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Skin diseases - 1,481 entries found

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CIS 08-164 Laukkanen A., Ruoppi P., Remes S., Koistinen T., Mäkinen-Kiljunen S.
Lactase-induced occupational protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
This article reports a case of protein contact dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis from occupational exposure to lactase in a female pharmaceutical worker in Finland. The patient exhibited strong positive responses to lactase in prick tests. In an open application test, lactase elicited whealing, and in patch testing, lactase elicited an eczematous reaction. Serum lactase-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies were demonstrated in immunospot and radioallergosorbent test assays, and lactase-IgE-binding fractions were examined in immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition assays. The chamber challenge test was performed to detect the association between lactase sensitization and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. The results confirm previous observations that lactase can induce occupational IgE- mediated respiratory and conjunctival sensitizations, but in addition show that contact skin reactions caused by lactase may also occur.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2007, Vol.57, No.2, p.89-93. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 08-163 Isaksson M., Zimerson E.
Risks and possibilities in patch testing with contaminated personal objects: Usefulness of thin-layer chromatograms in a patient with acrylate contact allergy from a chemical burn
The case of chemical burn caused by dipropylene glycol diacrylate (DPGDA) impregnated in shoes of a worker of a paint factory in Sweden is described. The burn was followed by active sensitization, giving an occupational allergic contact dermatitis on the patient's feet. Diagnostic tests included patch testing with acetone extracts made from the various components of the shoe, together with thin-layer chromatograms. An invisible spot on the thin-layer chromatography plate caused a positive eczema reaction and was further investigated with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. DPGDA was detected in the spot.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2007, Vol.57, No.2, p.84-88. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 08-88 Barchino Ortiz L, Cabrera Fernández E., Moreno Manzano G., Heras Mendaza F., Conde-Salazar Gómez L.
Occupational skin diseases among workers providing care to older persons
Dermatosis profesionales en cuidadores de ancianos [in Spanish]
Health care workers specialized in providing care to older persons may have an increased risk of occupational skin damage due to their regular exposure to skin irritants and constant wet work. This retrospective study involved 41 such health care workers, all women, who consulted an occupational dermatology institute in Spain over an 11-year period. The most common location affected was the hands. Of the skin diseases clinically diagnosed, endogenous eczema showed the highest prevalence (39.6%) followed by irritant contact dermatitis (27.1%), allergic contact dermatitis (12.5%), asymptomatic diseases (10.4%) and allergy to natural rubber latex (4.2%).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, June 2007, Vol.LIII, No.207, p.35-46. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 08-155 Aalto-Korte K., Alanko K., Henriks-Eckerman M.L., Kuuliala O., Jolanki R.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from 2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one
2-N-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT) is an antimicrobial agent that is mainly used in industrial settings. The objective of the study was to find the significance of OIT contact allergy. Clinical records of patients at an occupational dermatology clinic were analysed from 1991 for possible allergic reactions to OIT. Eight patients were found with ordinary allergic reactions to OIT and one with a late reaction. OIT is a rare sensitizer, and its contact allergies occur mainly in paint manufacturing. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2007, Vol.56, No.3, p.160-163. 19 ref.

CIS 08-74 Lim Y.L., Goon A.
Occupational skin diseases in Singapore 2003-2004: An epidemiological update
In this two-year retrospective epidemiologic study of occupational skin disease in Singapore, there were 125 patients with occupational contact dermatitis. The mean age of patients was 33.8 years, with a male to female ratio of 5.3 to one. Irritant contact dermatitis made up 62.4% of all cases, while allergic contact dermatitis constituted 37.6%. Wet work and contact with detergents, oils, greases and solvents were the most common causes. There was also a significant increase in cases among workers from the food and catering sector.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2007, Vol.56, No.3, p.157-159. 5 ref.

CIS 08-160 Suuronen K., Jolanki R., Luukkonen R., Alanko K., Susitaival P.
Self-reported skin symptoms in metal workers
The objectives of this case-control study were to find out the frequency of skin symptoms in machinists and machine maintenance operators. A total of 726 exposed workers and 84 unexposed controls, all male, answered a structured telephone questionnaire on their work, atopy, skin symptoms and various personal factors. Data were subjected to logistic regression analysis. Of the metal workers, 20% reported recurring or prolonged dermatitis on their hands or forearms during the past 12 months. The dermatitis affected mostly the metal workers' mood and their activities at work. Recurring dermatitis elsewhere than in the hands and in connection with work was reported by 10% of the exposed workers. The risks of hand dermatitis were about double the risk of dermatitis on other parts of the body and about fourfold compared with those of the controls.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2007, Vol.57, No.4, p.259-264. 28 ref.

