Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found
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Geier J., Lessmann H., Uter W., Schnuch A.
Occupational rubber glove allergy: Results of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK), 1995-2001
Among the patients with occupational contact dermatitis registered in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (known under the German acronym IDVK) during the years 1995-2001, 2047 were patch tested for suspected rubber glove allergy. Reaction frequencies to thiurams, dithiocarbamates, mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and its derivatives, thioureas, and 1,3-diphenylguanidine (1,3-DPG) were analysed. Thiurams were by far the most frequent allergens in these patients (16.2% positive reactions). Although manufacturers have increased the use of dithiocarbamates and MBT derivatives in rubber glove production in recent years, these allergens elicited positive reactions in only about 3% of the patients tested, and showed no increasing trend. Thioureas and 1,3-DPG are not widely used in rubber glove production, and play only a minor role in rubber glove contact allergy. Most of the positive reactions to 1,3-DPG are probably false-positive, irritant reactions.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2003, Vol.48, No.1, p.39-44. Illus. 23 ref.
Meding B., Wrangsjö K., Brisman J., Järvholm B.
Hand eczema in 45 bakers - A clinical study
The skin of bakers is heavily exposed to dough, spices, water and detergents. Previous studies showed bakers to have a high risk of hand eczema. Among the approximately 21% of bakers reporting hand eczema in a questionnaire survey, a random sample of 60 was selected, of whom 52 attended an examination comprising a standardized interview, documentation of clinical skin signs, patch and prick testing with standard and bakery series, and serum analyses. 45 participants confirmed a history of hand eczema, for which 11 had been on sick leave, with a median duration of 14 weeks. 13 subjects had changed their occupation due to skin disease, 19 had positive patch test reactions to standard contact allergens and five to bakery contact allergens. 16 bakers had positive prick tests to standard allergens, 10 to bakery allergens, of whom nine reacted to flours.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2003, Vol.48, No.1, p.7-11. 20 ref.
Gruvberger B., Isaksson M., Frick M., Pontén A.N.N., Bruze M.
Occupational dermatoses in a metalworking plant
Among workers of a plant producing components for engines and drivelines, a survey of occupational dermatoses was conducted using questionnaires, clinical examinations and patch testing with standard series and a series of samples from the working environment. The questionnaire was given to all employees, of whom 382 responded. A total of 214 reported having had or having suspected work-related skin manifestations. Of the workers, 183 (164 metal workers, 19 office staff) participated in the clinical investigation and skin tests. Occupational dermatoses were diagnosed in 23 metal workers (14.1%) and one office worker (5.3%). Irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 12 metal workers, occupational allergic contact dermatitis in 11 (10 metal workers and 1 office clerk) and folliculitis in one metal worker. Among the 11 workers, four cases were due to neat oils, three were due to a water-based cutting and four were due to various biocides.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2003, Vol.48, No.2, p.80-86. 17 ref.
Devantier Jensen C., Thormann J., Ejner Andersen K.
Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate at a paint factory
The fungicide 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC) is used in both industrial products and cosmetics. This article presents the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis from airborne exposure to this preserving agent. A 34-year-old female production worker at a paint factory developed dermatitis on exposed skin areas. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to IPBC 0.01% in petrolatum. The compound was used as a preservative in wood treatment products manufactured at her workplace. Based on animal studies, IPBC is considered safe as a cosmetic preservative. However, widespread use of the chemical might lead to increasing levels of contact allergy, and therefore, close monitoring of IPBC is recommended.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2003, Vol.48, No.3, p.155-157. 19 ref.
Frick M., Isaksson M., Björkner B., Hindsén M., Pontén A., Bruze M.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in a company manufacturing boards coated with isocyanate lacquer
Following the introduction of a lacquer based on diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate at a company producing flooring laminate boards, there was an outbreak of work-related skin lesions among workers. In five workers, patch testing was performed with a standard series, an isocyanate series and products present in the work environment. Among workers tested with the lacquer, contact allergy was found with concurrent reactions to 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (MDA). Occupational contact with isocyanates should not be exclusively focused upon respiratory hazards, as this report shows that skin contamination probably increases the risk of developing contact allergy to isocyanates and isocyanate-related substances. When aiming at diagnosing contact allergy to isocyanates, it is desirable to perform a late reading, as positive reactions appear late. MDA appears to be a good marker for isocyanate hypersensitivity.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2003, Vol.48, No.5, p.255-260. 16 ref.
Naumann C., Aue H.D.
Preventive occupational medicine in enterprises where wet work is carried out - Results of a prevention project
Medizinischer Arbeitsschutz in Betrieben mit Feuchtarbeit - Ergebnisse eines gewerbeärztlichen Präventionsprojektes [in German]
Skin diseases are among the most frequent occupational diseases. They are particularly problematic in situations where workers are required to frequently carry out tasks with wet hands. Consequently, within the scope of its control activities, the Department of Preventive Medicine of the State of Saxony, Germany, carried out a survey of skin diseases and preventive measures taken in 292 small enterprises, and provided workers with advice on prevention. The survey found evidence of skin diseases in 26 enterprises. Groups of workers most affected included, in order of decreasing importance: hairdressers, salespersons in flower shops, machinists, beauticians, medical and dental assistants and enamel workers. A preventive programme was launched among workers with skin diseases, the first measure being to organize the work so as to limit the tasks that may be harmful to the skin. It is also advised to wear waterproof gloves, and in some cases to wear cotton gloves under the waterproof gloves.
