lacking personal hygiene was a contributing factor and mechanical stress may enhance the irritant effect of the cutting fluid.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.47, No.4, p.150-156. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 00-1266 Abderhalden R., Hofer H., Jacobs F., Rast H.
Special issue: Protection against cement-induced skin diseases
Numéro spécial: Protection contre les dermatoses provoquées par le ciment [in French]
Schutz vor Hautkrankheiten durch Zement [in German]
Protezione dalle malattie cutanee causate dal cemento [in Italian]
Eczema due to cement is one of the most frequent skin diseases in Switzerland among construction workers. Approximately 100 new cases are reported every year. Eczema due to cement can be classified into two main groups: toxico-irritant eczemas and allergic eczemas. Workers at risk are primarily masons, unskilled labourers and tilers whose skin is frequently in contact with mortar. Protective measures consist primarily in limiting contact with harmful substances, using products to protect the skin and washing hands carefully after work. When wearing gloves, cotton gloves with nitrile coating are to be preferred to leather gloves. Implementation of a skin protection plan at the company or the construction site allows taking into account individual conditions of the workplaces.
Bulletin du ciment, Mar. 1999, special issue, p.1-11 (whole issue). Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 00-1395 Isaksson M., Zimerson E., Bruze M.
Occupational dermatoses in composite production
In a plant that produces fibre-resin composite by impregnation of cellulose fibres with phenol-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins, a new technique was introduced that resulted in problems in the handling of uncured products. Many workers suffered dermatitis on areas of exposed skin. A primary investigation found that some workers had an occupationally related skin disease with contact allergy to work materials. We undertook a survey of occupational dermatoses, based on a questionnaire, clinical examination and patch test with a standard series and a series of products and chemicals representing the work environment. Eighty-eight workers participated in the clinical investigation. In six workers, contact allergy to phenol-formaldehyde resin was seen, and in five workers, contact allergy to melamine-formaldehyde resin was noted. Two workers were allergic to both resins. Occupational dermatitis was diagnosed in nine of 88 (10.2%) workers. In this article, we discuss possible preventive measures for avoiding occupational dermatitis.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.261-266. 15 ref.

CIS 00-1009 Jung K., Bieback C., Linse R.
The role of atopy for occupational irritant and allergic contact dermatitis
Bedeutung der Atopie für beruflich bedingte irritative und allergische Kontaktekzeme [in German]
Evaluations of the medical records of 606 patients with allergic contact dermatitis and of 190 patients with irritant contact dermatitis seeking compensation for their occupationally induced skin diseases yielded an atopic disposition in 60.3 and 72.1% of the patients, respectively. The average exposure until development of the disease was found to be shorter for patients with atopic disposition as compared with patients without atopic disposition. The atopic patients came mostly from the food industry, metalworking industry and health services. Nickel, cobalt, chromium and formaldehyde were the most frequent sensitizers. Women were more frequently affected than men and were affected almost ten years sooner than men. There was no connection between the atopic disposition of women and age of affliction.
Allergologie, Aug. 1999, Vol.22, No.8, p.472-476. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 00-1064 Jolanki R., Estlander T., Alanko K., Savela A., Kanerva L.
Incidence rates of occupational contact urticaria caused by natural rubber latex
Topics: allergens; domestic and related helpers, cleaners; Finland; frequency rates; health care personnel; laboratory work; latex; morbidity; natural rubber; skin allergies; statistical evaluation; statistics; urticaria.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1999, Vol.40, No.6, p.329-331. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 00-714 Lewis R.D., Feir D., Roegner K., Nayan A., Vordtriede S.
Investigation of bites and itching in a word processing department
This study investigated reported bites and itching in a word processing division of a municipal department. Bird and rodent mites were suspected as causes of the bites because of the large population of pigeons around window ledges and the sighting of mice in the office. No single cause of the bites was identified; however, a combination of surface-borne dust on desk tops and floors, the presence of minute quantities of mineral wool and fibre glass, relatively dry conditions, little or no outdoor air supplied to the work space, evidence of seasonally associated high work load, labour/management strife, and the presence of computers being used on a 24-hour basis (possibly leading to high levels of static electricity) were suspected as multiple causes of most of the "bites." After removal of loose mineral wool and dirt from an air handling unit and implementation of an aggressive cleaning routine, no more bites or itching were reported after a 6-month, 1- and 2-year follow-up period.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May-June 1999, Vol.60, No.3, p.310-316. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 00-793 Pontén A., Bruze M.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from epoxy resins based on bisphenol F
Topics: allergens; aromatic diols; bisphenol F diglycidyl ether polymer; case study; dermatitis; diglycidyl ethers; eczema; epoxy resins; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.235. 3 ref.