CIS 08-165 Lensen G., Jungbauer F., Gonçalo M., Coenraads P.J.
Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles
Chlorothalonil (= 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture and floriculture, as a wood preservative, as well as in paint. This article describes an epidemic of airborne irritant contact dermatitis, conjunctivitis and upper airway complaints among seamstresses in a Portuguese trailer tent factory, which was attributed to chlorothalonil. All exposed workers had work-related skin symptoms. After patch testing, it was shown that none of these were of allergic origin. Instead of allergic reactions, a delayed type of irritation was noticed after 72hr to chlorothalonil and to the textile extracts containing high concentrations of chlorothalonil. Although allergic and irritant contact dermatitis from chlorothalonil has been described before, this is the first report of a delayed type of dermatitis, conjunctivitis and upper airway irritation after exposure to chlorothalonil.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2007, Vol.57, No.3, p.181-186. 24 ref.

CIS 08-151 Milković-Kraus S., Macan J., Kanceljak-Macan B.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from azithromycin in pharmaceutical workers: A case series
A series of seven cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by azithromycin in Croatian pharmaceutical workers is described. Seven out of 21 workers exposed to powdered intermediate and final substances in azithromycin synthesis were referred with workplace-related skin and respiratory symptoms. They all underwent a diagnostic procedure involving medical history and medical examinations, patch testing with standard allergens and azithromycin, prick testing with inhalatory allergens and total . ACD caused by azithromycin was established in four examined workers showing a positive patch test to azithromycin. Two workers additionally showed a positive patch test to intermediate substances. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2007, Vol.56, No.2, p.99-102. 16 ref.

CIS 07-1320 Brown T.P., Rushton L., Williams H.C., English J.S.C.
Intervention implementation research: An exploratory study of reduction strategies for occupational contact dermatitis in the printing industry
The objective of this study was to evaluate four risk reduction strategies for occupationally caused dermatitis in the printing sector: the provision of skin checks plus treatment advice; provision of gloves of the correct type and size plus use of an after-work cream; information highlighting the problem of occupational dermatitis; development of a best practice skin care policy. The strategies were evaluated over three months in two printing shops. While all interventions were found to be acceptable to some extent, no single intervention was completely effective. The most practical prevention measure was the regular use of gloves of the correct type and size.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2007, Vol.56, No.1, p.16-20. 18 ref.

CIS 07-1384 Rojas-Hijazo B., Lezaun A., Hausen B.M., Segura N., Garcés M., Colás C.
Airborne contact dermatitis in gaitas (flageolets) constructors after exposure to sawdust of caviuna
Exposure to the sawdust of exotic wood can produce dermatitis on exposed body areas among woodworkers. The cases of seven patients who made musical instruments in Spain from caviuna vermelha, part of the rosewood family, are described. They developed dermatitis on exposed areas hours after they had begun to work with caviuna. Patch tests were performed using the European standard series, caviuna sawdust samples and a series of dalbergiones. Fifteen unexposed controls were also tested. Caviuna samples were analysed by thin-layer chromatography. Patch test with caviuna sawdust yielded positive reactions in all subjects. Five of the seven subjects reacted strongly to obtusaquinine and (R)-4-methoxy-dalbergione deriving from Dalbergia retusa but also to sensitizers present in other rosewoods. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2007, Vol.56, No.5, p.274-277. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 08-579 McDonald J.C., Beck M.H., Chen Y., Cherry N.M.
Incidence by occupation and industry of work-related skin diseases in the United Kingdom, 1996-2001
The objective of this study was to summarize incidence rates of work-related skin diseases reported between 1996 and 2001 to the EPIDERM and OPRA national surveillance databases by consultant dermatologists and occupational physicians in the United Kingdom, with an emphasis on allergic contact dermatitis by occupation and industry. Findings are discussed. Contact dermatitis was most frequently attributed to rubber chemicals, soaps and cleaners, wet work, nickel and acrylics; most cases of contact urticaria were attributed to rubber chemicals, foods and flour. Rates of contact dermatitis were highest among skilled workers in the petrochemical, rubber and plastic manufacturing, with machine operators and technical workers in metal and automotive industries also at increased risk. High proportions of cases attributed to rubber chemicals were in nurses and technicians in the health and social services.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2006, Vol.56, n°6, p.398-405. 7 ref.

CIS 08-396 Rømyhr O., Nyfors A., Leira H.L., Smedbold H.T.
Allergic contact dermatitis caused by epoxy resin systems in industrial painters
A group of 2236 industrial painters employed in six companies of the Norwegian oil industry was followed between 1997 and 2001 to assess the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by exposure to epoxy resin systems. Commercially-available patch test series were supplemented with a series based on known or suspected sensitizers present at the workplaces. Of 57 patch-tested workers, 23 with ACD caused by epoxy resin systems were found, indicating an incidence rate of 4.5/1000 person years. Positive patch tests to 2,4,6-tris-(dimethylaminomethyl)phenol (tris-DMP) and m-xylene-α,α'-diamine (XAD) were seen in seven and eight workers, respectively, indicating that both chemicals are important sensitizers in industrial painters. They are, however, not classified as skin sensitizers according to the European regulations on the classification and labelling of dangerous chemicals.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2006, Vol.55, No.3, p.167-172. 22 ref.

