Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found
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Bruckner J.V., Guess W.L.
Morphological skin reactions to 2-chloroethanol
2-Chloroethanol and ethanol are acutely toxic to various animal tissues. This study was undertaken to assess more accurately the nature of the damage to the dermal and epidermal structures of rabbits. A classical inflammatory reaction was noted, accompanied by coagulative necrosis in zones of higher alcoholic concentration. Degenerative subcellular changes were also revealed by electron microscopy. Both ethanol and 2-chloroethanol exerted similar effects, although the latter was always more potent.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 1972, Vol.22, No.1, p.29-44. Illus. 27 ref.
Allergens and skin diseases in a chemical-works medical service
Allergene und Hautkrankheiten in der werksärztlichen Praxis eines chemischen Industriebetriebes [in German]
A review of medical examinations of 2219 chemical plant workers in the German Federal Republic between 1955 and 1971. 2381 cases of skin disease were reported (34.5% being non-occupational). The cases comprises: 19% allergic dermatitis, 8.5% occupational dermatitis due to corrosive and sensitising substances, and 38% degenerative toxic skin lesions. Institution of safety measures has virtually eliminated skin disease due to vinylcarbazole, benzanthrone, formaldehyde condensation products, and mucochloric acid derivatives.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, Apr. 1972, Vol.7, No.4, p.98-100. 6 ref.
Photosensitivity - with special reference to porphyrins
Bemerkungen zum Problem der Photosensitivität unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Porphyrine [in German]
Features and mechanisms of porphyrin photosensitivity are reviewed and special attention is given to direct pigmentation (darkening due to long-wave ultraviolet light). The close relation between the action spectra and threshold levels of light that produce pigment darkening and cutaneous porphyrin photoexitation means that these mechanisms may affect each other by a photoprotective mechanism. This may offer an explanation for various experimental findings and certain, previously unexplained, features of the clinical picture of porphyria cutanea tarda and its photosensitivity. The photoprotective mechanism seems to be significant in other photosensitivity processes and might be used in the prevention of occupational photoreactions.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Feb. 1972. Vol.20, No.1, p.8-15. Illus. 9 ref.
Hausen B.M., Simatupang M.H., Kingreen J.C.
Hypersensitivity to sucupira and Brazilian rosewood
Untersuchung zur Überempfindlichkeit gegen Sucupira- und Palisanderholz [in German]
Sucupira (Bowdichia nitida Benth.) wood which had caused eczema in a cabinet maker, was analysed to isolate the pathogenic constituents; 3 quinone fractions produced allergic reactions of varying severity on patch testing; one was identified as 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone. Skin testing with dalbergiones confirmed that the subject was also allergic to Brazilian rosewood dust.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Feb. 1972, Vol.20, No.1, p.1-7. 20 ref.
Valér M., Rácz I.
Investigations concerning the sensitising effect of chromium salts
Investigations concerning the sensitizing effect of trivalent chromium salts [in German]
Part I is devoted to the correlation between concentration and skin penetration of trivalent chromium and between the number of positive results obtained in patch tests. The tests were carried out on persons with and without occupational exposure to chromium. The number of positive reactions was increased neither by increasing the concentration of trivalent chromium salts nor be employing methods intended to enhance skin penetration. Higher concentrations (0.5 and 1.0M CrCl3) had a skin-irritant effect. Part 2 describes the results of intracutaneous tests and discusses the sensitising action of trivalent chromium. The primary allergenic role of chromium salts in promoting positive bichromate reactions was not confirmed.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Dec. 1971, Vol.19, No.6, p.302-317, and Feb. 1972, Vol.20, No.1, p.24-34. 81 ref.
Dermatological study of hairdressers
Estudio dermatológico en peluqueros [in Spanish]
Results of the clinical examination of 100 ladies' hairdressers including skin sensitivity tests to standard allergens (lavander oil to detect sensitisation to the terpene group due to wearing rubber gloves, a 1% soda solution to determine shampoo alkanility, p-phenyl to determine dye aggressivity) and to specific allergens (3 types of hair spray and 3 permanent wave preparations). No skin lesions of occupational origin were found during this study which did, however, bring to light occupational stigmata (hyperhidrosis, erythrocyanosis, tattooing, acne) and various non-occupational diseases.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1972, Vol.20, No.77, p.41-48.
Factors in the evaluation of alkali-resistance tests
Einige Aspekte bei der Auswertung der Alkaliresistenzprobe [in German]
A study of the relationship between alkali resistance and various forms of dermatitis, time-related changes in alkali resistance, the relationship between alkali resistance and profession, and of practical applications of the alkali resistance test. The most frequent reduction of alkali resistance was encountered in nurses, female laboratory assistants, farmers, gardeners and housewives. On the basis of these results the practical value of the alkali-resistance test seems doubtful.