Sächsisches Landesinstitut für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Reichsstrasse 39, 09112 Chemnitz, Germany, 2002. 26p. Illus. 21 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Skin problems in the printing industry
Dermatitis is a serious problem in the printing industry. In a recent study involving 1189 workers, 41% had suffered from a skin complaint at a given time and 10% had a current problem. In 58% of the cases, the skin problems were diagnosed as being work-related. This booklet provides practical advice on how to prevent skin problems, in particular dermatitis, in the printing industry. Contents: how dermatitis develops; symptoms; substances that can aggravate a skin condition; processes with a high occurrence of dermatitis; legislation; responsibilities of management; prevention; protective gloves; protective creams; skin inspection; health records; monitoring of skin problems.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., Mar. 2002. 11p. lllus. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ipex11.pdf [in English]
Ling T.C., Coulson I.H.
What do trainee hairdressers know about hand dermatitis?
A questionnaire survey of 121 trainee hairdressers from two hairdressing colleges in Britain was conducted, including questions concerning the number and types of hairdressing procedures performed, previous and current medical history, awareness of risks to the skin from hairdressing, and knowledge of hand dermatitis prevention. 17% of the trainees suffered currently from hand dermatitis. This is probably due to the large amount of wet work done by apprentice hairdressers. Two-thirds of the trainees were not aware that atopic eczema predisposed to hand dermatitis. Formal pre-school and pre-employment counselling was limited. Knowledge on hand care among trainees was not often translated into practice, with gloves being worn by only 9% when shampooing and 58% when perming. Prevention of hand dermatitis by education and pre-employment counselling is of fundamental importance.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2002, Vol.47, No.4, p.227-231. Illus. 18 ref.
Conde-Salazar L., Gatica M.E., Barco L., Iglesias C., Cuevas M., Valks R.
Latex allergy among construction workers
A total of 230 construction workers who attended the dermatology department of a university clinic between 1996 and 2000 were studied. 54 (23.5%) patients reported intolerance to rubber gloves or boots and were subjected to skin tests. Latex-specific IgE levels were measured when latex prick tests were positive. 16 patients (7%) had a positive prick test to latex, of whom 14 (6.1%) had allergic contact urticaria from latex. The level of latex-specific IgE was greater than 0.35kU/L in 15 of the 16 patients. In conclusion, the incidence of latex allergic contact urticaria may be as high in construction workers as in health care workers. Most of these construction workers had a concurrent hypersensitivity to chromate or rubber chemicals which may have facilitated sensitization to latex.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2002, Vol.47, No.3, p.154-156. 9 ref.
Minamoto K., Nagano M., Inaoka T., Futatsuka M.
Occupational dermatoses among fibreglass-reinforced plastics factory workers
Patch tests were carried out on 29 workers involved in fibre-reinforced plastics manufacturing in order to investigate the causes of their skin problems. Of the 22 workers who reported experiencing skin problems, 16 showed positive results to at least one chemical, including six cases of multiple sensitivity. Two showed positive reactions to the unsaturated polyester base resin, six to cobalt chloride, five to benzoyl peroxide, four to methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, two to para t-butyl catechol, one to styrene and one to formaldehyde. After taking into account of the exposures, reported causes by questionnaires and patch test results, seven cases were diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis due to chemicals, three as irritant contact dermatitis due to chemicals, and three as dermatitis due to mechanical irritation from glass fibre or dust. 18 of the of 29 subjects, including two workers without a history of skin problems, were sensitized to at least one chemical.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2002, Vol.46, No.6, p.339-347. 29 ref.
Occupational skin diseases caused by epoxy resins
Les dermatoses professionnelles aux résines époxy [in French]
Epoxy resins consist of a broad family of chemicals, with the frequent emergence of new potentially allergenic compounds. They belong to a group of thermosetting plastics and have become one of the most frequent causes of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Contents of this review article on occupational dermatitis caused by epoxy resins: epoxy resin chemistry; sources and uses; skin toxicity; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis, prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.91, p.297-306. Illus. 75 ref.
Guenel P., Laforest L., Cyr D., Fevotte J., Sabroe S., Dufour C., Lutz J.M., Lynge E.
Occupational risk factors, ultraviolet radiation and ocular melanoma: A case-control study carried out in France
Facteurs de risque professionnels, rayonnements ultraviolets et mélanome oculaire: une étude cas-témoin réalisée en France [in French]
This case-control study examines the relationship between occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and occurrences of ocular melanoma. Cases consisted of 50 subjects diagnosed with melanoma in 1995-96. Controls were randomly selected and matched by age, sex and place of residence. Among the 630 persons selected, 76% were subjected to a standardized questionnaire during interviews. Estimations of the level of occupational exposure to UV were based on a job-exposure matrix. Results indicated a high risk among subjects with fair eyes or skin and among persons who had been victims of several eye burns, as well as among occupational groups exposed to artificial UV radiation. However, no increased risk was noted for persons working in the open exposed to sunlight. Increased risk was found among male welders (OR=7.3), for whom a dose-response relationship with tenure was also highlighted, as well as among male cooks. Among women, elevated risks were observed in the metalworking industry and in warehousing.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2002, No.189, p.7-14. 34 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/771D523815C5B64DC1256CB10059080A/$FILE/visu.html?OpenElement [in French]
Giusti F., Mantovani L., Martella A., Seidenari S.