CIS 08-102 Géraut C., Tripodi D.
Prevention and compensation of occupational skin diseases
Réparation et prévention des dermatoses professionnelles [in French]
Occupational skin diseases often have important consequences for the employment of affected persons, which makes it essential to ensure their compensation in cases where preventive measures are not effective. Preventive measures against occupational skin diseases include collective measures such as the elimination of the allergen or irritant, but also a series of personal hygiene measures adapted to each task which need to be validated by the users themselves if they are not to go unheeded. Compensation and rehabilitation measures are complex given the wide range of approved occupational diseases and types of compensation, which are reviewed in this article.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.152, 10p. 9 ref.

CIS 08-100 Géraut C., Tripodi D.
Occupational skin diseases
Dermatoses professionnelles [in French]
When faced with skin diseases that appear to be due to occupational factors, medical practitioners must adopt a simple and reliable diagnosis approach. Upon completing a comprehensive clinical analysis, it is of key importance to draw up a list of risk factors related to the occupational and non occupational environments. The main factors responsible for occupational skin diseases are the many chemicals with which we are in daily contact, followed far behind by infectious agents and finally, very rarely, by physical agents. The most affected occupations are, in decreasing order of importance: occupations involving exposure to cleaning products, the construction industry, hairdressing, health care occupations, plastics processing and handling, various sectors including mechanical work, metalworking, printing, and all activities involving contact with plants or animals.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2006, No.153, 30p. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 08-91 Slodownik D., Wohl Y., Mansura A., Moshe S., Sarbagil-Maman H., Shochat T., Levi Y., Brenner S., Ingber A.
Allergic contact dermatitis among maintenance and clerical workers in a military population
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of contact dermatitis in the Israeli armed forces, the common causal allergens and the background of atopy in the subjects in order to design preventive measures. Medical records of all recruits from 2000 to 2003 were reviewed for possible mention of contact dermatitis. The 102 cases identified were further assessed for job assignment, atopic background and causal allergens. Among the cases identified, 60 had irritant contact dermatitis and 42 had allergic contact dermatitis, of which 33 were maintenance workers, mainly mechanics. 13 recruits in the maintenance job category and two soldiers in the clerical group had atopic backgrounds. There were 55 positive reactions in patch tests, 25 of them to oil and cooling fluids, with 14.5% attributed to Kathon CG. Atopy was found to be a risk factor for allergic contact dermatitis and should be screened for in job assignment procedures in the military. Oil and greases contain significant allergens, especially their preservatives.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2006, Vol.55, No.6, p.335-337. 21 ref.

CIS 08-157 Flyvholm M.A., Lindberg M.
OEESC-2005 - Summing up on the theme of irritants and wet work
This article reviews the papers on irritants and wet work presented at a conference on held in Stockholm, Sweden, on 12-15 June 2005. Occupational skin diseases are common diseases with a huge potential for prevention. The risk factors are mostly well known, despite which there is an ongoing high occurrence of occupational skin diseases. The following topics were identified for further research: an internationally agreed-upon definition of wet work; better methods to assess the exposure to wet work; effect of combined exposure to water and water-soluble irritants; effect of wet work with short and long cycles; testing skin protection and skin care products; long-term skin effects from alcohol-based hand disinfectants; workplace testing of evidence-based prevention programmes in prospective randomized, controlled intervention studies.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2006, Vol.55, No.6, p.317-321.

CIS 08-90 Foo C.C.I., Goon A.T.J., Leow Y.H., Goh C.L.
Adverse skin reactions to personal protective equipment against severe acute respiratory syndrome - A descriptive study in Singapore
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of skin reactions to PPE among healthcare workers in Singapore during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak Healthcare workers exposed to SARS in affected countries were required to use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as the N95 mask, gloves and gowns. The healthcare staff of two hospitals was surveyed using questionnaires. A total of 322 questionnaires were returned (participation rate 94.7%). 14.3% of the respondents were doctors, 73.0% nurses and 12.7% other ancillary staff. 109 (35.5%) of the 307 staff who used masks regularly reported acne (59.6%), facial itch (51.4%) and rash (35.8%) from N95 mask use. 64 (21.4%) of the 299 who used gloves reported dry skin (73.4%), itch (56.3%) and rash (37.5%).
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2006, Vol.55, No.5, p.291-294. 6 ref.

CIS 07-1309 McDonald J.C., Beck M.H., Chen Y., Cherry N.M.
Incidence by occupation and industry of work-related skin diseases in the United Kingdom, 1996-2001
The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence rates of work-related skin diseases reported by dermatologists and occupational physicians, with emphasis on contact dermatitis by occupation and industry. Cases reported in 1996-2001 to the EPIDERM and OPRA national surveillance schemes were analysed by causal agent, occupation and industry. Average annual incidence rates were 97 per million based on data from dermatologists and 623 from occupational physicians. The much higher rates reported by occupational physicians reflect, in part, the type of industries they served. Contact dermatitis was most frequently attributed to rubber chemicals, detergents and cleaning agents, wet work, nickel and acrylics, while most cases of contact urticaria were attributed to rubber chemicals or foods and flour. Frequency rates of contact dermatitis were highest among skilled workers in the petrochemical, rubber and plastic manufacturing, metal and automotive industries. High proportions of cases attributed to rubber chemicals were reported among nurses and technicians in health and social services.
Occupational Medicine, 2006, No.56, p.398-405. 7 ref.