CIS 00-792 Katsarou A., Koufou V., Katsaris V., Kalogeromitros D.
Acute contact dermatitis from naphthol AS
Topics: allergens; aromatic azo compounds; naphthol as; case study; clothing; dermatitis; dyes; eczema; gas chromatography; itch; skin allergies; skin tests; textiles; vesicular contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.228-229. 8 ref.

CIS 00-791 Brooke R.C., Beck M.H.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from epoxy resins used to restore window frames
Topics: allergens; glycidyl phenyl ether; bisphenol A; 2,4,6-tris(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol; case study; dermatitis; eczema; epoxy resins; repair work; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests; windows.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.227-228. 2 ref.

CIS 00-804 Majamaa H., Roto P., Vaalasti A.
Airborne occupational hypersensitivity to isothiazolinones in a papermaking technician
Topics: allergens; biocides; case study; dermatitis; eczema; eyes; hypersensitivity; isothiazolinones; pulp and paper industry; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.220. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 00-784 Kumar A., Freeman S.
Leukoderma following occupational allergic contact dermatitis
Two cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis followed by leukoderma are described. The first case was that of a 49-year-old wood machinist who developed leukoderma in areas of contact dermatitis involving his lips, neck, hands and forearms and was found to be allergic to colophony and pine sawdust on patch testing. The second case involved a 44-year-old man who worked as an epoxy applicator in a ceramics factory. He developed depigmentation in areas of contact dermatitis involving his face, hands, forearms, back, thighs and legs and was found on patch testing to be allergic to epoxy resin. The appearance of contact leukoderma may be indistinguishable from idiopathic vitiligo. However, the prognosis for repigmentation may be better in contact leukoderma than in idiopathic vitiligo.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.94-98. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-783 Tan E., Leow Y.H., Ng S.K., Goh C.L.
A study of sensitization rate to sesquiterpene lactone mix in Singapore
This is a report on a study of the sensitization rate to sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix performed at the National Skin Centre, Singapore. In a retrospective review of 1,256 patients who were patch tested to SL mix (0.1%) from January 1995 to December 1997, 18 out of 1,256 patients reacted positively to SL mix. Their ages ranged from 13 to 58 years. There was a female preponderance, with a female: male ratio of 3.5:1. The most common clinical presentations were dermatitis of the hands or face or generalized dermatitis. After extensive evaluation, only 2 patients had a positive patch test reaction that was of current clinical relevance. 13 patients had concomitant sensitization to other allergens. The three commonest concomitant allergens were nickel, balsam of Peru and fragrance mix. In the series, SL allergy was more common in females and the mean age was lower compared to the classical Compositae dermatitis. The sensitization rate was comparable to other studies, although the clinical relevance was only 11%.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.2, p.80-83. 13 ref.

CIS 00-409 Jolanki R., Estlander T., Kanerva L.
Occupational dermatoses among laboratory assistants
Data on occupational dermatoses among laboratory workers in Finland during 1990-1996 are analysed and the principal causes are identified.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1999, Vol.40, No.3, p.166-168. 20 ref.

CIS 00-465 Dejobert Y., Martin P., Piette F., Thomas P., Bergoend H.
Contact dermatitis caused by benzoyl peroxide in podiatrists
Case reports are presented of two podiatrists with contact dermatitis caused by exposure to benzoyl peroxide contained in thermoplastic materials.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1999, Vol.40, No.3, p.163. 5 ref.