Hand dermatitis as an unsuspected presentation of textile dye contact sensitivity
From 1996 to 2000, 130 patients with hand dermatitis reacting to one of the seven dyes included in the standard series were identified. In 82 subjects, dermatitis was localized in the hands alone, whereas the other 48 patients had lesions both on the hands and on other skin sites. Disperse Blue and Disperse Orange were the most common sensitizers. Among the 13 subjects allergic to disperse dyes alone, there were three cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis, one child with atopic dermatitis worsening after the use of synthetic fibre garments, four subjects affected by clothing dermatitis, and five individuals occupationally exposed to irritants with a dermatitis involving the hands alone. In the latter, the hands may represent a locus minoris resistentiae, and both induction and elicitation of contact sensitization could be caused by impaired barrier function at a skin site repeatedly exposed to sensitizing garments.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2002, Vol.47, No.2, p.91-95. Illus. 16 ref.
Livesley E.J., Rushton L., English J.S., Williams H.C.
The prevalence of occupational dermatitis in the UK printing industry
In this study on occupational dermatitis in the printing industry, a questionnaire was addressed to members of the Graphical, Paper and Media Union living in Nottinghamshire. 1189 respondents were directly involved in the printing industry and categorized according to work in pre-press (25%), printing itself (46%) or finishing (42%) processes. 490 respondents (41%) reported having a skin complaint at some time. Prevalence was highest in males (43%) and those working in printing (49%), in particular those who cleaned rollers and cylinders or who came into daily contact with isocyanates. The most commonly affected areas reported were the fingers and webs between the fingers. 26% reported a current problem on the hand. Reported symptoms included itching (61%), rash (58%), and dry skin (56%). Reported use of protective equipment and cleansing products was generally high. Selected respondents were invited for a short dermatological examination, which confirmed the high self reported prevalence and also identified a substantial proportion of mild cases which were not reported.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.59, No.7, p.487-492. 15 ref.
Bauer A., Geier J., Elsner P.
Type IV allergy in the food processing industry: Sensitization profiles in bakers, cooks and butchers
To identify the most frequent allergens and sensitization profiles in employees of the food processing industry, patch testing was performed in 873 bakers, cooks and butchers suspected of having occupational allergic contact dermatitis between 1992 and 1999. A final diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was made in 213 patients (24.4%). Qualitative and quantitative differences in allergen profiles could be identified. Significantly higher sensitization rates were found in employees in the food processing industry, compared to the total test population, for nickel sulfate (22.4% versus 17.2%), thiuram mix (4.9% versus 2.6%), formaldehyde (3.5% versus 2.1%), and Compositae mix (6.2%, versus 2.4%). Significantly lower sensitization rates were found for thimerosal (4.5% versus 6.9%). For patch testing in food industry workers, the standard, the rubber and the Compositae series are recommended, as well as the specific products to which patients are exposed.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2002, Vol.46, No.4, p.228-235. 50 ref.
Daftarian H.S., Lushniak B.D., Reh C.M., Lewis D.M.
Evaluation of self-reported skin problems among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at a foam manufacturing facility
To investigate the dermal effects of toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a cross-sectional study was carried out at a polyurethane foam manufacturing plant. A totla of 114 workers completed a medical questionnaire and provided blood for antibody testing to TDI and other allergens. A subset of participants reporting skin symptoms underwent skin patch testing to a standard diisocyanate panel. Production line workers were more likely to report skin problems than those working in non-production areas (OR 2.66). Age, sex and duration of employment at the plant were comparable among participants working in production and non-production areas. Specific IgG antibody to TDI was detected in two individuals, while none of the samples demonstrated specific IgE antibody to TDI. Of the 26 workers who underwent skin patch testing, none developed reactions to the diisocyanate allergens. These results suggest that skin symptoms represent an irritant rather than an immunological reaction to TDI, or to an unidentified allergen present in the foam.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1197-1202. 30 ref.
Dickel H., Kuss O., Schmidt A., Diepgen T.L.
Occupational relevance of positive standard patch-test results in employed persons with an initial report of an occupational skin disease
Standard patch-test results of employed persons with an initial report of an occupational skin disease were analysed within 24 occupational groups. An evaluation was made of employed persons recorded in the Register of Occupational Skin Diseases in Northern Bavaria between 1990 and 1999, catering for those standard screening tray allergens tested over the 10-year period. Nickel sulfate was the most common sensitizer (29.5%), showing occupational relevance in only 11% of the cases. Other common sensitizers were cobalt chloride (13.5%), p-phenylenediamine free base (10.7%), potassium dichromate (9.8%), fragrance mix (5.4%) and thiuram mix (4.2%). The most occupationally relevant sensitizers were thiuram mix (71%), epoxy resin (67%) and p-phenylenediamine free base (59%). Occupational groups at risk of acquiring delayed-type sensitization were, in particular, electroplaters, tile setters, construction and cement workers, solderers and workers in the wood, leather and fur industries.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.423-434. Illus. 128 ref.