Berufs-Dermatosen, June 1972, Vol.20, No.3, p.111-123. 22 ref.
The influence of skin-surface lipids on Burckhardt alkali-resistance testing
Einfluss der Hautoberflächenlipide auf das Ergebnis der Alkaliresistenz-Bestimmung nach Burckhardt [in German]
Burckhardt alkali resistance tests were made on 130 persons and the quantity and composition of skin-surface lipids were determined. It was found that, under physiological conditions, neither lipid quantity nor composition have any significant effect on alkali resistance.
Berufs-Dermatosen, June 1972, Vol.20, No.3, p.105-110. 17 ref.
Magnusson B., Mobacken H.
Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylate printing plates in a printing plant
Reference to the literature on acrylic resin or monomer sensitisation and a brief description of the production of photopolymer printing plates (metal plates coated with light-sensitive acrylic monomer) is followed by a report on 4 cases of contact dermatitis in printers. Patch tests gave strongly positive reactions to unexposed monomer taken from the plates. The composition of the acrylic resin is patented and it was not possible to determine the nature of the contact allergen. Tests with methylmethacrylate and four other acrylic monomers proved negative.
Berufs-Dermatosen, June 1972, Vol.20, No.3, p.138-142. 10 ref.
Results of first examinations of dermatitis in hairdressers, with particular reference to dyshidrosis
Befunde bei Erstuntersuchungen von Hautkranken im Friseurgewerbe unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Dyshidrosis [in German]
Report on initial findings (skin lesions, length of employment, skin-test results, mycoses) in 158 hairdressers (137 females and 21 males) and recommendations on further employment. A third of the subjects presented signs of skin disorders during the first year of apprenticeship, and over two-thirds before the end of apprenticeship. The incidence of allergy was virtually the same in all age groups but dyshidrosis, with or without other skin signs or symptoms, occurred most frequently amongst the youngest subjects. Contact eczema normally regressed following removal from exposure to the causative agent; however, dyshidrosis persists and necessitates a change of occupation.
Berufs-Dermatosen, June 1972, Vol.20, No.3, p.124-132. 6 ref.
An unusual case of rosewood dermatitis of the genus Dalbergia (East Indian rosewood)
Description of a case of dermatitis in a worker, found to be due to exposure to rosewood sawdust emitted from an exhaust ventilation roof outlet in a neighbouring factory. The symptoms, diagnosis and treatment are briefly described. Due to the high level of the patient's sensibility, it was necessary for him to change his place of work.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1972, Vol.29, No.3, p.343-344. Illus. 3 ref.
Occupational eczema due to ethylenediamine in synthetic fibre manufacture
Berufsekzem durch Aethylendiamin in der Kunstfaser-Industrie [in German]
Following a short introductory review of the literature on ethylenediamine contact allergy, the author describes a case in a synthetic-fibre factory. Ethylenediamine was used as a stabiliser in the manufacture of caprolactam polymerisation products. Examination and testing revealed monovalent skin sensitisation to ethylenediamine. The ethylenediamine produced contact eczema on the uncovered parts of the skin and toxic irritant phenomena of the upper respiratory tract.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Aug. 1972, Vol.20, No.4, p.200-203. 15 ref.
Magnusson B., Mobacken H.
Contact allergy to a self-hardening acrylic sealer for assembling metal parts
A report on 7 cases of contact dermatitis characterised by the formation of papules and vesicules affecting the fingers and backs of the hands of workers employed in the application of screw-locking acrylic adhesives. Patch testing to undiluted and non-polymerised acrylic resin and to methyl methacrylate proved positive.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Aug. 1972, Vol.20, No.4, p.198-199. 2 ref.
Oleffe J., Nopp-Oger M.J., Achten G.
The European standard patch-test battery - Results of 300 observations
Batterie européenne de tests épicutanés - Bilan de 300 observations [in French]
This standard test battery comprises the 20 allergens most widely encountered in 8 European countries. It was appplied to 300 men and women with contact allergy of suspected occupational origin. The results are analysed and commented upon by allergen, sex and age group. Apart from metal ions and p-phenylenediamine, allergens such as vulcanisation accelerators, and rubber antioxidants are increasing in importance. Positive reactions to metals were more common amongst women and amongst both males and females of the 20-40 year age group.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Oct. 1972, Vol.20, No.5, p.209-217. Illus.