CIS 07-1379 Hannu T., Alanko K., Keskinen H.
Anaphylaxis and allergic contact urticaria from occupational airborne exposure to HBTU
This article describes a case of anaphylaxis and allergic contact urticaria from occupational airborne exposure to HBTU (o-benzotriazol-1-yl-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate), which is a chemical used widely for solid and solution-phase peptide synthesis, in a laboratory technician. There have been previous reports of this chemical being been associated with occupational asthma, allergic contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis in individual cases, but not with anaphylaxis. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, a positive skin prick test (SPT) and a positive skin provocation test to HBTU. The positive SPT indicates that the anaphylaxis reaction is IgE-mediated. Appropriate safety measures should be compulsory when handling HBTU, and if work-related symptoms develop, the possibility of anaphylaxis should be considered.
Occupational Medicine, 2006, No.56, p.430-433. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 07-1115 Schubert H.J.
Skin diseases in workers at a perfume factory
The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of skin diseases in one-third of the staff of a perfume factory, in which 10 different perfume sprays were being manufactured. It involved site inspections, dermatological examinations and patch testing of all 26 persons at risk with four perfume oils and 30 of their constituents. Six bottlers were found to be suffering from allergic contact dermatitis, two from irritant contact dermatitis and 12 showed strong reactions to various fragrances. The main causes of allergic contact dermatitis were two perfume oils (12 cases) and their ingredients geraniol (12 cases), benzaldehyde (9), cinnamic aldehyde (6), linalool, neroli oil, terpenes of lemon oil and orange oil (4 each). None tested positive to balsam of Peru. Proposed measures to reduce the risks included changes to jobs with no contact with fragrances, automation, replacement of glass bottles by cartridges from non-fragile materials and use of gloves.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2006, Vol.55, No.2, p.81-83. 28 ref.

CIS 07-1114 Kuijpers D.I.M., Hillen F., Frank J.A.
Occupational peri-ocular contact dermatitis due to sensitization against black rubber components of a microscope
A 24-year-old woman working in the pathology department of a Dutch university hospital developed an acute periocular eczema clearly related to her daily work at the microscope. Patch testing revealed delayed type hypersensitivity against the black rubber mix, N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-paraphenylenediamine, N-cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl-paraphenylenediamine and the rubber ring situated on the ocular of the microscope.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2006, Vol.55, No.2, p.77-80. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 07-649 Madan V., Beck M.H.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine in coolant oils
Contact with metal working fluids (MWF) is an important factor in the development of occupational hand dermatitis in patients working in the metal processing industry. Biocides are added to MWF as preservatives and are known sensitizers. This study analysed 318 patch test reactions to N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine 1% in petrolatum present in coolant oils in patients exposed to MWF and with suspected occupational dermatitis. Positive allergic reactions were noted in 15 cases. In seven cases, it was possible to confirm the presence of N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine in the oils used by the patients. Positive reactions to formaldehyde were seen in 11 patients. Sensitization to N,N-methylene-bis-5-methyl-oxazolidine and/or formaldehyde allergy was considered likely to have contributed to the workers' dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2006, Vol.55, No.1, p.39-41. 10 ref.