Sánchez-Pérez J., Pascual López M., García-Díez A.
Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from olaquindox in a rabbit breeder
A 47-year-old rabbit breeder with no history of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or drug intake reported that, eight months before, erythematous, scaly and pruritic patches had appeared symmetrically on the backs of his hands and fingers, and on the extensor aspects of his arms. Lesions had temporarily improved after treatment with oral and topical corticosteroids, with recurrence in the same areas on discontinuing therapy. The patient had worked on a rabbit farm for many years in contact with various types of dry food and, more recently; olaquindox powders at 10% in calcium carbonate. He used to powder several grams of olaquindox into the rabbits' water, by hand, to treat enteritis. He used this product irregularly and without wearing protective clothing or gloves. Positive patch tests were obtained to olaquindox 1%, which was negative in 20 control patients. The patient improved after avoidance of olaquindox and no new lesions have been observed at subsequent follow-ups.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.3, p.185. 6 ref.
Schärer L., Hafner J., Wüthrich B., Bucher C.
Occupational protein contact dermatitis from shrimps - A new presentation of the crustacean-mite syndrome
A 45-year-old Chinese cook, with no family or personal history of atopy, had had hand eczema of variable intensity since he had started working in Switzerland 10 years ago. The patient reported acute itching, burning and erythematous swelling about 20min after contact with shrimps. This was followed approximately 2 days later by the appearance of erythema and small vesicles, changing to the typical features of hand eczema after a few days with erythematous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions restricted to the palms. Additionally, when eating shrimps he felt itching of the fingertips. He denied any respiratory symptoms. The skin lesions fully cleared during holidays. Sensitization of the immediate type to crustaceans and house dust mite was demonstrated by skin tests as well as with specific IgE determination. Delayed- type sensitization to shrimps was demonstrable by patch testing. A biopsy taken from the positive patch test site showed an acute eczematous reaction. In CAP FEIA inhibition studies, complete cross-reactivity between D. pteronyssinus and shrimps was demonstrated.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.3, p.181-182. Illus. 10 ref.
Nettis E., Colanardi M.C., Soccio A.L., Ferrannini A., Tursi A.
Occupational irritant and allergic contact dermatitis among healthcare workers
Occupational irritant contact dermatitis among health-care workers is due to exposure to a wide range of irritants such as soap, solvents, cleaning agents and protective gloves which remove the surface lipid layer and produce cellular damage. Data on 360 patients working in health-care environments and experiencing contact dermatitis at their hands, wrists and forearms were selected from the database of an allergy department of a university hospital. Allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis were considered to be work-related in 16.5% and 44.4% of diagnoses, respectively. The major aetiological agents were nickel sulfate, components of disinfectants and rubber chemicals. The best treatment is to avoid these allergens or to reduce their contact by using properly-selected protective gloves. Subjects with atopic dermatitis should avoid wet work and contact with irritants, since atopic dermatitis is significantly associated with irritant contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.101-107. Illus. 32 ref.
Anliker M.D., Borelli S., Wüthrich B.
Occupational protein contact dermatitis from spices in a butcher: A new presentation of the mugwort-spice syndrome
In addition to well-known contact dermatitis due to exposure to meat, spices are also a source of potential contact allergy among butchers. A case of contact dermatitis due to spice mix in a 39-year-old butcher is presented. The patient underwent skin prick testing (SPT) with standard allergens and different meat and spice extracts, and scratch-patch testing with spice mix containing glutamate, paprika and other spices. Specific serum-IgE was measured. SPT only showed an immediate-type sensitization to mugwort, as well as different spices and camomile. Scratch-patch tests were negative for different meats, but strongly positive for spice mix after 30min (wheal and flare) and after 48h (infiltration and vesiculation). The tests demonstrate an IgE-mediated contact allergy to spices but also a delayed type allergy to spice mix as a manifestation of the mugwort-spice syndrome in this individual. When testing for occupational dermatitis in butchers, protein contact allergy to spices must also be taken into consideration.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.72-74. Illus. 15 ref.
Baur X., Gahnz G.
Allergy to pumpkin seeds in the form of food intolerance and occupational contact urticaria
Kürbiskernallergie in Form einer Nahrungsmittelunverträglichkeit und einer berufsbedingten Kontakturtikaria [in German]
Case study of a 21-year-old baker regularly suffering from skin urticaria when handling pumpkin seeds. Three years earlier, this patient developed an allergy that caused the swelling of the pharynx and swallowing difficulties after he had eaten bread containing pumpkin seeds. Prick tests revealed an immediate sensitization to raw and roasted pumpkin seeds. There are no literature reports of similar cases of allergy to pumpkin seed in the form of food intolerance and occupational allergic contact urticaria.
Dermatologie in Beruf und Umwelt, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.50, No.5, p.178-179. 7 ref.