Dawson T.A.J., Scott K.W.
Contact eczema in agricultural workers
Report on 5 cases (3 male, 2 female) of severe contact eczema among pig-farm workers due to handling commercially prepared animal feed meals. It is believed that the allergen was quinoxaline dioxide which had been added to the meals as a growth promoter.
British Medical Journal, 19 Aug. 1972, Vol.3, No.5824, p.469-470.
Chabrat M.C., Amphoux M., Robin J.
The role of occupational hazardous agents in the aetiology of building and civil engineering workers' dermatitis - National survey by the Building and Civil Engineering Physicians' Group
Place des nuisances professionnelles dans l'étiologie des dermatoses chez les travailleurs du bâtiment et des travaux publics - Enquête nationale du Groupement des médecins du bâtiment et des travaux publics [in French]
Paper read at the XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, 20-23 May, 1971. This statistical survey carried out by 109 occupational physicians in all regions of France covered a population of 18,271 building and civil engineering workers and revealed 1,474 cases of dermatitis. The occupational origin of this dermatitis was confirmed in 17% of cases and suspected in 8% of cases. Amongst the causative agents, cement leads by a long distance, followed by oil (10%), diesel oil (4%), tars (3%) and adhesives (1.5%). The results are reproduced in numerous tables. (For the complete proceedings of this seminar, see CIS 73-505.)
XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, 1971, Vol.8, No.4 (special), p.541-566. 5 ref.
Occupational allergens in building and civil engineering
Les allergènes professionnels dans le bâtiment et les travaux publics [in French]
Paper read at the XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, 20-23 May 1971. Technical innovations in building and civil engineering have led to a widening of the allergen test batteries used for workers in this industry. The authors review these allergens under 4 headings: (a) bricklayers and tilers (subdivided into cements and additives, shutter-release oils, adhesives, miscellaneous products, clothing allergens); (b) painters (turpentine, chromium, cobalt, formaldehyde, epoxy resins, etc.); (c) carpenters and jointers (subdivided into tropical timber, indigenous timber, wood preservatives, adhesives and miscellaneous products); (d) miscellaneous building and civil engineering jobs (air conditioning, construction site machine drivers, demolition workers, structural-steel workers, plumbers, road surfacers, welders, plan reproducers, underground workers). (For the complete proceedings of this seminar, see CIS 73-505.)
XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Enginering, Paris, 1971, Vol.8, No.4 (special), p.529-540. Illus.
Occupational dermatitis in building and civil engineering
Les dermatoses professionnelles dans le bâtiment et les travaux publics [in French]
The proceedings of the XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, 20-23 May 1971. The papers read dealt with the following subjects: occupational allergens in building and civil engineering; the role of occupational hazardous agents in the aetiology of building and civil engineering workers' dermatitis flare-ups in workers with "cement-worker's hand"; work techniques used by bricklayers and tilers - their effects on the skin; biometric study of cement workers; immunoglobin and serum-complement levels in allergic cement dermatitis; prevention of cement dermatitis; the eradication of bricklayers' itch - the effect of gloves and a local anticholinergic agent. A number of these papers are abstracted as separate CIS records.
Bulletin du Groupement national d'étude des médecins du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 1971, Vol.8, No.4 (special), p.485-890. Illus. 145 ref.
Fregert S., Gruvberger B.
Chemical properties of cement
The chemical properties of cement were studied to determine whether it is possible to minimise the content of sensitising components. Following a description of cement manufacture and composition and an anlysis of the processes involved in cement hydration, the authors present the methods used in the analysis of 52 Portland cement samples from 9 countries, together with the results obtained. Chromium, cobalt and nickel were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry which can be used in an alkaline medium and allows trivalent and hexavalent chromium to be differentiated. No correlation was found between water-soluble hexavalent chromium to be differentiated. No correlation was found between water-soluble hexavalent chromium content and total chromium. It is concluded that certain, as yet unknown, chemical factors determine the proportion of total chromium that becomes water-soluble.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Oct. 1972, Vol.20, No.5, p.238-248. 53 ref.
Bricklayers' and tilers' working techniques - their effect on the skin
Gestes professionnels des maçons et des carreleurs - Leur incidence cutanée [in French]
Paper read at the XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, 20-23 May 1971. Having surveyed the main features of a previous study on the skin effects of the bricklayer's work technique (see CIS 72-955), the author makes similar analysis of tilers using the open-joint technique, and reviews the successive operations (mortar spreading, laying, adjustment, tile cutting, etc.) and the related hazards. Both incorrect and safe techniques are abundantly illustrated, safe w;ork procedures depend on: the choice of movements which minimise contact with mortar and exposure to microtraumata; careful cleaning of tools; strict personal hygiene. (For the complete proceedings of this seminar, see CIS 73-505.)
XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, France, 1971. Vol.8, No.4 (special), p.621-638. Illus.
Importance of dermatitis flare-ups in workers with "bricklayer's hand" - results of a field study
Importance des poussées de dermite chez les travailleurs atteints de "main du cimentier" - Résultats d'une enquête sur les lieux de travail [in French]
Paper read at the XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, 20-23 May 1971. Only the most serious cases of bricklayer's itch come to the occupational physician's attention. Minor forms are nevertheless the cause of inconvenience, suffering and absenteeism. To determine the incidence and consequences, the authors carried out a study of over 300 workers exposed to cement and suffering from "bricklayer's hand"; these were followed up for 10 weeks in winter and summer. The effect of various parameters (seasonal in particular) was examined. During the survey, 14 of the subjects underwent acute flare-ups. On a yearly basis, the incidence of the disease would be around 25%. The 6 new cases of dermatitis recorded indicate that the incidence of new cases in previously unaffected workers handling cement is 10%. (For the proceedings of this seminar, see CIS 73-505.)
XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, France, 1971. Vol.8, No.4 (special), p.600-620. Illus. 5 ref.
The eradication of bricklayers itch - the effect of gloves and a local anticholinergic agent
Vers l'éradication de la gale du ciment - Effet du port des gants et d'un anticholinergique local [in French]
Paper read at the XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, 20-23 May 1971. Results of a study to determine whether the wearing of 2 super-imposed gloves (one of which, made from jersey, is in contact with the skin and impregnated with an anticholinergic cream), improves the dermatological condition of bricklayers' hands suffering from dermatitis, and reduces acute flare-ups. The study covered 39 subjects (22 of whom did not wear gloves before the test) who had an average of 21.4 years exposure to cement. The group of 22 subjects was itself broken down into 2 sections (12 subjects who wore gloves during the test and 10 who used only the cream). The cream without gloves is dermatologically as effective as impregnated gloves but no more so than a regular washing of the hands. On the other hand, none of the subjects protected by cream, with or without gloves, suffered an acute dermatitis flare-up. (For the complete proceedings of this seminar, see CIS 73-505.)
Bulletin du Groupement national d'étude des médecins du bâtiment et des travaux publics, XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, France, 1971. Vol.8, No.4 (special), p.788-811. 11 ref.
Sertoli A., Panconesi E., Fabbri P.
Possible measures for the prevention of cement dermatitis
Possibilités de réalisation de la prévention des dermites de ciment [in French]
Paper read at the XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, France, 20-23 May 1971. the various methods used so far to prevent cement dermatitis have all been aimed at modifying the physical and chemical characteristics of the chromium hapten, either in the cement or on the skin. The authors review these methods and report on their own experiments on barium chloride (BaCl2) and 2-mercaptopropionylglycine. The definite effectiveness of these substances was brought to light. The authors emphasise the need to make allowance for the cost of the preventive measure and for the changes in the technical characteristics of cement to which these substances have been added. (For the complete proceedings of this seminar, see CIS 73-505.)
Bulletin du Groupement national d'étude des médecins du bâtiment et des travaux publics, XIIth National Seminar on Occupational Medicine in Building and Civil Engineering, Paris, France, 1971. Vol.8, No.4 (special), p.765-779. Illus. 6 ref.
Gallium fluoride poisoning - A probable case with skin effects and neurological sequelae
A case report of a female laboratory worker who developed a petechial rash on her right hand and forearm following short exposure to a small amount of fume containing gallium fluoride. A few days later she developed pain the radial distribution of the right arm and, a few weeks later, a weakness in the muscles supplied by the right radial nerve. The rash disappeared in less than 2 weeks, while the pain and weakness lasted 3 months. Although most forms of gallium are not highly toxic, it is probable that this research worker was affected temporarity by some biochemically-active gallium complex.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1972, Vol.14, No.12, p.925-926. 7 ref.
Toxicity of chlorinated hydrocarbons and related compounds
The sub-title of this paper is: A review including chlorinated dibenzodioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans. The present study as prompted by the fact that various chlorinated technical compounds (2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and chlorinated biphenyls) were found to be contaminated with trace amounts of chlorinated dibenzofurans or chlorinated dibenzodioxins. These contaminants and other chlorinated compounds can induce various diseases, particularly cloracne which is not uncommon in industry and which is reviewed in the first section of this paper.