CIS 07-642 Böcher A., Müller M., Buchter A.
Arsenic diseases of wine-growers and medical importance of environmental arsenic exposure
Die Arsenerkrankungen der Winzer und umweltmedizinische Bedeutung der Arsenbelastung [in German]
Five cases of arsenic diseases have recently been identified among elderly wine growers who had been occupationally exposed in the 1930s and 1940s to arsenic-containing pesticides and who had consumed arsenic-containing home made wine. The exposure circumstances in these cases and the diagnosed arsenic-related diseases are described. In all cases the latency period between termination of exposure and first diagnosis of an arsenic-related disease was extremely long, ranging from 40 to 60 years. In two cases a urinary transitional cell carcinoma was diagnosed in addition to typical skin diseases caused by arsenic. Based on epidemiologic data from Asian and South American countries that provided evidence of a significantly increased risk of urinary transitional cell carcinoma following long-term arsenic exposure, it is recommended that this cancer should be recognized as an occupational disease in patients with skin diseases caused by occupational arsenic exposure.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, 2006, Vol.56, No.3, p.58-67. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-624 Aboín González S., Herras Mendaza F., Díaz Ley B., Alvárez Collado L., Casado Fariñas I., Alonso Martín M.J., Conde-Salazar Gómez L.
Lichenoid contact dermatitis due to film developers
Dermatitis de contacto liquenoide por reveladores fotográficos [in Spanish]
This article describes the case of a 29 year old man who had been working for 4.5 years in a photographic film development workshop and was occasionally involved in machine repair. He developed a prurient eruption on the fingers, arms and forearms, five days after having been in contact with a developer. Injuries were of the lichenoid type, and skin tests showed a positive reaction to CD-2 (N,N-diethyl-2-methyl-1,4-phenylene-diamine hydrochloride). The particular aspect of this case was that there was a dissemination of the lesions in locations where there had been no contact with the developer. After ceasing all contact with the developer, the lesions disappeared progressively.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Mar. 2006, Vol.LII, No.202, p.29-37. Illus. 28 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 07-323 Arcury T.A., Vallejos Q.M., Marín A.J., Feldman S.R., Smith G., Quandt S.A.
Latino farmworker perceptions of the risk factors for occupational skin disease
Most farm workers in the United States are Latino. Skin diseases are a health problem to which farm workers are particularly vulnerable. Preventive actions must therefore be adapted to farm workers' understanding of such diseases, including their beliefs or knowledge of risk factors. This study used in-depth interviews with 30 Latino farm workers (6 women, 24 men) to determine beliefs and perceptions of the causes of common occupational skin diseases in this population. Results indicate that farm worker beliefs and perceptions of skin disease causation can be integrated into a general model in which perceived risk factors include sun and heat, chemicals, plants, insects, moisture, hygiene and contagion. Each of these factors is moderated by the individual's personal susceptibility. The model suggests that health education is the most important factor for reducing skin disease among farm workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2006, Vol.49, p.434-442. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 07-412 Crépy M.N.
Occupational skin diseases caused by cosmetics
Dermatoses professionnelles aux cosmétiques [in French]
Contents of this review of occupational skin diseases related to cosmetics: main irritants and allergens found in cosmetics; epidemiological aspects; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention and treatment; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2006, No.107, p.367-379. Illus. 81 ref.$File/TA74.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-392 Radon K., et al.
Adolescents' jobs and the course of dermatitis symptoms throughout puberty
This study evaluated the course of dermatitis symptoms throughout puberty taking into account occupational exposures. Participants enrolled in an international study of asthma and allergies in childhood in Munich and Dresden in 1995 and 1996 were sent a postal questionnaire in 2002 (age at follow-up 16-18 years). The questionnaire included items on atopy, work history, vocational training and potential confounders. Overall, data for 3785 adolescents were included in the analyses. The incidence of dermatitis symptoms during puberty among those without such symptoms at baseline was 7%. Altogether 31% of the participants reported an employment history. Those already employed were more likely to report a new onset of dermatitis symptoms. Jobs associated with a new onset of symptoms were work in the health care sector, vocational training in bakeries, and cleaning. The first nine months of exposure were particularly relevant for new cases of dermatitis symptoms (odds ratio 3.7).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.32, No.2, p.132-137. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 07-387 Thyssen J.P., Sederberg-Olsen N., Thomsen J.F., Menné T.
Contact dermatitis from methylisothiazolinone in a paint factory
The introduction of new potential contact-sensitizing chemicals have in the past led to epidemics of contact dermatitis. A new preservative containing only methyl-isothiazolinone (MI) and not methyl-chloroisothiazolinone (MCI) has recently been introduced for use in products such as paint, glue and cosmetics. This article describes an outbreak of contact allergy to MI and MCI among four out of 14 workers in a paint factory. Patch test results from all four patients showed positive reactions for MI and MCI/MI. The reactions were stronger for MI than MCI/MI indicating a primary sensitization to MI. The combination of MCI/MI remains widely used, and therefore various patterns of exposure and sensitization may be seen in the future. The data show that MI holds a potential for eliciting and probably inducing contact allergy in humans.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2006, Vol.54, No.6, p.322-324. 16 ref.

CIS 07-411 Weisshaar E., Radulescu M., Bock M., Albrecht U., Diepgen T.L.
Educational and dermatological aspects of secondary individual prevention in healthcare workers
This article describes a skin protection programme for healthcare workers (HCWs). The 504 participants were HCWs suffering from skin diseases suspected to be caused by occupational factors. Training mainly focused on the texture and functioning of the skin, general aspects of occupational skin diseases (OSDs), general information concerning skin protection and instructions about the correct use of skin cleansing and skin protection products. Participants were also examined by a dermatologist and a precise history of their skin diseases was obtained. Participants rated the programme as good to excellent. Similar training programmes should be offered to employees of other occupations with an increased risk for OSD.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.254-260. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 07-380 Pletscher C.
Health impairment caused by silver and its compounds in occupational settings
Berufliche Gefährdungen durch Silber und Silberverbindungen [in German]
Atteintes à la santé causées par l'argent et ses composés dans le cadre professionnel [in French]
Silver and its compounds are used in prostheses, fungicides, antibacterial topical agents, the minting of coins, the electronics industry and photography. This article discusses the health hazards due to occupational exposure to silver and its compounds. Contents: industrial uses of silver and its compounds; health impairment (pigmentation disorders, diseases of the respiratory system and of internal organs); protective measures and threshold limit values at the place of work.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2006, No.77, p.85-89. Illus. 5 ref. [in German] [in French]