Occupational skin diseases due to colophony
Dermatoses professionnelles à la colophane [in French]
Colophony is a resin drawn from coniferous trees used in many industrial products. It is composed of approximately 100 products, some of them allergens. Colophony is included in the European standard battery of skin tests. Contents of this review article on skin diseases due to colophony: composition and production of colophony; aetiologies (allergenicity, sources of exposure); epidemiology (prevalence, incidence, exposed populations); diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation of occupational diseases.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.75-82. Illus. 66 ref.
Courtois B., Lafon D., Moineau J.P., Dornier G.
What we know about cement today
Le point des connaissances sur les ciments [in French]
Although statistics have shown a decline during the last 40 years, cement remains the prime cause of occupational contact dermatitis among workers in the building and construction industry. Contents of this information sheet: cement manufacturing processes; risks for humans (skin damage, eye damage, other diseases); preventive measures (gloves, protective creams, reduction by ferrous sulfate of the chromium VI contained in cement and primarily responsible for contact dermatitis); legal aspects.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2002. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
Minamoto K., Nagano M., Inaoka T., Kitano T., Ushijima K., Fukuda Y., Futatsuka M.
Skin problems among fiber-glass reinforced plastics factory workers in Japan
Skin problems of 148 manual workers from 11 fibre-glass reinforced plastics (FRP) factories were studied by means of a questionnaire and a dermatological examination. 87 workers (58.8%) reported having skin problems (mainly itching or dermatitis) since starting work in FRP manufacturing and 25 workers had consulted a physician for skin problems. One worker was forced to take sick leave for severe dermatitis. A history of allergic diseases and shorter durations of employment in a FRP factory were associated with greater probability of having a history of work-related skin symptoms. Workers in factories where dust-generating and lamination sites were located in different buildings were significantly less likely to have a history of skin problems than those in factories where the two sites were located in the same building. Of the 67 workers examined in summer and winter, close to double the prevalence of dermatitis was found in summer (23.3%) than winter (13.4%).
Industrial Health, Jan. 2002, Vol.40, No.1, p.42-50. 23 ref.
Jia X., Xiao P., Shen G., Wang X., Jin T., Nordberg G.
Adverse effects of gasoline on the skin of exposed workers
Gasoline is widely used as a cleaning solvent in industry. Its effects on the skin were studied in 52 exposed workers and 52 control subjects in the clothing industry (all women). Information about general conditions, history of dermatosis and changes in skin after exposure to gasoline was obtained through interviews. Ceramide, fatty acid and cholesterol collected on the last working day before the weekend from the backs of the hands were analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The results showed that prevalences of hyperkeratosis, dryness, onychosis and dermatitis were clearly higher in exposed workers than in the control group, prevalence ratios being 3.33, 3.00, 11.25 and 5.00, respectively. Fissures and onychorrhexis were the common symptoms in exposed workers. The stratum corneum lipid levels of ceramide, fatty acid and cholesterol were significantly lower in the exposed group than in the control group.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2002, Vol.46, No.1, p.44-47. 27 ref.
Akasya-Hillenbrand E., Özkaya-Bayazit E.
Patch test results in 542 patients with suspected contact dermatitis in Turkey
In this retrospective study, patch test results of 542 patients (303 female and 239 male), referred to a dermatology clinic between June 1996 and July 1999, were evaluated. All patients were patch tested with 32 allergens of an extended European standard series, 140 patients were tested with supplemental series, and 246 patients with their own substances. 280 (51.7%) patients had one or more positive results but allergic contact dermatitis, according to clinical relevance, was diagnosed in only 190 (67.9%) of these. Nickel sulfate was the most frequent sensitizer (19.1%), followed by potassium dichromate (11.8%), palladium chloride (9.4%), cobalt chloride (8.5%), and thiuram mix (7.7%). Occupational contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 77 of the patients with positive reactions (27.5%), most of these being construction workers and house painters who showed relevant sensitizations to potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, thiuram mix and carba mix.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2002, Vol.46, No.1, p.17-23. 22 ref.
Schliemann-Willers S., Wigger-Alberti W., Kleesz P., Grieshaber R., Elsner P.
Natural vegetable fats in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis
Chronic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is common in the food processing industry. To date, protective creams that comply with the special requirements in the food industry have not been available. This study evaluates the efficacy of pre-exposure application of natural vegetable fats in the prevention of experimentally-induced ICD. Twenty healthy volunteers were subjected to a repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The application area was the paravertebral skin of mid back. Clinical assessment and bioengineering measurements were carried out one day before and five days after the application of the test substances. Rape seed and palm fats showed significant protective potential. Higher content of linoleic acid and lower content of oleic acid was associated with beneficial effects. The results show promise for the prevention of ICD and towards the development of new protective preparations for workplaces in the foodstuffs industry.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2002, Vol.46, No.1, p.6-12. Illus. 30 ref.
Occupational skin diseases from antiseptics and disinfectants
Dermatoses professionnelles aux antiseptiques et désinfectants [in French]
Antiseptics and disinfectants are chemical formulations that include anti-microbial agents, excipients, cleaning agents and additives. Their use in large quantities, particularly in health care facilities, has given rise to numerous cases of occupational skin diseases. Contents of this of this review article on allergology and dermatology of antiseptics and disinfectants: classification by chemical class; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; confirmation of the diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2001, No.85, p.83-90. Illus. 62 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/dermatoses_professionnelles_antiseptiques.html [in French]
Meyer V.P., Brehler.R., Castro W.H.M., Nentwig C.G.