CIS 00-200 Crépy M.N.
Occupational eczema: Recommended course of action
Eczéma d'origine professionnelle: conduite à tenir [in French]
Topics: anamnesis; compensation of occupational diseases; data sheet; diagnosis; eczema; limitation of exposure; occupational diseases; skin allergies; skin tests; symptoms.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1999, No.77, p.43-48. 12 ref.

CIS 00-184 Bircher A.J., Bigliardi P., Langauer Messmer S., Surber C.
Occupational airborne contact dermatitis from diphencyprone in a pharmacy employee
Topics: diphenylcyclopropenone; case study; drugs; eczema; glassware handling; hospitals; laboratory work; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.52. 8 ref.

CIS 00-73 Rast H., Jost M.
Allergy to latex: Risks and preventive measures at the workplace
Latexallergie: Gefährdung und Schutzmassnahmen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Allergie au latex: risques et mesures préventives au poste de travail [in French]
Information booklet on occupational allergy to latex. Contents: hazards; use of latex; risk factors and research; primary prevention; secondary prevention; insurance in Switzerland.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Abteilung Arbeitsmedizin, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Feb. 1999. 19p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 00-169 Reed J., Shaw S.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in water-pipe renovators from diethylenetriamine in an epoxy resin system
Topics: diethylenetriamine; case study; eczema; epoxy resins; hand; repair work; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests; water supply.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.297. 3 ref.

CIS 00-168 Kanerva L., Pajari-Backas M.
IgE-mediated RAST-negative occupational protein contact dermatitis from taxonomically unrelated fish species
Topics: case study; cooking; eczema; fingers; fish; hand; immunoglobulins; proteins; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.295-296. 14 ref.

CIS 00-167 Uter W., Pfahlberg A., Gefeller O., Schwanitz H.J.
Hand dermatitis in a prospectively-followed cohort of hairdressing apprentices: Final results of the POSH study
The risk of developing occupational irritant hand dermatitis was evaluated in respect to constitution (atopy) and occupational exposure among 2,352 hairdressing apprentices in vocational training schools in northwest Germany. Unprotected wet work of more than 2h per day was the major significant risk factor. Low ambient absolute humidity was equally associated with a significantly increased risk. Compared to the youngest age group, risk diminished with increasing age. Constitutional risk factors were difficult to evaluate because of selective dropout of atopic participants. The most beneficial factors for primary prevention appear to be a population approach, improvement of working conditions and skin protection for all exposed persons.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.280-286. 20 ref.

CIS 99-1986 Skin and respiratory sensitisers: Reference chemicals data bank
Topics: allergens; allergic asthma; allergic reactivity; allergic respiratory disorders; allergic rhinitis; allergy tests; classification systems; control substances; dermatitis; list of chemical substances; sensitization; skin allergies.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1999. 85 p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1957 Assier-Bonnet H., Revuz J.
Chloroacetamide as a cause of contact dermatitis in hairdressing
Topics: allergens; chloroacetamide; case study; dermatitis; dyes; hairdressing; preservatives; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1999, Vol.40, No.5, p.284-285. 10 ref.

CIS 99-1956 Bergendorff O., Wallengren J.
4-Vinylpyridine-induced dermatitis in a laboratory worker
Topics: allergens; pyridine; case study; dermatitis; laboratory work; pyridine and derivatives; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1999, Vol.40, No.5, p.280-281. 12 ref.