CIS 07-182 Crépy M.N.
Occupational dermatitis caused by plants
Dermatoses professionnelles aux végétaux [in French]
Plants can cause often-severe mechanical or chemical irritation dermatitis, as well as allergic contact dermatitis. Florists, agricultural workers, forestry workers and woodworking and food industry workers are particularly at risk. Contents of this information sheet on occupational dermatitis from plants: plant classification; irritants and allergens contained in plants; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention and treatment; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2006, No.105, p.77-90. Illus. 66 ref.$File/TA73.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-153 Chu C.Y., Pontén A., Sun C.C., Jee S.H.
Concomitant contact allergy to the resins, reactive diluents and hardener of a bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin in subway construction workers
Among 20 subway construction workers in Taipei, Taiwan, using a new epoxy resin system, nine showed clinical symptoms and signs of contact dermatitis. The objective of the study was to determine which components of the epoxy resin system were responsible for the contact allergy. Patch testing with the various components of the system was performed on both the patients and asymptomatic individuals. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that contact allergy to epoxy resin systems may involve hardeners and diluents as well as resins, and patch testing for reaction to all components should be performed.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2006, Vol.54, No.3, p.131-139. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 07-197 Morales-Suárez-Varela M.M., et al.
Occupational sun exposure and mycosis fungoides: A European multicenter case-control study
This European multi-centre case-control study conducted between 1995 and 1997 sought to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to sunlight and mycosis fungoides (MF), a peripheral T-cell lymphoma. From the 118 accepted cases, 104 were interviewed, of which 76 were confirmed cases. Population controls were selected randomly from the regions of case ascertainment. Information based on occupational history was coded according to industry types. A job exposure matrix was created according to the expected exposure to sunlight. Once exposures to aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons were eliminated, a high MF risk was associated with exposures to solar radiation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.390-393. 25 ref.

CIS 06-1412 Nixon R., Roberts H., Frowen K., Sim M.
Knowledge of skin hazards and the use of gloves by Australian hairdressing students and practising hairdressers
This study of occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers involved 193 trainee hairdressers and 184 practising hairdressers, who completed a questionnaire detailing their knowledge of skin hazards, the skills they practised and the frequency of glove use. Knowledge of skin hazards was poor in both groups. While up to 70% of participants correctly identified hairdressing chemicals as potential skin hazards, less than 15% correctly identified the role of wet work. Only a small proportion recognized that hairdressing chemicals could cause allergy. Less-experienced hairdressers often handled chemicals, particularly hair dyes containing p-phenylene diamine. The use of gloves was inadequate, particularly when performing work at the basin, which both junior and senior hairdressers did on a regular basis. Recommended strategies for the prevention of hand dermatitis among hairdressers include improved student education, appropriate glove use and the application of after-work moisturizing creams.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2006, Vol.54, No.2, p.112-116. 19 ref.

CIS 06-1411 Leggat P.A., Smith D.R.
Dermatitis and aircrew
Airline personnel are exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors such as low relative humidity. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids, prepreg materials, sealants and jet-fuel, which consists of a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2006, Vol.54, No.1, p.1-4. 40 ref.

CIS 06-654 Barruyer C.
Dermatitis: Suspicious hand lesions
Dermatites: des lésions suspectes de la peau [in French]
Many substances used in the construction industry are allergens or irritants and may cause dermatitis. They include in particular cement, solvents, glues and resins. The hands are the most affected. This article presents a brief overview of the main causes of dermatitis, together with the recommended preventive measures (hand hygiene, use of barrier creams and protective gloves).
Prévention BTP, Feb. 2006, No.82, p.56-58. Illus. 2 ref.


CIS 07-1334 Brown T., Rushton L.
Health and Safety Executive
Derivation of baseline data for incidence of skin disease amongst printers
An objective of the Health and Safety Executive is to reduce the incidence of work-related skin disease by 2010, measured against an incidence rate for the year 2000. A previous study on the prevalence of dermatitis in the printing sector showed that current reporting schemes largely underestimate the true burden of the disease. The aim of the current study was to re-examine the data collected by this previous study using a questionnaire and to provide a new estimate of the incidence of occupational dermatitis among printers. This analysis resulted in an estimated incidence of 420 cases for 100,000 workers during 2000.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. iv, 19p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 07-858 Goon A.T.J., Goh C.L.
Metal allergy in Singapore
This study examined the frequency of metal allergy among patients diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre of Singapore from 2001 to 2003. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were: nickel 19.9%; chromates 5.6%; cobalt 8.2%; gold 8.3%. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have since been steadily increasing. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has also been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003.
Contact Dermatitis, 2005, Vol.52, p.130-132. 7 ref.

CIS 07-857 Tang M.B.Y., Leow Y.H., Ng V., Koh D., Goh C.L.
Latex sensitization in healthcare workers in Singapore
The aim of this study was to determine the rate of latex sensitization among healthcare workers in Singapore. It involved 313 healthcare workers, of whom 46.6% were operating theatre staff, and a further 71 unexposed controls. All participants answered a self-administered questionnaire relating to latex exposure and glove-related symptoms. Latex sensitization was determined by skin prick testing to latex and latex-specific IgE detection. Findings are discussed. The prevalence of latex sensitization among healthcare workers was 9.6%. It was concluded that latex sensitization among healthcare workers in Singapore should be considered a significant occupational health risk. Increased screening and awareness of this problem is essential to identify those at risk.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, 2005, Vol.34, p.376-382. 15 ref.