Work-related stress and strain among dentists in private practice
Arbeitsbelastungen bei Zahnärzten in niedergelassener Praxis [in German]
The aim of this questionnaire study was to identify specific occupational stress and strain among dentists in private practice and to examine the prevalence of occupational dermatoses, spinal complaints and mental stressors. The questionnaire was designed to allow comparison with a previous study on stress conducted in 1984. Between 1984 and 1999, exhaustion had risen from 25% to 57%, the subjectively perceived demands on concentration from 61% to 81% and stress due to professional responsibility from 6% to 14%. Approx. 87% dentists reported having experienced neck and back pain in the past and 45% reported suffering from atopic diseases with eczema being most common, followed by atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.
Institut der Deutschen Zahnärzte, Universitätsstrasse 73, 50931 Köln, Germany, 2001. 167p. Illus. 95 ref. Price: EUR 29.95.
Burnett C.A., Lalich N.R., MacDonald L., Alterman T.
A NIOSH look at data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics - Worker health by industry and occupation
This report presents comprehensive descriptive information on the most common occupational diseases in the United States, namely: musculoskeletal disorders of the back; upper and lower extremities; hernia; dermatitis; anxiety, stress and neurotic disorders. The data are drawn from the annual survey of occupational injuries and illnesses of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data on the total number of cases, incidence rate per 10,000 workers and median days away from work are provided by code of activity according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Other results include cases by sex, race, age and length of service.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 2001. iii, 104p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/2001-120.pdf [in English]
Yokota K., Johyama Y., Miyaue H., Matsumoto N., Yamaguchi K.
Occupational contact urticaria caused by airborne methyhexahydrophthalic anhydride
Three subjects with occupational exposure to methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) from an epoxy resin system were studied to evaluate the nature of their reported skin and nose complaints. Specific IgE antibody was detected in serum from one of the three workers. One unsensitized worker displayed nasal pain and rhinorrhoea only when loading liquid epoxy resins into the pouring machine, probably as a result of an irritant reaction. Two workers had work-related symptoms at relatively low levels of exposure; one complained of only rhinitis, and the other was sensitized against HHPA and displayed both rhinitis and contact urticaria (in the face and neck). The worker's skin symptoms were evidently due to airborne contact, since she had not had any skin contact with liquid epoxy resin or mixtures of MHHPA and HHPA. These urticaria symptoms were confirmed by a 20-min closed patch test for MHHPA, but not by that for HHPA. The causative agent was considered to be MHHPA, although the specific IgE determination to MHHPA was not performed.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.347-352. Illus. 20 ref.
Saary M.J., House R.A., Holness D.L.
Dermatitis in a particleboard manufacturing facility
To assess the prevalence and nature of skin complaints in the refining and drying department of a particleboard manufacturing facility, workers were assessed by a physician using a standardized questionnaire concerning symptoms, past and family history, workplace exposures, and use of protective equipment. Cutaneous examination and patch testing were also performed. Questionnaire results showed that workers complained of rash, nasal and eye irritation, as well as cough and bothersome odours. Cutaneous examination identified a heterogeneity of skin problems, with dermatitis being mainly irritant rather than allergic. Quaternium-15 was the only allergen to which more than one individual reacted. Aside from the odours, exposure to wood dust could account for the other reported symptoms. There were few allergic reactions on patch testing, and most skin reactions were irritant. Recommendations included improved dust control, through ventilation and personal hygiene measures, as well as protective clothing.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2001, Vol.44, No.6, p.325-330. 11 ref.
Strauss R.M., Gawkrodger D.J.
Occupational contact dermatitis in nurses with hand eczema
Occupation-related dermatitis is a common problem in nurses, who are exposed to a wide variety of allergenic and irritant substances. In a group of 44 nurses with hand dermatitis (40 female), 18 were thought to have an allergic contact dermatitis, 15 an irritant dermatitis, 7 other form of eczema, 3 atopic dermatitis and one pompholyx. 10 of the 15 irritant cases were diagnosed as occupational. Of the 18 patients with allergic contact dermatitis, the allergens were thought to be occupationally relevant in 8 cases. In 6 of these cases, the dermatitis was due to natural rubber latex (3) or other rubber chemicals (3). Two had additional evidence of immediate-type hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex (one was patch test allergic to latex, the other to thiuram mix). Natural rubber latex allergy, both delayed and immediate, is a significant problem, and nurses at risk should be tested for both types of hypersensitivity, as well as being patch tested to standard, rubber and medicaments series.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2001, Vol.44, No.5, p.293-296. Illus. 19 ref.
Spiewak R., Skorska C., Dutkiewicz J.