Archives of Environmental Health, Aug. 1972, Vol.25, No.2, p.125-131. Illus. 65 ref.
Anton'ev A.A., Lok S.M.
Diagnostic value of cutaneous tests in allergic occupational dermatitis
O diagnostičeskoj cennosti kožnyh prob pri professional'nyh allergičeskih dermatozah [in Russian]
The purpose of this study was to determine: (a) the most suitable skin test for diagnosing allergic occupational dermatitis: and (b) which is the most sensitive of 2 methods (drop test or patch test) for revealing latent sensitisation in healthy workers exposed to chemical allergens. Scratch test plus patch test was found to be the most appropriate method for (a) above (72.7% sensitivity in the cases examined, as compared with only 14.7% with the drop method. In applying this dual method, it is recommended that a few drops of a 0.5% solution of NaOH be added to the allergen. In the case of (b), the patch test was found to be more sensitive.
Sovetskaja medicina, Aug. 1972, Vol.35, No.8, p.126-129. Illus. 11 ref.
Cortez Pimentel J.
The "wheat-stubble sarcoid granuloma": A new epithelioid granuloma of the skin
The introduction into the skin of chemical substances or organic matter can produce sarcoid granulomata. A new granuloma of this type related to wounds produced by the stubble of wheat is described. The diagnosis of this lesion is easy, taking into consideration its localisation in the lower limbs, the wounds caused by stubble, and the identification of intracellular plant material in the granuloma. A host factor of probable immunological nature is suggested. There is similarity between these sarcoid granulomata of the skin and some epithelioid granulomatous lesions of the lung due to the inhalation of chemical substances and organic matter, known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis or "farmer's lung".
British Journal of Dermatology, 1972, Vol.87, p.444-449. Illus. 23 ref.
Cutaneous hazards from industrial chemicals
Attention is drawn to some of the more recently recognised and unexpected risks to the skin from contact with industrial chemicals. Detailed information is given on: Minimata disease (methylmercuric sulphide); rice oil disease (tetrachlorobiphenyl); contact purpurs (isopropylaminodiphenylamine); lichen planus (photographic colour developer containing a p-amino group); leucoderma (p-tert -butylphenol, p-tert-anylphenol, p-tert-butylcatechol); ketatosis and skin cancer due to arsenic; and potic whitening agent dermatitis (pyrazoline derivatives).
Chemistry and Industry, 25 Dec. 1971, p.1482-1484. 28 ref.
Schmitt G.J., Thiernagand J., Adam W.E.
Scientific studies on tolerance to enzyme detergents
Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen über die gesundheitliche Verträglichkeit enzymhaltiger Waschmittel [in German]
Description of analytical techniques for determining primary human-skin irritation by enzyme detergents (hand immersion, clinical tolerance checks). The literature is reviewed and the authors' own experiments are reported: enzyme detergents are not less tolerable than conventional products. Data are also given on skin tests to check human sensitisation and on animal experiments to check precutaneous toxicity. On the basis of current experience with enzyme detergents, the authors conclude that these products are harmless if used in accordance with instructions.
Fette - Seifen - Anstrichmittel, Mar. 1971, Vol.73, No.3, p.178-182. 8 ref.
Nishitani N., Hara I.
Cases of leucomelanodermatosis caused by phenylphenol
Phenylphenol ni yoru hakuhan kokuhi sho no shorei [in Japanese]
Report on a study carried out over a number of years of skin lesions in workers in a plant producing o- and p-phenylphenol from phenol-distillation residues. 16 cases of leucomelanodermatosis were found; these cases are briefly reviewed.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Apr. 1971, Vol.13, No.3, p.218-219. Illus. 9 ref.
Oil dermatitis and its prevention
A review of the skin hazards of the various oils used in industry and advice on the necessary hygiene measures. Individual sections are devoted to: effects of different types of oil on the skin (lighter petroleum oils, lubricating oil, "straight" cutting oils and other cutting fluids, grease, etc.); dermatitis due to cutting fluids (insoluble and soluble oils); problems associated with the use of cutting fluid (contamination of worker by oil, contamination of oil with metal fragments, contamination of cleaning waste or cloths, contamination of oil by bacteria, convincing operators that their personal hygiene is inadequate); and prevention (general principles, personal protective clothing, barrier creams, first aid and medical advice). A list of 14 basic hygiene rules for workers is appended.
Division of Occupational Health and Pollution Control, N.S.W. Department of Health, Joseph Street, Lidcombe, N.S.W. 2141, Australia, Nov. 1970. 15p. Illus. Gratis.
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