CIS 07-306 Gannon P.F.G., Berg A.S., Gayosso R., Henderson B., Sax S.E., Willems H.M.J.
Occupational asthma prevention and management in industry - An example of a global programme
A global supplier of isocyanate-based automotive coatings developed a programme to address the known potential effects of isocyanates on its workers. The goals of the programme are the prevention, early detection and mitigation of asthma and dermatitis among workers exposed or potentially exposed to isocyanates and products containing isocyanates. The programme includes assessment of exposure, pre-placement questionnaires, spirometry, training of employees, regularly administered questionnaires, medical assessment for abnormal questionnaire responses, process for early reporting and investigation of symptomatic employees and incidents, data review and management reporting. These control measures are relatively inexpensive and can be applied even in small businesses. It is recommended that all employers who manufacture, handle or use isocyanate-containing products consider such a strategy.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2005, Vol.55, No.8, p.600-605. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 06-902 Khader Y., Abu-Zaghlan M., Abu-Al Rish I., Burgan S., Amarin Z.
Self-reported allergy to latex gloves among health care workers in Jordan
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of natural rubber latex allergy and its associated factors among 500 health care workers using natural rubber gloves. Of the 420 subjects who responded to a self-administered questionnaire, 57 (13.6%) reported an allergy to latex gloves. The prevalence of allergy to natural rubber gloves was significantly higher for those who had allergy to certain foodstuffs (especially avocado, kiwifruits and chestnuts) or with history of eczema and hay fever. However, the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber gloves was independent of gender, age, job, family history, type of gloves, hours of use per day and number of years on the job.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2005, Vol.53, No.6, p.339-343. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 06-810 Lazarov A., Nevo K., Pardo A., Froom P.
Self-reported skin disease in hydrotherapists working in swimming pools
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors and characteristics of self-reported skin diseases among hydrotherapists. Questionnaires were addressed to 248 hydrotherapists and 190 (76.6%) responded. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Among respondents (75.8% women and 24.2% men), 44.4% reported the development of a skin disease for the first time after beginning employment at the swimming pool. The most common symptoms included pruritus and erythematous patches affecting mainly the extremities and trunk. Both smoking and increased exposure hours to pool water were independently associated with skin disease, suggesting a dose-response relationship. It is concluded that contact dermatitis should be recognized as an occupational disease in hydrotherapists.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2005, Vol.53, No.6, p.327-331. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 06-809 Meding B., Lantto R., Lindahl G., Wrangsjö K., Bengtsson B.
Occupational skin disease in Sweden - A 12-year follow-up
The aim of this project was to study the long-term prognosis of occupational skin diseases in Sweden. In 1999, a questionnaire was sent to individuals who had reported occupational skin disease to the Social Insurance Office in 1987. A total of 323 women and 194 men responded, with an overall participation rate of 83%, Among the participants, 85% reported skin symptoms after 1987, 70% during the previous year and 28% considered themselves recovered. Statistical analysis showed that skin atopy was the strongest unfavourable factor for the prognosis, followed by contact allergy and being female. Other findings are discussed. The conclusion is that occupational skin diseases have a clear tendency to end up as chronic conditions with a majority still reporting symptoms at a 12-year follow-up. The skin disease had influenced the occupational situation for the majority (82%) and for 15% it resulted in exclusion from the labour market through unemployment or disability pension.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2005, Vol.53, No.6, p.308-313. 33 ref.