Occupational airborne contact dermatitis caused by thyme dust
To assess occupational hazards to the farmer's skin associated with processing thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), 46 farmers were studied during the threshing of dried thyme. They were questioned about work-related skin problems and examined before and after work. In all persons studied, serum thyme-specific IgE was measured. Skin prick tests, the Ouchterlony test and the leukocyte migration inhibition test were carried out with allergens of airborne bacteria and fungi present in the working environment. Of the 46 farmers studied, 4 showed skin symptoms after 530min of exposure to thyme dust. Thyme-specific IgE was found in 1 person with work-related symptoms, but also in 2 asymptomatic farmers. Therefore, the importance of IgE seems to be questionable in eczema related to thyme dust. Skin and blood tests with microbial allergens also showed no significant differences between the symptomatic and asymptomatic farmers. The aetiology of thyme-related skin symptoms remains unknown, although an irritant mechanism seems probable.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2001, Vol.44, No.4, p.235-239. 16 ref.
Salinas M.L., Ogura T., Soffchi L.
Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations
Needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, such as raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03mL) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500µm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only one third of workers in agave plantations involved in harvesting agave plants complain of the irritation. This questionnaire study confirms that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the workers' skin in the course of their work.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2001, Vol.44, No.2, p.94-96. Illus. 15 ref.
Goon A.T.J., Goh C.L.
Occupational skin diseases in national servicemen and military personnel in Singapore, 1989-1999
In a study of occupational skin disease in the armed forces of Singapore, all military personnel and conscripts diagnosed with occupational dermatoses in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, between 1989-1999 were studied retrospectively. Conscripts and regulars comprised 7.3% of all the occupational skin disease patients examined. All were male, with a mean age of 23 years. Irritant contact dermatitis was more common than allergic contact dermatitis, by a ratio of 4.4:1. The most common activities associated with occupational skin diseases were those involving vehicle repairs and maintenance (48%) and food handling (19%). The most common irritants were oil/grease (66%), wet work (23%) and solvents (18%). The most common allergens were food (40%) and chromates (20%). In conclusion, military personnel and conscripts make up a significant proportion of occupational skin disease patients seen in Singapore.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2001, Vol.44, No.2, p.89-90. 1 ref.
Bauer A., Kelterer D., Stadeler M., Schneider W., Kleesz P., Wollina U., Elsner P.
The prevention of occupational hand dermatitis in bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades - Preliminary results of a skin prevention program
Bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades are at a high risk of developing occupational skin diseases (OSDs). A skin disease prevention programme in the baking, hotel and catering industries was initiated. It involved a detailed analysis of the occupational exposure and occupational disease history of the employees, during which the patients' diagnosis and therapy was re-evaluated and supplemented if necessary. Individual skin care and protection regimes were demonstrated, skin care and protection products were supplied, and skin care and protection seminars were offered to volunteering participants. From January to December 1999, 29 affected employees were examined. 22 employees suffered from irritant contact dermatitis. In the follow-up of 11 employees, the skin disease improved or disappeared in 8 cases. Moreover, in 1 employee, the skin condition was stabilized even though continued employment. In only 2 cases did the skin condition worsen. These preliminary results showed that most of the OSD were due to lack of or unsuitable skin care and protection.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2001, Vol.44, No.2, p.85-88. Illus. 24 ref.
Occupational skin diseases due to cement (calcium aluminosilicates)
Dermatoses professionnelles au ciment (alumino-silicates de calcium) [in French]
The construction industry is a sector with a high risk of occupational skin diseases. These are mainly due to exposure to cement, which can give rise to severe burns as well as to allergic contact eczemas. The "Sumer 94" survey (see CIS 95-161) showed that approximately 310,000 workers are exposed to cement in France. The most common allergen contained in cement is chromium VI. In certain countries, decreases in the incidence of skin diseases have been observed among persons exposed to cement following the adoption of legislation limiting the chromium content of cement. Contents of this article on occupational skin diseases due to cement: cement composition; skin toxicity; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.419-429. Illus. 60 ref.
Occupational skin diseases caused by polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins
Dermatoses professionnelles aux résines polyacrylates et polyméthacrylates [in French]
Polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins are used in dental care, inks, paints, coatings, adhesives and plastics. By themselves they have little or no allergic potential; however, they are obtained through the polymerization of monomers (acrylates and methacrylates) which are potent sensitizers. The resins often contain residual quantities of monomers, which may give rise to occupational skin diseases among persons involved in their processing. Contents of this information note on occupational skin diseases caused by polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins: aetiology; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.345-354. Illus. 69 ref.
Occupational skin diseases: Cement still causes victims
Dermatoses professionnelles: le ciment fait toujours des victimes [in French]
According to the SUMER 94 survey (see CIS 95-161), more than 300,000 workers are exposed to cement in France. Cement is both corrosive and allergenic, the allergic effects being in particular due to the presence of chromium. Several countries are committed to reducing the chromium content of cement. As a result, skin diseases caused by cement have decreased from 3.1% of compensated occupational diseases in France in 1994 to 1.37% in 1998. Topics covered in this special feature on skin diseases caused by cement: corrosive and allergic effects of cement; allergic effects of chromium VI compounds; chromate chemistry; packaging of cement (in bulk or bags); importance of personal protection; trends over the last 30 years highlighting a 90% decrease in skin diseases caused by cement.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2001, No.609, p.22-28. Illus. 6 réf.