CIS 99-1932 Kuno Y., Kawabe Y., Sakakibara S.
Allergic contact dermatitis associated with photosensitivity, from alantolactone in a chrysanthemum farmer
Topics: case study; eczema; erythroderma; flower and perfume-plant growing; lactones; photosensitization dermatitis; sensitization dermatitis; sesquiterpenes; skin allergies; skin tests; ultraviolet radiation.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1999, Vol.40, No.4, p.224-225. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 99-1931 Cooper S.M., Shaw S.
Occupational hand dermatitis due to 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one in the water-softener manufacturing industry
Case report of a man who developed vesicular hand dermatitis after starting work in a factory assembling water-softeners. He worked with Proxel GXL, a preservative for the membranes of the water-softeners, which he diluted without using gloves or other protective clothing. Patch testing identified 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one in Proxel GXL asthe allergen. The case highlights the problems a worker can experience due to lack of information and poor working practices. Topics: 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one; biocides; case study; hand; skin tests; vesicular contact dermatitis; water softeners.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1999, Vol.40, No.4, p.221. 4 ref.

CIS 99-1930 Karlberg A.T., Basketter D., Goossens A., Lepoittevin J.P.
Regulatory classification of substances oxidized to skin sensitizers on exposure to air
When a specific chemical is classified as a skin sensitizer, this implies that the compound is stable throughout its lifetime. However, some skin sensitizing oxidation/degradation products are formed by air exposure of substances with very low allergenic activity. In regulatory classification work on skin sensitizers, the intrinsic susceptibility of a chemical to air oxidation should be taken into consideration. Examples of natural terpenoid materials are given, but the concept of allergens formed by air oxidation can apply to other materials widely used in industrial products. If a positive classification is made for a substance with a known chemical structure, a note should indicate that the primary chemical structure of the notified substance is not a skin sensitizer, but that some of its oxidation products are. Complex mixtures which inevitably contain sensitizing oxidation products should be classified as skin sensitizing. Topics: allergens; d-limonene; colophony; classification systems; European Communities; labelling; legislation; literature survey; oxidation; photochemical decomposition; sensitization dermatitis; sensitization; skin allergies.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1999, Vol.40, No.4, p.183-188. 32 ref.

CIS 99-1929 Basketter D., Flyvholm M.A., Menné T.
Classification criteria for skin-sensitizing chemicals: A commentary
A formalized, standardized and effective mechanism for the identification of substances which possess significant skin sensitization potential is a necessary step in limiting the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis. Strategies to achieve such hazard identification are unified throughout the European Union and have also been publicised by the World Health Organization. Global harmonization of these and other approaches is being driven by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The benefits and limitations of these classification systems are reviewed. A common element of all the systems is that they seek to distinguish important contact allergens from chemicals which are infrequent sensitizers. The European criteria are legal requirements in the EU member states and formal classification as a skin sensitizer leads to mandatory labelling. The most notable omission from current and proposed classification criteria is the relative potency of a classified skin sensitizer and the exposure dose, necessary for proper risk assessment and management measures to be implemented. Topics: allergens; classification systems; European Communities; labelling; legislation; literature survey; OECD; sensitization dermatitis; sensitization; skin allergies; standardization; USA; WHO.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1999, Vol.40, No.4, p.175-182. 35 ref.

CIS 99-1269 Craven N.M., Bhushan M., Beck M.H.
Sensitization to triglycidyl isocyanurate, epoxy resins and acrylates in a developmental chemist
Topics: acrylates; triglycidyl isocyanurate; case study; eczema; epoxy resins; laboratory work; printing inks; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1999, Vol.40, No.1, p.54-55. 5 ref.

CIS 99-1268 Estlander T., Jolanki R., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Kanerva L.
Occupational contact allergy to bisphenol A
Topics: bisphenol A; case study; eczema; individual susceptibility; protective gloves; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1999, Vol.40, No.1, p.52-53. 20 ref.

CIS 99-1282 Guo Y.L., Wang B., Yeh K.C., Wang J.C., Kao H.H., Wang M.T., Shih H.C., Chen C.J.
Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan
A total of 1,147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high percentage of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as a cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Topics: building industry; cobalt; cement; chromates; eczema; irritants; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; occupation disease relation; questionnaire survey; sensitization dermatitis; sex-linked differences; skin diseases; skin tests; Taiwan (China).
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1999, Vol.40, No.1, p.1-7. 22 ref.

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