CIS 06-846 Klotz A.
Skin protection in the food processing industry
Protección de la piel en la elaboración de alimentos [in Spanish]
In industrialized countries, skin diseases are the most frequent occupational diseases. In the food processing industry, the main skin hazards result from wet work, frequent hand washing and disinfecting, and the use of impermeable gloves. Furthermore, skin diseases and poor skin hygiene can affect the quality of food products. The food processing industry has adopted skin protection principles that yield good results while at the same time guaranteeing the cleanliness of the food products. They involve three steps: applying skin protection creams before starting work; hand washing and disinfecting with products that are well tolerated; applying suitable skin care products after work.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2005, No.174, p.58-64. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 06-807 Pérez-Gómez B., Aragonés N., Gustavsson P., Plato N., López-Abente G., Pollán M.
Cutaneous melanoma in Swedish women: Occupational risks by anatomic site
Few occupational studies have addressed melanoma in women. The aim of this study was to identify occupations with risk of cutaneous melanoma among female workers in Sweden. All employed Swedish women were followed-up from 1971 to 1989, using death and cancer registry data. Occupational risk ratios adjusted for age, period, town size and geographic zone were computed for each site. Risk patterns for different anatomic sites were then compared. Some occupations such as bank tellers, dental nurses, librarians, horticultural workers and milliners with possible exposure to arsenic and mercury displayed increased risk. Telephone operators and textile workers also had increased risk, mainly in the leg. Other occupation-specific site excesses are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.48, No.4, p.270-281. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 06-819 Jungbauer F.H.W., Lensen G.J., Groothoff J.W., Coenraads P.J.
Skin diseases in paper mill workers
This cross-sectional study investigated the extent of skin problems in a paper mill and the proportion attributable to contact with allergens. It involved 80 paper mill workers with daily exposure to skin irritants and allergens. They completed a questionnaire and underwent a standard interview and a physical examination. Skin tests were conducted on workers whose history indicated possible contact allergy. Workers reported a high exposure to skin irritants, especially when carrying out tasks that caused the perspiration of hands and feet and contact with water. Atopic dermatitis was seen in 3% of the workers. Contact dermatitis was seen in 26% of the workers and 36% were diagnosed with mycosis of the feet. All cases of contact dermatitis and mycosis could be attributed to occupational exposure to skin irritants. No cases of contact allergy were observed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.55, No.2, p.109-112. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 06-669 Perkins J.B., Farrow A.
Prevalence of occupational hand dermatitis in U.K. hairdressers
The prevalence of hand dermatitis was investigated among workers of 60 hairdressing salons in the United Kingdom. 38.6% of respondents reported hand dermatitis, among whom 72.7% reported interdigital symptoms. Trainee hairdressers had an increased risk of hand dermatitis (relative risk, RR=2.95), as did those with ≤2 years in the profession (RR=4.91). There was a positive association between prevalence and frequent use of protective measures, suggesting that use of protective measures may be a reaction to incidence rather than a precaution. Wet work was significantly associated with prevalence, and relative risk was increased in those who performed more frequent wet work, namely trainee hairdressers. True prevalence was far higher than that suggested by surveillance schemes in the United Kingdom.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.289-293. 30 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-675 Aalto-Korte K., Susitaival P., Kaminska R., Mäkinen-Kiljunen S.
Occupational protein contact dermatitis from shiitake mushroom and demonstration of shiitake-specific immunoglobulin E
Shiitake are popular edible mushrooms all over the world. There are no previous reports of protein contact dermatitis (PCD) from shiitake, and there is only a single report of shiitake-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Two cases of shiitake growers who developed work-related eczematous eruption on their hands are described. Both of the patients had small prick test reactions to fresh shiitake, and specific IgE to shiitake was detected in their sera by immunospot. One of the patients had a large prick test reaction to dry shiitake and also a positive wheal reaction to fresh shiitake in an open application test. Neither of the patients had noticed any symptoms of contact urticaria at work. Both of the patients had immediate IgE-mediated allergy to shiitake, and the diagnosis of occupational PCD was made. There are no commercial in vitro tests for shiitake-specific IgE. It is therefore important to test for immediate allergy when shiitake contact dermatitis is suspected.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 2005, Vol.53, No.4, p.211-213. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 06-593 Flyvholm M.A., Mygind K., Sell L., Jensen A., Jepsen K.F.
A randomised controlled intervention study on prevention of work related skin problems among gut cleaners in swine slaughterhouses
This study evaluated the effect of an intervention to reduce work related skin problems in gut cleaning departments in Danish swine slaughterhouses. The intervention included educational activities on the use of gloves and skin care products, together with evidence based recommendations. The effect of the intervention was evaluated by telephone interviews using modified the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (see CIS 04-317). A total of 644 (87.5%) participants responded at the baseline interview and 622 (71.6%) at the follow up interview one year later. At follow up, the frequency of eczema on hands or forearms in the intervention departments within the previous three months was reduced significantly from 56.2% at baseline to 41.0%, while a slight non-significant increase was observed in the comparison departments (from 45.9% to 50.2%).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.62, No.9, p.642-649. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 06-638 Crépy M.N.
Occupational skin diseases due to detergents
Dermatoses professionnelles aux détergents [in French]
Detergents are a major cause of occupational irritant contact dermatitis, in particular in the chronic form; some can cause burns. Preventing dermatitis due to contact with detergents is one of the most important ways of reducing the prevalence of occupational dermatoses. Contents of this information note on occupational skin diseases due to detergents: definition of detergents; chemical composition; irritants and allergens present in detergents; epidemiological aspects; diagnosis in occupational settings and in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention and compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Sep. 2005, No.103, p.375-384. Illus. 64 ref.$File/TA72.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-630 Latza U., Haamann F., Baur X.
Effectiveness of a nationwide interdisciplinary preventive programme for latex allergy
This study describes a nationwide awareness campaign aimed at reducing exposure to powdered high-protein latex gloves among health care workers in Germany and evaluates the effectiveness of the programme. Data on compensation claims for latex-related skin and airway diseases were compared before and after implementation of the programme. A survey on change in glove use was also conducted after implementing the programme. The number of compensation claims for latex-induced skin diseases increased from 664 at the start of the programme in 1996 to 884 in 1998, and then decreased to 567 in 1999 and 204 in 2002. Similar decreases were observed for respiratory diseases. This programme was found to be effective and can be regarded as a model for the reduction of other occupational diseases such as bakers' or isocyanate asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.394-402. Illus. 47 ref. [in English]

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