Frimat P., Grascha P., Yeboué-Kouamé Y.
Skin diseases in occupational settings - Protective measures
Les dermatoses en milieu professionnel - Dispositifs de protection [in French]
In most developed countries, skin diseases are the second most frequent type of occupational disease, after musculoskeletal diseases. The main causal factor is exposure to chemicals. The most frequent diseases are irritation or caustic contact dermatitis, followed by eczema. Contents: generalities and definitions; epidemiology; basic notions of skin biology and pathophysiology; socio-professional levels (occupations at risk); compensation; prevention; regulations that apply to skin hygiene and protection products.
Les Editions d'Ergonomie, BP 138, 13267 Marseille cedex 08, France, 2001. 118p. 24 ref. Price: EUR 31.00.
Skulberg K.R., Skyberg K., Eduard W., Goffeng L.O., Vistnes A.I., Levy F., Kjuus H.
Effects of electric field reduction in visual display units on skin symptoms
120 office workers in 11 companies with reported facial skin complaints were randomly selected for this double blind study. Static electric fields surrounding visual display unit were reduced in the intervention group but not in the control group. The intervention group reported significantly fewer facial skin complaints than did the control group. The specified intervention can probably help reduce facial skin complaints in workers in offices with high dust concentrations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.140-145. 21 ref.
Moffit D.L., Sansom J.E.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate in a medical-device adhesive
Report of 2 cases of workers showing a sensitization dermatitis due to exposure to a new medical device adhesive introduced 2-3 months prior to the onset of the rush. The performed skin tests showed a positive reaction to a polyacrylate component of the adhesive.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.54. 3 ref.
Dibo M., Brasch J.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)dodecylamine and dimethyldidecylammonium chloride in 2 hospital staff
A case study of 2 nurses developing eczema on their hands and arms after contact with a new disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds. After changing their workplace, the nurses recovered.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.40. 3 ref.
Hutchings C.V., Shum K.W., Gawkrodger D.J.
Occupational contact dermatitis has an appreciable impact on quality of life
A questionnaire survey of 181 subjects (70 responded, giving a response rate of 39%), diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis: 60 (32%) patients were in industrial occupations and 27 (14%) in health care. The questionnaire was based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The median DLQI score was 5, with a mean score 6.6. There was no statistically significant difference between male and female median scores. Males scored highest in problems associated with work, relationships and treatment, whereas females scored highest in problems associated with symptoms and feelings, daily activities and leisure. The results showed that occupational contact dermatitis has an appreciable impact on quality of life.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.17-20. Illus. 20 ref.
Lee J.Y., Yoo J.M., Cho B.K., Kim H.O.
Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians
This study investigated the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in 49 Korean dental technicians. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand for all of them. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results. 7 positive reactions to the various polyacrylates were found in 3 subjects.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.13-16. Illus. 13 ref.
Kanerva L., Leino T., Estlander T.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in carpenters
Report of one case and discussion of similar cases in Finland of carpenters with occupational sensitization dermatitis. The case considered showed a positive reaction to epoxy resins.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.61-62. 22 ref.
Álvarez-Cuesta C.C., Vázquez López F., Raya Aguado C., González López M.A., Pérez Oliva N.
Allergic contact dermatitis from colophonium in the sawdust of Asturian cider-bars
Case report of sensitization dermatitis in a young part-time worker, whose job was to spread saw dust on the floor of a Spanish cider bar to keep it dry. Skin tests showed a positive reaction to pine dust, which is a known source of sensitization to colophony.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.57. 7 ref.
Gielen K., Goossens A.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from drugs in healthcare workers
Contact sensitivity to pharmaceutical drugs occurs mainly among healthcare workers, pharmaceutical industry operators and veterinary surgeons. Of the 14,689 patients suspected of contact allergy examined in the dermatology department of a university hospital between 1978 and 2001, occupational allergic contact dermatitis from drugs was diagnosed in 33 cases. The most common sensitizers were antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. They accounted altogether for 35 positive patch tests, followed by propacetamol hydrochloride, and ranitidine hydrochloride, which elicited 10 and 7 positive reactions, respectively. The highest number of the sensitized patients were nurses (26), followed by veterinarians (4), pharmacists (2) and medical doctors (1).
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2001, Vol.45, No.5, p.273-279. Illus. 41 ref.
Saad A., Besher S., Ammar N., Emam H.
Therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa on occupational contact dermatitis
Nigella seeds have known anti-allergic effects in traditional medicine. The therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa powdered in the form of capsules, lipoidal matter extract and the aqueous alcoholic extract of nigella seeds in the form of two ointments were studied in 50 male volunteers aged between 25 and 55 years suffering from chronic occupational contact dermatitis. Blood picture, IgE and natural killer (NK) cells were recorded before and after two weeks of therapy. Treatment with lipoidal extract ointment, alcoholic extract ointment and powdered seed capsules led to complete recovery of the eczematous lesions in 89%, 46%, and 63%, respectively. Clinical improvement by these three treatments was statistically significant, while placebos achieved no significant improvement. NK cell fraction was significantly augmented in treated groups. No harmful effects on the liver and the kidney functions were found.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.26-38. Illus. 42 ref.
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